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Sample records for excited optical luminescence

  1. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper reports the experimental observations on the x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) along with the afterglow and colour center features found for the barium salts, represented by the formula, Ba, where and are the halides. The system thus consists of four dihalides (BaF2, . . . ,BaI2) and six ...

  2. Soft X-ray excited optical luminescence from functional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K., E-mail: tsham@uwo.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Many functional organic materials convert X-ray energy into visible light. • The X-ray induced luminescence (XEOL) across an absorption edge can be site and excitation channel specific. • XEOL is composition, morphology, size and crystallinity dependent. • XEOL using the time structure of a synchrotron can reveal the decay and energy transfer dynamics of the sample. • The combined use of XEOL and XAS in the analysis of functional organic materials is illustrated. - Abstract: This brief report reviews some of the recent findings in the study of synchrotron based X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from representative organic light emitting device (OLED) and related functional organic materials. The systems of interest include Alq{sub 3}, aluminium tris(8-hydroxylquinoline); Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, tris-(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II); Ir(bpy){sub 3}, tris(2-phenyl-bipyridine)iridium; PVK (poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) and [Au{sub 2}(dppe)(bipy)]{sup 2+}, a Au(I) polymer containing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and the 4,40-bipyridyl ligands, as well as TBPe (2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene) polyhedral crystals and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labelled proteins. It is shown that tunable and pulsed X-rays from synchrotron light sources enable the detailed tracking of the optical properties of organic functional materials by monitoring the luminescence in both the energy and time domain as the excitation energy is scanned across an element-specific absorption edge. The use of XEOL and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in materials analysis is illustrated.

  3. Effect of optical excitation energy on the red luminescence of Eu3+ in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. Y.; Lee, C. W.; Everitt, H. O.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Zavada, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectroscopy mapped the photoexcitation wavelength dependence of the red luminescence (D05→F27) from GaN:Eu. Time-resolved PL measurements revealed that for excitation at the GaN bound exciton energy, the decay transients are almost temperature insensitive between 86 K and 300 K, indicating an efficient energy transfer process. However, for excitation energies above or below the GaN bound exciton energy, the decaying luminescence indicates excitation wavelength- and temperature-dependent energy transfer influenced by intrinsic and Eu3+-related defects.

  4. Optimising the separation of quartz and feldspar optically stimulated luminescence using pulsed excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2010-01-01

    In luminescence dating, the two most commonly used natural minerals, quartz and feldspar, are exposed to different dose rates in the natural environment, and so record different doses. The luminescence signals also have different stabilities. For accurate dosimetry, the signals from these two...... minerals must be separated, either by physical separation of the mineral grains, or by instrumental separation of the luminescence signals. The luminescence signals from quartz and feldspar have different luminescence lifetimes under pulsed optical stimulation. This difference in lifetime can be used...... OSL intensity ratio is at a maximum. By using these parameters with an additional infrared (IR) stimulation at 175 °C before measurement (to further reduce the feldspar signal intensity), we obtain a factor of 25 enhancement in signal separation compared to that from a conventional prior-IR CW...

  5. In vivo X-Ray excited optical luminescence from phosphor-doped aerogel and Sylgard 184 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Baker, Ethan S.; Lynch, Kyle J.; Sabri, Firouzeh

    2017-06-01

    X-Ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) is a new and noninvasive diagnostic technique suitable for in situ biochemical imaging and disease detection. The X-Ray excited optical luminescence of phosphor doping in crosslinked silica aerogel and Sylgard 184 hosts was investigated in this study. Composite silica aerogels and Sylgard 184 samples of 5%, 15%, and 50% concentrations by weight of La2O2S:Eu phosphor were prepared and inserted subcutaneously in a Sprague-Dawley rat and excited by X-Ray emission at 70 and 100 kV. A fiber optic bundle positioned within 5 mm of the sample collected the luminescence signal and conveyed it to a photomultiplier detector. The signal intensity scaled with dopant concentration. The time dependence of the predominantly red luminescence consisted of 60 cycle bursts of approximately 8 ms duration. The amplitude was modulated at about 10 Hz with a 60% depth. This indicates the time dependence of the X-Ray source. A simulation showed how to observe phosphor decay between individual burst pulses. The emission from the two types of composite samples was easily detected from the outside of the skin layer. Both Sylgard 184 and crosslinked silica aerogels are biocompatible and bio stable materials that could serve a variety of potential XEOL applications. These very strong signals imply potential for creating new In-vivo sensing applications and diagnostic tools.

  6. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X,Y ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fluorobromide, the undoped salt gave a broad luminescence peak located at 440 nm, while the ... The undoped BaFBr acquired a bluish pink colour, and the doped salt displayed a pink colour after the .... lived excited state, before decay, allows momentum conservation by the interaction with the lattice, so that the ...

  7. Blue luminescence of SrTiO3 under intense optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubano, A.; Paparo, D.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Marrucci, L.

    2009-11-01

    The blue-green photoluminescence emitted by pure and electron-doped strontium titanate under intense pulsed near-ultraviolet excitation is studied experimentally as a function of excitation intensity and temperature. Both emission spectra and time-resolved decays of the emission are measured and analyzed in the framework of simple phenomenological models. We find an interesting blue-to-green transition occurring for increasing temperatures in pure samples, which is absent in doped materials. The luminescence yield and decay rate measured as a function of temperature can be modeled well as standard activated behaviors. The leading electron-hole recombination process taking place in the initial decay is established to be second order, or bimolecular, in contrast to recent reports favoring a third-order interpretation as an Auger process. The temporal decay of the luminescence can be described well by a model based on two interacting populations of excitations, respectively identified with interacting defect-trapped (possibly forming excitons) and mobile charges. Finally, from the measured doping and sample dependence of the luminescence yield, we conclude that the radiative centers responsible for the luminescence are probably intrinsic structural defects other than bulk oxygen vacancies.

  8. Fabrication of bright and thin Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent film for electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Taichi; Kanamori, Satoshi; Fukuta, Masahiro; Nawa, Yasunori; Kominami, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Yoichiro; Sugita, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2015-07-13

    We fabricated a bright and thin Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent film to serve as a nanometric light source for high-spatial-resolution optical microscopy based on electron beam excitation. The Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent thin film was fabricated by annealing a ZnO film on a Si₃N₄ substrate at 1000 °C in N₂. The annealed film emitted bright cathodoluminescence compared with the as-deposited film. The film is promising for nano-imaging with electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscopy. We evaluated the spatial resolution of a microscope developed using this Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent thin film. This is the first report of the investigation and application of ZnO/Si₃N₄ annealed at a high temperature (1000 °C). The fabricated Zn₂SiO₄ film is expected to enable high-frame-rate dynamic observation with ultra-high resolution using our electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscopy.

  9. X-ray excited optical luminescence, photoluminescence, photostimulated luminescence and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies on BaFBr:Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, N; Govinda-Rajan, K; Mohammad-Yousuf; Santanu-Bera; Narasimhan, S V

    1997-01-01

    The results of x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL), photoluminescence (PL), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the x-ray storage phosphor BaFBr:Eu are presented in this paper. Analyses of XEOL, PL and PSL spectra reveal features corresponding to the transitions from 4f sup 6 td sup 1 to 4f sup 7 configurations in different site symmetries of Eu sup 2 sup +. Increasing x-ray dose is seen to lead to a red shift in the maximum of the PL excitation spectrum for the 391 nm emission. The XEOL and XPS spectra do not show any signature of Eu sup 3 sup + in the samples studied by us, directly raising doubts about the model of Takahashi et al in which Eu sup 2 sup + is expected to ionize to Eu sup 3 sup + upon x-ray irradiation and remain stable until photostimulation. XEOL and PSL experiments with simultaneous x-ray irradiation and He - Ne laser excitation as well as those with sequential x-ray irradiation and laser stimulation bring out the competition betwe...

  10. X-ray-excited optical luminescence of protein crystals: a new tool for studying radiation damage during diffraction data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robin L; Yorke, Briony A; Pearson, Arwen R

    2012-05-01

    During X-ray irradiation protein crystals radiate energy in the form of small amounts of visible light. This is known as X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL). The XEOL of several proteins and their constituent amino acids has been characterized using the microspectrophotometers at the Swiss Light Source and Diamond Light Source. XEOL arises primarily from aromatic amino acids, but the effects of local environment and quenching within a crystal mean that the XEOL spectrum of a crystal is not the simple sum of the spectra of its constituent parts. Upon repeated exposure to X-rays XEOL spectra decay non-uniformly, suggesting that XEOL is sensitive to site-specific radiation damage. However, rates of XEOL decay were found not to correlate to decays in diffracting power, making XEOL of limited use as a metric for radiation damage to protein crystals. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  11. Influence of excitation power density on temperature dependencies of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanoparticles luminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustalkov, Sergey O.; Kozlova, Ekaterina A.; Savenko, Olga A.; Mohammed, Ammar H. M.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Skaptsov, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles are good candidates for nanothermometry. The wavelength of the excitation and luminescence lie in optical window. The influence of the excitation power density on the luminescence temperature dependences is studded. Ratio of luminescence intensities linearly depends on temperature.

  12. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  13. Optical Biomedical Diagnostics: Sensors with Optical Response Based on Two-Photon Excited Luminescent Dyes for Biomolecules Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yashchuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of novel styryl dyes developed for the biomacromolecules (such as DNA detection and imaging were investigated. The energy structures of dye molecules were examined. The spectral data prove that dyes aggregate and interact with DNA. The essential increase of the fluorescence intensity of dyes in the presence of DNA was observed. The photostability and phototoxic influence on the DNA of several styryl dyes were studied by analyzing absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence spectra of these dyes and dye-DNA systems. Changes of the optical density value of dye-DNA solutions caused by the irradiation were fixed in the DNA and dye absorption wavelength regions. Fluorescence emission of dye-DNA complexes upon two-photon excitation at wavelength 1064 nm with the 20-nanosecond pulsed YAG:Nd3+ laser and at 840 nm with the 90 famtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser was registered. The values of two-photon absorption cross-sections of dye-DNA complexes were evaluated.

  14. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    CERN Document Server

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  15. On the relationship between luminescence excitation spectra and feldspar mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.

    1996-01-01

    Feldspar minerals can be used as naturally occurring radiation dosemeters, with dose assessment commonly using luminescence techniques. Since many feldspars contain radioactive K-40, knowledge of the mineralogy of the luminescent samples being measured is of high importance. Most feldspars contain...... more than trace amounts of highly luminescent Fe3+ impurities, and this article examines the relationship between features of the luminescence excitation spectrum of this ion with sample mineralogy. It is demonstrated that there is a near linear correspondence between the plagioclase feldspar...

  16. Spodumene and garnet luminescence excited by subnanosecond electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Solomonov, V. I.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    Pulsed cathodoluminescence of spodumene and yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals activated by Mn2+ and Nd3+ ions, respectively, is investigated. The luminescence was excited upon crystal irradiation by electron beams with current densities of 35 and 100 A/cm2 and average electron energy of ˜ 50 keV for 0.1, 0.25, and 0.65 ns. It is demonstrated that the electron beam duration decreased to several tenth of a nanosecond does not lead to essential changes of the mechanisms of pulsed cathodoluminescence excitation and character of its spectrum, but in this case, the intensity of luminescence of the hole centers increases compared with the intracenter luminescence.

  17. Luminescent rise times of inorganic phosphors excited by high intensity ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R J; Ricchio, S G

    1973-11-01

    The relative delay between excitation and luminescence was measured for a number of common inorganic phosphors using short, high intensity excitation pulses. The delays were found to be much shorter than anticipated; on the basis of low intensity pulsed luminescence measurements and were found to be extremely intensity-dependent. Both the luminescence rise and decay times were found to be intensitydependent as well, with the luminescence pulse waveform tending to approach the exciting pulse at the higher excitation intensities.

  18. Plasmon-enhanced optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, E. J.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ramos, A. P., E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Quimica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Optically Stimulated Luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) have been largely used for personal, medical, and industrial radiation dosimetry. Developing highly sensitive and small-sized radiation detectors and dosimeters is essential for improving spatial resolution and consequently diagnosis quality and treatment efficacy in the case of applications in radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy, for instance. Conventional methods to improve the OSLD sensitivity consist of doping and co-doping the host materials with atoms of other elements, thereby increasing the amount of trapping and/or luminescent centers. Our group is researching on the use of the plasmon properties of noble metal nanoparticles to increase OSL intensity. Upon incidence of a light beam with appropriate resonant wavelengths, the oscillation of the free electrons at the nanoparticle surface originates the Localized Surface Plasmons (LSP) and the consequent plasmon resonance band. The interaction between the LSP and the surrounding luminescent material leads to new optical properties largely employed for enhancing several luminescent processes. Here we will show our results regarding the use of LSP to increase OSLD sensitivity. The interaction between the traps/luminescent centers and the plasmons depends on the distance between them, on the plasmon resonance band intensity and position, as well as on the surrounding medium. Therefore, the plasmon-enhanced luminescence is a promising tool to develop more sensitive and miniaturized OSLD. (Author)

  19. Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles with Persistent Near-Infrared Luminescence for In Vivo Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palner, Mikael; Pu, Kanyi; Shao, Shirley; Rao, Jianghong

    2015-09-21

    Materials with persistent luminescence are attractive for in vivo optical imaging since they have a long lifetime that allows the separation of excitation of fluorophores and image acquisition for time-delay imaging, thus eliminating tissue autofluorescence associated with fluorescence imaging. Persistently luminescent nanoparticles have previously been fabricated from toxic rare-earth metals. This work reports that nanoparticles made of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV can generate luminescence persisting for an hour upon single excitation. A near-infrared dye was encapsulated in the conjugated polymer nanoparticle to successfully generate persistent near-infrared luminescence through resonance energy transfer. This new persistent luminescence nanoparticles have been demonstrated for optical imaging applications in living mice. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On the influence of dispersion on the spatial distribution of the intensity of luminescence excited by opposing laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynovich, E. F.; Rudenko, G. V.; Polityko, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial dynamics of variations in the intensity of the luminescence of quantum systems in crystals of the medium and highest categories of symmetry upon excitation with opposing optical pulses of an arbitrary shape is investigated by numerical simulation methods. It is established that the material dispersion, which is responsible for the dispersion spreading of pulses, has no effect on the shape and width of the envelope of the spatial distribution of the luminescence intensity, as well as on the depth of the luminescence intensity modulation associated with the interference of opposing pulses.

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... determined the depositional age of a wide variety of fine-grained sediments, from several years to several hundred thousands of years. However, there is no routine OSL dating method applicable to larger clasts such as cobbles, boulders and other rock surfaces. Here the application of quartz OSL to the dating...... of rock surfaces is successfully tested by application to two different quartz-rich rock types (sandstone and quartzite). Together with the measurement of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals as a function of depth into the surface of different granites it is clear that both OSL and IRSL can...

  2. Optical spatial modulation of luminescent properties of van der Waals metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milichko, Valentin A.; Makarov, Sergey V.

    2017-09-01

    UV light processing presents a facile means to tailor the properties of materials and structures. Metal-organic framework (MOF) with strong optical response has been realized through the incorporation of luminescent ligand within the van der Waals structure. The resulting MOF exhibits a significant one-photon excited luminesces change in response to UV light, enabling spatial modulation of the luminescent map of the MOF in micrometer scale. It thus demonstrates the capacity of patterning and data storage inside the crystal in a high resolution.

  3. Luminescence and excitation spectra of YAG:Nd{sup 3+} excited by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Lixin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanner, Peter A. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhtan@cityu.edu.hk; Harutunyan, Vachagan V.; Aleksanyan, Eduard [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Str., 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Makhov, Vladimir N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kirm, Marco [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2007-12-15

    The low-temperature 4f{sup 2}5d{yields}4f{sup 3} fast emission of Nd{sup 3+} from YAG:Nd{sup 3+} has been studied under excitation by synchrotron radiation. Additionally, 4f{sup 3}{yields}4f{sup 3} luminescence of Nd{sup 3+} has been observed and assigned to transitions from the {sup 2}F(2){sub 5/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} multiplet terms. The observed experimental spectra of Nd{sup 3+} d-f emission and f-d excitation are well simulated by crystal-field calculations.

  4. The effect of intensity of excitation on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: Opportunities in luminescence sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Jens U.; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2011-01-01

    We report changes in the photophysical properties of core-shell type CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) under optical irradiation. QDs either in aqueous solution or immobilized in a silica sol gel matrix have been excited at different wavelengths and fluxes. Illumination of the sample with 140 fs 700 nm Ti:sapphire laser pulses of the peak power of the order of 4 GW/cm2 caused gradual increase in the luminescence lifetime from an initial value of 3.5 increasing to 4.5 ns and an increase in luminescence intensity by ˜8%. Using about 16 GW/cm2 peak power resulted in a shortening of the luminescence lifetime to 3 ns and a decrease in intensity by ˜75%. Both photobrightening and photodarkening were fully reversible. We discuss the kinetics of photobrightening and photodarkening and investigate the suitability of QDs as luminescence lifetime sensors with tunable parameters.

  5. Time dependence of the luminescence intensity in CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals under N2-laser excitation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolesta, I. M.; Kalivoshka, B. M.; Karbovnyk, I. D.; Lesivtsiv, V. M.; Novosad, I. S.; Novosad, S. S.; Rovetskyy, I. M.; Velgosh, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Results of optical-luminescence studies of polydoped photochromic CdBr2: AgCl,PbBr2 crystals are presented. It is shown that the luminescence decrease vs. time under N2-laser excitation in the range of A-band of Pb2+ absorption is due to photochemical reactions. The empirical model describing the decrease of the luminescence related to silver impurities due to photochemical processes is suggested. Model parameters (trapping cross-section — σ — and the amount of centres destroyed by irradiation — β) were determined using the comparative analysis of experimental and calculated luminescence decay curves.

  6. Laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles as a source of excitation of dye luminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Zelensky, S

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of pulsed YAG-Nd sup 3 sup + laser radiation with submicron light-absorbing particles suspended in an aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G is investigated experimentally. The experiments demonstrate that the laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles excites the luminescence of the dissolved dye molecules. The mechanism of the luminescence excitation consists in the reabsorption of the thermal radiation within the volume of the sample cell. On the ground of this mechanism of excitation, a method of measurement of the luminescence quantum yield is proposed and realized. The method requires the knowledge of the geometrical parameters of the cell and does not require the use of reference samples.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...... accident. Since 1990 the exploration of this wide variety of applications has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso, in measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including (i) optimisation of stimulation and emission...... windows, and detection sensitivity, (ii) experience with various stimulation light sources, including filtered incandescent lamps (420-550 nm) and high intensity light emitting diodes (470 nm) and laser diodes (830-850 nm). We also discuss recently developed high-precision single-aliquot measurement...

  8. LANTHANIDE ENHANCE LUMINESCENCE (LEL) WITH ONE AND TWO PHOTON EXCITATION OF QUANTUM DYES LANTHANIDE (III) - MACROCYCLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title: Lanthanide Enhance Luminescence (LEL) with one and two photon excitation of Quantum Dyes? Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles Principal Author:Robert C. Leif, Newport InstrumentsSecondary Authors:Margie C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems Al Bromm, Virginia Commonw...

  9. The luminescence of BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles upon high-energy excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vistovskyy, V. V., E-mail: visvv@gmail.com; Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Voloshinovskii, A. S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Mitina, N. E.; Zaichenko, A. S. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 S. Bandera St., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Rodnyi, P. A. [Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29, Polytekhnicheskaya, 195251 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vasil' ev, A. N. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gektin, A. V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenina Ave, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2014-08-07

    The dependence of X-ray excited luminescence intensity on BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size was studied. A sharp decrease of self-trapped exciton luminescence intensity was observed when the nanoparticle size is less than 80 nm. The main mechanism of the luminescence quenching is caused by the escape of electrons from the nanoparticles. Escape of electrons from nanoparticles is confirmed by the considerable increase of luminescence intensity of the polystyrene scintillator with embedded BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles comparing with pure polystyrene scintillator.

  10. Luminescence of spodumene and garnet crystals excited by subnanosecond and nanosecond electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Solomonov, V. I.; Polisadova, E. F.; Burachenko, A. G.; Baksht, E. Kh.

    2012-05-01

    The pulsed cathode luminescence of spodumene and yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals activated by Mn2+ and Nd3+ ions, respectively, is studied. Luminescence is excited by the irradiation of the crystals by electron beams with a duration of 0.1, 0.25, 0.65, and 10 ns and a current density of ˜40 and 100 A/cm2 at an electron energy of ˜200 keV. A decrease in the electron beam duration to several tenths of a nanosecond is shown not to cause substantial changes in the excitation mechanisms of pulsed cathode luminescence and its spectrum.

  11. Optical and structural characterisation of low dimensional structures using electron beam excitation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, A

    2000-01-01

    suppressed by nonradiative recombination centres. The temperatures at which the QW luminescence starts to quench and the activation energies of luminescence quenching are found to depend on excitation conditions, sample quality and QW depth. The results of CL intensity dependence on the excitation intensity revealed that luminescence from good quality QW structures is dominated by radiative recombination processes even at high temperatures during thermal quenching. In contrast, in defected structures non-radiative recombination mechanisms dominate the luminescence properties at all temperatures. Secondary electron images of hexagonal growth hillocks of GaN obtained at a range of electron beam excitation energies vary because of the different signals involved in the imaging. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements have been used for phase identification and lattice constants determination in a strained GaN epilayer. This thesis presents studies on optical and structural characterisation of low dimensiona...

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence dating at Rose Cottage Cave

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates are compared with stratigraphically associated C-14 dates from Rose Cottage Cave. The OSL dates overlap the accepted C-14 chronology except for one sample that overestimates the expected age...

  13. Visible-near-infrared luminescent lanthanide ternary complexes based on beta-diketonate using visible-light excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lining; Qiu, Yannan; Liu, Tao; Feng, Jing; Deng, Wei; Shi, Liyi

    2015-11-01

    We used the synthesized dinaphthylmethane (Hdnm) ligand whose absorption extends to the visible-light wavelength, to prepare a family of ternary lanthanide complexes, named as [Ln(dnm)3 phen] (Ln = Sm, Nd, Yb, Er, Tm, Pr). The properties of these complexes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and excitation and emission spectroscopy. Generally, excitation with visible light is much more advantageous than UV excitation. Importantly, upon excitation with visible light (401-460 nm), the complexes show characteristic visible (Sm(3+)) as well as near-infrared (Sm(3+), Nd(3+), Yb(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Pr(3+)) luminescence of the corresponding lanthanide ions, attributed to the energy transfer from the ligands to the lanthanide ions, an antenna effect. Now, using these near-infrared luminescent lanthanide complexes, the luminescent spectral region from 800 to 1650 nm, can be covered completely, which is of particular interest for biomedical imaging applications, laser systems, and optical amplification applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The recombination channels of luminescence excitation in YAG:Yb single crystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharko, Ya.M. [Faculty of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 107 Tarnavskogo str., Lviv 79017 (Ukraine)], E-mail: zakharko@electronics.wups.lviv.ua; Luchechko, A.P. [Faculty of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 107 Tarnavskogo str., Lviv 79017 (Ukraine); Ubizskii, S.B. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12, Bandera srt., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Syvorotka, I.I. [Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Martynyuk, N.V. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12, Bandera srt., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Syvorotka, I.M. [Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine)

    2007-04-15

    Absorption and emission spectra, luminescence decay kinetics and thermostimulated luminescence of X-ray irradiated YAG:Yb single crystalline films were studied. Two emission bands peaked at 420 and 488 nm have been detected in the investigated films. The strong thermal quenching of luminescence band at 488 nm was observed above 160 K. The influence of growth conditions and annealing in air on the lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ion excited state in the IR spectral region have been revealed. The recombination mechanisms of the f-f transition at Yb{sup 3+} ion excitation, as well as the mechanism of lifetime shortening for the excited Yb{sup 3+} luminescence have been discussed.

  15. Optical characterization of luminescent silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debieu, Olivier

    2008-12-16

    Interstellar dust in nebulae and in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM) of galaxies contains a component which exhibits efficient visible-near infrared luminescence ranging from 500 to 1000 nm, known as Extended Red Emission (ERE). Silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) are discussed as possible carriers of the ERE. We employed the accelerator facilities of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Jena to implant Si ions into fused silica windows. An excess concentration of silicon atoms is thus produced in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix which, by applying an annealing at 1100 C, condensates to silicon nanoparticles and crystallizes. Although the condensation and crystallization occur after an annealing of one minute,10, 15 the samples were annealed during one hour in order to well-passivate the nc-Si, that means, to reduce effectively the number of Si-dangling bonds at the nc-Si surface that are efficient non-radiative recombination centers. 10, 16 Upon excitation with UV light, most of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} samples revealed strong PL. We implanted into our luminescent nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems other atomic elements, as for instance magnesium and calcium, which form silicates if their oxide is combined with SiO{sub 2}. The purpose is to simulate the conditions for silicates containing nc-Si. In order to understand the effect of the incorporation of foreign atoms on the PL properties of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems, we proceeded to similar experiments with Er and Ge. As has been demonstrated by several authors, 17, 18 the presence of nc-Si in a glass matrix enhances considerably the emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at 1.536{mu}m. At the same time, the PL of nc-Si is considerably quenched. Since the solubility of Er in crystalline silicon is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than in SiO{sub 2}, the optically active Er{sup 3+} ions are believed to be localized outside the nc-Si core, demonstrating that ions present in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix influence the PL

  16. Enhancement of Cerenkov luminescence imaging by dual excitation of Er(3+),Yb(3+)-doped rare-earth microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaowei; Kang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Feng, Ailing; Zhao, Ying; Lu, Tianjian; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Zhe; Lin, Min; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been successfully utilized in various fields of preclinical studies; however, CLI is challenging due to its weak luminescent intensity and insufficient penetration capability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a type of rare-earth microparticles (REMPs), which can be dually excited by Cerenkov luminescence (CL) resulting from the decay of radionuclides to enhance CLI in terms of intensity and penetration. Yb(3+)- and Er(3+)- codoped hexagonal NaYF4 hollow microtubes were synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The phase, morphology, and emission spectrum were confirmed for these REMPs by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrophotometry, respectively. A commercial CCD camera equipped with a series of optical filters was employed to quantify the intensity and spectrum of CLI from radionuclides. The enhancement of penetration was investigated by imaging studies of nylon phantoms and nude mouse pseudotumor models. the REMPs could be dually excited by CL at the wavelengths of 520 and 980 nm, and the emission peaks overlaid at 660 nm. This strategy approximately doubled the overall detectable intensity of CLI and extended its maximum penetration in nylon phantoms from 5 to 15 mm. The penetration study in living animals yielded similar results. this study demonstrated that CL can dually excite REMPs and that the overlaid emissions in the range of 660 nm could significantly enhance the penetration and intensity of CL. The proposed enhanced CLI strategy may have promising applications in the future.

  17. Enhancement of Cerenkov luminescence imaging by dual excitation of Er(3+,Yb(3+-doped rare-earth microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Ma

    Full Text Available Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI has been successfully utilized in various fields of preclinical studies; however, CLI is challenging due to its weak luminescent intensity and insufficient penetration capability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a type of rare-earth microparticles (REMPs, which can be dually excited by Cerenkov luminescence (CL resulting from the decay of radionuclides to enhance CLI in terms of intensity and penetration.Yb(3+- and Er(3+- codoped hexagonal NaYF4 hollow microtubes were synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The phase, morphology, and emission spectrum were confirmed for these REMPs by power X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and spectrophotometry, respectively. A commercial CCD camera equipped with a series of optical filters was employed to quantify the intensity and spectrum of CLI from radionuclides. The enhancement of penetration was investigated by imaging studies of nylon phantoms and nude mouse pseudotumor models.the REMPs could be dually excited by CL at the wavelengths of 520 and 980 nm, and the emission peaks overlaid at 660 nm. This strategy approximately doubled the overall detectable intensity of CLI and extended its maximum penetration in nylon phantoms from 5 to 15 mm. The penetration study in living animals yielded similar results.this study demonstrated that CL can dually excite REMPs and that the overlaid emissions in the range of 660 nm could significantly enhance the penetration and intensity of CL. The proposed enhanced CLI strategy may have promising applications in the future.

  18. X-ray excited luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkiv, T.M.; Halyatkin, O.O.; Vistovskyy, V.V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Hevyk, V.B. [Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, 15 Karpatska St., 76019 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine); Yakibchuk, P.M. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Gektin, A.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenina Ave, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Voloshinovskii, A.S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-03-01

    The polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles up to 40 wt% have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites with embedded SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles upon the pulse X-ray excitation have been investigated. The luminescence intensity of the pure polystyrene scintillator film significantly increases when it is loaded with the inorganic SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles. The film nanocomposites show fast (∼2.8 ns) and slow (∼700 ns) luminescence decay components typical for a luminescence of polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. It is revealed that the fast decay luminescence component of the polystyrene composites is caused by the excitation of polystyrene by the photoelectrons escaped from the nanoparticles due to photoeffect, and the slow component is caused by reabsorption of the self-trapped exciton luminescence of SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles by polystyrene.

  19. Green luminescence and excited state thermalization in Er-doped gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. T.; Hoemmerich, U. H. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Steckl, A. J.; Birkhahn, B. R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnatii, OH (United States); Zavada, J. M. [US Army European Research Office, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The optical properties in the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} channels of Er-doped GaN have been investigated. The GaN:Er was grown on Si substrates by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The resulting Er concentration was {approx}2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, and the unintentional oxygen impurity was observed to be {approx}10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Optical spectroscopy revealed that the lifetime decay at the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} state was mainly due to a strong thermalization between the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} states. The green luminescence ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) efficiency at 300 K was much higher than 56 %. Photoluminescence and lifetime measurements with different excitation channels suggest the existence of multiple Er-sites in GaN.

  20. Optical and luminescence properties of zinc oxide (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnyi, P. A.; Khodyuk, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    We generalize and systematize basic experimental data on optical and luminescence properties of ZnO single crystals, thin films, powders, ceramics, and nanocrystals. We consider and study mechanisms by which two main emission bands occur, a short-wavelength band near the fundamental absorption edge and a broad long-wavelength band, the maximum of which usually lies in the green spectral range. We determine a relationship between the two luminescence bands and study in detail the possibility of controlling the characteristics of ZnO by varying the maximum position of the short-wavelength band. We show that the optical and luminescence characteristics of ZnO largely depend on the choice of the corresponding impurity and the parameters of the synthesis and subsequent treatment of the sample. Prospects for using zinc oxide as a scintillator material are discussed. Additionally, we consider experimental results that are of principal interest for practice.

  1. Before there was light : Excited state dynamics in luminescent (nano)materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouw, F.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413318036

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we examine two types of luminescent materials: colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (also known as quantum dots), and crystals doped with lanthanide ions. These materials convert one color of light to another. By investigating the dynamics of the excited state, we gain new insights

  2. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...

  3. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2017-06-06

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry using natural and synthetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for use in radiation dosimetry is reviewed. A broad description is given of OSL techniques developed at Riso National Laboratory and at Oklahoma State University, and recent collaborative investigations on the properties of a variety...

  5. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-04-13

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  6. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope with ultra-high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Wataru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2010-06-07

    We propose electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope, and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.

  7. Visible-light-excited and europium-emissive nanoparticles for highly-luminescent bioimaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongquan; Shi, Mei; Zhao, Lingzhi; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou; Huang, Chunhui

    2014-07-01

    Europium(III)-based material showing special milliseconds photoluminescence lifetime has been considered as an ideal time-gated luminescence probe for bioimaging, but is still limited in application in luminescent small-animal bioimaging in vivo. Here, a water-soluble, stable, highly-luminescent nanosystem, Ir-Eu-MSN (MSN = mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Ir-Eu = [Ir(dfppy)2(pic-OH)]3Eu·2H2O, dfppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, pic-OH = 3-hydroxy-2-carboxypyridine), was developed by an in situ coordination reaction to form an insoluble dinuclear iridium(III) complex-sensitized-europium(III) emissive complex within mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) which had high loading efficiency. Compared with the usual approach of physical adsorption, this in-situ reaction strategy provided 20-fold the loading efficiency (43.2%) of the insoluble Ir-Eu complex in MSNs. These nanoparticles in solid state showed bright red luminescence with high quantum yield of 55.2%, and the excitation window extended up to 470 nm. These Ir-Eu-MSN nanoparticles were used for luminescence imaging in living cells under excitation at 458 nm with confocal microscopy, which was confirmed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the Ir-Eu-MSN nanoparticles were successfully applied into high-contrast luminescent lymphatic imaging in vivo under low power density excitation of 5 mW cm(-2). This synthetic method provides a universal strategy of combining hydrophobic complexes with hydrophilic MSNs for in vivo bioimaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent luminescence induced by near infra-red photostimulation in chromium-doped zinc gallate for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suchinder K.; Gourier, Didier; Teston, Eliott; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille; Viana, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of the optical spectroscopy of the Cr3+ doped spinel was initiated by Prof. Georges Boulon more than twenty years ago. More recently persistent luminescence nanoparticles of Cr doped zinc gallate have found interest for in vivo imaging of small animals. Here we evaluated near infra-red (NIR) excitation (or NIR photostimulation) via photo-transfer mechanism as an additional tool for in vivo optical imaging. Investigation of the persistent luminescence induced by NIR photostimulation is studied after either a primary UV (band-to-band excitation) or visible irradiation (direct Cr 3d-3d excitation). UV or visible pre-excited ZnGa2O4:Cr (ZGO:Cr) nanoparticles are kept active during several days thanks to deep traps (with depths 1 eV-1.2 eV) observed in these samples which can be probed through thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) technique showing glow curve maximums at 470 K and 530 K upon visible light excitation. These deep traps are stable at room temperature but can be emptied by NIR light photostimulation. Experiments were carried out to study the photostimulation induced trapping-detrapping in the ZGO:Cr phosphor. Photostimulation was also tested in vivo for small animal optical imaging to offer new perspectives and modalities.

  9. Luminescence in Conjugated Molecular Materials under Sub-bandgap Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Franky [University of Florida

    2014-05-08

    Light emission in semiconductors occurs when they are under optical and electrical excitation with energy larger than the bandgap energy. In some low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructure systems, this thermodynamic limit can be violated due to radiative Auger recombination (AR), a process in which the sub-bandgap energy released from a recombined electron-hole pair is transferred to a third particle leading to radiative band-to-band recombination.1 Thus far, photoluminescence up-conversion phenomenon has been observed in some low dimensional semiconductor systems, and the effect is very weak and it can only be observed at low temperatures. Recently, we discovered that efficient electroluminescence in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-1, phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) at drive voltages below its bandgap voltage could be observed when a ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) electron injection layer was inserted between the polymer and the aluminum electrode. Specifically, emitted photons with energy of 2.13 eV can be detected at operating voltages as low as 1.2 V at room temperature. Based on these data, we propose that the sub-bandgap turn-on in the MEH-PPV device is due to an Auger-assisted energy up-conversion process. The significance of this discovery is three-fold. First, radiative recombination occurs at operating voltages below the thermodynamic bandgap voltage. This process can significantly reduce the device operating voltage. For example, the current density of the device with the ZnO NC layer is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of the device without the NC layer. Second, a reactive metal is no longer needed for the cathode. Third, this electroluminescence up-conversion process can be applied to inorganic semiconductors systems as well and their operation voltages of inorganic LEDs can be reduced to about half of the bandgap energy. Based on our initial data, we propose that the sub-bandgap turn-on in MEH

  10. IR Bismuth active centers in optical fibers: Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Firstov, S. V.; Khopin, V. F.; Bufetov, I. A.; Firstova, E. G.; Guryanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    3D excitation-emission luminescence spectra of Bi-doped optical fibers of various compositions were measured in a wide wavelength range 450-1700 nm. Such luminescence spectra were obtained for Bi-doped pure silica and germania fibers, and for Bi-doped Al- or P-codoped silica fibers (at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures). The energy level schemes of IR bismuth active centers in pure silica and germania core fibers were derived from spectra obtained. The energy level schemes similarity of b...

  11. Glucose optical fibre sensor based on a luminescent molecularly imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, C.; Wren, S. P.; Sun, T.; Arregui, F. J.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2015-09-01

    An optrode able to detect glucose dissolved in water has been implemented. The device is based on the luminescence emission of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer synthesized specifically for glucose detection, therefore its intensity changes in presence of glucose. This sensing material is attached onto a cleaved ended polymer-clad optical fibre and it is excited by light via 1x2 fibre coupler. The reflected fluorescence signal increases when it is immersed into glucose solutions and recovers to the baseline when it is dipped in ultrapure water. This reversible behaviour indicates the measurement repeatability of using such a glucose sensor.

  12. Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence properties of natural barytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.g [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, N.G. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, ISIK University, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, G.S. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, ISIK University, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, R. C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    Heavy, baryte-loaded, concrete is commonly used as radiation shielding material around high energy particle accelerators. Concrete samples received from a shielding block located at CERN cite contain many crystalline inclusions which were identified as barytes by X-ray diffraction analysis and separated by their color, classified as white, orange and green. Basic properties of thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals of these barytes samples such as thermal and optical stability, repeatability and mainly the linearity of both their luminescence responses were investigated as a function of beta dose. These results are also discussed regarding detailed investigation on the correlation between TL and OSL signals and their implications for retrospective dosimetry.

  13. Luminescent rare-earth-based MOFs as optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Partha; Mondal, Sudip Kumar; Singha, Debal Kanti; Majee, Prakash

    2017-01-03

    Rare-earth-based metal-organic frameworks (ReMOFs) have emerged as an interesting family of compounds, for which new properties are increasingly being found. Based on the potential of ReMOFs, resulting from their optical properties, large numbers of investigations have been carried out during the last decade. Among these investigations, ReMOFs as optical sensors, using their luminescence properties, are increasingly becoming an attractive and useful topic of research. In this study, we have provided the basics of the luminescence behaviour of ReMOFs, various possible sensing mechanisms, and a summary of the uses of ReMOFs for the sensing of nitro explosives, cations, anions, small molecules, pH, and temperature.

  14. Infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence from feldspars with linearly increasing excitation light intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bulur, E

    1999-01-01

    IR stimulated luminescence signal from potassium and sodium feldspars were studied by linearly increasing the excitation power from zero to a maximum value during the readout. The peak shaped signals observed in both feldspars could be approximated using a linear combination of three first-order components as deduced by curve fitting. The thermal and radiation dose dependent behavior of the IR-stimulated OSL curves were also studied.

  15. Mechanism of quantum dot luminescence excitation within implanted SiO2:Si:C films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, A F; Buntov, E A; Kortov, V S; Tetelbaum, D I; Mikhaylov, A N; Belov, A I

    2012-02-01

    Results of the investigation of photoluminescence (PL) mechanisms for silicon dioxide films implanted with ions of silicon (100 keV; 7 × 10(16) cm(-2)) and carbon (50 keV; 7 × 10(15)-1.5 × 10(17) cm(-2)) are presented. The spectral, kinetic and thermal activation properties of the quantum dots (Si, C and SiC) formed by a subsequent annealing were studied by means of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy under selective synchrotron radiation excitation. Independent quantum dot PL excitation channels involving energy transfer from the SiO(2) matrix point defects and excitons were discovered. A resonant mechanism of the energy transfer from the matrix point defects (E' and ODC) is shown to provide the fastest PL decay of nanosecond order. The critical distances (6-9 nm) of energy transport between the bulk defects and nanoclusters were determined in terms of the Inokuti-Hirayama model. An exchange interaction mechanism is realized between the surface defects (E(s)'-centres) and the luminescent nanoparticles. The peculiarities of an anomalous PL temperature dependence are explained in terms of a nonradiative energy transfer from the matrix excitons. It is established that resonant transfer to the luminescence centre triplet state is realized in the case of self-trapped excitons. In contrast, the PL excitation via free excitons includes the stages of energy transfer to the singlet state, thermally activated singlet-triplet conversion and radiative recombination.

  16. Luminescence Color Tuning by Regulating Electrostatic Interaction in Light-Emitting Devices and Two-Photon Excited Information Decryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun; Liu, Shujuan; Yang, Huiran; Zeng, Yi; She, Pengfei; Zhu, Nianyong; Ho, Cheuk-Lam; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2017-03-06

    It is well-known that the variation of noncovalent interactions of luminophores, such as π-π interaction, metal-to-metal interaction, and hydrogen-bonding interaction, can regulate their emission colors. Electrostatic interaction is also an important noncovalent interaction. However, very few examples of luminescence color tuning induced by electrostatic interaction were reported. Herein, a series of Zn(II)-bis(terpyridine) complexes (Zn-AcO, Zn-BF4, Zn-ClO4, and Zn-PF6) containing different anionic counterions were reported, which exhibit counterion-dependent emission colors from green-yellow to orange-red (549 to 622 nm) in CH2Cl2 solution. More importantly, it was found that the excited states of these Zn(II) complexes can be regulated by changing the electrostatic interaction between Zn2+ and counterions. On the basis of this controllable excited state, white light emission has been achieved by a single molecule, and a white light-emitting device has been fabricated. Moreover, a novel type of data decryption system with Zn-PF6 as the optical recording medium has been developed by the two-photon excitation technique. Our results suggest that rationally controlled excited states of these Zn(II) complexes by regulating electrostatic interaction have promising applications in various optoelectronic fields, such as light-emitting devices, information recording, security protection, and so on.

  17. Simulation of optically-stimulated luminescence of zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkin, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    Mineral zircon, ZrSiO{sub 4}, belongs to a class of materials that can be used as a chronological tool in geology and archaeology for measurements of the natural radiation dose and the sample age by optical methods. The model of optically stimulated luminescence developed earlier is used to investigate the applicability of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose method (SAR) for dating with zircon. Various implementations of the SAR method are considered and practical recommendations are formulated. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Selective emission and luminescence of Er2O3 under intense laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V. M.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Studenikin, M. I.

    2013-09-01

    The microstructure of Er2O3 polycrystals synthesised by laser heating is studied. The synthesis of erbium silicate (Er2SiO5) layers was observed upon interaction of Er2O3 and SiO2 melts. The dependences of the selective emission (SE) and luminescence spectra of Er2O3 polycrystals in the range 200 - 1700 nm on the intensity of laser-thermal (at the wavelength λ = 10.6 μm) and resonant laser (λ ≈ 975 nm) excitation are investigated. The emission of heated Er2O3 polycrystals arises as a result of multiphonon relaxation of absorbed energy and is a superposition of the SE at the electronic-vibrational transitions of Er3+ ions and the thermal radiation of the crystal lattice. The shape of the SE spectra of Er2O3 polycrystals in the range 400 - 1700 nm almost does not change upon laser-thermal heating from 300 to 1500 K and subsequent cooling and corresponds to the absorption spectra of Er3+ ions. With increasing temperature, the thermal radiation intensity increases faster than the SE intensity, and the shape of the Er2O3 spectrum becomes closer to the calculated spectrum of a blackbody. The anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of Er3+ ions formed under intense laser excitation of the 4I11/2 level are explained by additional SE caused by heating of the crystal matrix due to the Stokes losses. A difference between the SE and luminescence spectra is observed at low intensities of resonant laser excitation and low temperatures, when only the Stokes luminescence occurs. The temperature dependences of the SE and luminescence spectra of Er2O3 upon laser excitation testify to the fundamental role played by the interaction of the electronic f-shell of Er3+ ions with crystal lattice vibrations in the processes of multiphonon radiative and nonradiative relaxation. The laser-thermal synthesis is promising for inprocess variation of the chemical composition of rare-earth samples.

  19. Luminescent oxide nanoparticles with enhanced optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mialon, Genevieve, E-mail: genevieve.mialon@polytechnique.ed [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Poggi, Melanie [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Casanova, Didier; Nguyen, Thanh-Liem; Tuerkcan, Silvan; Alexandrou, Antigoni [Laboratory of Optics and Biosciences, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France)

    2009-12-15

    Yttrium vanadate particles doped with europium are studied for their applications as biomolecule labels. Two parts of our recent work are presented. The first concerns the thermal treatment of particles incorporated in a solid matrix. After annealing at 1000 deg. C and redispersion in water by dissolution of the matrix, the structural and optical properties are greatly improved without any modification of size; the obtained nanoparticles appear as perfect single crystals of 39 nm and have the same emission properties as the bulk material. Their quantum yield is worth 39% for 5% europium doping and the emission lifetime is 1 ms. The second aspect concerns the functionalization of the nanoparticles by the sol-gel condensation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane at the surface of particles. The chemical accessibility of amino groups grafted on the particles is measured by reaction with an organic fluorescent tag fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). These amine-coated nanoparticles were coupled to a peptidic toxin via a cross linker and allowed observation of the toxin motion bound to its membrane receptor.

  20. Development of an optically-based tension-indicating implanted orthopedic screw with a luminescent spectral ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Nakul; Rogalski, Melissa M.; Benza, Donny; Lake, Joshua; Urban, Matthew; Pelham, Hunter; Anker, Jeffrey N.; DesJardins, John D.

    2017-03-01

    An orthopaedic screw was designed with an optical tension-indicator to non-invasively quantify screw tension and monitor the load sharing between the bone and the implant. The screw both applies load to the bone, and measures this load by reporting the strain on the screw. The screw contains a colorimetric optical encoder that converts axial strain into colorimetric changes visible through the head of the screw, or luminescent spectral changes that are detected through tissue. Screws were tested under cyclic mechanical loading to mimic in-vivo conditions to verify the sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the sensor. In the absence to tissue, color was measured using a digital camera as a function of axial load on a stainless steel cannulated (hollow) orthopedic screw, modified by adding a passive colorimetric strain gauge through the central hole. The sensor was able to quantify clinically-relevant bone healing strains. The sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility but also displayed hysteresis due to the internal mechanics of the screw. The strain indicator was also modified for measurement through tissue by replacing the reflective colorimetric sensor with a low-background X-ray excited optical luminescence signal. Luminescent spectra were acquired through 6 mm of chicken breast tissue. Overall, this research shows feasibility for a unique device which quantifies the strain on an orthopedic screw. Future research will involve reducing hysteresis by changing the mechanism of strain transduction in the screw, miniaturizing the luminescent strain gauge, monitoring bending as well as tension, using alternative luminescent spectral rulers based upon near infrared fluorescence or upconversion luminescence, and application to monitoring changes in pretension and load sharing during bone healing.

  1. Selectively excited blue luminescence in heavily Mg doped p-type GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, John S.; Yu, Peter Y.

    2000-12-31

    The emission at {approx}2.8 eV from heavily doped p-GaN, known as the blue luminescence (BL), has been studied by selective excitation using a dye laser tunable between 2.7-3.0 eV. The peak position and intensity of the BL are found to exhibit an unusual dependence on the excitation photon energy. We have explained our results with a shallow-donor and deep-acceptors pair recombination model which includes potential fluctuations induced by heavy doping. We found a ''critical energy'' of {approx}2.8 eV for the BL. Electron-hole pairs with energies above this energy are able to achieve quasi-thermal equilibrium while those with energies below 2.8 eV are strongly ''localized''.

  2. Optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped sodium silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisittipokakun, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the optical and luminescence properties of Dy2O3 doped Na2O-BaO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses. The Dy3+ ion is chosen as dopant because it emits three visible bands, blue (470-485 nm; 4F9/2→6H15/2), yellow (570-580 nm; 4F9/2→6H13/2) and red (640-655 nm; 4F9/2→6H11/2) luminescence and finds its applications in the fields of laser, white LEDs, telecommunication technology and display devices. NaBaBiSiDy glasses with the compositions of (30-x)SiO2: 10Bi2O3: 30Na2O: 30BaO: xDy2O3 where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by melt-quenching technique and characterized by using density, optical absorption photoluminescence (PL) and decay rate measurements as function of different concentrations. The density (ρ), molar volume (VM) and refractive index obtained were found to increase with increase in the concentration of Dy2O3 in the glass matrix. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated from emission spectra and analyzed with CIE color diagram and appear in the white light region under ultraviolet excitation.

  3. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  4. Luminescence of Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals under X-ray, UV, VIS and IR excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serazetdinov, A. R.; Smirnov, A. A.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals incorporate a number of properties making them interesting for practical use in light conducting materials. X-ray excited luminescence (XRL) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in region of 1.5-3.5 eV, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra (2.75-5 eV) and anti-stokes luminescence (ASL) spectra were measured at room temperature in KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and RbPb2Br5 (RPB) matrices doped with Er3+ (1%) ions and in KPC doped with Er3++ Yb3+ ions(1:3 ratio concentration). Intraconfigurational f→f transitions are observed in Er3+ ions in most of the cases. The concrete spectrum form is strongly dependent on the excitation energy. Under 980 nm excitation upper Er3+ levels are excited, showing upconversional processes. In case of 313 nm (UV) and 365 nm (VIS) excitation self trapped exciton luminescence was detected in RPB crystal. Additional Yb3+ doping ions strongly increase quantum yield under 980 nm excitation and this doping cause insignificant influence on quantum yield under VIS or UV excitation.

  5. Selective excitation of the yellow and blue luminescence in n- and p-doped Gallium Nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, J S

    2000-01-01

    doping-related potential fluctuations and disorder. Characteristics of the our model for the BL include (a) an Urbach tail, having width E sub 0 = 33 meV, (b) a strong electron-LO phonon coupling occurring with a Frank-Condon shift of approx 180 meV between excitation and emission, (c) a mobility gap at 2.8 eV, separating highly mobile states and highly localized states, and (d) PL-like behavior for excitation energies larger than 2.8 eV, having a blue-shift with increasing excitation energy caused by the increased number of free carriers in the material. GaN is an interesting material: technologically very useful, but still having many unexplained features. Two such features are the broad defect-related luminescence bands: the YL of n-type GaN and the BL of Mg-doped p-type GaN. We have employed selective excitation to investigate these bands. In the case of the YL, most of the previous evidence has supported a recombination model between distant donors and acceptors, most likely a transition involving a shal...

  6. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of dental enamel for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihara, E.G.; Mittani, J.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Simon, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of dental enamel and discusses the potential and challenges of OSL for filling the technology gap in biodosimetry required for medical triage following a radiological/nuclear accident or terrorist event. The OSL technique uses light to stimulate a radiation-induced luminescence signal from materials previously exposed to ionizing radiation. This luminescence originates from radiation-induced defects in insulatin...

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence from quartz measured using the linear modulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from heated natural quartz has been investigated using the linear modulation technique (LMT), in which the excitation light intensity is increased linearly during stimulation. In contrast to conventional stimulation, which usually produces a monotonically...... stimulated component occurs at a shorter time. This allows the separation of the overlapping OSL components, which are assumed to originate from different traps. The LM-OSL curve from quartz shows an initial peak Followed by a broad one. Deconvolution using curve fitting has shown that the composite OSL...... curve from quartz can be approximated well by using a linear combination of first-order peaks. In addition to the three known components, i.e. fast, medium and slow components from continuous-wave-OSL studies, an additional slow component is also identified for the first time. The dose responses...

  8. Three-photon-excited luminescence from unsymmetrical cyanostilbene aggregates: morphology tuning and targeted bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amal Kumar; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; He, Tingchao; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Ong, Shi Li; Joseph, James; Sun, Handong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-05-26

    We report an experimental observation of aggregation-induced enhanced luminescence upon three-photon excitation in aggregates formed from a class of unsymmetrical cyanostilbene derivatives. Changing side chains (-CH3, -C6H13, -C7H15O3, and folic acid) attached to the cyanostilbene core leads to instantaneous formation of aggregates with sizes ranging from micrometer to nanometer scale in aqueous conditions. The crystal structure of a derivative with a methyl side chain reveals the planarization in the unsymmetrical cyanostilbene core, causing luminescence from corresponding aggregates upon three-photon excitation. Furthermore, folic acid attached cyanostilbene forms well-dispersed spherical nanoaggregates that show a high three-photon cross-section of 6.0 × 10(-80) cm(6) s(2) photon(-2) and high luminescence quantum yield in water. In order to demonstrate the targeted bioimaging capability of the nanoaggregates, three cell lines (HEK293 healthy cell line, MCF7 cancerous cell line, and HeLa cancerous cell line) were employed for the investigations on the basis of their different folate receptor expression level. Two kinds of nanoaggregates with and without the folic acid targeting ligand were chosen for three-photon bioimaging studies. The cell viability of three types of cells incubated with high concentration of nanoaggregates still remained above 70% after 24 h. It was observed that the nanoaggregates without the folic acid unit could not undergo the endocytosis by both healthy and cancerous cell lines. No obvious endocytosis of folic acid attached nanoaggregates was observed from the HEK293 and MCF7 cell lines having a low expression of the folate receptor. Interestingly, a significant amount of endocytosis and internalization of folic acid attached nanoaggregates was observed from HeLa cells with a high expression of the folate receptor under three-photon excitation, indicating targeted bioimaging of folic acid attached nanoaggregates to the cancer cell line

  9. Towards multi-exponential analysis in optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank; Hansen, Per Christian

    2010-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data from quartz can follow different mathematical forms depending on the stimulation mode. These data can be described in terms of different multi-exponential models and can be numerically fitted using several well-known methods. Here we make a comparative......, it is found that transformation of OSL decay data to a peak form gives better results than direct measurement of peak-form data by, for example, varying the stimulation light intensity. The comparison of the two numerical methods suggests that the NLS method performs somewhat better than the FIE method......; however, the latter has the advantage that it does not require the user's judgement on the number of components in the data. Testing of the NLS procedure on a measured quartz time-resolved OSL signal transformed into peak form yielded reliable parameter estimates even when the signal intensity...

  10. Protocols for Thermoluninescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Research at DOSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, SM

    2004-10-11

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research at the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility complex. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and materials testing in a variety of radiation environments. Collaborations with the University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) have also led to important contributions in the area of archaeometry, particularly as it relates to the use of radiation dosimetry to date archaeological artifacts. This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for dosimetric and archaeometric research at DOSAR involving thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Its purpose is to (1) provide protocols for common practices associated with the research, (2) outline the relevant organizational structure, (3) identify the Quality Assurance plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for safe and proper operation of associated equipment. Each person who performs research at DOSAR using TL/OSL equipment is required to read the latest revision of this manual and be familiar with its contents, and to sign and date the manual's master copy indicating that the manual has been read and understood. The TL/OSL Experimenter is also required to sign the manual after each revision to signify that the changes are understood. Each individual is responsible for completely understanding the proper operation of the TL/OSL equipment used and for following the guidance contained within this manual. The instructions, protocols, and operating procedures in this manual do not replace, supersede, or alter the hazard mitigation controls identified in the Research Safety Summary (''Thermoluminescence/Optically

  11. X-ray excited luminescence of Ga- and In-doped ZnO microrods by annealing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianli; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Mu; Huang, Shiming; Zhang, Juannan; Ni, Chen; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yahua; Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Shuning

    2016-10-01

    Ga- and In-doped ZnO microrods were prepared by low temperature hydrothermal process, and the effect of annealing temperature on morphology, crystallization, photoluminescence and X-ray excited luminescence were deeply researched. The results showed that both Ga- and In-doped ZnO microrods were possessed of a good crystalline quality and exhibited an intense visible emission band with a blue-shift under X-ray excitation. This blue-shift of the visible luminescence could be ascribed to the different contributions of the defect emissions, i.e. the increase in the oxygen vacancy (VO) emission and the decrease of the oxygen interstitial (Oi) emission. Moreover, a strong ultraviolet luminescence was also obtained by further hydrogen annealing. It is expected that Ga- and In-doped microrods are promising candidates for development of fast and high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging detectors.

  12. Review of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) instrumental developments for retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Jain, Mayank

    2010-01-01

    This review describes 40 years of experience gained at Risø National Laboratory in the development of facilities for irradiation, thermal/optical stimulation and luminescence signal detection. These facilities have mainly been used in luminescence dating and nuclear accident dosimetry. We focus...

  13. Pottery versus sediment: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Neolithic Vinča culture, Serbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bate, Stephen; Stevens, Thomas; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to the Neolithic Vinča culture's type-site, Vinča Belo-Brdo, to establish best protocols for routine luminescence dating of similar Holocene sites, critical in understanding Neolithic to Chalcolithic cultural development. Equivalent dose ...

  14. Selective excitation of the yellow and blue luminescence in n- and p-doped Gallium Nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, John Synder [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    GaN is an interesting material: technologically very useful, but still having many unexplained features. Two such features are the broad defect-related luminescence bands: the YL of n-type GaN and the BL of Mg-doped p-type GaN. We have employed selective excitation to investigate these bands. In the case of the YL, most of the previous evidence has supported a recombination model between distant donors and acceptors, most likely a transition involving a shallow donor to a deep acceptor. Our selective excitation experiments have resolved finer structures within the YL. Our results indicate that the YL in bulk samples is related to the YL in film samples. We suggest that selectively excited YL involves recombination at DAP complexes, rather than between spatially distant DAPs (however other recombination channels, including that of distant DAPs may become significant under other excitation conditions). Characteristics of the DAP complexes within our YL model include (a) an electron localization energy of around 60-70 meV, (b) a localized phonon energy of around 40 meV, and (c) excited states of the complex at 200 and 370 meV above the ground state. In the case of the BL, the deep defect responsible for the BL is unknown, and there may not even be a deep defect involved. Also in dispute is the role of potential fluctuations in the properties of the BL. Our results have been explain in a model whereby emission is from DAPs, and significant effects are produced by doping-related potential fluctuations and disorder. Characteristics of the our model for the BL include (a) an Urbach tail, having width E{sub 0} = 33 meV, (b) a strong electron-LO phonon coupling occurring with a Frank-Condon shift of {approx} 180 meV between excitation and emission, (c) a mobility gap at 2.8 eV, separating highly mobile states and highly localized states, and (d) PL-like behavior for excitation energies larger than 2.8 eV, having a blue-shift with increasing excitation energy caused by the

  15. Identification of Lanthanide(III) Luminophores in Magnetic Circularly Polarized Luminescence Using Raman Optical Activity Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Kapitán, Josef; Andrushchenko, Valery; Bouř, Petr

    2017-05-02

    Luminescence of lanthanide(III) ions sensitively reflects atomic environment. However, the signal may be weak and covered by Raman scattering. In the present study magnetic circularly polarized luminescence (MCPL) is explored as a more sensitive tool to recognize the lanthanide signal and assign underlying electronic transitions. MCPL spectra of the Na3[Ln(DPA)3] (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) complexes were recorded on a Raman optical activity (ROA) instrument. The ROA spectrometer equipped with the 532 nm laser excitation sensitively detects differences in scattering of left- and right-circularly polarized light caused by the magnetic field. Weak bands sometimes invisible in unpolarized measurement could be detected as MCPL. Observed transitions were assigned with the aid of the ligand-field theory. MCPL also reflects the environment: chloride and nitrate salts (LnCl3 and Ln(NO3)3) provide a different signal than the complex; for Nd(III) the signal responds to distribution of chloride and nitrate ions around the metal. The MCPL technique thus appears useful for identification and assignment of lanthanide transitions and increases the potential of fluorescent probes for applications in analytical chemistry and imaging.

  16. Luminescence optically stimulated: theory and applications; Luminiscencia opticamente estimulada: teoria y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) has occupied an important place in the Solid state physics (FES) by the flexibility of the phenomena, mainly for its applications in the fields of Radiation Physics (FR) and Medical Physics (MF). The reason of this phenomena lies in the fact of the electrons release by the action of heat. Under that same reason, it can be used the action of another stimulant agent for releasing the trapped electrons in the metastable states (EM), this agent is the light which has the same effect that the heat, giving as result the production of light photons at using light in the visible spectra, of different wavelength that the excitation light. This phenomena is called Luminescence optically stimulated (LOE). The LOE has a great impact in the Solid State Physics (FES), dating and now in the use of the phenomena as a dosimetric method, alternate to the Tl, for its use in the ionizing and non-ionizing radiations fields. (Author)

  17. Luminescent, optical and color properties of natural rose quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, R. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Cetin, A.; Selvi, S. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Karal, T. [Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Can, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com

    2007-11-15

    Rose quartz is an interesting mineral with numerous impurities that have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), ion beam luminescence (IBL), radioluminescence (RL), thermoluminescence (TL) and optical absorption (OA). After HF etching, rose quartz from Oliva de Plasencia (Caceres, Spain) shows under SEM the presence of other silicate phases such as dumortierite [Al{sub 6.5-7}(BO{sub 3})(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}(O,OH){sub 3}]. The OA spectrum of rose quartz suggests that these inclusions are the cause of coloration of rose quartz. The luminescence (CL, IBL, RL, TL) spectra behavior, at both room temperature and lower, confirms that the {approx}340nm emission could be associated with Si-O strain structures, including non-bridging oxygen or silicon vacancy-hole centers; the observed {approx}400nm emission could be associated with recombination of a hole trapped adjacent to a substitutional, charge-compensated aluminum alkali ion center; the {approx}500nm emission could be associated with substitutional Al{sup 3+} and the {approx}700nm peak could be associated with Fe{sup 3+} point defects in Si{sup 4+} sites. These results suggest that, while defect properties of rose quartz are not greatly dissimilar to those of purer forms of quartz and silica, further research seems necessary to determine criteria for the evolution of the newly-formed self-organized microstructures in the rose quartz lattice under irradiation.

  18. Experimental and modelling study of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence in quartz, marble and beta irradiated salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagonis, V; Mian, S M; Barnold, C [Physics Department, McDaniel College, Westminster, MD 21158 (United States); Chithambo, M L [Department of Physics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Christensen, E, E-mail: vpagonis@mcdaniel.ed [Physics Department, Virginia Tech, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-03-07

    Optical stimulation luminescence (OSL) signals can be obtained using continuous-wave optical stimulation (CW-OSL), the linear modulation optical stimulation method (LM-OSL) and the time-resolved optical stimulation (TR-OSL) method. During TR-OSL measurements, the stimulation and emission of luminescence are experimentally separated in time by using short light pulses. This paper presents new TR-OSL data for annealed high purity synthetic quartz, for marble and for commercially available iodized salt. A new type of behaviour for TR-OSL signals for quartz and iodized salt is presented, in which the OSL signal exhibits a nonmonotonic behaviour during optical stimulation; this type of behaviour has not been reported previously in the literature for quartz. Furthermore, a luminescence component with very long luminescence lifetime is reported for some quartz aliquots, which may be due to the presence of a delayed-OSL (DOSL) mechanism in quartz. A new kinetic model for TR-OSL in quartz is presented, which is based on a main electron trap and on several luminescence centres. The model is used to quantitatively fit several sets of experimental data of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence from quartz.

  19. [Luminescence properties of thenardite activated with Dy3+ under vacuum ultraviolet excitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taximaiti, Yusufu; Ajimu, Abulai; Su, Zong-Cai; Aierken, Sidike

    2011-08-01

    Na2SO4: Dy3+ phosphors were prepared by heating pure natural thenardite (Na2SO4) with DyF3 at 900 degrees C for 25 min in air studied the Luminescence properties of Na2SO4: Dy3+ were studied by synchrotron radiation. Their photoluminescence (PL) spectra were also investigated under vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet (VUV-UV) at room temperature. According to the emission spectra, the yellow-blue ratio (Y/B) is different under different concentrations of Dy3+ and the position of excitation. And the excitation spectrum is consisted of strong bands assigned to the 4f9-->4f8 5d transition at 172 nm, the O(2-)- Tm3+ charge transfer band at 165 nm and weak bands assigned to host absorption (138, 245 nm) and the 6 H15/2-->4D7/2, 6H15/2-->6P3/2, and 6H15/2-->6P7/2 transition at 299, 325 and 351 nm respectively.

  20. Tunable luminescence mediated by energy transfer in Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped phosphate glasses under UV excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Guohua; Liu, Xiangyu; Yuan, Changlai; Zhou, Changrong

    2017-11-01

    Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped phosphate glasses for white light-emitting diodes were synthesized by a conventional melting-quenching method. A spectroscopic research based on optical, photoluminescence spectrum and decay time curves in Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped phosphate glasses was carried out. The color of luminescence could be tuned by altering the concentrations of Tm3+ ions. Under UV light excitation, the CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.3471, 0.3374) and color correlate temperature (CCT = 4866.21 K) close to the standard white-light illumination (0.333, 0.333 and CCT = 5454.12 K) could be achieved in 0.4 Tm3+/0.6 Dy3+ (mol %) co-doped glass sample. The decrease of the Dy3+ emission decay time in existence of Tm3+ ascertained that non-radiative energy transfer from Dy3+ to Tm3+ occurred. Moreover, the research of energy transfers between Dy3+ and Tm3+ based on the Inokuti-Hirayama model revealed that an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction might be the predominant mechanism participated in the energy transfer. This finding suggests that the as-prepared Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped phosphate glasses may be promising candidate for white LEDs and other display devices.

  1. Multispectral Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Kuo, Chaincy; Rice, Brad W; Calandrino, Riccardo; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2011-06-20

    Quite recently Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been introduced as a novel pre-clinical imaging for the in vivo imaging of small animals such as mice. The CLI method is based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation (CR) generated by beta particles as they travel into the animal tissues with an energy such that Cerenkov emission condition is satisfied. This paper describes an image reconstruction method called multi spectral diffuse Cerenkov luminescence tomography (msCLT) in order to obtain 3D images from the detection of CR. The multispectral approach is based on a set of 2D planar images acquired using a number of narrow bandpass filters, and the distinctive information content at each wavelength is used in the 3D image reconstruction process. The proposed msCLT method was tested both in vitro and in vivo using 32P-ATP and all the images were acquired by using the IVIS 200 small animal optical imager (Caliper Life Sciences, Alameda USA). Source depth estimation and spatial resolution measurements were performed using a small capillary source placed between several slices of chicken breast. The theoretical Cerenkov emission spectrum and optical properties of chicken breast were used in the modelling of photon propagation. In vivo imaging was performed by injecting control nude mice with 10 MBq of 32P-ATP and the 3D tracer bio-distribution was reconstructed. Whole body MRI was acquired to provide an anatomical localization of the Cerenkov emission. The spatial resolution obtained from the msCLT reconstructed images of the capillary source showed that the FWHM is about 1.5 mm for a 6 mm depth. Co-registered MRI images showed that the Cerenkov emission regions matches fairly well with anatomical regions, such as the brain, heart and abdomen. Ex vivo imaging of the different organs such as intestine, brain, heart and ribs further confirms these findings. We conclude that in vivo 3D bio-distribution of a pure beta-minus emitting radiopharmaceutical such as 32P

  2. Large enhancement of X-ray excited luminescence in Ga-doped ZnO nanorod arrays by hydrogen annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianli; Liu, Xiaoliln; Gu, Mu; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Juannan; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Shiming; Liu, Si

    2018-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented and densely packed ZnO:Ga nanorod arrays were fabricated on ZnO-seeded substrates by hydrothermal method, and the effect of hydrogen annealing on their morphology, structure and luminescence properties was investigated in detail. Under ultraviolet or X-ray excitation, an intense ultraviolet luminescence appeared in the hydrogen-annealed samples owing to the formation of a shallow hydrogen donor state, which can sharply activate the reconbination radiation. The luminescence intensity increased with the annealing temperature, and then decreased at a higher temperature due to the dissociation of the hydrogen ion. The optimum concentration and time of hydrogen annealing were acquired simultaneously. It is expected that the ZnO:Ga nanorod array is a promising candidate for application in ultrafast and high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging detector.

  3. Aluminum Nitride Ceramic as an Optically Stimulable Luminescence Dosimeter Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Okada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photostimulable storage phosphors have been used in a wide range of applications including radiation measurements in one- and two-dimensional spaces, called point dosimetry and radiography. In this work, we report that an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic plate, which is practically used as a heat sink (SHAPAL®, Tokuyama Corp., Yamaguchi, Japan, shows good optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL properties with sufficiently large signal and capability for imaging applications, and we have characterized the AlN plate for OSL applications. Upon interaction with X-rays, the sample color turns yellowish, due to a radiation-induced photoabsorption band in the UV-blue range below ~500 nm. After irradiating the sample with X-rays, an intense OSL emission can be observed in the UV (360 nm spectral region during stimulation by red light. Although our measurement setup is not optimized, dose detection was confirmed as low as ~3 mGy to over 20 Gy. Furthermore, we have successfully demonstrated that the SHAPAL® AlN ceramic plate has great potential to be used as an imaging plate in radiography.

  4. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-04-01

    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  5. Luminescence of Ce3+ at two different sites in ?-Sr2P2O7 under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Han, B.; Chen, W.; Liang, H.; Su, Q.; Dorenbos, P.; Huang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Tao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ce3+ doped ?-Sr2?2xCexNaxP2O7 phosphor compounds has been prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. The luminescence properties under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra reveal three UV-emitting peaks at about 310, 330,

  6. [X-ray excited luminescence property of ZnS : Au, Cu fine particles synthesized by hydrothermal method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mei; Cao, Wang-He

    2009-08-01

    Highly luminescent ZnS : Au, Cu X-ray phosphor fine particles synthesized by hydrothermal method is reported for the first time and its photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) properties were studied in detail. With direct hydrothermal treatment at 200 degrees C for 12 h, the average gain size of samples is about 15 nm; the synthesized sphere-like nanocrystals with well dispersity and narrow gain size distribution show cubic structure. After baking in argon at 1 000 degrees C for 1h the sample agglomerate size is about 1-2 microm and the roughly spherical fine particles show pure hexagonal structure. The PL and XEL spectra of all the samples show a broad emission band and an intense emission band in the range of 400-600 nm. The maximum XEL intensity of sample directly synthesized by hydrothermal treatment was observed when Cu/Zn and Cu/Al were 3 x 10(-5) and 2, respectively. In this condition, the strongest PL emission was observed for the direct synthesized sample being further baked in argon at 900 degrees C for 1 h and the PL peak was centered at about 529 nm. The strongest XEL emission was observed for the direct synthesized sample being further baked in argon at 1 000 degrees C for 1h and the XEL peak was centered at about 445 and 513 nm, respectively. In the meantime, the XEL intensity increased about ten times compared with that directly synthesized without baking. The difference between PL and XEL spectra is due to its different excitation mechanism. The luminescence mechanism and different excitation mechanism of PL and XEL were discussed. The red shift of XEL spectrum with directly synthesized sample was observed with increasing the Cu/Zn. The reason can also be explained by the luminescence mechanism and excitation mechanism of XEL.

  7. Thermoluminescence, luminescence optically stimulated and creation of defects in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Europium; Termoluminiscencia, luminiscencia opticamente estimulada y creacion de defectos en halogenuros alcalinos contaminados con Europio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The alkaline halogenides have been subject matter of investigations related with the search of sensor materials for X-ray bidimensional images or optical memories. The understanding of the damage formation processes generated by ionizing and non-ionizing radiations is important for the correct design of devices that working as detectors and dosemeters of both type of radiations. In this work we present the investigation results related with the defects produced by the ionizing radiation type X and ultraviolet light in the range of 200-360 nm in crystals of KCl: Eu{sup 2+} and KBr:Eu{sup 2+}. It is examined the thermoluminescence and luminescence spectra with the purpose of identifying the exciton processes, owing to the excitation of the halogenide ions in which the primary defects correspond to the F and H centers. It has been found that the 400-600 nm emission is associated with the luminescence type that in his turn can be associated with autotrapped excitons perturbed by the impurity. On the other hand, it is examined the emission spectra of the luminescence optically stimulated in crystals of KBr: Eu{sup 2+} and KCl: Eu{sup 2+} finding too that such materials would be used as optical memories susceptible of to store information, and through of photostimulation to read this. It was determined that the F centers participate in the luminescence optically stimulated in these crystals, as well as too in the recombination processes responsible by the thermoluminescent emission. (Author)

  8. Role of the electronically excited-state hydrogen bonding and water clusters in the luminescent metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiao; Ji, Min; Lan, Xin; Mi, Weihong; Hao, Ce; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-05-20

    The electronically excited state and luminescence property of metal-organic framework Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)·nH2O have been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The calculated geometry and infrared spectra in the ground state are consistent with the experimental results. The frontier molecular orbitals and electronic configuration indicated that the origin of luminescence is attributed to a ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT). We theoretically demonstrated that the hydrogen bond H47···O5═C is weakened in the excited state S1; the weakening of the excited-state hydrogen bonding should be beneficial to the luminescence. To explore the effect of the water clusters on the luminescence, we studied four complexes Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)·3H2O, Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)·2H2O, Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)·H2O, and Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O). The results reveal that the presence of water should play an important role in the emission characteristics of the MOF. Also, the UV-vis absorption and emission spectra of Zn(3-tzba)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)·3H2O are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Luminescence and excited state dynamics of Bi{sup 3+} centers in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin, V. [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague (Czech Republic); Chernenko, K., E-mail: nuclearphys@yandex.ru [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytekhnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lipińska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01919 Warsaw (Poland); Mihokova, E.; Nikl, M. [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague (Czech Republic); Schulman, L.S. [Physics Department, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Shalapska, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Suchocki, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Bydgoszcz, Weyssenhoffa 11, 85072 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Zazubovich, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Zhydachevskii, Ya. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera 12, 79646 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2015-11-15

    Photoluminescence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi nanopowder synthesized by the modified sol–gel method is studied using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the 4.2–300 K temperature range. Bi{sup 3+} ions are substituted for Y{sup 3+} ions in two different crystal lattice sites, one having S{sub 6} symmetry (Bi(S{sub 6})) and the other C{sub 2} symmetry (Bi(C{sub 2})). The luminescence characteristics of these two centers are found to have strongly different electron–phonon interactions. The luminescence of Bi(S{sub 6}) and Bi(C{sub 2}) centers peak at 3.04 eV and 2.41 eV, respectively, and arise from the radiative decay of the triplet relaxed excited state (RES) of Bi{sup 3+} ions. The model and structure of the RES, responsible for the luminescence of Bi(S{sub 6}) and Bi(C{sub 2}) centers in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi, as well as radiative and nonradiative processes, taking place in the excited states of these centers, are investigated. The parameters of the triplet RES (the separation between the metastable and radiative levels and probabilities of radiative and nonradiative transitions from these levels) are determined. Low-temperature quenching of the triplet luminescence of these centers is explained by nonradiative quantum tunneling transitions from the metastable minima of their triplet RES to closely located defect- or exciton-related levels. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence of Bi{sup 3+} centers of two types in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi is investigated. • Bi(S{sub 6}) and Bi(C{sub 2}) centers reveal strongly different electron–phonon interaction. • Radiative and nonradiative processes in their triplet excited states are clarified. • Low-temperature luminescence quenching in Bi(S{sub 6}) and Bi(C{sub 2}) centers is studied. • New fast weak ≈2.9 eV emission is suggested to arise from Bi(C{sub 2}) centers.

  10. SrAl2O4:Eu2+ (1%) luminescence under UV, VUV and electron beam excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, M.; Mammadova, S.; Spassky, D.; Vielhauer, S.; Abdullayeva, S.; Huseynov, A.; Jabbarov, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the luminescence properties of nanosized SrAl2O4:Eu2+ (1%) phosphors. The samples were prepared by combustion method at 600 °C, followed by annealing of the resultant combustion ash at 1000 °C in a reductive (Ar + H2) atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photo luminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis and thermal stimulated luminescence (TSL) method were applied to characterize the phosphor. For the first time a peak at 375 nm was observed in CL spectra of SrAl2O4:Eu2+ (1%) nanophosphors. Luminescence excitation spectra analysis have shown that this peak is related to crystal defects. Also in TSL curve one strong peak was observed in the region above room temperature (T = 325 K), which is attributed to lattice defects, namely oxygen vacancies. A green LED was fabricated by the combination of the SrAl2O4:Eu2+ (1%) nanosized phosphor and a 365 nm UV InGaN chip.

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence response to Al2O3 to beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akselrod, A.; Akselrod, M.S.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity dosemeters based on Al2O3:C have been prepared and tested for use as beta dosemeters using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Two types of sample were prepared and tested, namely unpolished thick, single crystal chips and thin powder layers on aluminium substrates. The samp......High sensitivity dosemeters based on Al2O3:C have been prepared and tested for use as beta dosemeters using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Two types of sample were prepared and tested, namely unpolished thick, single crystal chips and thin powder layers on aluminium substrates...

  12. Modelling the thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, based on the previously suggested Mott–Seitz mechanism. In the model electrons from a dosimetric trap are raised by optical or thermal stimulation into the conduction band, followed by an electronic transition from...... simulations are carried out of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) experiments, in which the temperature dependence of luminescence lifetimes in quartz is studied as a function of the stimulation temperature. Good quantitative agreement is found between the simulation results and new...... experimental data obtained using a single-aliquot procedure on a sedimentary quartz sample....

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence of YAlO{sub 3}:Mn{sup 2+} for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhydachevskii, Ya. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, 79646 Lviv (Ukraine)], E-mail: crystal@polynet.lviv.ua; Suchocki, A.; Berkowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 32/46 Al. Lotnikow, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Zakharko, Ya. [I.Franko Lviv National University, 107 Tarnavskogo St., 79017 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2007-04-15

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties have been studied for YAlO{sub 3}:Mn{sup 2+} crystal applicable for thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry of ionizing radiation and UV light. A high efficiency of optical stimulation by the blue-green light (450-500 nm) was demonstrated that allows to use the OSL procedure for non-heating readout of the irradiated samples. Mechanisms of the observed optical processes are discussed.

  14. Lanthanide doped Bi2O3 upconversion luminescence nanospheres for temperature sensing and optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pengpeng; Liu, Xiuling; Dong, Lile; Wang, Zhuo; Song, Shuyan; Xu, Xia; Su, Yue; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-02-14

    Water-soluble lanthanide (Ln(3+)) doped Bi2O3 nanospheres have been successfully prepared through a solid-state-chemistry thermal decomposition process. The nanospheres exhibit intense upconversion luminescence (UCL) by doping the Ln(3+) (Ln = Yb, Er/Ho/Tm) ions into the Bi2O3 host matrix under 980 nm excitation. The ratio of red/green emission of Bi2O3:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanospheres exhibits a significant change as the calcination temperature increases and the value could reach 105.6. Moreover, the UCL of Bi2O3:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) nanospheres are temperature-sensitive, where the intensity ratios of 799 and 808 nm emissions increase monotonously with temperature. The MTT assay reveals that Bi2O3:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) nanospheres exhibit good biocompatibility by grafting citric acid molecules on the surface. The application possibility of Bi2O3:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) nanospheres as bioprobes for optical imaging in vivo is also confirmed by the high-contrast photoluminescence images between the background and the UCL imaging area.

  15. Combining Holographic Optical Tweezers with Upconversion Luminescence Encoding: Imaging-Based Stable Suspension Array for Sensitive Responding of Dual Cancer Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yu; Cao, Di; Qi, Chu-Bo; Kang, Ya-Feng; Song, Chong-Yang; Xu, Dang-Dang; Zheng, Bei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2018-02-06

    Establishment of a stable analytical methodology with high-quality results is an urgent need for screening cancer biomarkers in early diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we incorporate holographic optical tweezers with upconversion luminescence encoding to design an imageable suspension array and apply it to conduct the detection of two liver cancer related biomarkers, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetal protein. This bead-based assay is actualized by forming a bead array with holographic optical tweezers and synchronously exciting the upconversion luminescence of corresponding trapped complex beads fabricated with a simple one-step sandwich immunological recognition. Owing to the fact that these flowing beads are stably trapped in the focal plane of the objective lens which tightly converges the array of the laser beams by splitting a 980 nm beam using a diffraction optical element, a fairly stable excitation condition is achieved to provide reliable assay results. By further taking advantage of the eminent encoding capability of upconversion nanoparticles and the extremely low background signals of anti-Stokes luminescence, the two targets are well-identified and simultaneously detected with quite sound sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the potential on-demand clinical application is presented by employing this approach to respond the targets toward complex matrices such as serum and tissue samples, offering a new alternative for cancer diagnosis technology.

  16. Using radiation intensity dependence on excitation level for the analysis of surface plasmon resonance effect on ZnO luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, S. I.; Tarasov, A. P.; Briskina, C. M.; Ryzhkov, M. V.; Markushev, V. M.; Lotin, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    For the analysis of ZnO luminescence the system of rate equations (SRE) was proposed. It contains a set of parameters that characterizes processes participating in luminescence: zone-zone excitation, excitons formation and recombination, formation and disappearance of photons and surface plasmons (SP). It is shown that experimental ZnO microstructure radiation intensity dependence on photoexcitation level can be approximated by using SRE. Thus, the values of these parameters can be estimated and used for luminescence analysis. This approach was applied for the analysis of ZnO microfilms radiation with different thickness of Ag island film covering. It was revealed that the increase of cover thickness leads to the increase of losses and decrease of probability of photons to SP conversion. In order to take into account visible emission, rate equations for levels populations in band-gap and for corresponding photons and SP were added to SRE. By using such SRE it is demonstrated that the form of visible luminescence intensity dependence on excitation level (P) like P1/3, as obtained elsewhere [1], is possible only in case of donor-acceptor pairs existence. The proposed approach was applied for consideration of experimental results obtained in [5-8] taking into account their interpretation of these results based on assumption about transfer of electrons from defect level in ZnO band-gap to metal and then to conduction band in ZnO. Results of performed calculations using modified SRE revealed that effects observed in these papers can exist under only low pumping level. This result will be experimentally checked later.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  18. Towards a non-fading signal in feldspar: Insight into charge transport and tunnelling from time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Ankjærgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    -OSL shape is governed by the energy of excitation and the subsequent charge recombination route through the excited state of the trap, the band tail states or the conduction band. The role of band tail states in charge recombination is specifically examined using the signal shown to decay over several ms......Feldspars are an attractive alternative to quartz for extending the dose range, and for dating volcanic terrains such as on Mars and Iceland. Unfortunately, charge stored in the feldspar lattice undergoes anomalous fading leading to an underestimation in the dose estimates. In this paper we use...... the time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) technique to investigate the processes that give rise to the signal following infrared (IR), green and blue stimulation, with an objective to understand tunnelling and charge transport during thermo-optical excitations. We show that the TR...

  19. Optical imaging as an expansion of nuclear medicine: Cerenkov-based luminescence vs fluorescence-based luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Patrick T.K.; Welling, Mick M.; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Meskers, Stefan C.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tanke, Hans [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Integration of optical imaging technologies can further strengthen the field of radioguided surgery. Rather than using two separate chemical entities to achieve this extension, hybrid imaging agents can be used that contain both radionuclear and optical properties. Two types of such hybrid imaging agents are available: (1) hybrid imaging agents generated by Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of {beta}-emitters and (2) hybrid imaging agents that contain both a radioactive moiety and a fluorescent dye. One major challenge clinicians are now facing is to determine the potential value of these approaches. With this tutorial review we intend to clarify the differences between the two approaches and highlight the clinical potential of hybrid imaging during image-guided surgery applications. (orig.)

  20. Optical imaging as an expansion of nuclear medicine: Cerenkov-based luminescence vs fluorescence-based luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Patrick T K; Welling, Mick M; Meskers, Stefan C J; Valdes Olmos, Renato A; Tanke, Hans; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2013-08-01

    Integration of optical imaging technologies can further strengthen the field of radioguided surgery. Rather than using two separate chemical entities to achieve this extension, hybrid imaging agents can be used that contain both radionuclear and optical properties. Two types of such hybrid imaging agents are available: (1) hybrid imaging agents generated by Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of β-emitters and (2) hybrid imaging agents that contain both a radioactive moiety and a fluorescent dye. One major challenge clinicians are now facing is to determine the potential value of these approaches. With this tutorial review we intend to clarify the differences between the two approaches and highlight the clinical potential of hybrid imaging during image-guided surgery applications.

  1. Energy levels in YPO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+},Sm{sup 3+} studied by thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Adrie J.J., E-mail: a.j.j.bos@tudelft.n [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Poolton, Nigel R.J. [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Institute of Maths and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Wallinga, Jakob [Netherlands Centre for Luminescence Dating, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Bessiere, Aurelie [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 Rue P et M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dorenbos, Pieter [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Energy-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) spectra and thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of a powder sample of YPO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+},Sm{sup 3+} were measured to investigate the nature of the trapping centre and to locate its energy level relative to the valence and conduction bands of the YPO{sub 4} host. The high-temperature glow peak could unequivocally be assigned to Sm{sup 2+} (thus Sm{sup 3+} acts as an electron trap). The trap depth of this centre, as derived from the OSL excitation spectra, is in good agreement with the Dorenbos model prediction. The OSL excitation spectra also reveal excited states of Sm{sup 2+} well below the conduction band. These excited states produce a broadening of the high-temperature TL glow peak and also cause the activation energy determined by the Hoogenstraten method to underestimate the trap depth.

  2. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...

  3. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of a sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is now widely accepted as a chronometer for terrestrial sediment. More recently, it has been suggested that OSL may also be useful in the dating of deep-sea marine sediments. In this paper, we test the usefulness of high resolution quartz OSL dating ...

  4. Controlling of upconversion nanoparticle luminescence at heating and optical clearing of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Volkova, Elena K.; Tuchina, Daria K.; Konyukhova, Julia G.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-07-01

    The luminescence spectra of a polymer film with embedded upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were measured through 0.1-0.3 mm adipose tissue layer at heating in a wide temperature range. Heating and application of optical clearing agents improved intensity of UCNP fluorescence significantly.

  5. Further investigations into pulsed optically stimulated luminescence from feldspars using blue and green light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank; Kalchgruber, R.

    2009-01-01

    -resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL), and these signals can be mathematically described as a sum of 4 exponential components (a, b, c, d). The slowest component, d, increases with the duration of the light pulse as expected from the exponential model. The stimulation temperature dependence experiment...

  6. Absorption and emission dynamics in concentrated optical ensembles under laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, G. M.; Shilov, V. B.

    2002-06-01

    A new theoretical model describing the emission and absorption dynamics in an ensemble of molecules under intense coherent pulsed pumping is developed on the basis of the concepts of cooperative light-induced luminescence (CLIL). The CLIL development is described within the framework of formalism of the system density matrix in the space of photon wave functions. It is shown that the fast growth of CLIL relates to the development of coherent states of the quantum field in the area of efficient cooperative interactions of molecules (coherence volume). A system of equations for the calculation of CLIL energy, population of excited states, and optical absorption of the system in dependence on the laser pump energy density is solved. The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Localization of optical excitations on random surfaces: SNOM studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Localization of optical excitations on nanostructured metal surfaces and fractal colloid silver aggregates are studied by using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The SNOM images obtained in both configurations exhibit spatially localized (within 150 to 250 nm) light intensity...... enhancement by up to two orders of magnitude. The observed phenomena are related to strong (Anderson) localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves....

  8. Organic scintillators with long luminescent lifetimes for radiotherapy dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Lindvold, Lars René; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2011-01-01

    of experiments performed using two organic scintillators, one commercially available and one custom made. The luminescent lifetimes of the scintillators have been measured using i) optical excitation by pulsed UV light, and ii) irradiative excitation using high-energy X-rays from a linac. A luminescent lifetime......Organic scintillators with long luminescent lifetimes can theoretically be used to temporally filter out radiation-induced luminescence and Cerenkov light (the so-called stem signal) when used as fibre-coupled radiotherapy dosimeters. Since the medical linear accelerators (linacs1) used...

  9. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  10. Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these

  11. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  12. Spectral characteristics of intense red luminescence in Pr:Y2O3 nanophosphor on UV excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kavita; Dwivedi, Y.; Rai, A.; Rai, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterizations of Pr:Y2O3 nanophosphor have been carried out. On ultraviolet light (at 266 nm) excitation, intense red emission along with weak emissions in blue, green and infrared regions have been observed. The phenomena for the observed emission have been thoroughly explained in the present work and it was finally concluded that the direct excitation through low-lying 4f15d band of Pr3+ ions and through the conduction band of Y2O3 nanophosphor are the main channels for the observed emissions. The calculated quantum efficiency (QE) for the red emission is found to be ~80 % while the CIE coordinates are (0.65, 0.34) quite close to the standard values. These studies clearly indicate that Pr:Y2O3 nanophosphors are promising and futuristic red luminescent material for the development of various display devices and UV detectors. Time resolved spectroscopy has been further used to investigate luminescence dynamics.

  13. Analysis of upconversion luminescence in germanate glass and optical fiber codoped with Yb3+/Tb3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, M; Zmojda, J; Miluski, P; Sitarz, M; Pisarska, J; Pisarski, W A; Dorosz, D

    2016-03-20

    In this paper, upconversion (UC) luminescence processes in a GeO2-Ga2O3-BaO glass system codoped with 0.7Yb2O3/(0.07-0.7)Tb2O3 (mol.%) and double-clad optical fiber codoped with 0.7Yb2O3/0.7Tb2O3 (mol.%) were investigated. The highest emission intensity (energy transfer efficiency equals 12.92%) was obtained for 0.7Yb2O3/0.7Tb2O3 codoped glass. Comparative analysis showed significant differences in the shape of luminescence of fabricated germanate glass and optical fiber. Due to dominant transition from D45 sublevel the main green UC peak (Tb3+:  D45→F57) of fabricated double-clad optical fiber is shifted by 4 nm toward longer wavelengths.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation on teaching of luminescence and excited states decay kinetics; Simulacao Monte Carlo no ensino de luminescencia e cinetica de decaimento de estado excitado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnischofer, Herbert; Araujo, Marcio Peres de; Dias Junior, Lauro Camargo; Novo, Joao Batista Marques [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A software based in the Monte Carlo method have been developed aiming the teaching of important cases of mechanisms found in luminescence and in excited states decay kinetics, including: multiple decays, consecutive decays and coupled systems decays. The Monte Carlo Method allows the student to easily simulate and visualize the luminescence mechanisms, focusing on the probabilities of the related steps. The software CINESTEX was written for FreeBASIC compiler; it assumes first-order kinetics and any number of excited states, where the pathways are allowed with probabilities assigned by the user. (author)

  15. Synthesis and electro-optical properties of fluorene containing blue luminescent rod-coil homopolymers with pendant pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Duryodhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two well defined, blue luminescent homopolymers containing 9,9-diethylfluorene core with electron withdrawing pendant pyridine, Suzuki-coupled with the corresponding borolane of decoxy phenyl (PFPA and naphthalene (PFNA have been designed and synthesized efficiently. The obtained rod-coil polymers have the average molecular weight of 15212 (PFPA and 15130 (PFNA with polydispersity indices (PDIs 1.07 and 1.3, respectively. The polymers have good solubility and high thermal stability with the decomposition temperature of 362 °C (PFPA and 367 °C (PFNA correspondingly. Furthermore the optical and electrochemical properties of the polymers have been investigated. The polymers exhibited photoluminescence (PL maxima at 410 nm (PFPA and 414 nm (PFNA excited at 340 nm, as stable blue luminescence polymers at low concentration of 10−6 M with a quantum yield of 0.64 and 0.62, respectively. In addition the annealed (150 °C polymer films showed better stability of its photoluminescence spectra. Absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra of PFPA and PFNA were compared in order to evaluate the effects of substituent, phenyl and naphthalene in pyridine pendant fluorene moieties.

  16. Limit of detection of a fiber optics gyroscope using a super luminescent radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, G E

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to establish the dependence of characteristics of the fiber optics gyroscope (FOG) with respect to the parameters of the super luminescent emission source based on doped optical fiber with rare earth elements (Super luminescent Fiber Source, SFS), argument the pumping rate election of the SFS to obtain characteristics limits of the FOG sensibility. By using this type of emission source in the FOG is recommend to use the rate when the direction of the pumping signal coincide with the super luminescent signal. The most results are the proposition and argumentation of the SFS election as emission source to be use in the FOG of the phase type. Such a decision allow to increase the characteristics of the FOG sensibility in comparison with the use of luminescent source of semiconductors emission which are extensively used in the present time. The use of emission source of the SFS type allow to come closer to the threshold of the obtained sensibility limit (detection limit) which i...

  17. Modelling of optically stimulated luminescence of zircon: assessment of the suitability for dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkin, A A [National Science Centre, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 1 Akademichna str., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Vainshtein, D I [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hartog, H W den [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-04-07

    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO{sub 4}, is a candidate material for optical dating because it exhibits luminescence after exposure to natural radioactivity. The kinetic model of zircon thermally stimulated luminescence proposed before has been modified and used to investigate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of zircon. The purpose is to explore what might be expected from zircon during real experiments because experimentally zircon OSL has not been studied systematically. Any luminescence dating method involves, as a necessary step, a laboratory irradiation at dose rates much higher than the dose rate of natural radioactivity. The model of zircon OSL predicts a significant and complicated dose rate and temperature effects. Our simulation results suggest that this problem may be solved by laboratory irradiation at elevated temperature followed by a preheat. Such a combined treatment allows one to reproduce the dose response expected from the naturally irradiated material (after the same preheat treatment). The shape of the theoretically calculated dose response curve reconstructed in this way exhibits a weak sensitivity to variation of laboratory irradiation temperature for ages younger than a few thousand years. This means that zircon OSL can probably be used successfully for dating of young samples.

  18. New Nanomaterials and Luminescent Optical Sensors for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Burmistrova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate methods that can continuously detect low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 have a huge application potential in biological, pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental analysis. Luminescent probes and nanomaterials are used for fabrication of sensors for H2O2 that can be applied for these purposes. In contrast to previous reviews focusing on the chemical design of molecular probes for H2O2, this mini-review highlights the latest luminescent nanoparticular materials and new luminescent optical sensors for H2O2 in terms of the nanomaterial composition and luminescent receptor used in the sensors. The nanomaterial section is subdivided into schemes based on gold nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles with embedded enzymes, probes showing aggregation-induced emission enhancement, quantum dots, lanthanide-based nanoparticles and carbon based nanomaterials, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are ordered according to the type of luminescent receptor used within the sensor membranes. Among them are lanthanide complexes, metal-ligand complexes, oxidic nanoparticles and organic dyes. Further, the optical sensors are confined to those that are capable to monitor the concentration of H2O2 in a sample over time or are reusable. Optical sensors responding to gaseous H2O2 are not covered. All nanomaterials and sensors are characterized with respect to the analytical reaction towards H2O2, limit of detection (LOD, analytical range, electrolyte, pH and response time/incubation time. Applications to real samples are given. Finally, we assess the suitability of the nanomaterials to be used in membrane-based sensors and discuss future trends and perspectives of these sensors in biomedical research.

  19. Probing optical excitations in chevron-like armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Richard; Lodi-Rizzini, Alberto; Wang, Shudong; Hohage, Michael; Zeppenfeld, Peter; Cai, Jinming; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal; Berger, Reinhard Franz Josef; Chen, Zongping; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Biagi, Roberto; De Renzi, Valentina; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Ferretti, Andrea

    2017-11-16

    The bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has opened new opportunities to specifically tune their electronic and optical properties by precisely controlling their atomic structure. Here, we address excitation in GNRs with periodic structural wiggles, the so-called chevron GNRs. Based on reflectance difference and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopies together with ab initio simulations, we demonstrate that their excited-state properties are of excitonic nature. The spectral fingerprints corresponding to different reaction stages in their bottom-up fabrication are also unequivocally identified, allowing us to follow the exciton build-up from the starting monomer precursor to the final GNR structure.

  20. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  1. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  2. Terbium luminescence in alumina xerogel fabricated in porous anodic alumina matrix under various excitation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponenko, N. V., E-mail: nik@nano.bsuir.edu.by [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Kortov, V. S. [Yeltsin Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Orekhovskaya, T. I.; Nikolaenko, I. A. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Pustovarov, V. A.; Zvonarev, S. V.; Slesarev, A. I. [Yeltsin Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Prislopski, S. Ya. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

    2011-07-15

    Terbium-doped alumina xerogel layers are synthesized by the sol-gel method in pores of a porous anodic alumina film 1 {mu}m thick with a pore diameter of 150-180 nm; the film is grown on a silicon substrate. The fabricated structures exhibit terbium photoluminescence with bands typical of trivalent terbium terms. Terbium X-ray luminescence with the most intense band at 542 nm is observed for the first time for such a structure. Morphological analysis of the structure by scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of xerogel clusters in pore channels, while the main pore volume remains unfilled and pore mouths remain open. The data obtained confirm the promising applications of fabricated structures for developing matrix converters of X-rays and other ionizing radiations into visible light. The possibilities of increasing luminescence intensity in the matrix converter are discussed.

  3. Optical fibre dosemeter systems for clinical applications based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, C.J.; Andersen, C.E.; Aznar, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical fibre dosemeter systems based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals were developed for in vivo real-time dose rate and absorbed dose measurements in radiotherapy and mammography. A technique was also developed...... for making ultra-small dosemeter probes that can easily be placed inside patients in radiation treatment. These probes have shown excellent properties in both head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment and in mammography. The dose-response of the OSL signal for the new optical fibre...

  4. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...... irradiation. It then briefly describes development of spectrometers in dating applications, and finally gives an overview of recent development in the field directly linked to novel instrumentation. Contents of Paper...

  5. On the Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter for Surface Dose Measurement during Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fasihah Hanum Yusof; Ngie Min Ung; Jeannie Hsiu Ding Wong; Wei Loong Jong; Vannyat Ath; Vincent Chee Ee Phua; Siew Ping Heng; Kwan Hoong Ng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the suitability of using the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) in measuring surface dose during radiotherapy. The water equivalent depth (WED) of the OSLD was first determined by comparing the surface dose measured using the OSLD with the percentage depth dose at the buildup region measured using a Markus ionization chamber. Surface doses were measured on a solid water phantom using the OSLD and compared against the Markus ionization ...

  6. A high sensitivity optically stimulated luminescence scanning system for measurement of single sand-sized grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Kohsiek, P.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument has been designed for the routine analysis of the optically stimulated luminescence signal from single grains of sand. The system is capable of analysing over 3000 individual grains in a single measurement sequence, and the OSL signal from each grain can be read in less than 3 s....... The design principles are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities....

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) as a chronometer for surface exposure dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Chapot, Melissa S.

    2012-01-01

    We pioneer a technique of surface-exposure dating based upon the characteristic form of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) bleaching profile beneath a rock surface; this evolves as a function of depth and time. As a field illustration of this new method, the maximum age of a premier examp......, at decadal to millennial timescales or perhaps longer (depending on the environmental dose rate) even for material subsequently buried. This has considerable potential in many archeological, geological and geo-hazard applications....

  8. Enhancement of the intensity ratio of ultraviolet to visible luminescence with increased excitation in ZnO nanoparticles deposited on porous anodic alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousslama, Wiem; Sieber, Brigitte; Elhouichet, Habib; Gelloz, Bernard; Addad, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2013-12-01

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA), with large pore diameters (up to 100 nm), was used as a substrate for the growth of ZnO nanostructures. Almost unstrained ZnO nanoparticles of less than 8 nm in size were prepared by the spin-on method and annealed at 500 °C. Excitonic recombination is found to dominate the ultraviolet band. The ZnO nanoparticles have a high deep level emission at low excitation which becomes negligible at high excitation, as deduced from photoluminescence measurements. This large increase of the ultraviolet to visible luminescence ratio with excitation is ascribed to the variation of the ultraviolet and of the visible luminescence with excitation intensity. Non-radiative Auger recombination becomes dominant at high excitation. It is also shown that the PAA substrate improves the internal quantum efficiency of the ZnO nanoparticles achieved by the sol-gel method. At low excitation, the luminescence intensity drops by a factor of 3 between 13 and 300 K, leading to an estimate of the internal quantum efficiency as high as 30%.

  9. Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence of gamma-irradiated mineral zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vainshtein, D.; Hartog, H.W. den [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Turkin, A.A. [National Science Centre, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

    2007-03-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) manifested by gamma-irradiated mineral zircon has shown a strong TL peak at about 165 C which is due to recombination of electrons and Dy{sup 3+} related shallow hole traps. After they have been removed by a short preheat we have observed two TL peaks at 300-320 C and {approx}420 C, which are mainly due to recombination of electrons and Tb{sup 3+} related hole traps centres yielding its characteristic luminescence. The experimental results indicate that optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is due to luminescent emission of Tb{sup 3+}ions and [SiO {sub 4}] {sup 4-} groups. The deep traps related to the 420 C TL peak contribute to the Tb {sup 3+} related OSL. The deep traps related to the 300-320 C TL peak contribute to OSL associated with the luminescent emission of [SiO {sub 4}] {sup 4-} groups. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. A visible-light-excited europium(III) complex-based luminescent probe for visualizing copper ions and hydrogen sulfide in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiren; Wang, Huan; Yang, Mei; Yuan, Jingli; Wu, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Development of visible-light-excited lanthanide (III) complex-based luminescent probes is highly appealing due to their superiority of less damage to the living biosystems over the conventional UV-light-excited ones. In this work, a visible-light-excited europium (III) complex-based luminescent probe, BPED-BHHCT-Eu3+-BPT, has been designed and synthesized by conjugating the Cu2+-binding N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethanediamine (BPED) to a tetradentate β-diketone ligand 4,4‧-bis(1″,1″,1″,2″,2″,3″,3″-heptafluoro-4″,6″-hexanedione-6″-yl)chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl (BHHCT) and coordinating with a coligand 2-(N,N-diethylanilin-4-yl)-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine) (BPT) for the time-gated luminescence detection of Cu2+ ions and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in living cells. BPED-BHHCT-Eu3+-BPT exhibited a sharp excitation peak at 407 nm and a wide excitation window extending to beyond 460 nm. Upon its reaction with Cu2+ ions, the luminescence of BPED-BHHCT-Eu3+-BPT was efficiently quenched, which could be reversibly restored by the addition of H2S due to the strong affinity between Cu2+ ions and H2S. The "on-off-on" type luminescence behavior of BPED-BHHCT-Eu3+-BPT towards Cu2+ ions and H2S enabled the sensing of the two species with high sensitivity and selectivity. The performances of BPED-BHHCT-Eu3+-BPT for visualizing intracellular Cu2+ ions and H2S were investigated, and the results have demonstrated the practical applicability of the probe for molecular imaging of cells.

  11. Multicolour optical coding from a series of luminescent lanthanide complexes with a unique antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Nicolas; Raccurt, Olivier; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Imbert, Daniel; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2013-03-04

    The bis-tetrazolate-pyridine ligand H(2)pytz sensitises efficiently the visible and/or near-IR luminescence emission of ten lanthanide cations (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb). The Ln(III) complexes present sizeable quantum yields in both domains with a single excitation source. The wide range of possible colour combinations in water, organic solvents and the solid state makes the complexes very attractive for labelling and encoding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Many-body physics of optically excited, frozen Rydberg gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Dominik; Lauer, Achim; Otterbach, Johannes; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the many-body physics of an ensemble of optically excited Rydberg atoms with van der Waals dipole-dipole interactions [1]. Starting from a fully quantized model of the optical excitation we show that Rydberg excitations always possess a finite kinetic energy mediated by photon exchange even if the motion of the atoms can be disregarded. The kinetic energy competes with the repulsive vdW interactions. Using discretization and DMRG, we calculate the many-body ground state in the one-dimensional case. It is correlated much more strongly than possible for any local interaction, i.e., with a Luttinger parameter K 1. In the presence of an additional lattice, a fractal phase diagram [2] emerges with Mott-insulating phases at any rational filling fraction. [1] see e.g. H. Weimer, R. L"ow, T. Pfau, and H. P. B"uchler; Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 250601 (2008) [2] F. J. Burnell, M. M. Parish, N. R. Cooper, and S. L. Sondhi; Phys. Rev. B 80, 174519 (2009)

  13. Analytical modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to high-energy heavy charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Yukihara, Eduardo G

    2012-01-21

    The objective of this work is to test analytical models to calculate the luminescence efficiency of Al(2)O(3):C optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) exposed to heavy charged particles with energies relevant to space dosimetry and particle therapy. We used the track structure model to obtain an analytical expression for the relative luminescence efficiency based on the average radial dose distribution produced by the heavy charged particle. We compared the relative luminescence efficiency calculated using seven different radial dose distribution models, including a modified model introduced in this work, with experimental data. The results obtained using the modified radial dose distribution function agreed within 20% with experimental data from Al(2)O(3):C OSLDs relative luminescence efficiency for particles with atomic number ranging from 1 to 54 and linear energy transfer in water from 0.2 up to 1368 keV µm(-1). In spite of the significant improvement over other radial dose distribution models, understanding of the underlying physical processes associated with these radial dose distribution models remain elusive and may represent a limitation of the track structure model.

  14. Wringing the last drop of optically stimulated luminescence response for accurate dating of glacial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medialdea, Alicia; Bateman, Mark D.; Evans, David J.; Roberts, David H.; Chiverrell, Richard C.; Clark, Chris D.

    2017-04-01

    BRITICE-CHRONO is a NERC-funded consortium project of more than 40 researchers aiming to establish the retreat patterns of the last British and Irish Ice Sheet. For this purpose, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, among other dating techniques, has been used in order to establish accurate chronology. More than 150 samples from glacial environments have been dated and provide key information for modelling of the ice retreat. Nevertheless, luminescence dating of glacial sediments has proven to be challenging: first, glacial sediments were often affected by incomplete bleaching and secondly, quartz grains within the sediments sampled were often characterized by complex luminescence behaviour; characterized by dim signal and low reproducibility. Specific statistical approaches have been used to over come the former to enable the estimated ages to be based on grain populations most likely to have been well bleached. This latest work presents how issues surrounding complex luminescence behaviour were over-come in order to obtain accurate OSL ages. This study has been performed on two samples of bedded sand originated on an ice walled lake plain, in Lincolnshire, UK. Quartz extracts from each sample were artificially bleached and irradiated to known doses. Dose recovery tests have been carried out under different conditions to study the effect of: preheat temperature, thermal quenching, contribution of slow components, hot bleach after a measuring cycles and IR stimulation. Measurements have been performed on different luminescence readers to study the possible contribution of instrument reproducibility. These have shown that a great variability can be observed not only among the studied samples but also within a specific site and even a specific sample. In order to determine an accurate chronology and realistic uncertainties to the estimated ages, this variability must be taken into account. Tight acceptance criteria to measured doses from natural, not

  15. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovaleva, N. N., E-mail: nkovaleva@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Potůček, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Kusmartseva, O. E. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Goryachev, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Bryknar, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Demikhov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Trepakov, V. A.; Dejneka, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic); Kusmartsev, F. V. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Stoneham, A. M. [University College London, London Centre for Nanotechnology (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn–Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn{sup 3+} or Cu{sup 2+}), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognized, is still elusive in the ground state properties. Here we discovered that, in these materials, there exist excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantized as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We observed features originating from these excitations in the optical spectra of a model compound LaMnO{sub 3} using ellipsometry technique. They appear clearly as narrow sidebands accompanying the electron transition between the JT split orbitals at neighboring Mn{sup 3+} ions, displaying anomalous temperature behavior around the Néel temperature T{sub N} ≈ 140 K. We present these results together with new experimental data on photoluminescence found in LaMnO{sub 3}, which lend additional support to the ellipsometry implying the electronic-vibrational origin of the quantum rotor orbital excitations. We note that the discovered orbital excitations of quantum rotors may play an important role in many unusual properties observed in these materials upon doping, such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance.

  16. Optical Fiber System For The Optical Monitoring Of Membrane Potentials Of Excitable Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, G.; Fillette, F.; Kado, R. T.

    1988-06-01

    Spectrometry of potential-sensitive dyes permits now the monitoring of membrane potential (MP) variations on excitable tissues. It is also possible to monitor qualitatively the electromechanical activity (EMA) on contractile tissues using this same method. We improved two new optical fiber systems for measuring fluorescence. System 1 used two 200 um optical fibers permitting fluorescence excitation of the potential sensitive dye (PSD) (1st Fiber) and the measurement of its fluorescence (2nd Fiber). System 2 used two 200 um optical fibers for a differencial measurement of excitation reflexion and fluorescence through two different optical filters. The two fibers are assembled in a tube to constitute the "Optrode". In System 1, a single photodiode placed behind a 665 nm high pass optical filter (HPOF) is preamplified by a LH-0022 op. amplifier. In system 2, two photodiodes are placed respectively behind a 645 nm and a 665 nm HPOFs and differencialy preampli-fied by a AD-521 instrumentation amplifier. Analogic signals are lowpass filtered with a LT-1062 digital filter. PSDs WW781 and RH 237 were used respectively on myocardial and nervous tissues. Fluorescence excitation of PSD WW 781 was performed with a 5 mWatts Helium-Neon LASER (He-Ne) beam focused into the first opti-cal fiber of System 1 or illuminating directly the stained tissue. Fluorescence excitation of PSD RH 237 was performed with a 100 Watts filament lamp through a 400-500 nm blue bandpass filter (BBPF). These two systems are now used to study MP variations on myocardial and nervous tissues. We are now able to study the effects of different drugs on the EMA of heart muscle. This technique is usable "in Vitro" and "in Vivo". This optical fiber method easy to improve for a low cost permits now to perform studies on excitable tissues in a non traumatic way with foreseeable applications to pharmacological investigations on experimental models.

  17. Edge Functionalization and Optical Excitations in Graphene Nanoflakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Caldas, Marilia J.; Molinari, Elisa

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the effects of edge covalent functionalization on the opto-electronic properties of finite elongated graphene nano-flakes (GNFs). Following our previous work on nanojunctions[1], we compute mean-field ground state electronic properties and configuration-interaction UV-vis optical excitations at varying size and functionalization by means of semi-empirical methods. The character of the lowest energy excitations and the influence exerted on them both by length/width modulation and by the specific chemical properties of the terminating groups are analyzed in details. The role of local distortions spontaneously arising upon geometrical optimization is inspected. Nanoplasmonic-like features related to the spectrum of these elongated finite graphene nanostructures are also discussed. [1] C. Cocchi et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1315 (2011)

  18. Luminescence and optical absorption determination in porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogal, U.; Calderon, A.; Marin, E.; Rojas T, J. B.; Juarez, A. G., E-mail: u_nogal@hotmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    We applied the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in order to obtain the optical absorption spectrum in porous silicon samples prepared by electrochemical anodic etching on n-type, phosphorous doped, (100)-oriented crystal-line silicon wafer with thickness of 300 {mu}m and 1-5 {omega}cm resistivity. The porous layers were prepared with etching times of 13, 20, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. Also, we realized a comparison among the optical absorption spectrum with the photoluminescence and photo reflectance ones, both obtained at room temperature. Our results show that the absorption spectrum of the samples of porous silicon depends notably of the etching time an it consist of two distinguishable absorption bands, one in the Vis region and the other one in the UV region. (Author)

  19. Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Jullien, T; Portier, F; Roche, P; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Wegscheider, W; Roulleau, P; Glattli, D C

    2013-10-31

    The on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the

  20. Thermal beam of metastable krypton atoms produced by optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Hu, S M; Bailey, K; Davis, A M; Dunford, R W; Lu, Z T; O'Connor, T P; Young, L

    2007-02-01

    A room-temperature beam of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s[3/2]2 level is demonstrated via an optical excitation method. A Kr-discharge lamp is used to produce vacuum ultraviolet photons at 124 nm for the first-step excitation from the ground level 4p6 1S0 to the 5s[3/2]1 level. An 819 nm Ti:sapphire laser is used for the second-step excitation from 5s[3/2]1 to 5s[3/2]2 followed by a spontaneous decay to the 5s[3/2]2 metastable level. A metastable atomic beam with an angular flux density of 3 x 10(14) s(-1) sr(-1) is achieved at the total gas flow rate of 0.01 cm3/s at STP (or 3 x 10(17) at./s). The dependences of the flux on the gas flow rate, laser power, and lamp parameters are investigated.

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of dental enamel for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihara, E.G. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail: eduardo.yukihara@okstate.edu; Mittani, J.; McKeever, S.W.S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Simon, S.L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    This paper briefly reviews the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of dental enamel and discusses the potential and challenges of OSL for filling the technology gap in biodosimetry required for medical triage following a radiological/nuclear accident or terrorist event. The OSL technique uses light to stimulate a radiation-induced luminescence signal from materials previously exposed to ionizing radiation. This luminescence originates from radiation-induced defects in insulating crystals and is proportional to the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. In our research conducted to date, we focused on fundamental investigations of the OSL properties of dental enamel using extracted teeth and tabletop OSL readers. The objective was to obtain information to support the development of the necessary instrumentation for retrospective dosimetry using dental enamel in laboratory, or for in situ and non-invasive accident dosimetry using dental enamel in emergency triage. An OSL signal from human dental enamel was detected using blue, green, or IR stimulation. Blue/green stimulation associated with UV emission detection seems to be the most appropriate combination in the sense that there is no signal from un-irradiated samples and the shape of the OSL decay is clear. Improvements in the minimum detection level were achieved by incorporating an ellipsoidal mirror in the OSL system to maximize light collection. Other possibilities to improve the sensitivity and research steps necessary to establish the feasibility of the technique for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure are also discussed.

  2. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of dental enamel for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukihara, E G; Mittani, J; McKeever, S W S; Simon, S L

    2007-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of dental enamel and discusses the potential and challenges of OSL for filling the technology gap in biodosimetry required for medical triage following a radiological/nuclear accident or terrorist event. The OSL technique uses light to stimulate a radiation-induced luminescence signal from materials previously exposed to ionizing radiation. This luminescence originates from radiation-induced defects in insulating crystals and is proportional to the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. In our research conducted to date, we focused on fundamental investigations of the OSL properties of dental enamel using extracted teeth and tabletop OSL readers. The objective was to obtain information to support the development of the necessary instrumentation for retrospective dosimetry using dental enamel in laboratory, or for in situ and non-invasive accident dosimetry using dental enamel in emergency triage. An OSL signal from human dental enamel was detected using blue, green, or IR stimulation. Blue/green stimulation associated with UV emission detection seems to be the most appropriate combination in the sense that there is no signal from un-irradiated samples and the shape of the OSL decay is clear. Improvements in the minimum detection level were achieved by incorporating an ellipsoidal mirror in the OSL system to maximize light collection. Other possibilities to improve the sensitivity and research steps necessary to establish the feasibility of the technique for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure are also discussed.

  3. Upconversion luminescence of β-NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+@β-NaYF4 core/shell nanoparticles: Excitation power density and surface dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Tu, L.; Zhao, J.; Sun, Y.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Coating a homogeneous layer outside the core nanoparticles has become a common method to improve the optical properties of nanoparticles. For rare earth ion-doped nanoparticles, although the homogeneous coating is found to enhance the upconversion luminescence, a large deviation in the reported

  4. Efficiency estimates and practical aspects of an optical Kerr gate for time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitruk, I.; Shynkarenko, Ye; Dmytruk, A.; Aleksiuk, D.; Kadan, V.; Korenyuk, P.; Zubrilin, N.; Blonskiy, I.

    2016-12-01

    We report experience of assembling an optical Kerr gate setup at the Femtosecond Laser Center for collective use at the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. This offers an inexpensive solution to the problem of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Practical aspects of its design and alignment are discussed and its main characteristics are evaluated. Theoretical analysis and numerical estimates are performed to evaluate the efficiency and the response time of an optical Kerr gate setup for fluorescence spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution. The theoretically calculated efficiency is compared with the experimentally measured one of ~12% for Crown 5 glass and ~2% for fused silica. Other characteristics of the Kerr gate are analyzed and ways to improve them are discussed. A method of compensation for the refractive index dispersion in a Kerr gate medium is suggested. Examples of the application of the optical Kerr gate setup for measurements of the time-resolved luminescence of Astra Phloxine and Coumarin 30 dyes and both linear and nonlinear chirp parameters of a supercontinuum are presented.

  5. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... will be applicable over the last 100 ka. The method is ideally suited to in situ measurement using existing technology developed for space applications, and so offers for the first time the realistic possibility of direct determination of exposure ages of young non-terrestrial surfaces....

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, Luminescent and Nonlinear Optical Responses of Nanosized ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr V. Multian; Uklein, Andrii V.; Zaderko, Alexander N.; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Linnik, Rostyslav P.; Vladyslav V. Lisnyak; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report soft and solvothermal methods for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Both methods involve a precursor and are carried out at the middle low-temperature regime. The effect of different solvents on the ZnO NPs properties was studied. The nonlinear optical (NLO) response of the NPs was analyzed by the self-action of picosecond laser pulses at 1064?nm and by second harmonic generation (SHG) of a femtosecond laser pulses pump at 800?nm. The luminescence was s...

  7. Extremely slow relaxation process of a yellow-luminescence-related state in GaN revealed by two-wavelength excited photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi Ocampo, J.M.; Kamata, N.; Okamoto, W.; Yamada, K. [Saitama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Functional Materials Science; Hoshino, K.; Someya, T.; Arakawa, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    2001-11-08

    In addition to detection of nonradiative recombination centers by a below-gap excitation (BGE) technique at steady state, we have studied the time-response of both donor-acceptor pair luminescence and yellow luminescence (YL) in GaN after switching off the BGE light. An extremely slow recovery of YL with a time constant of up to 28 s was observed, which is interpreted as a relaxation process of electrons from the state chosen by a BGE energy of 1.17 eV. The dependence of recovery time on the BGE energy and on the above-gap and below-gap excitation power densities became clear for the first time; it reflects the carrier recombination dynamics including YL among below-gap states. (orig.)

  8. Highly Efficient and Excitation Tunable Two-Photon Luminescence Platform For Targeted Multi-Color MDRB Imaging Using Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Avijit; Fan, Zhen; Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2014-08-01

    Multiple drug-resistance bacteria (MDRB) infection is one of the top three threats to human health according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Due to the large penetration depth and reduced photodamage, two-photon imaging is an highly promising technique for clinical MDRB diagnostics. Since most commercially available water-soluble organic dyes have low two-photon absorption cross-section and rapid photobleaching tendency, their applications in two-photon imaging is highly limited. Driven by the need, in this article we report extremely high two-photon absorption from aptamer conjugated graphene oxide (σ2PA = 50800 GM) which can be used for highly efficient two-photon fluorescent probe for MDRB imaging. Reported experimental data show that two-photon photoluminescence imaging color, as well as luminescence peak position can be tuned from deep blue to red, just by varying the excitation wavelength without changing its chemical composition and size. We have demonstrated that graphene oxide (GO) based two-photon fluorescence probe is capable of imaging of multiple antibiotics resistance MRSA in the first and second biological transparency windows using 760-1120 nm wavelength range.

  9. [Luminescence properties of thenardite activated with Tm3+ under vacuum ultraviolet excitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufu, Taximaiti; Abulai, Ajimu; Niyazi, Keyoumu; Su, Zong-Cai; Sidike, Aierken

    2011-02-01

    The Na2 SO4 : Tm3+ phosphor was synthesized by the high temperature solid state reaction method in air. The crystalline structure was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Narrow bands observed in emission spectra were well identified with the electronic transitions within the 4f12 configurations of Tm3+, and the excitation spectrum is consisted of strong bands assigned to the 4f12 --> 4f11 5d transition at 183 nm, the O(2-)-Tm3+ charge transfer band at 170 nm and weak bands assigned to host absorption (130, 223 and 258 nm). In addition, the authors also found that the content of Tm3+ in the 8-16 mg concentration range caused quenching.

  10. Measurement of solid-state optical refrigeration by two-band differential luminescence thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Wendy M [UNM; Sheik - Bahae, Mansoor [UNM; Seletskiy, D V [UNM

    2009-01-01

    We present a non-contact spectroscopic teclmique for the measurement of laser-induced temperature changes in solids. Two-band differential luminescence thermometry (TBDLT) achieves a sensitivity of {approx}7 mK and enables precise measurement of the net quantum efficiency of optical refrigerator materials. TBDLT detects internal temperature changes by decoupling surface and bulk heating effects via time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Several Yb{sup 3+}-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLANI) glasses fabricated from precursors of varying purity and by different processes are analyzed in detail. A net quantum efficiency of 97.39% at 238 K (at a pump wavelength of 1020.5 nm) is found for a ZBLANI:1%Yb{sup 3+} laser-cooling sample produced from metal fluoride precursors that were purified by chelate-assisted solvent extraction and dried in hydrofluoric gas. In comparison, a ZBLANI:1%Yb{sup 3+} sample produced from commercial-grade metal fluoride precursors showed pronounced laser-induced heating that is indicative of a substantially higher impurity concentration. TBDLT enables rapid and sensitive benchmarking of laser-cooling materials and provides critical feedback to the development and optimization of high-performance optical cryocooler materials.

  11. Optical gain in rotationally excited nitrogen molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarm, Ali; Corkum, Paul; Polynkin, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    We pump low-pressure nitrogen gas with ionizing femtosecond laser pulses at 1.5 μ m wavelength. The resulting rotationally excited N2+ molecular ions generate directional, forward-propagating stimulated and isotropic spontaneous emissions at 428 nm wavelength. Through high-resolution spectroscopy of these emissions, we quantify rotational population distributions in the upper and lower emission levels. We show that these distributions are shifted with respect to each other, which has a strong influence on the transient optical gain in this system. Although we find that electronic population inversion exists in our particular experiment, we show that sufficient dissimilarity of rotational distributions in the upper and lower emission levels could, in principle, lead to gain without net electronic population inversion.

  12. FORMATION OF LUMINESCENT OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES IN SILICATE GLASS MATRIX BY THE ION-EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dyomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectra of the alkali-silicate glasses with copper ions in near-surface area, introduced by ion exchange of different temperature and duration. It is shown that the reduction of Cu2+ in the near-surface area causes existence of Cu+ and neutral atoms in glass after the ion-exchange in divalent salt. The ion-exchange itself involves only Cu+ and Na+ ions. The formation of subnanometer clusters Cun is due to neutral copper atoms staying in near-surface zone. We have shown that the waveguide layer in near-surface area, made by ion-exchange, has а visible luminescence with the excitation by UVradiation. At the same time, the contribution to luminescence is made by Cu+ ions, molecular clusters Cun and by dimers Cu+ - Cu+ . During the high-temperature ion-exchange at 600 °С the formation and destruction equilibrium shift of molecular clusters Cun can be seen. An hour ion-exchange leads to molecular clusters Cun destruction, while at time periods less than 30 min and around 18 hours it leads to the formation of Cun. The sample turns green after 18,5 hours ion-exchange showing formation of a considerable amount of divalent copper ions Cu2+ therein.

  13. Independent evaluation of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Bindu; Gesell, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters (manufactured by Landauer®) are reported to have a high degree of environmental stability, high level of sensitivity and provide wide range of dose measuring capabilities from 0.05 mGy to 100 Gy. The optical read out method is fast and relatively simple and permits repeated read out, but few studies have been performed about its application in monitoring radiation in the environment. This study was initiated to independently test the performance of OSL dot dosemeters for the application of measuring doses of radiation in the outdoor environment. Testing was performed in the laboratory to evaluate reproducibility and stability and in the field to evaluate accuracy relative to calibrated high-pressure ionisation chambers. The results showed that OSL dot dosemeters had good reproducibility and stability in both laboratory and field tests and met the performance requirements of standards of the American National Standards Institute.

  14. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Near-Infrared and Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Doug E.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that TBC delamination can be monitored by incorporating a thin luminescent sublayer that produces greatly increased luminescence intensity from delaminated regions of the TBC. Initial efforts utilized visible-wavelength luminescence from either europium or erbium doped sublayers. This approach exhibited good sensitivity to delamination of electron-beam physical-vapor-deposited (EB-PVD) TBCs, but limited sensitivity to delamination of the more highly scattering plasma-sprayed TBCs due to stronger optical scattering and to interference by luminescence from rare-earth impurities. These difficulties have now been overcome by new strategies employing near-infrared (NIR) and upconversion luminescence imaging. NIR luminescence at 1550 nm was produced in an erbium plus ytterbium co-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent sublayer using 980-nm excitation. Compared to visible-wavelength luminescence, these NIR emission and excitation wavelengths are much more weakly scattered by the TBC and therefore show much improved depth-probing capabilities. In addition, two-photon upconversion luminescence excitation at 980 nm wavelength produces luminescence emission at 562 nm with near-zero fluorescence background and exceptional contrast for delamination indication. The ability to detect TBC delamination produced by Rockwell indentation and by furnace cycling is demonstrated for both EB-PVD and plasma-sprayed TBCs. The relative strengths of the NIR and upconversion luminescence methods for monitoring TBC delamination are discussed.

  15. Micro-modulated luminescence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Imaging depth of optical microscopy has been fundamentally limited to millimeter or sub-millimeter due to light scattering. X-ray microscopy can resolve spatial details of few microns deeply inside a sample but the contrast resolution is still inadequate to depict heterogeneous features at cellular or sub-cellular levels. To enhance and enrich biological contrast at large imaging depth, various nanoparticles are introduced and become essential to basic research and molecular medicine. Nanoparticles can be functionalized as imaging probes, similar to fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins. LiGa5O8:Cr3+ nanoparticles were recently synthesized to facilitate luminescence energy storage with x-ray pre-excitation and the subsequently stimulated luminescence emission by visible/near-infrared (NIR) light. In this paper, we suggest a micro-modulated luminescence tomography (MLT) approach to quantify a nanophosphor distribution in a thick biological sample with high resolution. Our numerical simulation studies demonst...

  16. The Upconversion Luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+/Nd3+ Triply-Doped β-NaYF4 Nanocrystals under 808-nm Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiao Tian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Nd3+–Yb3+–Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 nanocrystals with different Nd3+ concentrations are synthesized, and the luminescence properties of the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs have been studied under 808-nm excitation for sensitive biological applications. The upconversion luminescence spectra of NaYF4 nanoparticles with different dopants under 808-nm excitation proves that the Nd3+ ion can absorb the photons effectively, and the Yb3+ ion can play the role of an energy-transfer bridging ion between the Nd3+ ion and Er3+ ion. To investigate the effect of the Nd3+ ion, the decay curves of the 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition at 540 nm are measured and analyzed. The NaYF4: 20% Yb3+, 2% Er3+, 0.5% Nd3+ nanocrystals have the highest emission intensity among all samples under 808-nm excitation. The UC (upconversion mechanism under 808-nm excitation is discussed in terms of the experimental results.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartzite cobbles from the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The burial age of an alluvially deposited cobble pavement at the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal) is investigated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Measurements on the cobbles (quartzite clasts) were carried out on intact slices and large aliquots...

  18. Properties of Eu3+ doped poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluski, Piotr; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik

    2017-02-01

    The proposition of trivalent europium as a luminescent dopant in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host is presented. Optical characterization and fabrication technology of the Eu3+ doped polymeric fiber is shown. The proposed luminescent material exhibits an intense luminescence under 355- and 405-nm excitation. Additionally, the measured decay time (0.51 ms, D→F transition) at third harmonic Nd:YAG excitation showed low luminescence quenching in Eu3+ chelate doped PMMA. The luminescent properties and influence of spectral attenuations on the luminescence shape in fabricated fibers are also presented.

  19. Use of radiation intensity dependence on excitation level for the analysis of surface plasmon resonance effect on ZnO luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Stepan; Tarasov, Andrey; Briskina, Charus; Ryzhkov, Mikhail; Markushev, Valery; Lotin, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    For the analysis of ZnO luminescence, a set of rate equations (SRE) is proposed. It contains a set of parameters that characterize processes participating in luminescence: zone-zone excitation, excitons formation and recombination, formation and disappearance of photons, surface plasmons (SP), and phonons. It is shown that experimental ZnO microstructure radiation intensity dependence on photoexcitation levels can be approximated by using SRE. This approach was applied for the analysis of ZnO microfilm radiation with different thicknesses of Ag island film covering. It was revealed that the increase of cover thickness leads to an increase of losses and a decrease of the probability of photon-to-SP conversion. In order to take into account visible emission, rate equations for level populations in the bandgap and for corresponding photons and SPs were added to the SRE. By using such an SRE, it is demonstrated that the form of visible luminescence intensity dependence on excitation level (P) like P, as obtained elsewhere, is possible only if donor-acceptor pairs exist. The proposed approach was also applied for consideration of experimental results obtained in several papers taking into account the interpretation of these results based on assumptions about the transfer of electrons from the defect level in the ZnO bandgap to metal and then to the conduction band.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, Luminescent and Nonlinear Optical Responses of Nanosized ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V; Uklein, Andrii V; Zaderko, Alexander N; Kozhanov, Vadim O; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report soft and solvothermal methods for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Both methods involve a precursor and are carried out at the middle low-temperature regime. The effect of different solvents on the ZnO NPs properties was studied. The nonlinear optical (NLO) response of the NPs was analyzed by the self-action of picosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm and by second harmonic generation (SHG) of a femtosecond laser pulses pump at 800 nm. The luminescence was studied within UV-visible ranges. It was shown that the NLO response efficiency significantly depends on the solvent. The obtained SHG efficiency of small (~2 nm) ZnO NPs is comparable to the one obtained for large (~150 nm) commercial ZnO NPs. The observed results are important for the application of the ZnO NPs in biolabeling.

  1. Developments in optically stimulated luminescence techniques for dating and retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...... accident. Since 1990, the exploration of this wide variety of applications has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso in measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including (i) optimisation of stimulation and emission...... windows, and detection sensitivity, (ii) experience with various stimulation light sources, including filtered incandescent lamps and high intensity light emitting diodes and laser diodes (infrared at 830-850 nm, blue-green at 420-550 nm and blue at 470 nm). Also discussed are recently developed high...

  2. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    The optimum conditions of preheat temperature, stimulation temperature, etc. in the single-aliquot regenerative optically stimulated luminescence (SAR OSL) method were examined specifically for measuring background dose in natural quartz extracted from soils collected around Tokai-mura in Japan....... The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed......, and no clear trend in dose depth profile was observed. From these results, we conclude that SAR OSL dosimetry using natural quartz extracted from soil could be used to evaluate the dose of an accident....

  3. Excitation of luminescence of the nanoporous bioactive nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite for early tooth disease detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshchapov, D. L.; Minakov, D. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Seredin, P. V.

    This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2-5 nm) on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence (LIL) of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV) and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3) in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.

  4. Application of multi-step excitation schemes for detection of actinides and lanthanides in solutions by luminescence/chemiluminescence laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot Curie 6, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    The use of laser radiation with tunable wavelength allows the selective excitation of actinide/lanthanide species with subsequent registration of luminescence/chemiluminescence for their detection. This work is devoted to applications of the time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced chemiluminescence spectroscopy for the detection of lanthanides and actinides. Results of the experiments on U, Eu, and Sm detection by TRLIF (Time Resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence) method in blood plasma and urine are presented. Data on luminol chemiluminescence in solutions containing Sm(III), U(IV), and Pu(IV) are analyzed. It is shown that appropriate selectivity of lanthanide/actinide detection can be reached when chemiluminescence is initiated by transitions within 4f- or 5f-electron shell of lanthanide/actinide ions corresponding to the visible spectral range. In this case chemiluminescence of chemiluminogen (luminol) arises when the ion of f element is excited by multi-quantum absorption of visible light. The multi-photon scheme of chemiluminescence excitation makes chemiluminescence not only a highly sensitive but also a highly selective tool for the detection of lanthanide/actinide species in solutions. (author)

  5. Tailoring of the luminescent ions local environment in optical fibers, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dussardier, Bernard; Peterka, P

    2012-01-01

    The chapter is situated in the fields of fiber materials sciences and technologies (particularly dealing with the fiber glass compositions and luminescent ion doping, and transparent glass ceramic optical fibers), and applications such as fiber lasers and amplifiers. We propose to present a review of research activities on rare-earth (RE) and transition metals (TM) doped silica-based optical fibers, aiming at understanding theier spectral properties, and particularly some of their optical transitions that will allow interesting and alternative applications. Silica, as opposed to alternative, low temperature materials, is chosen for practical and economical reasons. Selected RE and TM ions are studied both as probes of their local environment and for their application potentials. In this chapter, we will focus on erbium (Er) ions for the potential spectral 'tailoring' of its gain curve at 1.55 $\\mu$m, thulium (Tm) as local environment probe along both near infrared transitions around 0.8 and 1.47 $\\mu$m, and c...

  6. Current-voltage characteristics of light-emitting diodes under optical and electrical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jing; Wen Yumei; Li Ping; Li Lian, E-mail: wenjing@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Opto-Electronic Technologies and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Opto-Electronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The factors influencing the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated to reveal the connection of I-V characteristics under optical excitation and those under electrical excitation. By inspecting the I-V curves under optical and electrical excitation at identical injection current, it has been found that the I-V curves exhibit apparent differences in voltage values. Furthermore, the differences are found to originate from the junction temperatures in diverse excitation ways. Experimental results indicate that if the thermal effect of illuminating spot is depressed to an ignorable extent by using pulsed light, the junction temperature will hardly deflect from that under optical excitation, and then the I-V characteristics under two diverse excitation ways will be the same.

  7. Current-voltage characteristics of light-emitting diodes under optical and electrical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wen; Yumei, Wen; Ping, Li; Lian, Li

    2011-08-01

    The factors influencing the current—voltage (I—V) characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated to reveal the connection of I—V characteristics under optical excitation and those under electrical excitation. By inspecting the I—V curves under optical and electrical excitation at identical injection current, it has been found that the I—V curves exhibit apparent differences in voltage values. Furthermore, the differences are found to originate from the junction temperatures in diverse excitation ways. Experimental results indicate that if the thermal effect of illuminating spot is depressed to an ignorable extent by using pulsed light, the junction temperature will hardly deflect from that under optical excitation, and then the I—V characteristics under two diverse excitation ways will be the same.

  8. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  10. Temperature dependence of the luminescence intensity in optical fibers of oxyfluoride glass with CdS and CdS x Se1 - x quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, D. S.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    The temperature dependences of the integral luminescence intensity in optical fibers of oxyfluoride glass with CdS and CdS x Se1 - x quantum dots have been studied in a temperature range of 25-250°C. It is established that heating in this range leads to luminescence quenching in accordance with a nearly linear law. This effect can be used for the creation of fiber-optic temperature sensors.

  11. Renormalization of Optical Excitations in Molecules near a Metal Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    The lowest electronic excitations of benzene and a set of donor-acceptor molecular complexes are calculated for the gas phase and on the Al(111) surface using the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. The energy of the charge-transfer excitations obtained for the gas phase complexes are found to be ...

  12. Fast field-induced dissociation and recombination of optical excitations in a pi-conjugated polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Lupton, J M; Baessler, H

    2003-01-01

    We present time resolved photoluminescence measurements on thin films of a phenyl-substituted poly(phenylene-vinylene) incorporated in a diode structure. Under reverse bias conditions rapid exciton dissociation is observed leading to luminescence quenching by up to 30%. In contrast, under forward bias conditions the initial quenching is substantially reduced due to shielding by space charges. At longer times thermally activated exciton quenching by injected polarons dominates the quenching process. At 3 ns after excitation, the external field is found to enhance the delayed luminescence. We attribute this to increased recombination of spatially correlated charge carrier pairs in the presence of the electric field, which are generated by exciton dissociation by bimolecular annihilation or on defect states.

  13. Luminescence of YbP{sub 3}O{sub 9} upon excitation in the UV-VUV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryganyuk, G [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Trots, D [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Berezovskaya, I [Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Shalapska, T [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Voloshinovskii, A [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Dotsenko, V [Physico-Chemical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Zimmerer, G [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-29

    X-ray powder diffraction and luminescence spectral-kinetic studies have been performed for ytterbium metaphosphate (YbP{sub 3}O{sub 9}) in the 12-290 K temperature range. The diffraction investigation has shown YbP{sub 3}O{sub 9} to be of monoclinic P 2{sub 1}/c structure at T = 12-290 K. Charge transfer luminescence originating from Yb{sup 3+} ion has been revealed. The carrier confinement within the Yb{sup 3+} charge transfer state is pronounced at T = 12 K. A tendency has been revealed for charge carriers in YbP{sub 3}O{sub 9} to be localized in a trapped exciton state at room temperature. The quenching mechanisms for Yb{sup 3+} charge transfer luminescence and processes competing with the formation of the Yb{sup 3+} charge transfer state are discussed.

  14. Plasmons excited in a large dense silver nanoparticle layer enhance the luminescence intensity of organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuura, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    We observe that a layer of large (∼300 nm in diameter) closely packed (∼15 nm interparticle separation) silver nanoparticles separated by a spacer layer at least 50-nm thick from a 30-nm-thick Alq3 layer results in the enhancement of bulk luminescence efficiency in the Alq3 layer. To study the potential for practical application of this long-range luminescence enhancement, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was fabricated with the silver nanoparticle layer serving as the enhancement element. This device exhibits a luminescence efficiency 4.5 times stronger than that of a similar device with no silver nanoparticle layer. If such an enhancement is applied to deep-blue emissive materials, the efficiency should reach the levels required for practical use. This combination could lead to the broad use of OLEDs in displays and lighting.

  15. Optical and luminescent properties of Sm³+ doped tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, T; Rama Moorthy, L; Mohan Babu, A

    2013-03-01

    Glasses with chemical composition of (62-x) TeO(2)+25 ZnO+8 K(2)O+5 CaO+x Sm(2)O(3) (TZKCSmx; x=0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching technique. The absorption spectrum was recorded in the UV-visible and NIR regions. The oscillator strengths of absorption bands were obtained by measuring the area under the bands. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been carried out to estimate the host dependent J-O intensity Ω(λ) (λ=2, 4, 6) parameters by least squares fitting approach. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region revealed intense green, orange and red emission bands in all the glasses, corresponding to the (4)G(5/2)→(6)H(5/2), (4)G(5/2)→(6)H(7/2) and (4)G(5/2)→(6)H(9/2) transitions respectively. From the emission spectra and J-O intensity parameters, various radiative parameters were calculated from the excited (4)G(5/2) to the lower lying (6)H(J) (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2) multiplet. Quenching of luminescence with the increase of Sm(3+) ions concentration has been observed. Decay times of excited (4)G(5/2) state decrease with the increase of the Sm(3+) ions concentration. The energy transfer mechanism that leads to the quenching of (4)G(5/2) state lifetime has been discussed. Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model was used to evaluate various energy transfer parameters, which are the qualitative indicators for the interaction among Sm(3+) ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic excitation induced structural and optical modifications in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, K.; Ramesh, R.; Jayasakthi, M.; Surender, S.; Pradeep, S.; Balaji, M.; Asokan, K.; Baskar, K.

    2017-03-01

    The present study focuses on the electronic excitation induced structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. These excitations were produced using Au7+ ion irradiation with 100 MeV energy. The X-ray rocking curves intensity and full width at half-maximum values corresponding to the planes of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 -1 5) of the irradiated QW structures show the modifications in the screw and edge-type dislocation densities vary with the ion fluences. The structural characteristics using the reciprocal space mapping indicate the intermixing effects in InGaN/GaN QW structures. Atomic force microscopy images confirmed the presence of nanostructures and the surface modification due to heavy ion irradiation. The irradiated QW structures exhibited degraded photoluminescence intensity and a subsequent decrease in the yellow luminescence band intensity with the fluences of 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1012 ions/cm2 compared to the pristine QW structures.

  17. A compact fiber-optic probe-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmell, Nathan R.; McCarthy, Aongus; Kim, Michele M.; Veilleux, Israel; Zhu, Timothy C.; Buller, Gerald S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact fiberoptic based singlet oxygen near-infrared luminescence probe coupled to an InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector. Patterned time gating of the single-photon detector is used to limit unwanted dark counts and eliminate the strong photosensitizer luminescence background. Singlet oxygen luminescence detection at 1270 nm is confirmed through spectral filtering and lifetime fitting for Rose Bengal in water, and Photofrin in methanol as mod...

  18. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  19. Study of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for radiation detection. Application to an optical fibre {gamma}-radiation sensor; Etude de la luminescence stimulee optiquement (OSL) pour la detection de rayonnements: application a un capteur a fibre optique de rayonnement {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, O. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-12-31

    This work shows up the usefulness of the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to resolve radioprotection problems. We study the use of OSL as a gamma dosimetric technique with respect to the ALARA`s concept (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). A new approach based on optical fibers and luminescent materials showing OSL properties (closely related to Thermoluminescence phenomena) is presented in order to improve the remote real time dosimetry monitoring. Like thermoluminescent materials (TLD), OSL materials can trap charges under an irradiation (UV, X, {gamma},...). Instead of heating, the charges trapped are released by light stimulation and produce a visible luminescence which amount is proportional to trap the `data stored` left by irradiation, enabling the dose measurement. The OSL phenomenon offers the same advantages as TLD plus the interesting possibility of a remote optical stimulation. The end-user objective deals with the development of a {gamma}-radiation Optical FIber Sensor (OFS) for dose measurement which can offer new functionalities based on OSL materials coupled with an optical fiber. Rare earth doped Alkaline Earth Sulphides (AES), BAFX:EU{sup 2+} (X = Cl, Br, I) and halogen alkaline have been studied (crystalline form, synthesis techniques, influence of dopants and color centers). Their characteristics are presented and extensively discussed. A specific experimental set-up to characterise various OSL phosphors has been developed. It allows the study of sensitivity, linearity, time decay behaviour of OSL signal and zeroing time. A joint study of OSL and TL has shown the technical limitations as well as the thermal fading and the origin of the long zeroing time. An Optical Fiber Sensor (OFS) based on OSL and using MgS:Sm has been developed for practical applications on nuclear fields. Its specifications are presented and discussed, moreover improvements are proposed. (author) 320 refs.

  20. A new sensitive system for measurement of thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, B.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Poolton, N.R.J.

    1996-01-01

    demand for improvements that would allow lower doses (or less sensitive materials) to be measured, with increased accuracy. This article reports on a new generation of designs that are intended to meet these demands. Substantial increases in sensitivity of the instruments are made by replacing the lens...... optics of the system with a combination of ellipsoidal mirrors and light guides, which also serve to make the system more flexible in choice of excitation source when OSL measurements are required. A variety of new light sources might be employed, adapted to allow the most efficient wavelengths...... of excitation to be used for the particular dosemeter under study. The capabilities and characteristics of the new design are described, and comparison with the existing TL/OSL system is made throughout the article....

  1. Excitation of luminescence of the nanoporous bioactive nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite for early tooth disease detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Goloshchapov

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2–5 nm on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence (LIL of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3 in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.

  2. The effect of pea chloroplast alignment and variation of excitation wavelenght on the circulary polarized chlorophyll luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barzda, V.; Ionov, M.; Amerongen, van H.; Gussakovsky, E.E.; Shahak, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is a powerful technique to study the macroorganization of photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus in vivoand in vitro. It is particularly useful for monitoring environmental stress induced molecular re-organization of thylakoid membranes in green leaves. The

  3. Luminescent properties of Yb-doped LaSc{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} under VUV excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerassimova, N.; Kamenskikh, I. [Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasikov, D. [Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kdn@nm.ru; Mikhailin, V. [Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zagumennyi, A.; Koutovoi, S.; Zavartsev, Yu. [Laser Crystals Department, General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilova str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pedrini, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR 5620 CNRS, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-04-15

    Ytterbium doped borate crystals are promising laser media, e.g. in LaSc{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (LSB) matrices large distance between ytterbium ions results in reduced concentration quenching of the ytterbium f-f luminescence [Petermann, K., Fagundes-Peters, D., Johansen, O., Mond, M., Peters, V., Romero, J.J., Kutovoi, S., Speiser, J., Giesen, A., 2005. Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers. J. Crystal Growth 275, 135-140]. Yb{sup 3+} ions in complex oxides in addition to the 4f {yields} 4f transitions often manifest fast charge transfer luminescence (CTL) in the UV-visible range. In some borates it was not observed at all, like in orthoborates of Sc, Y and La [Van Pieterson, L., Heeroma, M., de Heer, E., Meijerink, A., 2000. Charge transfer luminescence of Yb{sup 3+}. J. Lumin. 91, 177-193]; in haloborates Sr{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}X, where X = Cl, Br, the UV/visible luminescence was attributed to ytterbium CTL though it looked substantially different from other matrices [Dotsenko, V.P., Berezovskaya, I.V., Pyrogenko, P.V., Efryushina, N.P., Rodniy, P.A., Eijk van, C.W.E., Sidorenko, A.V., 2002. Valence states and luminescence properties of ytterbium ions in strontium haloborates. J. Solid State Chem. 166, 271-276]; while in oxyborate Li{sub 2}Lu{sub 5}O{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} 'classical' CTL was observed [Jubera, V., Garcia, A., Chaminade, J.P., Guillen, F., Sablayrolles, Jean, Fouassier, C., 2007. Yb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}-Eu{sup 3+} luminescent properties of the Li{sub 2}Lu{sub 5}O{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phase. J. Lumin. 124(1), 10-14]. In this work the luminescence properties of another borate, namely LSB doped by Yb are presented.

  4. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Sub-diffraction positioning of a two-photon excited and optically trapped quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Kyrsting, Anders Højbo; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are luminescent long-lived probes that can be two-photon excited and manipulated by a single laser beam. Therefore, quantum dots can be used for simultaneous single molecule visualization and force manipulation using an infra-red laser. Here, we show that even a single...... two-photon absorption likely. This is in accordance with the observation that a trapped quantum dot is only fluorescing 5-10 percent of the time. The results are important for realizing nano-scale quantum dot control and visualization and for correct interpretation of experiments using two...

  6. Radiation induced luminescence processes in c-BN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Berzina, B.; Benabdesselam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral properties of cubic boron nitride have been studied using methods of photoluminescence (PL), X-ray excited luminescence (XL), thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that emission of cubic boron nitride is presented by 4 subbands, their relative yield...... is determined by the excitation type: blue, green (dominant) and red bands are observed in PL, ultraviolet, blue (dominant), green and red bands-in XL. Three thermal peaks are found in TL curves in the 0-700degreesC temperature range, their presence and intensity depend on radiation type used. A tentative...

  7. Controllable synthesis of Zn/Cd(ii) coordination polymers: dual-emissive luminescent properties, and tailoring emission tendency under varying excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Fan, Ruiqing; Gao, Song; Wang, Xinming; Du, Xi; Wang, Ping; Fang, Ru; Yang, Yulin

    2016-03-21

    Based on a new asymmetric semi-rigid V-shaped tricarboxylate ligand 3-(2',3'-dicarboxylphenoxy)benzoic acid (H3dpob), a series of zinc/cadmium(ii) coordination polymers, {[Cd(Hdpob)(H2O)3]·H2O}n (1), [Cd(Hdpob)(bib)]n (2), [Zn(Hdpob)(bib)0.5]n (3), {[Cd1.5(dpob)(2,2'-bipy)]·0.5H2O}2n (4) and {[Cd3(dpob)2(4,4'-bipy)2]·3H2O}n (5) [bib = 1,4-bis(1-imidazolyl)benzene; 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine], have been successfully synthesized via hydro(solvo)thermal reactions. 1 forms a three dimensional (3D) supramolecular structure linked by two types of intermolecular hydrogen bonds based on zig-zag 1D chains, whereas 2 and 3 are obtained with a similar 2D layer structure by the same ligands and further connected into a 3D structure through hydrogen bonds. 4 displays a homochiral 2D structure though two achiral ligands 2,2'-bipy and H3dpob, which contains right-handed helical infinite chains. 5 is a 3D structure containing 2D metal-pyridine layer motifs, which are further pillared by beaded dpob(3-) ligands to complete the structure and form a 6-connected pcu (primitive cubic) net. In DMSO solvent, 1-5 illustrate dual-emission properties but have different low-energy emission (LE) intensities relatively. Extraordinarily, the difference resulting from central metals between 2 and 3 makes the intensity of LE dramatically enhanced and quenched. In this regard, the luminescence of 2 and 3 can be tuned between blue and green regions by varying the excitation light, and the tuning tendency can be tailored with inverse directions. Comparing their tunable-sensitivity to energy quantitatively, the theoretical calculation displays that 3 (4.29%) is little higher than 2 (3.59%) in a relative lower excitation wavelength zone. Meanwhile, five coordination polymers show distinct luminescence thermochromism in the solid state. When the temperature decreases from 298 K to 77 K, the red-shift from blue/green to the pure yellow light region is highlighted. The

  8. Visible and near infrared up-conversion luminescence in Yb{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped yttria-alumino-silicate glass based optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Arindam [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Chandra Paul, Mukul, E-mail: mcpal1266@gmail.com [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Wadi Harun, Sulaiman [Depertment of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kumar Bhadra, Shyamal, E-mail: skbhadra@cgcri.res.in [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopy Section, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Das, Shyamal; Pal, Mrinmay [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2013-11-15

    We report blue light up-conversion (UC) emission in Yb–Tm co-doped nano-phase separated yttria-alumino-silicate (YAS) glass based D-shaped with low-index cladding optical fibers. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} creates an environment of nano structured YAS glass phases with Yb and Tm rich zone into the core glass which confirmed from TEM analyses. This kind of glass host assists in distributing of Yb and Tm rich zone uniformly throughout the core region. Yb and Tm doped regions exist mainly into nano YAS phases, defined as RE rich nano YAS-RE phases. All samples exhibit UC luminescence peaks at 483 nm, 650 nm and 817 nm for Tm{sup 3+} and 1044 nm for Yb{sup 3+} under excitation by 975 nm laser light. In such type of nano-engineered glass–ceramic based host, almost all the Yb ions transferred its energy to the nearer Tm ions. In particular 483 nm emission is attributed to {sup 1}G{sub 4}→{sup 3}H{sub 6} transition through a three step resonance energy transfer (ET) from excited Yb{sup 3+}. The highest emission intensity is obtained with a concentration of 0.5 wt% Tm{sup 3+} and 2.0 wt% Yb{sup 3+}. The ET between Yb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} is increased with increase of Yb{sup 3+} concentration with respect to Tm{sup 3+}. The experimental fluorescence life-times of Tm{sup 3+} upconversion emission at visible wavelengths into such kind of fiber is reported under 975 nm pump excitation. The present study is important for development of an efficient tunable 483 nm fluorescence light source. -- Highlights: • We report nano-phase separated YAS glass host based Yb–Tm co-doped optical fibers. • Almost all the Yb transferred its energy to the neighboring Tm ions. • We report strong UC luminescence peaks at 483 nm and 817 nm wavelengths. • We report third ET coefficient as 1.6723 Hz for such kind of Yb–Tm codoped fiber. • We report suitable fiber as an efficient tunable 483 nm fluorescence light source.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence of common plastic materials for accident dose reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, I.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K. S. [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Optically stimulate luminescence(OSL) has many applications in a variety of radiation dosimetry fields, including personal dosimetry, environmental radiation level monitor, retrospective dosimetry for dating, and reconstruction of radiation doses from radiation accident. In the reconstruction of radiation doses from radiation accident, OSL technique has been used to estimate the doses exposed to public area through analysis of housewares or house construing materials. Recently, many efforts have been carried out for dose reconstruction using personal electronic devices such as mobile phones and USB memory chips. Some of natural minerals such as quartz and feldspar have OSL properties. Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in continental crust of the Earth. In some of common plastics, inorganic fillers (quartz, alumina etc.) are added to make strengthen of their properties depends on applications areas. The aim of this research is to explore a possibility of use of the common plastic materials for dose reconstruction in radiation accident case. In this research the OSL dose response-curve and fading characteristics of the common plastics were tested and evaluated. Finally, we expect this work contribute to elevate the possibility of the dose reconstruction. The general conclusion of this work is that the possibility of dose reconstruction using common plastic materials is showed using the OSL characteristics of the materials. However, the tested common plastic materials have relatively low sensitivities. Further work is required to establish a database of OSL properties of common plastic materials for emergency dose reconstruction by using housewares.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of an x-ray luminescence optical tomography scanner prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-González, S., E-mail: sarahi@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: arnulfo@fisica.unam.mx; Martínez-Dávalos, A., E-mail: sarahi@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: arnulfo@fisica.unam.mx; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M., E-mail: sarahi@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: arnulfo@fisica.unam.mx; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T., E-mail: sarahi@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: arnulfo@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, 01000 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    In this work we report the calculation of the deposited energy distribution produced by an x-ray luminescence optical tomography (XLOT) system in a phantom containing different concentrations of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu nanoparticles. The calculations were performed via Monte Carlo simulation considering spectra from a W target x-ray tube operating between 30 and 90 kVp, with 1.0 mm Al added filtration. CT and XLOT tomographic images were reconstructed from the same data. The results show that XLOT has better detectability than CT alone, that the dose scales linearly with kVp for a fixed concentration of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu and air-kerma rate, the scattered radiation contribution to the total dose and signal is about 20% and that the dose ratio for a 3 mm diameter insert containing 10 mg/ml Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S embedded in a 30 mm diameter water phantom is 6:1. This ratio drops to less than 2:1 for a 1 mg/ml concentration. Finally we show that the method of conjugate images can be used to correct for artifacts due to attenuation effects in XLOT images.

  11. Multiphoton interband excitations of quantum gases in driven optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M.; Ölschläger, C.; Sträter, C.; Prelle, S.; Eckardt, A.; Sengstock, K.; Simonet, J.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observation of multiphoton interband absorption processes for quantum gases in shaken light crystals. Periodic inertial forcing, induced by a spatial motion of the lattice potential, drives multiphoton interband excitations of up to the ninth order. The occurrence of such excitation features is systematically investigated with respect to the potential depth and the driving amplitude. Ab initio calculations of resonance positions as well as numerical evaluation of their strengths exhibit good agreement with experimental data. In addition our findings could make it possible to reach novel phases of quantum matter by tailoring appropriate driving schemes.

  12. Long persistent and optically stimulated luminescence behaviors of calcium aluminates with different trap filling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Buhao; Xu, Xuhui; Li, Qianyue; Wu, Yumei; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Xue, E-mail: yuyu6593@126.com

    2014-09-15

    Properties of long persistent luminescence (LPL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) materials were investigated. The observed phenomenon indicates that R{sup 3+} ions (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) have different effects on trap properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The greatly improved LPL performance was observed in Nd{sup 3+} co-doped samples, which indicates that the incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} creates suitable traps for LPL. While co-doping Tm{sup 3+} ions, the intensity of high temperature of thermoluminescence band in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors is enhanced for the formation of the most suitable traps which benefits the intense and stable OSL. These results suggest that the effective traps contributed to the LPL/OSL are complex, of which could be an aggregation formation with shallow and deep traps other than simple traps from co-doped R{sup 3+} ions. The mechanism presented in the end potentially provides explanations of why the OSL of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} exhibits different read-in/read-out performance as well. - Graphical abstract: OSL emission spectra of Ca{sub 0.995}Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}:0.0025Eu{sup 2+}, 0.0025R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) taken under varying stimulation time (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 s). Inset: Blue emission pictures under varying stimulation time. - Highlights: • The LPL and OSL properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} were investigated. • An alternative approach to control the trap depth of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was proposed. • A new oxide ETM phosphor exhibiting intense and stable OSL was explored.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) as a chronometer for surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Chapot, Melissa S.; Jain, Mayank; Pederson, Joel

    2012-09-01

    We pioneer a technique of surface-exposure dating based upon the characteristic form of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) bleaching profile beneath a rock surface; this evolves as a function of depth and time. As a field illustration of this new method, the maximum age of a premier example of Barrier Canyon Style (BCS) rock art in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA, is constrained. The natural OSL signal from quartz grains is measured from the surface to a depth of >10 mm in three different rock samples of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone. Two samples are from talus with unknown daylight exposure histories; one of these samples was exposed at the time of sampling and one was buried and no longer light exposed. A third sample is known to have been first exposed 80 years ago and was still exposed at the time of sampling. First, the OSL-depth profile of the known-age sample is modeled to estimate material-dependent and environmental parameters. These parameters are then used to fit the model to the corresponding data for the samples of unknown exposure history. From these fits we calculate that the buried sample was light exposed for ˜700 years before burial and that the unburied sample has been exposed for ˜120 years. The shielded surface of the buried talus sample is decorated with rock art; this rock fell from the adjacent Great Gallery panel. Related research using conventional OSL dating suggests that this rockfall event occurred ˜900 years ago, and so we deduce that the rock art must have been created between ˜1600 and 900 years ago. Our results are the first credible estimates of exposure ages based on luminescence bleaching profiles. The strength of this novel OSL method is its ability to establish both ongoing and prior exposure times, at decadal to millennial timescales or perhaps longer (depending on the environmental dose rate) even for material subsequently buried. This has considerable potential in many archeological, geological and geo

  14. Applications of a table-top time-resolved luminescence spectrometer with nanosecond soft X-ray pulse excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Fidler, V.; Benedikt, P.; Čuba, V.; Gbur, T.; Boháček, Pavel; Nikl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2014), s. 448-451 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LiCaAlF 6 * luminescence * scintillators * soft x-ray * SrHfO 3 * time-resolved spectroscopy * ZnO :Ga Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2014

  15. Luminescence studies of zinc borates activated with different concentrations of Ce and La under x-ray and electron excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, N; Ayvacikli, M; Akça, S; Yüksel, M; Guinea, J Garcia; Karabulut, Y; Canimoglu, A; Topaksu, M; Can, N

    2017-09-01

    Several ZnB2O4 powder samples having dopants concentrations of 0.1, 0.01, 0.04wt% Ce and La were prepared using the nitric acid method via the starting oxides. Several complementary methods such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), Radioluminescence (RL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques were used. Unique luminescence properties of Ce doped ZnB2O4 powder samples are reported for the first time. A new luminescence bands appearing in red part of the spectrum and having all the characteristics of Ce(3+) were obtained from RL results. Changing the Ce and La concentration of 0.01-0.1wt% leads to an increase in RL and CL intensities of Ce(3+) and La(3+) ions and also CL emission spectra of ZnB2O4 show gradual shift towards longer wavelength. When we compare the luminescence intensity of the samples it is seen that Ce doped ZnB2O4 has the highest intense whereas La doped ZnB2O4 has the lowest one. However, emission spectra of both Ce and La doped samples kept unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

    1947-01-01

    Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

  17. Laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a LC electrical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. M.; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Marcus, Charles Masamed

    2011-01-01

    We explore a method for laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a room temperature LC electrical circuit. Our approach uses a nanomechanical oscillator as a transducer between optical and electronic excitations. An experimentally feasible system with the oscillator capacitively...... coupled to the LC and at the same time interacting with light via an optomechanical force is shown to provide strong electromechanical coupling. Conditions for improved sensitivity and quantum limited readout of electrical signals with such an “optical loud speaker” are outlined....

  18. Interfacing Luminescent Quantum Dots with Functional Molecules for Optical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Serena; Baroncini, Massimo; La Rosa, Marcello; Credi, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots possess unique size-dependent electronic properties and are of high potential interest for the construction of functional nanodevices. Photoinduced electron- and energy-transfer processes between quantum dots and surface-bound molecular species open up attractive routes to implement chemical switching of luminescence, which is at the basis of luminescence sensing. In this article, we discuss the general principles underlying the rational design of this kind of multicomponent species. Successively, we illustrate a few prominent examples, taken from the recent literature, of luminescent chemosensors constructed by attaching molecular species to the surface of quantum dots.

  19. An optically stimulated luminescence study of porcelain related to radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the essential features regarding the photo-stimulated luminescence of porcelain: both the main ceramic and glazing materials are studied. In each case, radiation dose dependent signals are observed, superimposed on dose independent luminescence transitions that are both...... Stokes and anti-Stokes shifted in energy. Glazing is shown in some cases to be considerably more sensitive as a radiation dosemeter than the main porcelain ceramic. By comparison with the properties of artifical phosphors, the principal luminescent matrix is identified as being Al2O3...

  20. Optically and non-optically excited thermography for composites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2016-03-01

    Composites, such as glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), and adhesive bonding are being increasingly used in fields of aerospace, renewable energy, civil and architecture, and other industries. Flaws and damages are inevitable during either fabrication or lifetime of composites structures or components. Thus, nondestructive testing (NDT) are extremely required to prevent failures and to increase reliability of composite structures or components in both manufacture and in-service inspection. Infrared thermography techniques including pulsed thermography, pulsed phase thermography, and lock-in thermography have shown the great potential and advantages. Besides conventional optical thermography, other sources such as laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound excited thermography are drawing increasingly attentions for composites. In this work, a fully, in-depth and comprehensive review of thermography NDT techniques for composites inspection was conducted based on an orderly and concise literature survey and detailed analysis. Firstly, basic concepts for thermography NDT were defined and introduced, such as volume heating thermography. Next, the developments of conventional optic, laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound thermography for composite inspection were reviewed. Then, some case studies for scanning thermography were also reviewed. After that, the strengths and limitations of thermography techniques were concluded through comparison studies. At last, some research trends were predicted. This work containing critical overview, detailed comparison and extensive list of references will disseminates knowledge between users, manufacturers, designers and researchers involved in composite structures or components inspection by means of thermography NDT techniques.

  1. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Potucek, Z.; Goryachev, N. S.; Kusmartseva, O. E.; Bryknar, Z.; Trepakov, V. A.; Demikhov, E. I.; Dejneka, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn-Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn3+ or Cu2+), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognised, is still elusive in the ground state properties. We suggest that, in these materials, there exist elementary excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantised as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We ...

  2. Optical absorption, luminescence, and energy transfer processes studies for Dy3+/Tb3+-codoped borate glasses for solid-state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Caldiño, U.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    By using melt quenching technique, good optical quality singly doped Dy3+ or Tb3+ and Dy3+/Tb3+-codoped borate glasses were synthesized and studied by optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay lifetimes curve analysis. Following the absorption spectrum, the evaluated Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6)) were used to calculate the transition probability (AR), the branching ratio (βR), and the radiative lifetime (τR) for different luminescent transitions such as 4I15/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2, 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H9/2,6F11/2 for the 0.5 mol % singly Dy3+-doped glass. The βR calculated (65%) indicates that for lasing applications, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 emission transition is highly suitable. For all the Dy3+/Tb3+-codoped glasses, Tb3+: 5D3→7F6 emission decay lifetime curves are found to be non-exponential in nature for different concentrations of Dy3+ codoping. Using the Inokuti-Hirayama model, these nonexponential decay curves were analyzed to identify the nature of the energy transfer (ET) processes and here the electric dipole-dipole interaction is dominant for the ET. Based on the excitation and emission spectra and decay lifetimes curve analysis, the cross relaxation and ET processes between Dy3+ and Tb3+ were confirmed. For the 0.5 mol % Tb3+ and 2.0 mol % Dy3+-codoped glass, the evaluated Tb3+→Dy3+ ET efficiency (η) is found to be 45% under 369 nm excitation. Further, for Tb3+/Dy3+ -codoped glasses, an enhancement of Tb3+ green emission is observed up to 1.5 mol % Dy3+ codoping, and this is due to the non-radiative resonant ET from Dy3+ to Tb3+ upon 395 nm excitation. For singly 0.5 mol % Dy3+ or 0.5 mol % Tb3+-doped glass, the calculated color coordinates (x,y) and correlated color temperatures (CCT) represent the neutral white or warm white light regions, whereas Dy3+/Tb3+-codoped glasses (x,y) and CCT values fall in the yellowish green region with respect to the different Dy3

  3. Self-trapped exciton and core-valence luminescence in BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vistovskyy, V. V., E-mail: vistvv@gmail.com; Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Chornodolskyy, Ya. M.; Voloshinovskii, A. S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8 Kyryla i Mefodiya, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Myagkota, O. S. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12S. Bandera, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Gloskovskii, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gektin, A. V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, NAS of Ukraine 60 Lenina Ave, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Vasil' ev, A. N. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rodnyi, P. A. [Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29, Polytekhnicheskaya, 195251 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-21

    The influence of the BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size on the intensity of the self-trapped exciton luminescence and the radiative core-valence transitions is studied by the luminescence spectroscopy methods using synchrotron radiation. The decrease of the self-trapped exciton emission intensity at energies of exciting photons in the range of optical exciton creation (hν ≤ E{sub g}) is less sensitive to the reduction of the nanoparticle sizes than in the case of band-to-band excitation, where excitons are formed by the recombination way. The intensity of the core-valence luminescence shows considerably weaker dependence on the nanoparticle sizes in comparison with the intensity of self-trapped exciton luminescence. The revealed regularities are explained by considering the relationship between nanoparticle size and photoelectron or photohole thermalization length as well as the size of electronic excitations.

  4. The temperature dependence of optically stimulated luminescence from α-Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, B.G.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Akselrod, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experimental measurements and computer simulations on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from alpha-Al2O3:C are described. The intensity of the OSL observed during illumination of irradiated specimens with visible light is temperature dependent. Optical stimulation is observed...

  5. Radiation dose response correlation between thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence in quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniya, E.O. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Physics and Electronics Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 01, Akungba Akoko (Nigeria); Polymeris, G.S.; Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (C.E.T.I.), R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-07-15

    The fast, linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) component in quartz is the main dosimetric signal used for the dating applications of this material. Since the blue light stimulation (470 nm, 40 mW cm {sup -2}) time needed to obtain the fast LM-OSL component is less than 50 s the electron trapping levels responsible for it are still highly populated. In this way an active radiation history is created which could play an important role in the dosimetric characteristics of the fast OSL signal. In the present work the dose response behavior of the fast OSL signal is investigated in quartz samples with an annealed radiation history and quartz samples possessing an artificial radiation history. A computerized curve de-convolution analysis of the LM-OSL curves for 50 s stimulation time showed that it consists of three individual OSL components. The faster component C{sub 1} with peak maximum time around 5 s has a linear dose response in virgin samples, which turns to a slight superlinearity as a function of the artificial radiation history. On the other hand the component C{sub 2} with peak maximum time at 12 s is slightly superlinear which turns into strong superlinearity as a function of artificial radiation history. Finally, component C{sub 3} with peak maximum time at about 45 s is strongly superlinear for both virgin samples and as a function of artificial radiation history. The implications to practical application are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fast OSL component consists of three components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The linearity of first fast component does not depend on radiation history. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The linearity of second and third components depend on radiation history. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TL between 180 and 300 Degree-Sign C is the major source of OSL.

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of aeolian sand in the otindag dune field and holocene climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.L.; Lu, H.Y.; Mason, J.; Miao, X.D.; Swinehart, J.; Goble, R.

    2008-01-01

    The dune system in Otindag sand field of northern China is sensitive to climate change, where effective moisture and related vegetation cover play a controlling role for dune activity and stability. Therefore, aeolian deposits may be an archive of past environmental changes, possibly at the millennial scale, but previous studies on this topic have rarely been reported. In this study, thirty-five optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of ten representative sand-paleosol profiles in Otindag sand field are obtained, and these ages provide a relatively complete and well-dated chronology for wet and dry variations in Holocene. The results indicate that widespread dune mobilization occurred from 9.9 to 8.2 ka, suggesting a dry early Holocene climate. The dunes were mainly stabilized between 8.0 and 2.7 ka, implying a relatively wet climate, although there were short-term penetrations of dune activity during this wet period. After ???2.3 ka, the region became dry again, as inferred from widespread dune activity. The "8.2 ka" cold event and the Little Ice Age climatic deterioration are detected on the basis of the dune records and OSL ages. During the Medieval Warm Period and the Sui-Tang Warm Period (570-770 AD), climate in Otindag sand field was relatively humid and the vegetation was denser, and the sand dunes were stabilized again. These aeolian records may indicate climate changes at millennial time scale during Holocene, and these climatic changes may be the teleconnection to the climate changes elsewhere in the world. ?? Science in China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008.

  7. SU-E-T-75: Commissioning Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters for Fast Neutron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, L [UniversityWashington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yang, F; Sandison, G [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Woodworth, D [University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); McCormick, Z [University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Fast neutrons therapy used at the University of Washington is clinically proven to be more effective than photon therapy in treating salivary gland and other cancers. A nanodot optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) system was chosen to be commissioned for patient in vivo dosimetry for neutron therapy. The OSL-based radiation detectors are not susceptible to radiation damage caused by neutrons compared to diodes or MOSFET systems. Methods: An In-Light microStar OSL system was commissioned for in vivo use by radiating Landauer nanodots with neutrons generated from 50.0 MeV protons accelerated onto a beryllium target. The OSLs were calibrated the depth of maximum dose in solid water localized to 150 cm SAD isocenter in a 10.3 cm square field. Linearity was tested over a typical clinical dose fractionation range i.e. 0 to 150 neutron-cGy. Correction factors for transient signal fading, trap depletion, gantry angle, field size, and wedge factor dependencies were also evaluated. The OSLs were photo-bleached between radiations using a tungsten-halogen lamp. Results: Landauer sensitivity factors published for each nanodot are valid for measuring photon and electron doses but do not apply for neutron irradiation. Individually calculated nanodot calibration factors exhibited a 2–5% improvement over calibration factors computed by the microStar InLight software. Transient fading effects had a significant impact on neutron dose reading accuracy compared to photon and electron in vivo dosimetry. Greater accuracy can be achieved by calibrating and reading each dosimeter within 1–2 hours after irradiation. No additional OSL correction factors were needed for field size, gantry angle, or wedge factors in solid water phantom measurements. Conclusion: OSL detectors are a useful for neutron beam in vivo dosimetry verification. Dosimetric accuracy comparable to conventional diode systems can be achieved. Accounting for transient fading effects during the neutron beam

  8. Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence Imaging Plates and Reader for Arms Control Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven D.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.; Burghard, Brion J.; Traub, Richard J.

    2001-07-05

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology has been pioneered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for applications in personnel radiation dosimetry and commercially has become highly successful in replacing older technologies such as Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and film. OSL phosphors are used to measure radiation exposure by illuminating them with light after ionizing radiation exposure and measuring the amount of light emitted by the OSL phosphor. By using a two-dimensional plate of OSL material and raster scanning a light beam across the OSL plate a radiation pattern or image can be measured. The Arms Control community requires an electrons-free medium to measure the attributes of extent and symmetry on Pu pits in storage containers. OSL technology, used in the two-dimensional imaging mode, provides a means to measure these attributes with exposure times on the order of an hour. A special OSL reader has been built by PNNL to measure OSL imaging plates with a size of 20 cm by 30 cm. The reader uses 10 light emitting diode clusters with 10 corresponding photomultiplier tubes to measure an OSL imaging plate in less than 5 minutes. The resolution of each of the 10 measurement assemblies is 1 square-centimeter. A collimator assembly employing a Venetian-blind type collimator is used in conjunction with the OSL film to image the Pu pit within the storage container. The output of the OSL reader is a two dimensional array of intensities that will be used with the appropriate information barriers to measure extent and symmetry. This device also clearly distinguishes the difference between a point source and a distributed source. Details of the OSL technology, OSL reader system, collimator design, and system performance will be presented.

  9. Measurement of Skin Dose for Rectal Cancer Patients in Radiotherapy using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detectors (OSLDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, In Chul; Yu, Yun Sik [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seung [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This study used the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs), recently, received the revaluation of usefulness in vivo dosimetry, and the diode detecters to measure the skin dose of patient with the rectal cancer. The measurements of dose delivered were compared with the planned dose from the treatment planning system (TPS). We evaluated the clinical application of OSDs in radiotherapy. We measured the calibration factor of OSLDs and used the percent depth dose to verified, also, we created the three point of surface by ten patients of rectal cancer to measured. The calibration factors of OSLD was 1.17 for 6 MV X-ray and 1.28 for 10 MV X-ray, demonstrating the energy dependency of X-ray beams. Comparison of surface dose measurement using the OSLDs and diode detectors with the planned dose from the TPS, The skin dose of patient was increased 1.16 ∼ 2.83% for diode detectors, 1.36 ∼ 2.17% for OSLDs. Especially, the difference between planned dose and the delivery dose was increased in the perineum, a skin of intense flexure region, and the OSLDs as a result of close spacing of measuring a variate showed a steady dose verification than the diode detecters. Therefore, on behalf of the ionization chamber and diode detecters, OSLDs could be applied clinically in the verification of radiation dose error and in vivo dosimety. The research on the dose verification of the rectal cancer in the around perineal, a surface of intense flexure region, suggest continue to be.

  10. Monitoring Excitations of the N =1 Landau Level by Optical Emission at mK Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonio; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Fields, Dov; Pinczuk, Aron; Watson, John; Mondal, Sumit; Manfra, Michael J.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    2013-03-01

    Optical emission experiments have proven to be powerful contactless probe of collective states of electrons in the second (N =1) Landau Level (LL). We report the emission spectrum from optical recombination in the N =0 and N =1 LL's the second LL. The 2DEG is confined in ultra-high-mobility GaAs quantum well structures. Optical emission red-shifted from the main luminescence of the N =0 and N =1 LL are interpreted as shakeup processes of quasiparticles in the N =1 LL. Results of two samples with different carrier densities measured in the temperature range of 42mK mK will be compared. The experimental observations will be discussed taking into account the striking quantum phases dominating the second LL. Supported by NSF and AvH

  11. Signatures of Anderson localization excited by an optical frequency comb

    KAUST Repository

    Gentilini, S.

    2010-01-25

    We investigate Anderson localization of light as occurring in ultrashort excitations. A theory based on time dependent coupled-mode equations predicts universal features in the spectrum of the transmitted pulse. In particular, the process of strong localization of light is shown to correspond to the formation of peaks in both the amplitude and in the group delay of the transmitted pulse. Parallel ab initio simulations made with finite-difference time-domain codes and molecular dynamics confirm theoretical predictions, while showing that there exists an optimal degree of disorder for the strong localization. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  12. Measuring modulated luminescence using non-modulated stimulation: Ramping the sample period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional methods of recording linearly modulated (LM) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) require control over either the exciting light intensity, or the ability to pulse the source. For many light sources (e.g. constant-power CW lasers, arc lamps and synchrotrons) this can be problematic....... Directly analogous results to LM-OSL can, however, be achieved with non-modulated excitation sources, by ramping the sample period (RSP) of luminescence detection. RSP-OSL has the distinct advantage over LM-OSL in that, since the excitation remains at full power, data accumulation times (that can...

  13. MgO:Li,Ce,Sm as a high-sensitivity material for Optically Stimulated Luminescence dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the relevant dosimetric and luminescent properties of MgO:Li3%,Ce0.03%,Sm0.03%, a newly-developed, high sensitivity Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) material of low effective atomic number (Zeff = 10.8) and potential interest for medical and personal dosimetry. We characterized the thermoluminescence (TL), OSL, radioluminescence (RL), and OSL emission spectrum of this new material and carried out a preliminary investigation on the OSL signal stability. MgO:Li,Ce,Sm has a main TL peak at ~180 °C (at a heating rate of 5 °C/s) associated with Ce3+ and Sm3+ emission. The results indicate that the infrared (870 nm) stimulated OSL from MgO:Li,Ce,Sm has suitable properties for dosimetry, including high sensitivity to ionizing radiation (20 times that of Al2O3:C, under the measurement conditions) and wide dynamic range (7 μGy–30 Gy). The OSL associated with Ce3+ emission is correlated with a dominant, practically isolated peak at 180 °C. Fading of ~15% was observed in the first hour, probably due to shallow traps, followed by subsequent fading of 6–7% over the next 35 days. These properties, together with the characteristically fast luminescence from Ce3+, make this material also a strong candidate for 2D OSL dose mapping. PMID:27076349

  14. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonjun Baek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  15. The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkina, K. V.; Dubrovin, V. D.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses is studied. Multicomponent photosensitive glasses of the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, antimony, silver) and halogenides (fluorine and bromine) are synthesized. Ultraviolet irradiation and thermal treatment below the glass-transition temperature of the glasses cause the formation of silver molecular clusters, which exhibit luminescence in the visible and infrared regions. UV irradiation and thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature lead to the growth of silver nanoparticles with plasmon resonance peak in the region of 420 nm. Further thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature shifts the plasmon-resonance maximum by 70 nm to longer wavelengths, which is related to the growth of a crystalline shell consisting of mixed silver and sodium bromides on nanoparticles. This formation of a crystalline phase on colloidal centers results in a local increase in the refractive index of the irradiated region by +Δ n 900 ppm compared to the nonirradiated region. Photo-thermo-refractive glasses with increased silver concentration are promising photosensitive materials for creating holographic optical elements and devices for line narrowing and stabilizing filters, spectral beam combiners, and filters for increasing the spectral brightness of laser diodes. A positive change in the refractive index of Photo-thermo-refractive glasses provides the possibility of recording in them 3D waveguide and integrated-optical structures.

  16. Reproducibility of optically stimulated luminescence measurements from single grains of Al2O3: C and annealed quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truscott, A.J.; Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured some aspects concerning the performance of a new instrument for the measurement of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from single sand-sized grains. The instrument uses a solid-state laser to stimulate OSL from each grain individually. These grains are placed in a regular grid...... of nine-by-nine holes, which are drilled in the sample disc, We report on tests carried out to determine the precision with which the laser beam can be directed at individual grains in these holes. Single grains of aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) (90-180 mum) and annealed quartz (90-120 mum) were used to test...

  17. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  18. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  19. Investigation of the mechanisms of upconversion luminescence in Ho{sup 3+} doped CaF{sub 2} crystals and ceramics upon excitation of {sup 5}I{sub 7} level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyapin, A.A., E-mail: andrei_lyapin@mail.ru [Ogarev Mordovia State University, Bol’shevitskaya street, 68, Saransk (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaja street, 18, Kazan (Russian Federation); Ryabochkina, P.A.; Chabushkin, A.N. [Ogarev Mordovia State University, Bol’shevitskaya street, 68, Saransk (Russian Federation); Ushakov, S.N.; Fedorov, P.P. [General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova street, 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The mechanisms of upconversion luminescence of CaF{sub 2}:Ho crystals and ceramics from {sup 5}F{sub 3}, {sup 5}S{sub 2}({sup 5}F{sub 4}), {sup 5}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}I{sub 6} levels upon excitation of {sup 5}I{sub 7} level of Ho{sup 3+} ions were investigated. Different mechanisms are responsible for the populating and depletion of the energy levels of Ho{sup 3+} ion in CaF{sub 2}:Ho crystals and ceramics upon excitation of {sup 5}I{sub 7} level. The upconversion luminescence from {sup 5}F{sub 3}, {sup 5}F{sub 5}, and {sup 5}I{sub 6} levels in CaF{sub 2}:Ho crystals and ceramics is explained by energy transfer upconversion processes. Our results also confirmed that both excited-state absorption and energy transfer upconversion are responsible for the populating of {sup 5}S{sub 2}({sup 5}F{sub 4}) level. - Highlights: • Crystals and ceramics CaF{sub 2}:Ho were obtained. • Upconversion luminescence of CaF{sub 2}:Ho crystals and ceramics were observed. • Mechanisms of upconversion luminescence in these materials were investigated.

  20. Shift-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy-difference deconvolution method for the luminescence background rejection from Raman spectra of solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, Iacopo; Zoppi, Angela; Castellucci, Emilio Mario

    2007-08-01

    The feasibility of the shift-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy-difference deconvolution (SERDS-DDM) method for fluorescence suppression from Raman spectra of solid samples is discussed. For SERDS measurements a tunable diode laser source with an emission band centered at 684 nm is coupled to a conventional micro-Raman apparatus and a monochromator device is used for checking the excitation frequency stability. The shifted Raman spectra are then mathematically treated and a deconvolution procedure is used to reconstruct the Raman spectrum devoid of fluorescence. Two different cases are presented. In the first one, fluorescence is intrinsic to the sample and the Raman spectrum of cinnabar pigment is finally reconstructed. In the second, the presence of an external luminescence background in the spectrum of a pure sulfur crystal is considered. The SERDS-DDM reconstructed spectra are compared with spectra obtained via multi-point baseline subtraction and a significant improvement in the detection of weak bands is demonstrated. Practical insights for the application of this method are presented as well.

  1. Enhancing the upconversion luminescence and photothermal conversion properties of ∼800nm excitable core/shell nanoparticles by dye molecule sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiyue; Li, Xiaosong; Hua, Peiyi; Zhang, Gongtuo; Dong, Yan; Jiang, Jianqing

    2017-01-15

    Upconversion nanoparticles capable of strongly absorbing photons in a wide spectral range are highly desired for practical applications. In this work, IR-806 dye was used to increase the light absorptivity of Nd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ tri-doped core/shell nanoparticles and then to enhance their upconversion luminescence under ∼800nm excitation. The IR-806 dye exhibited more efficient energy transfer to Nd3+ ions than to Yb3+ ions for subsequent upconversion emission due to the increased spectral overlap between the dye emission and Nd3+ absorption. The influence of the Nd3+ concentration in the shell and the dye/nanoparticle ratio on the dye-sensitization effect was also investigated. A maximum 28-fold overall enhancement in the emission intensity was achieved for NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+@NaYF4:Yb3+/Nd3+ core/shell nanoparticles using dye sensitization. The dye-sensitized NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+@NaYF4:Yb3+/Nd3+ core/shell nanoparticles also exhibited increased photothermal conversion capabilities and excellent temperature sensing properties, enabling their potential application in photothermal nanoheaters with real-time temperature monitoring under 808nm single beam excitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial resolution and cathodoluminescence intensity dependence on acceleration voltage in electron beam excitation assisted optical microscopy using Y2O3:Eu3+ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yu; Kamiya, Masashi; Sugita, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Kominami, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Yoichiro

    2017-11-01

    This study presents relationship between acceleration voltage and spatial resolution of electron-beam assisted (EXA) optical microscope. The nanometric illumination light sources of the present EXA microscope was red-emitting cathodoluminescence (CL) in the Y2O3:Eu3+ thin film excited by focused electron beam. Our experimental results demonstrated that the spatial resolutions of the EXA microscope were higher as the acceleration voltage was higher. We managed to make images of the scattered gold particles with approximately 90 nm-resolutions at the voltages higher than 20 kV. The dependence of the spatial resolution on the acceleration voltage was explained by the distribution of simulated electron scattering trajectories in the luminescent thin film. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials: experiments and modeling of optical properties and ablation depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Frislev, Martin Thomas; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of the interaction between a dielec- tric material and ultrashort laser pulses provides the tem- poral evolution of the electronic excitation and the optical properties of the dielectric. Experimentally determined re- flectances and ablation depths for sapphire are compared...... to the calculations. A decrease in reflectance at high fluences is observed experimentally, which demonstrates the neces- sity of a temperature-dependent electron scattering rate in the model. The comparison thus provides new constraints on the optical parameters of the model....

  4. Optical cell stimulation for neuronal excitation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeier, Sonja; Heeger, Patrick; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Heinemann, Dag

    2017-02-01

    Optical manipulation of cellular functions represents a growing field in biomedical sciences. The possibility to modulate specific targets with high spatial and temporal precision in a contactless manner allows a broad range of applications. Here, we present a study on stimulation of neuronal cells by optical means. As a long-term objective, we seek to improve the performance of current electric neurostimulation, especially in the context of cochlear implants. Firstly, we tested a gold nanoparticle mediated approach to modulate transmembrane conductivity by irradiation using a picosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm for 40 ms in a neuroblastoma cell line (N2A) and primary murine neurons. The light absorption leads to a rapid temperature increase of the gold nanoparticles, which can induce an increased permeabilisation of the cellular membrane. Calcium transients were recorded as an indicator of neuronal activity. Although calcium signals were reliably detected upon laser irradiation, the temporal behavior did not resemble action potentials. The origin of these signals was investigated by an inhibitor study. These results indicate calcium induced calcium release (CICR) as the major source of the calcium transients. Consecutively, we tested alternative approaches for cell stimulation, such as glutamate release and optogenetics, and evaluated the potential of these methods for the application in a cochlear implant. Compared to the gold nanoparticle approach, both techniques induce less cellular stress and reliably produce action potentials.

  5. An optically stimulated luminescence study of flint related to radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Rink, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the essential features of photo-stimulated luminescence in flint. The emission is shown to be complex, arising from a number of different aspects of the material. Under constant illumination, dose-dependent time-decaying anti-Stokes signals are superimposed on dose-independ......This article describes the essential features of photo-stimulated luminescence in flint. The emission is shown to be complex, arising from a number of different aspects of the material. Under constant illumination, dose-dependent time-decaying anti-Stokes signals are superimposed on dose...

  6. Exploring excited-state tunability in luminescent tris-cyclometalated platinum(IV) complexes: synthesis of heteroleptic derivatives and computational calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliá, Fabio; Aullón, Gabriel; Bautista, Delia; González-Herrero, Pablo

    2014-12-22

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and photophysical properties of a series of heteroleptic tris- cyclometalated Pt(IV) complexes are reported. The complexes mer-[Pt(C^N)2 (C'^N')]OTf, with C^N=C-deprotonated 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) or 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), and C'^N'=C-deprotonated 2-(2-thienyl)pyridine (thpy) or 1-phenylisoquinoline (piq), were obtained by reacting bis- cyclometalated precursors [Pt(C^N)2 Cl2] with AgOTf (2 equiv) and an excess of the N'^C'H pro-ligand. The complex mer-[Pt(dfppy)2 (ppy)]OTf was obtained analogously and photoisomerized to its fac counterpart. The new complexes display long-lived luminescence at room temperature in the blue to orange color range. The emitting states involve electronic transitions almost exclusively localized on the ligand with the lowest π-π* energy gap and have very little metal character. DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on mer-[Pt(ppy)2 (C'^N')](+) (C'^N'=thpy, piq) and mer/fac-[Pt(ppy)3](+) support this assignment and provide a basis for the understanding of the luminescence of tris-cyclometalated Pt(IV) complexes. Excited states of LMCT character may become thermally accessible from the emitting state in the mer isomers containing dfppy or ppy as chromophoric ligands, leading to strong nonradiative deactivation. This effect does not operate in the fac isomers or the mer complexes containing thpy or piq, for which nonradiative deactivation originates mainly from vibrational coupling to the ground state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. On the Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter for Surface Dose Measurement during Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Fasihah Hanum; Ung, Ngie Min; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Jong, Wei Loong; Ath, Vannyat; Phua, Vincent Chee Ee; Heng, Siew Ping; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the suitability of using the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) in measuring surface dose during radiotherapy. The water equivalent depth (WED) of the OSLD was first determined by comparing the surface dose measured using the OSLD with the percentage depth dose at the buildup region measured using a Markus ionization chamber. Surface doses were measured on a solid water phantom using the OSLD and compared against the Markus ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT3 film measurements. The effect of incident beam angles on surface dose was also studied. The OSLD was subsequently used to measure surface dose during tangential breast radiotherapy treatments in a phantom study and in the clinical measurement of 10 patients. Surface dose to the treated breast or chest wall, and on the contralateral breast were measured. The WED of the OSLD was found to be at 0.4 mm. For surface dose measurement on a solid water phantom, the Markus ionization chamber measured 15.95% for 6 MV photon beam and 12.64% for 10 MV photon beam followed by EBT3 film (23.79% and 17.14%) and OSLD (37.77% and 25.38%). Surface dose increased with the increase of the incident beam angle. For phantom and patient breast surface dose measurement, the response of the OSLD was higher than EBT3 film. The in-vivo measurements were also compared with the treatment planning system predicted dose. The OSLD measured higher dose values compared to dose at the surface (Hp(0.0)) by a factor of 2.37 for 6 MV and 2.01 for 10 MV photon beams, respectively. The measurement of absorbed dose at the skin depth of 0.4 mm by the OSLD can still be a useful tool to assess radiation effects on the skin dermis layer. This knowledge can be used to prevent and manage potential acute skin reaction and late skin toxicity from radiotherapy treatments.

  8. On the Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter for Surface Dose Measurement during Radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasihah Hanum Yusof

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the suitability of using the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD in measuring surface dose during radiotherapy. The water equivalent depth (WED of the OSLD was first determined by comparing the surface dose measured using the OSLD with the percentage depth dose at the buildup region measured using a Markus ionization chamber. Surface doses were measured on a solid water phantom using the OSLD and compared against the Markus ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT3 film measurements. The effect of incident beam angles on surface dose was also studied. The OSLD was subsequently used to measure surface dose during tangential breast radiotherapy treatments in a phantom study and in the clinical measurement of 10 patients. Surface dose to the treated breast or chest wall, and on the contralateral breast were measured. The WED of the OSLD was found to be at 0.4 mm. For surface dose measurement on a solid water phantom, the Markus ionization chamber measured 15.95% for 6 MV photon beam and 12.64% for 10 MV photon beam followed by EBT3 film (23.79% and 17.14% and OSLD (37.77% and 25.38%. Surface dose increased with the increase of the incident beam angle. For phantom and patient breast surface dose measurement, the response of the OSLD was higher than EBT3 film. The in-vivo measurements were also compared with the treatment planning system predicted dose. The OSLD measured higher dose values compared to dose at the surface (Hp(0.0 by a factor of 2.37 for 6 MV and 2.01 for 10 MV photon beams, respectively. The measurement of absorbed dose at the skin depth of 0.4 mm by the OSLD can still be a useful tool to assess radiation effects on the skin dermis layer. This knowledge can be used to prevent and manage potential acute skin reaction and late skin toxicity from radiotherapy treatments.

  9. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al 2 O 3 :C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al 2 O 3 :C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF 3 :Eu 2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al 2 O 3 :C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become

  10. Dependences of up-conversional luminescence of LiNbO3:Yb3+, Er3+ crystals on pump intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajanyan, V. G.; Kostanyan, R. B.; Muzhikyan, P. H.; Sargsyan, R. V.

    2010-10-01

    The up-converted luminescence at 525, 550 nm and 670 nm wavelengths, as well as the ordinary luminescence near 1600 nm wavelength of the LiNbO3:Yb3+, Er3+ crystal are investigated under optical excitations at 808 nm and 980 nm. Dependencies of luminescence on intensities of optical pumping at both wavelengths are presented. The possible mechanisms of up-converted emissions obtaining as well as population mechanisms of the Er3+ ion 4I13/2 energy level in the LiNbO3 matrix are discussed.

  11. Lanthanide Enhanced Luminescence (LEL) with One and Two Photon Excitation of Quantum Dyes(copyright) Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leif, Robert C; Becker, Margie C; Bromm Jr., Al; Chen, Nanguang; Cowan, Ann E; Vallarino, Lidia M; Yang, Sean; Zucker, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    .... Preliminary studies indicate that cells stained with the europium Quantum Dye can be observed both by conventional UV laser excitation and by infrared two-photon confocal microscopy. An enhancer has been found that enables the observation of simultaneous emissions from both the europium and terbium Quantum Dyes.

  12. Radiometric calibration of optical microscopy and microspectroscopy apparata over a broad spectral range using a special thin-film luminescence standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valenta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Application capabilities of optical microscopes and microspectroscopes can be considerably enhanced by a proper calibration of their spectral sensitivity. We propose and demonstrate a method of relative and absolute calibration of a microspectroscope over an extraordinary broad spectral range covered by two (parallel detection branches in visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The key point of the absolute calibration of a relative spectral sensitivity is application of the standard sample formed by a thin layer of Si nanocrystals with stable and efficient photoluminescence. The spectral PL quantum yield and the PL spatial distribution of the standard sample must be characterized by separate experiments. The absolutely calibrated microspectroscope enables to characterize spectral photon emittance of a studied object or even its luminescence quantum yield (QY if additional knowledge about spatial distribution of emission and about excitance is available. Capabilities of the calibrated microspectroscope are demonstrated by measuring external QY of electroluminescence from a standard poly-Si solar-cell and of photoluminescence of Er-doped Si nanocrystals.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating properties of Martian sediment analogue materials exposed to a simulated Martian solar spectral environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detschel, M.J. [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, 218 South Engineering, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Department of Geosciences, North Dakota State University, 218 Stevens Hall, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)], E-mail: Marissa.Detschel@ndsu.edu; Lepper, K. [Department of Geosciences, North Dakota State University, 218 Stevens Hall, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)], E-mail: ken.lepper@ndsu.edu

    2009-04-15

    Deciphering the geomorphic, climatic, and hydrologic history of Mars will require an extensive geochronology on numerous time scales from both returned samples and in-situ measurements. Optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL), or optical dating, is an established terrestrial geochronological method that is being developed as a member of a suite of dating tools for Mars. As part of this development process, we have built an optical system simulating the calculated Martian solar spectral irradiance taking into account seasonal variations due to attenuation of dust and the planet's orbital position and used it to catalogue the UV dosimetric response and optical dating behavior of a group of sediment analogues exposed to a simulated Martian spectral environment (SMSE) for the surface of the planet. Our results suggest that optical dating should not be compromised by the interaction of the enhanced UV radiation in the Martian spectrum with K-feldspar, Ca-feldspar, anhydrite, or hydrous Ca and Mg sulfates on Mars. However, Na-feldspar appears to be capable of acquiring and retaining an OSL signal under SMSE conditions, which could present a challenge for optical dating on Mars in sedimentary deposits containing more than a trace quantity of sodic feldspars.

  14. Relaxation processes in optically excites metal clusters; Relaxationsprozesse in optisch angeregten Metallclustern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanzel, J.

    2007-08-10

    The present work is concerned with the dynamics of optically excited metal clusters in the gas phase. Small mass-selected gold and tungsten cluster anions (Au{sup -}{sub n}, n=5-8, 14, 20 and W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) are studied using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Depending on the electronic structure in the valence region as well as on the optical excitation energy fundamentally different relaxation processes are observed. In small gold cluster anions excited with 1.56 eV an isolated electronically excited state is populated. The time-dependent measurements are strongly sizedependent and open insights into photoinduced geometry changes of the nuclear framework. Oscillatory vibrational wavepacket motion in Au{sup -}{sub 5}, an extremely longlived ({tau} >90 ns) electronically excited state in Au{sup -}{sub 6} as well as photoinduced melting in Au{sup -}{sub 7} and Au{sup -}{sub 8} is monitored in real time. By increasing the OPTICAL excitation energy to 3.12 eV a completely different scenario is observed. A multitude of electronically excited states can be reached upon optical excitation and as a consequence electronic relaxation processes that take place on a time scale of 1 ps are dominating. This is shown for Au{sup -}{sub 7}, Au{sup -}{sub 14} and Au{sup -}{sub 20}. Compared to gold clusters, tungsten clusters are characterized by a significantly higher electronic density of states in the valence region. Therefore electronic relaxation processes are much more likely and take place on a significantly faster time scale. The fast electronic relaxation processes are distinguished from pure vibrational relaxation. It is shown that already in the four atomic tungsten cluster W{sup -}{sub 4} electronic relaxation processes take place on a time scale of 30 fs. In all investigated tungsten cluster anions (W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) an equilibrium between electronic and vibrational system is reached within around 1 ps after optical excitation which

  15. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  16. Optical excitation and external photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Eu3+ in GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W.D.A.M.; McGonigle, C.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Stallinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photoluminescence of Eu-related emission in a GaN host consisting of thin layers grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy. By comparing it with a reference sample of Eu-doped Y2O3, we find that the fraction of Eu3+ ions that can emit light upon optical excitation is of the order of

  17. Combined evanescent-wave excitation and supercritical-angle fluorescence detection improves optical sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Brunstein, Maia; Tourain, Christophe; Oheim, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Evanescent-wave microscopy achieves sub-diffraction axial sectioning by confining fluorescence excitation to a thin layer close to the cell/substrate interface. How thin this light sheet exactly is, however, is often unknown. Particularly in the popular objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) configuration large deviations from the expected exponential intensity decay of the evanescent wave have been reported. Propagating, i.e., non-evanescent, excitation light diminishes the optical sectioning effect, reduces contrast and renders the quantification of TIRFM images uncertain. Here, we use a combination of azimuthal- and polar-angle beam scanning, dark-field scatter imaging, and atomic force microscopy to identify the sources of this unwanted background fluorescence excitation. We identify stray light originating from the microscope optics and the objective lens itself as the major sources of background, with minor contributions due to evanescent-wave scattering at the reflecti...

  18. Collective excitations of a laser driven atomic condensate in an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, B.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Ö. E.; Türeci, H. E.

    2013-02-01

    We theoretically examine collective excitations of an optically driven atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. This open system has been recently used for the experimental demonstration of the Dicke superradiance of cavity photons, which is simultaneously and mutually triggered by spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry of the condensate into a crystalline order. We first develop a Hartree-Fock mean field dynamical model of the physical system. Using this model, we compute the dynamics of the cavity photons, the condensate density profile and the Dicke phase transition diagram. Both the imaginary-time and real-time evolution methods are used in the calculations. Collective excitations are determined by the solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The spectrum, softening of the modes and energetic hierarchy of excitations are determined.

  19. Synthesis of luminescent near-infrared AgInS2 nanocrystals as optical probes for in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Guimiao; Ye, Ling; Reynolds, Jessica L; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jing; Schwartz, Stanley A; Zhang, Xihe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    Near infrared quantum dots have been receiving great attention as fluorescent optical probes for in vivo imaging applications. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and surface functionalization of cadmium free ternary AgInS2 nanocrystals emitting in the near infrared range for successful in vitro and in vivo bioimaging applications. The FDA approved triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 was used to encapsulate the nanocrystals and made them dispersible in aqueous solution. By employing a whole body small animal optical imaging setup, we were able to use the AgInS2 nanocrystals formulation for passive targeted delivery to the tumor site. The ultra-small crystal size, near-infrared emitting luminescence, and high quantum yield make the AgInS2 nanocrystals an attractive candidate as a biological contrast agent for cancer sensing and imaging.

  20. Real-time optical-fibre luminescence dosimetry for radiotherapy: physical characteristics and applications in photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2004-01-01

    A new optical-fibre radiation dosimeter system, based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence from carbon-doped aluminium oxide, was developed and tested in clinical photon beams. This prototype offers several features, such as a small detector (1 x 1 x 2 mm), high sensitivity......, real-time read-out and the ability to measure both dose rate and absorbed dose. The measurements describing reproducibility and output dependence on dose rate, field size and energy all had standard deviations smaller than 1%. The signal variation with the angle of incidence was smaller than 2% (1 SD......). Measurements performed in clinical situations suggest the potential of using this real-time system for in vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy....

  1. Peak multiphoton excitation of mCherry using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Tegy J; Culver, James C; Gao, Liang; Anhut, Tiemo; Dickinson, Mary E

    2009-11-01

    mCherry is a red fluorescent protein which is bright, photostable, and has a low molecular weight. It is an attractive choice for multiphoton fluorescence imaging; however, the multiphoton excitation spectrum of mCherry is not known. In this paper we report the two photon excitation spectrum of mCherry measured up to 1190 nm in the near infrared (NIR) region. Skin tissues of transgenic mice that express mCherry were used in the experiments. mCherry in the tissues was excited with a Titanium:Sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator pumped by the Titanium:Sapphire laser. We found that the peak excitation of mCherry occurs at 1160 nm.

  2. Ultrashort optical waveguide excitations in uniaxial silica fibers: Elastic collision scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Youssoufa, Saliou; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of an uniaxial silica fiber under the viewpoint of propagation of ultimately ultrashort optical waveguide channels. As a result, we unveil the existence of three typical kinds of ultrabroadband excitations whose profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. Looking forward to surveying their scattering features, we unearth some underlying head-on scenarios of elastic collisions. Accordingly, we address some useful and straightforward applications in nonlinear optics through secured data transmission systems, as well as laser physics and soliton theory with optical soliton dynamics.

  3. Comparison of luminescence spectra of natural spodumene under KrCl laser and e-beam excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, E.I. [High Current Electronics Institute SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: lipatov@loi.hcei.tsc.ru; Orlovskii, V.M. [High Current Electronics Institute SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tarasenko, V.F. [High Current Electronics Institute SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Solomonov, V.I. [Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106, Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Spectral characteristics of pulsed photoluminescence (PL) and pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) of a natural spodumene were investigated. PL was excited by laser radiation at 222 nm with pulse duration of 10 ns at FWHM. PCL was excited by electron beams with pulse duration from 0.1 up to 4 ns and with current densities of 40-200 A/cm{sup 2}. There was a dominant broad band at 600 nm due to the manganese impurity in PCL spectra. But in PL spectra, the orange band had the intensity comparable with intensities of intrinsic defect bands. At sample cooling by liquid nitrogen, the intensity of orange band in the PCL spectrum increased by two times and the short-wave shoulder of the band reduced.

  4. Plasmonic nanowires arranged in Fibonacci number chain: Excitation angle-dependent optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Raghuwanshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein we numerically study the excitation angle-dependant far-field and near-field optical properties of vertical plasmonic nanowires arranged in an unconventional linear geometry: Fibonacci number chain. The first five numbers in the Fibonacci series (1, 1, 2, 3, 5 were mapped to the size of gold nanowires, and arranged in a linear chain to study their optical interactions, and compared them to conventional chain of vertical gold nanowires. By harnessing the radiative and evanescent coupling regimes in the geometry, we found a systematic variation in the far-field extinction and near-field confinement in the geometries. Our simulation studies revealed enhanced backscattered intensity in the far-field radiation pattern at excitation angles along the chain-length of Fibonacci geometry, which was otherwise absent for conventional chain of plasmonic nanowires. Such angular reconfiguration of optical fields in unconventional linear geometries can be harnessed for tunable on-chip plasmonics.

  5. Radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses at superluminal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.; Tolmachev, Yu A.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in generation of optical pulses of durations comparable to one optical cycle has presented great opportunities for studies of the fundamental processes in matter as well as time-resolved spectroscopy of ultrafast processes in nonlinear media. It opened up a new area of research in modern ultrafast nonlinear optics and led to appearance of the attosecond science. In parallel, a new research area related to emission from resonant media excited by superluminally propagating ultrashort bursts of electromagnetic radiation has been actively developed over the last few years. In this paper, we review our recent results on theoretical analysis of the Cherenkov-type radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses propagating at superluminal velocity. This situation can be realized when an electromagnetic pulse with a plane wavefront incidents on a straight string of resonant atoms or a spot of light rotates at very large angular frequency and excites a distant circular string of resonant dipoles. Theoretical analysis revealed some unusual and remarkable features of the Cherenkov radiation generated in this case. This radiation arises in a transient regime which leads to the occurrence of new frequencies in the radiation spectrum. Analysis of the characteristics of this radiation can be used for the study of the resonant structure properties. In addition, a nonlinear resonant medium excited at superluminal velocity can emit unipolar optical pulses, which can be important in ultrafast control of wave-packet dynamics of matter. Specifics of the few-cycle pulse-driven optical response of a resonant medium composed of linear and nonlinear oscillators is discussed.

  6. Physico-chemical characterizations of Cr doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, T.; Teston, E.; Maldiney, T.; Scherman, D.; Richard, C.

    2016-03-01

    Persistent luminescence nanoparticles have recently been proposed as innovative optical probes for small animal in vivo imaging. The main advantage of such probes is their ability to emit light for a long time after the end of their excitation, allowing in vivo imaging with low background. This work reports new information on the physico-chemical characterizations of Cr doped ZnGa2O4 nanoprobes in terms of synthetic procedure, luminescence properties as well as colloidal stabilities in different aqueous media and over the time.

  7. Optical isomers of N,N′-bis(1-phenylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide coordinated to europium(III) ions as reliable circularly polarized luminescence calibration standards†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Steven D.; Houcheime, Mona; Straus, Daniel A.; Muller, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of two optical isomers of N,N′-bis(1-phenylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide and the constant circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity of their acetonitrile trivalent europium complex solutions over a long period of time open new perspectives for performing accurate routine CPL calibration tests at low cost. PMID:17728891

  8. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in cubic piezoelectric slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -growth direction, and will be jointly excited by electrical stimulus. We demonstrate this for an electrically excited freestanding slab for two cases of high-symmetry crystal-growth directions and finally show the impact of the Drude model for permittivity on the phonon dispersion. In particular, it is verified...... that the piezoelectric effect leads to a drastically enhanced coupling of acoustic and optical phonon modes and increase in the local phonon density of states near the plasma frequency where the permittivity approaches zero....

  9. Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-11-01

    We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

  10. Luminescence property and lowest excited singlet state level of various carotenes; Shuju no karochinrui no hako tokusei to saitei reiki -juko jotai jun'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. [Miyagi Midical Univ., Miyagi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Specification of the lowest excited singlet state (S{sub l}) of the butadiene which is the simplest {pi} electron conjugated system molecule has not sufficiently clarified at present. Recently, Andersson et al. found the weak light emission which was considered to be the S{sub 1} fluorescence in a near infrared region in a room temperature solution of {beta}- carotene (n=11), and specified the S{sub 1} level in 14,200{+-}500cm {sup -1}. And, Fujii et al. reported the S{sub 1} fluorescence of spheroidine (n=10). In very recent, Christensen et al. measured the comparatively clear fluorescence spectrum of carotenes n=5 to 11 separated by HPLC in EPA glass at 77K, and systematically examined the unique luminescence property observed in polyene. Christensen et al. issued the warning for the rough conventional method that the S{sub 1} level was estimated from the S{sub 1} fluorescence lifetime of the polyene molecule using the comprehensive energy gap law, because the ratio of quantum yield of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} fluorescence is different by the substituent type of the polyene end even if n is same. (NEDO)

  11. Color-tunable magnetic and luminescent hybrid nanoparticles: Synthesis, optical and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Lei [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Yu Ke, E-mail: yk5188@263.net [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Wang Yiting [Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhu Ziqiang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2012-02-01

    A facile method for synthesizing color-tunable magnetic and luminescent hybrid bifunctional nanoparticles is presented. A series of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were successfully fabricated and self-assembled to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), which were subsequently coated with a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer to prevent large aggregates. The hydrophobic QDs capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) formed a coating surrounding MNP, and were transferred into hydrophilic phase by PEI with high efficiency. The samples were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, EDS, UV-vis spectrophotometer, fluorescent spectrophotometer and PPMS. Results show that the original properties of the nanoparticles were well-preserved in the hybrid structure. All MNP-QDs hybrid nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior and the nanocomposites were still highly luminescent with no shift in the PL peak position.

  12. A new flexible system for measuring thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, B.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    The automated Riso TL/OSL reader system is used worldwide for luminescence dating, retrospective dosimetry environmental dosimetry and material characterization. In response to requests from many users we have re-designed the reader by incorporating a variety of new hardware and software features...... time, made the new generation Riso TL/OSL readers extremely flexible and user friendly. A description of the new system is given and measurement results are presented to demonstrate its capabilities. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  13. Improved properties of phosphor-filled luminescent down-shifting layers: reduced scattering, optical model, and optimization for PV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Lipovšek, Benjamin; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Topič, Marko; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the optical properties of polymer layers filled with phosphor particles in two aspects. First, we used two different polymer binders with refractive indices n = 1.46 and n = 1.61 (λ = 600 nm) to decrease Δn with the phosphor particles (n = 1.81). Second, we prepared two particle size distributions D50 = 12 μm and D50 = 19 μm. The particles were dispersed in both polymer binders in several volume concentrations and coated onto glass with thicknesses of 150 - 600 μm. We present further a newly developed optical model for simulation and optimization of such luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers. The model is developed within the ray tracing framework of the existing optical simulator CROWM (Combined Ray Optics / Wave Optics Model), which enables simulation of standalone LDS layers as well as complete solar cells (including thick and thin layers) enhanced by the LDS layers for an improved solar spectrum harvesting. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that the layers of the higher refractive index binder with larger particles result in the highest optical transmittance in the visible light spectrum. Finally we proved that scattering of the phosphor particles in the LDS layers may increase the overall light harvesting in the solar cell. We used numerical simulations to determine optimal layer composition for application in realistic thin-film photovoltaic devices. Surprisingly LDS layers with lower measured optical transmittance are more efficient when applied onto the solar cells due to graded refractive index and efficient light scattering. Therefore, our phosphor-filled LDS layers could possibly complement other light-coupling techniques in photovoltaics.

  14. Development of optically stimulated luminescence techniques using natural minerals and ceramics, and their application to retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetter-Jensen, L

    2000-09-01

    This thesis summarises research and development of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and its applications by the author at Risoe National Laboratory, up to 1999. These developments have been directed primarily at retrospective accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. Experimental investigations include the studies of OSL properties of the natural minerals quartz and feldspars and the artificial materials porcelain and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Blue light emitting diodes and infrared laser diodes are shown to provide simple and practical alternatives to broad-band light and visible laser stimulation. The development of OSL apparatus designed for the rapid measurement of single grains of phosphors also opens up a new area of luminescence measurement, allowing the detailed examination of dose distributions within a multiple-grain sample. This is of particular importance to the studies of incompletely reset geological sediments, and to accident dosimetry measurements using unheated materials. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C single crystals are tested as environmental OSL dosemeters for assessing both the natural background photon radiation dose rates in the field and the natural dose rates inside bricks collected for accident dose evaluation. Environmental doses of the order of few {mu}Gy are measured with high precision. UV photo-stimulated luminescence spectra obtained from porcelain samples are used to confirm that the main component responsible for the OSL signal from porcelain is Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) techniques are used with quartz extracted from Chernobyl bricks to determine the accrued dose after the accident. This has improved the measurement precision significantly, from about 5-6 % using traditional methods to now less than 2 %. Depth-dose profiles measured in Chernobyl bricks are compared with those obtained in the laboratory using different gamma sources and these comparisons show that the average energy of

  15. Numerical simulation and phantom experiment of X-ray luminescence computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is an emerging hybrid modality in which X-ray excitable particles (phosphor particles) emit optical photons when stimulated with X-ray photons. Optical imaging has high measurement sensitivity but it has limited spatial resolution for deep targets due to high scattering of optical photons. X-ray imaging has high spatial resolution yet its sensitivity is limited. XLCT can potentially combine the high spatial resolution of x-ray imaging with the hig...

  16. Evaluation of an X-ray-excited optical microscope for chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark; Hand, Matthew; Grayburn, Rosie; Thompson, Paul; Bras, Wim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-12-02

    The application of a modular system for the nondestructive chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces is described using heritage metals as an example. The custom-built X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) microscope, XEOM 1, images the chemical state and short-range atomic order of the top 200 nm of both amorphous and crystalline surfaces. A broad X-ray beam is used to illuminate large areas (up to 4 mm(2)) of the sample, and the resulting XEOL emission is collected simultaneously for each pixel by a charge-coupled device sensor to form an image. The input X-ray energy is incremented across a range typical for the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and an image collected for each increment. The use of large-footprint beams combined with parallel detection allows the power density to be kept low and facilitates complete nondestructive XANES mapping on a reasonable time scale. In this study the microscope was evaluated by imaging copper surfaces with well-defined patterns of different corrosion products (cuprite Cu2O and nantokite CuCl). The images obtained show chemical contrast, and filtering the XEOL light allowed different corrosion products to be imaged separately. Absorption spectra extracted from software-selected regions of interest exhibit characteristic XANES fingerprints for the compounds present. Moreover, when the X-ray absorption edge positions were extracted from each spectrum, an oxidation state map of the sample could be compiled. The results show that this method allows one to obtain nondestructive and noninvasive information at the micrometer scale while using full-field imaging.

  17. Microcavity design for low threshold polariton condensation with ultrashort optical pulse excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellmann, C.; Leierseder, U.; Huber, R. [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J. [CNRS-Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Ménard, J.-M., E-mail: jean-michel.menard@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Straße 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-28

    We present a microcavity structure with a shifted photonic stop-band to enable efficient non-resonant injection of a polariton condensate with spectrally broad femtosecond pulses. The concept is demonstrated theoretically and confirmed experimentally for a planar GaAs/AlGaAs multilayer heterostructure pumped with ultrashort near-infrared pulses while photoluminescence is collected to monitor the optically injected polariton density. As the excitation wavelength is scanned, a regime of polariton condensation can be reached in our structure at a consistently lower fluence threshold than in a state-of-the-art conventional microcavity. Our microcavity design improves the polariton injection efficiency by a factor of 4, as compared to a conventional microcavity design, when broad excitation pulses are centered at a wavelength of λ = 740 nm. Most remarkably, this improvement factor reaches 270 when the excitation wavelength is centered at 750 nm.

  18. Microcavity design for low threshold polariton condensation with ultrashort optical pulse excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Poellmann, C; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Huber, R; Ménard, J -M

    2016-01-01

    We present a microcavity structure with a shifted photonic stop-band to enable efficient non-resonant injection of a polariton condensate with spectrally broad femtosecond pulses. The concept is demonstrated theoretically and confirmed experimentally for a planar GaAs/AlGaAs multilayer heterostructure pumped with ultrashort near-infrared pulses while photoluminescence is collected to monitor the optically injected polariton density. As the excitation wavelength is scanned, a regime of polariton condensation can be reached in our structure at a consistently lower fluence threshold than in a state-of-the-art conventional microcavity. Our microcavity design improves the polariton injection efficiency by a factor of 4, as compared to a conventional microcavity design, when broad excitation pulses are centered at a wavelength of 740 nm. Most remarkably, this improvement factor reaches 270 when the excitation wavelength is centered at 750 nm.

  19. Luminescence properties of terbium-doped Li3PO4 phosphor for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), photoluminescence (PL) emission and excitation spectra, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were measured. The particle size was calculated using the Debye Scherrer formula and found to be 79.42 nm. PL emission spectra of Li 3 PO 4 :Tb 3 + ...

  20. Optical limiting and excited-state absorption in fullerene solutions and doped glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBranch, D.; Smilowitz, L.; Klimov, V. [and others

    1995-09-01

    We report the ground state and excited state optical absorption spectra in the visible and near infrared for several substituted fullerenes and higher fullerenes in toluene solutions. Based on these measurements, broadband predictions of the optical limiting performance of these molecules can be deduced. These predictions are then tested at 532 to 700 nm in intensity-dependent transmission measurements. We observe optical limiting in all fullerenes measured; higher fullerenes show the greatest potential for limiting in the near infrared (650-1000 nm), while substituted C{sub 60} shows optimal limiting in the visible (450-700 nm). We observe dramatically reduced limiting for solid forms of C{sub 60} (thin films and C{sub 60}-doped porous glasses), indicating that efficient optical limiting in fullerenes requires true molecular solutions.

  1. Retrospective assessment of environmental dose rates using optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C and quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Banerjee, D.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    radionuclide concentrations. It is concluded that the excellent OSL characteristics of Al2O3:C are attractive for use in short-term evaluations of the environmental dose rates. Depth dose profiles were also measured in bricks, after irradiation in the laboratory with Cs-137 gamma rays, using (1).Al2O3:C single...... of the initial accident radiation was lower than that of Cs-137 gamma rays.......As part of our continuing work on assessing the usefulness of natural and artificial dosemeters in retrospective accident dosimetry, the natural photon dose rates within bricks have been measured using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C single crystal dosemeters. These were...

  2. Coaxial fiber-optic chemical-sensing excitation-emission matrix fluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Chang; Jordan, James A; Chávez, Diana; Booksh, Karl S

    2011-02-01

    Great reductions in the overall size and complexity of high throughput multichannel UV-visible fluorometers were achieved by coupling a compact optical fiber array to compact dispersive transmission optics. The coaxial configuration centers on the insertion of a silica/silica optical fiber into the hollow region of a UV-fused silica capillary waveguide. The outer core delivers the maximum power of the narrow wavelength region of the excitation spectrum created by coupling a xenon arc discharge lamp to a compact spectrometer. The molecular fluorescence resulting from the interaction of light emitted at the distal end of the hollow waveguide and the sample matrix is received and transmitted to a CCD via a compact dispersive grating-prism (grism) optical assembly. A linear array of the coaxial optical fibers permits a full excitation-emission matrix spectrum of the analyte matrix to be projected onto the face of the CCD. The in situ identification and monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was carried out for the initial application testing for this prototype.

  3. A small animal time-resolved optical tomography platform using wide-field excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vivek

    Small animal imaging plays a critical role in present day biomedical research by filling an important gap in the translation of research from the bench to the bedside. Optical techniques constitute an emerging imaging modality which have tremendous potential in preclinical applications. Optical imaging methods are capable of non-invasive assessment of the functional and molecular characteristics of biological tissue. The three-dimensional optical imaging technique, referred to as diffuse optical tomography, provides an approach for the whole-body imaging of small animal models and can provide volumetric maps of tissue functional parameters (e.g. blood volume, oxygen saturation etc.) and/or provide 3D localization and quantification of fluorescence-based molecular markers in vivo. However, the complex mathematical reconstruction problem associated with optical tomography and the cumbersome instrumental designs limits its adoption as a high-throughput quantitative whole-body imaging modality in current biomedical research. The development of new optical imaging paradigms is thus necessary for a wide-acceptance of this new technology. In this thesis, the design, development, characterization and optimization of a small animal optical tomography system is discussed. Specifically, the platform combines a highly sensitive time-resolved imaging paradigm with multi-spectral excitation capability and CCD-based detection to provide a system capable of generating spatially, spectrally and temporally dense measurement datasets. The acquisition of such data sets however can take long and translate to often unrealistic acquisition times when using the classical point source based excitation scheme. The novel approach in the design of this platform is the adoption of a wide-field excitation scheme which employs extended excitation sources and in the process allows an estimated ten-fold reduction in the acquisition time. The work described herein details the design of the imaging

  4. Strong Optical Shock excitation in the mismatched regime of bubble plasma-wave based LWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash

    2017-10-01

    We present investigations into the excitation of a strong optical shock through slicing of a high intensity laser pulse driving a bubble plasma wave in a regime of mis-match between the incident laser waist-size and the bubble size ( = 2√{a0} c /ωpe). In the matched regime, it is well-known that over long timescales, the laser continuously undergoes differential frequency-shifts in different bubble phases, forming an optical shock. In the mis-matched regime, rapid laser waist and resulting bubble oscillations change the location of the peak laser ponderomotive force. This changes the location and the magnitude of the peak electron density interacting with the laser pulse. A sudden increase in the electron density during a laser radial squeeze event, slices the laser envelope longitudinally near its peak amplitude, exciting a strong optical shock state. This is shown to occur much earlier in laser evolution only over a narrow range of plasma densities where the imbalance between the longitudinal & radial ponderomotive forces excites elongated bubbles, injects ultra-low emittance electron beams and sustains ultra-high peak plasma fields. We acknowledge STFC Grants ST/J002062/1 and ST/P000835/1 for the John Adams Institute of Accelerator Science.

  5. Long-wavelength analyte-sensitive luminescent probes and optical (bio)sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M

    2016-01-01

    Long-wavelength luminescent probes and sensors become increasingly popular. They offer the advantage of lower levels of autofluorescence in most biological probes. Due to high penetration depth and low scattering of red and NIR light such probes potentially enable in vivo measurements in tissues and some of them have already reached a high level of reliability required for such applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in development and application of long-wavelength analyte-sensitive probes which can operate both reversibly and irreversibly. Photophysical properties, sensing mechanisms, advantages and limitations of individual probes are discussed. PMID:27134748

  6. The red, white and blue of quartz luminescence: A comparison of D{sub e} values derived for sediments from Australia and Indonesia using thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westaway, K.E. [Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)], E-mail: kira@els.mq.edu.au

    2009-05-15

    Heated quartz, including quartz from volcanic provinces, commonly displays different luminescence characteristics compared with the same mineral in non-volcanic contexts. These differing properties demand thorough investigations into the most suitable dating techniques for samples composed of quartz grains with different origins. In cave settings, independent techniques such as radiocarbon and U-series can prove useful for validating results, but further insights may be gained by comparing the results obtained for quartz using different luminescence emissions. Twenty-two quartz samples have been selected from five areas (Australia, Timor, Flores, Java and Sulawesi) for comparison of the red and blue emissions. The dual-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used to estimate the equivalent dose (D{sub e}) associated with the light-sensitive red thermoluminescence while the single aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used to measure the D{sub e} values for single grains and single aliquots, which were optically stimulated by green or blue light, respectively. The results obtained from the red thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence measurements display good agreement with independent dating techniques (within {approx}20%). However, the blue emissions exhibit a thermally unstable component, which causes a large underestimation in palaeodoses (on average {approx}80%) and an age limit of {approx}25 ka, while the red emissions are more thermally stable over geological timescales but produce an overestimation in red TL ages (by {approx}13 ka) and low precision (typically {approx}24%). These results can be correlated to three different quartz groups, which have been divided according to their luminescence emissions.

  7. Facile and high spatial resolution ratio-metric luminescence thermal mapping in microfluidics by near infrared excited upconversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia, E-mail: phwen@ust.hk [Department of Physics, KAUST-HKUST Joint Micro/Nanofluidic Laboratory, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Cao, Wenbin [Nano Science and Technology Program, Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-01

    A local area temperature monitor is important for precise control of chemical and biological processes in microfluidics. In this work, we developed a facile method to realize micron spatial resolution of temperature mapping in a microfluidic channel quickly and cost effectively. Based on the temperature dependent fluorescence emission of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) under near-infrared irradiation, ratio-metric imaging of UCNPs doped polydimethylsiloxane can map detailed temperature distribution in the channel. Unlike some reported strategies that utilize temperature sensitive organic dye (such as Rhodamine) to achieve thermal sensing, our method is highly chemically inert and physically stable without any performance degradation in long term operation. Moreover, this method can be easily scaled up or down, since the spatial and temperature resolution is determined by an optical imaging system. Our method supplied a simple and efficient solution for temperature mapping on a heterogeneous surface where usage of an infrared thermal camera was limited.

  8. Noise Spectrum of a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Excited by a Modulated Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the noise spectrum of a semiconductor optical amplifier excited by an amplitude-modulated input signal is presented. This extends the well-established theory for the case of continuous-wave input signals and is relevant for various applications within optical signal......, and modulation frequency, is investigated and explained. We find several interesting modifications to the spectra compared with the continuous-wave case. In particular, the side-bands present in the input-signal lead via four-wave mixing effects to additional structure in the spectra as well as additional noise...... processing. One important example is the analysis of noise in microwave photonic elements based on slow-light propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Expressions for the noise spectra are derived and the dependence on important operation parameters, such as input power, modulation depth...

  9. TDDFT Study of the Optical Excitation of Nucleic Acid Bases-C60 Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2017-11-30

    The potential of C60 as a nucleic acid base (NAB) optical sensor is theoretically explored. We investigate the adsorption of four NABs, namely, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, on C60 in the gas phase. For the optimal NAB@C60 adsorption configurations, obtained using a dispersion-corrected density functional, we calculate the vis-near-ultraviolet optical response using time-dependent density functional theory. While the isolated C60 and NAB molecules do not exhibit visible optical excitation, we find that C60/NAB conjugation gives rise to distinct spectral features in the visible range. These results suggest that C60 conjugation can be applied for photodetection of individual NABs.

  10. The optical properties of a weak probe field in a graphene ensemble under Raman excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the coherent manipulation of certain optical properties in graphene under Raman excitation by using a density-matrix approach. It is shown that the absorption and dispersion, the group velocity, and the transmission coefficient of the probe field can be efficiently controlled through proper adjustment of the intensity and frequency detuning of the control field. In addition, the optical bistability (OB) behavior is explored for the proposed system. It is found that the bistable threshold intensity and related hysteresis loop of OB can be controlled by the parameters of the system. The results obtained may be used in real experiments for the development of new types of nanoelectronic devices used for the realization of all-optical switching processes.

  11. Optical oscillator strengths for valence-shell and Br-3d inner-shell excitations of HCl and HBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Bin; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Ke-Zun

    2006-10-21

    Absolute optical oscillator strength density spectra for valence-shell excitations of HCl and HBr, as well as for Br-3d inner-shell excitations of HBr, have been determined by high-resolution electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy method in the dipole limit. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the discrete transitions of HCl and HBr are reported and compared with the previous results determined by the photoabsorption method.

  12. Influence of surface coating on structural, morphological and optical properties of upconversion-luminescent LaF3:Yb/Er nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Yadav, Ranvijay; Rai, S. B.

    2016-07-01

    LaF3:Yb/Er (core), LaF3:Yb/Er@LaF3 (core/shell) and LaF3:Yb/Er@LaF3@SiO2 (core/shell/SiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized using citric-acid-based complexation process. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, optical absorption, band-gap energy ( E g), Fourier transform infrared and upconversion emission spectroscopy were employed to investigate the structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized core and core/shell/SiO2 nanoparticles. These core/shell/SiO2 nanoparticles can be well dispersed in aqueous solvents to form clear colloidal solution. The optical band-gap energy was decreased after shell formation due to increase in the crystalline size. The growth of an inactive and porous silica layers simultaneously on the surface of luminescent core-nanoparticles resulting an increase in average crystalline size of the nanoparticles. As-prepared inert shell-coated core/shell nanoparticles show intensive upconversion-luminescence as compared to the seed-core and silica-surface-modified core/shell/SiO2 nanoparticles because luminescent ions (Yb3+ and Er3+) ions located at the particle surface were protected from the non-radiative decay arising from surface dangling bonds and capping agent. However, our study revealed that there was only a slight reduction in upconversion efficiency for the silica-modified core/shell nanoparticles, indicating that upconversion properties of the upconversion nanoparticles are largely preserved in the core/shell/SiO2 nanoparticles. Absorption and upconversion-luminescence properties were examined for future application in the development of optical devices as well as optical bioprobes.

  13. Synthetic Aspects and Electro-Optical Properties of Fluorinated Arylenevinylenes for Luminescence and Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cardone

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the main synthetic aspects and properties of fluorinated arylenevinylene compounds, both oligomers and polymers, are summarized and analyzed. Starting from vinyl organotin derivatives and aryl halides, the Stille cross-coupling reaction has been successfully applied as a versatile synthetic protocol to prepare a wide series of π-conjugated compounds, selectively fluorinated on the aromatic and/or vinylene units. The impact of fluoro-functionalization on properties, the solid state organization and intermolecular interactions of the synthesized compounds are discussed, also in comparison with the non-fluorinated counterparts. Luminescent and photovoltaic applications are also discussed, highlighting the role of fluorine on the performance of devices.

  14. Recombination dynamics of optically excited charge carriers in bulk MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzer, Tim; Lütgens, Matthias; Fennel, Franziska; Lochbrunner, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2, are promising candidates for optoelectronic or catalytic applications. On that account, a detailed characterization of the electronic dynamics in these materials is of pivotal importance. Here, we investigate the temporal evolution of an excited carrier population by all-optical pump-probe spectroscopy. On the sub-picosecond time scale we observe thermal relaxation of the excited carriers by electron-phonon coupling. The dynamics on the nanosecond time scale can be understood in terms of defect-assisted Auger recombination over a broad carrier density regime spanning more than one order of magnitude. Hence, our results emphasize the importance of defect states for electronic processes in TMDCs at room temperature.

  15. Asymmetric noise sensitivity of pulse trains in an excitable microlaser with delayed optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Soizic; Krauskopf, Bernd; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Andréoli, Louis; Selmi, Foued; Braive, Rémy; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Barbay, Sylvain

    2017-10-01

    A semiconductor micropillar laser with delayed optical feedback is considered. In the excitable regime, we show that a single optical perturbation can trigger a train of pulses that is sustained for a finite duration. The distribution of the pulse train duration exhibits an exponential behavior characteristic of a noise-induced process driven by uncorrelated white noise present in the system. The comparison of experimental observations with theoretical and numerical analysis of a minimal model yields excellent agreement. Importantly, the random switch-off process takes place between two attractors of different nature: an equilibrium and a periodic orbit. Our analysis shows that there is a small time window during which the pulsations are very sensitive to noise, and this explains the observed strong bias toward switch-off. These results raise the possibility of all optical control of the pulse train duration that may have an impact for practical applications in photonics and may also apply to the dynamics of other noise-driven excitable systems with delayed feedback.

  16. Excited States and Optical Spectra Based on GW-BSE: Dimensionality and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Steven G.

    In this talk, I discuss some recent developments and applications of first-principles GW plus Bethe Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approach to the understanding and prediction of photo-excited states, optical responses, and related spectroscopic properties of materials, in particular atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals. Owing to their reduced dimensionality, quasi-2D materials and their nanostructures can exhibit highly unusual behaviors. Symmetry, many-body interactions, doping, and substrate screening effects play a critical role in shaping qualitatively and quantitatively their excited-state properties. Accurate treatment of these effects, in particular many-electron interactions, poses new theoretical and computational challenges. I will present some new developments in addressing these challenges, and present studies on monolayer and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides and metal monochalcogenides, as well as black phosphorus and other 2D crystals. Several highly interesting and unexpected phenomena are discovered: unusual excitonic level structures and optical selection rules; exchange-induced light-like (massless) exciton dispersion in 2D; tunable optical and plasmonic properties; and the dominant influence of substrate screening. I would like to acknowledge collaborations with members of the Louie group. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences & Engineering Division, and by National Science Foundation.

  17. Integrated optical systems for excitation delivery and broadband detection in micro-fluidic electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEMME,SHANALYN A.; WARREN,MIAL E.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; WENDT,JOEL R.; BAILEY,CHRISTOPHER G.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; ARNOLD,DON W.; CARTER,TONY RAY; ASBILL,RANDOLPH E.; SAMORA,SALLY

    2000-03-15

    The authors have designed and assembled two generations of integrated micro-optical systems that deliver pump light and detect broadband laser-induced fluorescence in micro-fluidic chemical separation systems employing electrochromatography. The goal is to maintain the sensitivity attainable with larger, tabletop machines while decreasing package size and increasing throughput (by decreasing the required chemical volume). One type of micro-optical system uses vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as the excitation source. Light from the VCSELs is relayed with four-level surface relief diffractive optical elements (DOEs) and delivered to the chemical volume through substrate-mode propagation. Indirect fluorescence from dye-quenched chemical species is collected and collimated with a high numerical aperture DOE. A filter blocks the excitation wavelength, and the resulting signal is detected as the chemical separation proceeds. Variations of this original design include changing the combination of reflective and transmissive DOEs and optimizing the high numerical aperture DOE with a rotationally symmetric iterative discrete on-axis algorithm. The authors will discuss the results of these implemented optimizations.

  18. Thermally induced magnetization dynamics of optically excited YIG /Cu /Ni81Fe19 trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, H. J.; Shelford, L. R.; Aziz, M.; Al-Jarah, U. A. S.; Al-Saigh, R.; Valkass, R. A. J.; Marmion, S.; Hickey, B. J.; Hicken, R. J.

    2017-10-01

    The response of Y3Fe5O12/Cu /Ni81Fe19 trilayer structures to excitation by a femtosecond laser pulse has been studied in optical pump-probe experiments and compared with the response of Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) and Ni81Fe19 reference samples. The optical pump induces a partial demagnetization of the Ni81Fe19 , a large thermal gradient within the YIG, and temperature differences across the interfaces within the sample stack. When a moderate magnetic field is applied close to normal to the sample plane, so as to quasialign the YIG magnetization with the field and cant the Ni81Fe19 magnetization from the plane, ultrafast demagnetization initiates precession of the Ni81Fe19 magnetization. The transient temperature profile within the samples has been modeled using a one-dimensional finite-element computational model of heat conduction, while the magnetization dynamics are well described by a macrospin solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The precessional response of the Ni81Fe19 layers within the trilayers and the Ni81Fe19 reference sample are very similar for pump fluences of up to 1.5 mJ /c m2 , beyond which irreversible changes to the magnetic properties of the films are observed. These results suggest that the spin Seebeck effect is ineffective in modifying the precessional dynamics of the present YIG /Cu /Ni81Fe19 samples when subject to ultrafast optical excitation.

  19. Homogeneous broadening effect on temperature dependence of green upconversion luminescence in erbium doped fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egatz-Gómez, A. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Calderón, Oscar G., E-mail: oscargc@fis.ucm.es [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Melle, Sonia; Carreño, F.; Antón, M.A. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Gort, Elske M. [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Arcos de Jalón 118, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    We study the green upconversion luminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in an aluminosilicate optical fiber upon near infrared excitation at 787 nm. The dependence of the upconversion luminescence on temperature has been determined. As temperature drops from room to cryogenic temperatures, the upconversion green emission reaches a maximum around 40 K, and then decreases. A nearly quadratic dependence of the upconversion luminescence with excitation power is found, which is consistent with a sequential stepwise two-photon absorption process. These results have been explained with a semiclassical model that considers the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transitions due to glass imperfections, and the dependence of the homogeneous linewidth broadening on temperature. -- Highlights: ► We study green upconversion luminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in a fiber excited at 787 nm. ► Upconversion luminescence variation from room to cryogenic temperature is analyzed. ► Upconversion emission consists in a sequential two-photon absorption process. ► A semiclassical model considering inhomogeneous broadening explains the results. ► Homogeneous broadening is responsible for the upconversion temperature dependence.

  20. Facial fluid synthesis for assessment of acne vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Dela Cruz, Jennifer C.; Camba, Clarisse O.; Gozo, Angelo D.; Jimenez, Sheena Mariz B.; Tribiana, Aivje C.

    2017-06-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly called as acne, is a skin problem that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog up in a person's pores. This is because hormones change which makes the skin oilier. The problem is people really do not know the real assessment of sensitivity of their skin in terms of fluid development on their faces that tends to develop acne vulgaris, thus having more complications. This research aims to assess Acne Vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of image processing algorithms. Specifically, this research aims to design a prototype for facial fluid analysis using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system, and to classify different facial fluids present in each person. Throughout the process, some structures and layers of the face will be excluded, leaving only a mapped facial structure with acne regions. Facial fluid regions are distinguished from the acne region as they are characterized differently.

  1. [Optical mapping of chronotopography of excitation of the frog heart ventricle epicardial surface in sinus rhythm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    abramochkin, D V; Rozenshtraukh, L V

    2008-04-01

    Two points of early activation were shown on the surface of the frog Rana temporaria ventricle using optical mapping technique. These points are located on the left and right ventricular surface at equal distance from apex and base of the ventricle. The excitation approaches to epicardial ventricular surface at these points, and then it spreads all over the surface. Such pattern of epicardial activation is also shown in mammals where it is related to conduction system functioning. Thus, the precursor of conduction system seems to exist in the frog ventricle, too.

  2. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). In order to improve the accuracy as prerequisite of an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used, performance and extraction efficiency measurements were performed. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomers will be collected on a 50 μm micro electrode. The decay of these isomers can then be detected using deep UV optics, presently in the phase of preparation and adjustment. Newest results are presented.

  3. Parametric excitation of optical phonons in weakly polar narrow band gap magnetized semiconductor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Dahiya, Sunita; Singh, Navneet

    2017-11-01

    An analytical treatment based on the hydrodynamic model of plasmas is developed to study parametric amplification and oscillation of optical phonon modes in weakly polar narrow direct-gap magnetized semiconductor plasmas. Second-order optical susceptibility arising due to nonlinear polarization and the basic operational characteristics of the parametric device, viz. threshold nature, power gain mechanisms and conversion efficiency, are obtained. The effects of doping, magnetic field and excitation intensity, on the above operational characteristics have been studied in detail. Numerical estimates are made for an n-InSb crystal at 5 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. The analysis suggests the possibility of observing super-fluorescent parametric emission and oscillation in moderately doped n-InSb crystal under off-resonant nanosecond pulsed not-too-high power laser irradiation, the crystal being immersed in a large magnetic field.

  4. Optical properties in the visible luminescence of SiO2:B2O3:CaO:GdF3 glass scintillators containing CeF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. M.; Kim, H. J.; Karki, Sujita; Kaewkhao, J.; Damdee, B.; Kothan, S.; Kaewjaeng, S.

    2017-12-01

    CeF3-doped silicaborate-calcium-gadolinium glass scintillators, with the formula 10SiO2:(55-x)B2O3:10CaO:25GdF3:xCeF3, were fabricated by the melt-quenching technique. The doping concentration of the CeF3 was from 0.00 mol% to 0.20 mol%. The optical properties of the CeF3 doped glass scintillators were studied by using various radiation sources. The transition state of the CeF3-doped glass scintillators studied by using the absorption and photo-luminescence spectrum results. The X-ray, photo, proton and laser-induced luminescence spectra were also studied to understand the luminescence mechanism under various conditions. To understand the temperature dependence, the laser-induced luminescence and the decay component of the CeF3-doped glass scintillator were studied while the temperature was varied from 300 K to 10 K. The emission wavelength spectrum showed from 350 nm to 55 nm under various radiation sources. Also the CeF3-doped glass scintillator have one decay component as 34 ns at room temperature.

  5. Optical excitations dynamics at hetero-interfaces fullerene/quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetto, Marcello; Privitera, Alberto; Franco, Lorenzo; Bozio, Renato

    2017-08-01

    Embedding Semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) into hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell holds promises for improving photovoltaic performances. Thanks to their strong coupling with electro-magnetic radiation field, QDs represent paradigmatic photon absorbers. Nevertheless, the quest for suitable charge separating hetero-interfaces is still an open challenge. Within this framework, the excited state interactions between QDs and fullerene derivatives are of great interest for ternary solar cells (polymer:QDs:fullerene). In this work, we investigated the exciton dynamics of core/shell CdSe/CdS QDs both in solution and in blends with fullerene derivative (PCBM). By means of transient optical techniques, we aimed to unveil the dynamics of the QDs-PCBM interaction. Indeed, the observed excited state depopulation of QDs in blends is compatible with an excited state interaction living on picosecond timescale. Through electron paramagnetic resonance, we delved into the nature of this interaction, identifying the presence of charge separated states. The concurrence of these observations suggest a fast electron transfer process, where QDs act as donors and PCBM molecules as acceptors, followed by effective charge separation. Therefore, our experimental results indicate the QDs-PCBM heterointerface as suitable exciton separating interface, paving the way for possible applications in photovoltaics.

  6. Controlling Photon Echo in a Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Using Shaped Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Karni, O.; Khanonkin, I.; Eisenstein, G.

    2017-05-01

    Two-pulse photon-echo-based quantum-memory applications require a precise control over the echo strength and appearance time. We describe a numerical investigation of observation and control of photon echo in a room-temperature InAs /InP -based quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). We address an important case where the spectral excitation is narrower than the inhomogeneous broadening of the SOA. It is revealed that, in such a QD SOA, the amplitude of the echo pulse depends not only on the excitation-to-rephasing pulse temporal separation but also on the interference among the rephrasing pulse and the echo pulses generated during the propagation along the amplifier. More importantly, the appearance time and amplitude of the echo pulse can be precisely controlled by shaping the first (excitation) pulse. We also assert that deviations in the echo pulse stemming from the SOA gain inhomogeneity can be compensated for so as to be utilized in quantum coherent information processing.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} doubly doped K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, L.; Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M.; Caselli, E. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Gral. Pinto 399, B7000GHG, Tandil (Argentina); Khaidukov, N. M., E-mail: jmarcass@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, RAS, Leninskii Prospekt 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    In this work optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystals doubly doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions have been investigated for the first time. OSL responses for different dopant concentration and for optical stimulation with different wavelengths have been analyzed for each compound. Dosimetric properties of the most efficient composition, namely, K{sub 2}YF{sub 5}:1.0 at.% Tb{sup 3+}; 1.0 at.% Sm{sup 3+}, have been studied. Finally, the possible application of this single crystal as OSL dosimeter has been evaluated. (Author)

  8. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after ionising irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bos, A.J.J.; Winkelman, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermally (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were studied in AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after irradiation with ionising radiation. The extremely high TL sensitivity (approximately 60 times the sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Tl (TLD-100)) makes AlN-Y2O3 ceramics attractive as a TLD material. However...... on spectral properties and thermal evolution of OSL are also presented. The stimulation spectrum covers the spectral range from green to infrared light. A combination of thermal and optical stimulation allowed a correlation to be found between parameters of OSL and TL after the same irradiation dose...

  9. Characterization of Al2O3 optically stimulated luminescence films for 2D dosimetry using a 6 MV photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Shrestha, N.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    This work evaluates the dosimetric properties of newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films, fabricated with either Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg, using a prototype laser scanning reader, a developed image reconstruction algorithm, and a 6 MV therapeutic photon beam. Packages containing OSL films (Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg) and a radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) were irradiated using a 6 MV photon beam using different doses, field sizes, with and without wedge filter. Dependence on film orientation of the OSL system was also tested. Diode-array (MapCHECK) and ionization chamber measurements were performed for comparison. The OSLD film doses agreed with the MapCHECK and ionization chamber data within the experimental uncertainties (orientation and field size over the investigated range. The results demonstrate the potential of OSLD films for 2D dosimetry, particularly for the characterization of small fields, due to their wide dynamic range, linear response, resolution and dosimetric properties. The negligible background and potential simple calibration make these OSLD films suitable for remote audits. The characterization presented here may motivate further commercial development of a 2D dosimetry system based on the OSL from Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg.

  10. Microalgae dual-head biosensors for selective detection of herbicides with fiber-optic luminescent O2 transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh-Flórez, David; de la Hera, Cristina; Costas, Eduardo; Orellana, Guillermo

    2014-04-15

    The microalgal species Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (D. c.) was immobilized into porous silicone films and their photosynthetic activity was monitored with an integrated robust luminescent O2 sensor. The biosensor specificity towards a particular pesticide has been achieved by manufacturing a fiber-optic dual-head device containing both analyte-sensitive and analyte-resistant D. c. strains. The latter are not genetically modified microalgae, but a product of modified Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis followed by ratchet selection cycles. In this way the target herbicide decreases the O2 production of the analyte-sensitive immobilized strain without affecting the analyte-resistant population response; any other pollutant will lower the O2 production of both strains. The effect of the sample flow-rate, exposure time to the herbicide, biomass loading, biosensor film thickness, intensity of the actinic light, illumination cycle, and temperature on the biosensor response has been evaluated using waterborne simazine as test bench. The biosensing device is able to provide in situ measurements of the herbicide concentration every 180 min. The biosensor limit of detection for this herbicide was 12 μg L(-1), with a working range of 50-800 μg L(-1). The biosensor specificity to simazine has been assessed by comparing its response to that of isoproturon. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Optical thermometry based on luminescence behavior of Dy{sup 3+}-doped transparent LaF{sub 3} glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Y.Y. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Science, Nanjing (China); Cheng, S.J.; Wang, X.F. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yan, X.H. [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Science, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-15

    Dy{sup 3+}-doped transparent LaF{sub 3} glass ceramics were fabricated, and its structures of resulting glass ceramics are studied by the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Optical temperature sensing of the resulting glass ceramics in the temperature range from 298 to 523 K is studied based on the down-conversion luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} ion. By using fluorescence intensity ratio method, the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} of Dy{sup 3+} ions are verified as thermally coupled levels. A minimum S{sub R} = 1.16 x 10{sup -4} K{sup -1} is obtained at T = 294 K. By doping Eu{sup 3+} ion, the overall emission color of Eu{sup 3+}-Dy{sup 3+} co-doped transparent glass ceramics can be tuned from white to yellow with the temperature increase through energy transfer between Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+}. Additionally, the thermal stability of the Dy{sup 3+} single-doped transparent glass ceramics becomes higher after doping Eu{sup 3+} ion. (orig.)

  12. Sensitive optical detection of an early metastatic tumor using a new cell line with enhanced luminescent and fluorescent signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Joo Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models using cell lines that are dual-labeled with luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP are powerful tools for performing simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of metastatic tumors. However, the applications of such dual-labeled tumor models have been limited due to the technical challenges associated with low bioluminescent signaling from tumor cells. Here, we used lentiviral vector (LV encoding firefly luciferase and GFP and engineered a more sensitive and highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line (MLL-Luc/GFP cells, which allows simultaneous fluorescence and luminescence imaging. The light emission of MLL-Luc/GFP cells was 33.5 fold higher than that of PC-3-luc2-GFP prostate cancer cells which showed 750 p/s light emission per cell. Furthermore, the MLL-Luc/GFP cells showed 3.9 fold higher luciferase activities than did 4T1-luc2, which was previously recognized as exhibiting the highest luciferase activity. An in vivo evaluation with optical imaging showed pinpoint localization of GFP-positive cells in a metastatic lung as well as easy detection of early metastatic spreading. The newly engineered MLL-Luc/GFP cells provide an appropriate metastatic animal model system for future studies of metastasis and the testing of anti-metastatic therapies specifically aimed at prostatic cancer.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of late Holocene raised strandplain sequences adjacent to Lakes Michigan and Superior, Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyilan, Erin P.; Forman, Steven L.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of optically stimulated luminescence to date well-preserved strandline sequences at Manistique/Thompson bay (Lake Michigan), and Tahquamenon and Grand Traverse Bays (Lake Superior) that span the past ∼4500 yr. The single aliquot regeneration (SAR) method is applied to produce absolute ages for littoral and eolian sediments. SAR ages are compared against AMS and conventional 14C ages on swale organics. Modern littoral and eolian sediments yield SAR ages 14C ages on swale organics. Significant variability in 14C ages >2000 cal yr B.P. complicates comparison to SAR ages at all sites. However, a SAR age of 4280 ± 390 yr (UIC913) on ridge77 at Tahquamenon Bay is consistent with regional regression from the high lake level of the Nipissing II phase ca. 4500 cal yr B.P. SAR ages indicate a decrease in ridge formation rate after ∼1500 yr ago, likely reflecting separation of Lake Superior from lakes Huron and Michigan. This study shows that SAR is a credible alternative to 14C methods for dating littoral and eolian landforms in Great Lakes and other coastal strandplains where 14C methods prove problematic.

  14. Energy response of optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters for non-reference measurement locations in a 6 MV photon beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarboro, Sarah B; Followill, David S; Kerns, James R; White, R Allen; Kry, Stephen F

    2012-05-07

    Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) are becoming increasingly popular for measuring an absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy. OSLDs have known energy dependence, and this is accounted for by either calibrating the OSLD with a specific nominal energy, or using a standard energy correction factor to account for differences between the experimental beam photon energy and the photon energy used to establish the OSLD's sensitivity (e.g., (60)Co). This work is typically done under reference conditions (e.g., at d(max)). The impact of variations in photon spectra on the OSLD response is typically ignored for measurement positions that are different than the reference position. We determined that it is generally necessary to apply an additional non-reference energy correction factor to OSLD measurements made at locations that do not correspond to the reference position, particularly for OSLD measurements made out-of-field, where the photon spectra are softer. We determined this energy correction factor for a range of 6 MV photon spectra using two independent methods: Burlin cavity theory and measurements. The non-reference energy correction factor was found to range from 0.97 to 1.00 for in-field measurement locations and from 0.69 to 0.95 for out-of-field measurement locations. The use of a non-reference energy correction factor can improve the accuracy of OSLDs, especially when used out-of-field.

  15. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence; Deteccion de hierbas y especias irradiadas mediante luminiscencia opticamente estimulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, S.; Agundez A, Z.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares de la UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a {beta} ray source, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10{sup -4} KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  16. Development and application of an excitation ratiometric optical pH sensor for bioprocess monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2008-01-01

    The development of a fluorescent excitation ratiometric pH sensor (AHQ-PEG) using a novel allylhydroxyquinolinium (AHQ) derivative copolymerized with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG) is described. The AHQ-PEG sensor film is shown to be suitable for real-time, noninvasive, continuous, online pH monitoring of bioprocesses. Optical ratiometric measurements are generally more reliable, robust, inexpensive, and insensitive to experimental errors such as fluctuations in the source intensity and fluorophore photobleaching. The sensor AHQ-PEG in deionized water was shown to exhibit two excitation maxima at 375 and 425 nm with a single emission peak at 520 nm. Excitation spectra of AHQ-PEG show a decrease in emission at the 360 nm excitation and an increase at the 420 nm excitation with increasing pH. Accordingly, the ratio of emission at 420:360 nm excitation showed a maximum change between pH 5 and 8 with an apparent pK(a) of 6.40. The low pK(a) value is suitable for monitoring the fermentation of most industrially important microorganisms. Additionally, the AHQ-PEG sensor was shown to have minimal sensitivity to ionic strength and temperature. Because AHQ is covalently attached to PEG, the film shows no probe leaching and is sterilizable by steam and alcohol. It shows rapid (approximately 2 min) and reversible response to pH over many cycles without any photobleaching. Subsequently, the AHQ-PEG sensor film was tested for its suitability in monitoring the pH of S. cereviseae (yeast) fermentation. The observed pH using AHQ-PEG film is in agreement with a conventional glass pH electrode. However, unlike the glass electrode, the present sensor is easily adaptable to noninvasive monitoring of sterilized, closed bioprocess environments without the awkward wire connections that electrodes require. In addition, the AHQ-PEG sensor is easily miniaturized to fit in microwell plates and microbioreactors for high-throughput cell culture applications.

  17. DFT computations on: Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical investigations of a luminescent self-assembled material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, A; Ben Ahmed, A; Dammak, T; Belhouchet, M

    2018-02-15

    The current work undertakes the growth and the physicochemical properties of a novel green-yellow luminescence semi-organic material, the 3-picolylammonium bromide abbreviated (Pico-Br). In this paper, we report the X-ray diffraction measurements which show that the crystal lattice consists of distinct 3-picolylammonium cations and free bromide anions connected via NH⋯Br and NH⋯N hydrogen bonds leading to form a two dimensional frameworks. Molecular geometry compared with its optimized counterpart shows that the quantum chemical calculations carried out with density functional method (DFT) well produce the perceived structure by X-ray resolution of the studied material. To provide further insight into the spectroscopic properties, additional characterization of this material have been performed with Raman and infrared studies at room temperature. Theoretical computations have been computed using the (DFT) method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory implemented within Gaussian 03 program to study the vibrational spectra of the investigated molecule in the ground state. Optical absorption spectrum inspected by UV-visible absorption reveals the appearance of sharp optical gap of 280nm (4.42eV) as well as a strong green photoluminescence emission at 550nm (2.25eV) is detected on the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at room temperature. Using the TD/DFT method, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and the Mulliken atomic charges were calculated in order to get an insight into the material. Good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones was predicted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DFT computations on: Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical investigations of a luminescent self-assembled material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, A.; Ben Ahmed, A.; Dammak, T.; Belhouchet, M.

    2018-02-01

    The current work undertakes the growth and the physicochemical properties of a novel green-yellow luminescence semi-organic material, the 3-picolylammonium bromide abbreviated (Pico-Br). In this paper, we report the X-ray diffraction measurements which show that the crystal lattice consists of distinct 3-picolylammonium cations and free bromide anions connected via Nsbnd H ⋯ Br and Nsbnd H ⋯ N hydrogen bonds leading to form a two dimensional frameworks. Molecular geometry compared with its optimized counterpart shows that the quantum chemical calculations carried out with density functional method (DFT) well produce the perceived structure by X-ray resolution of the studied material. To provide further insight into the spectroscopic properties, additional characterization of this material have been performed with Raman and infrared studies at room temperature. Theoretical computations have been computed using the (DFT) method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory implemented within Gaussian 03 program to study the vibrational spectra of the investigated molecule in the ground state. Optical absorption spectrum inspected by UV-visible absorption reveals the appearance of sharp optical gap of 280 nm (4.42 eV) as well as a strong green photoluminescence emission at 550 nm (2.25 eV) is detected on the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at room temperature. Using the TD/DFT method, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and the Mulliken atomic charges were calculated in order to get an insight into the material. Good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones was predicted.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet excited luminescence properties of sol–gel derived GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14}:Eu{sup 3+} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarek, Aïcha [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale d' Ingénieurs de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP W 3038, Sfax (Tunisia); Chadeyron, Geneviève, E-mail: genevieve.chadeyron@ensccf.fr [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Boyer, Damien [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Avignant, Daniel [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); Fourati, Mohieddine [Laboratoire de Chimie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale d' Ingénieurs de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP W 3038, Sfax (Tunisia); Zambon, Daniel [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND (France); and others

    2014-01-15

    Sol–gel route has successfully been used to synthesize pure and Eu{sup 3+} doped polycrystalline samples of the GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14} pentaphosphates. The as-prepared samples have structurally been characterized using X-ray diffraction. Optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of Eu{sup 3+} activated GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14} samples prepared either by sol–gel process or solid-state reaction were investigated at room temperature for comparison. In this GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14} host matrix the P{sub 5}O{sub 14} ultraphosphate groups were proved to exhibit an efficient absorption in the VUV range. The excitation spectra recorded in the VUV-UV spectral region from 120 nm to 350 nm have revealed the presence of Gd{sup 3+} 4f–5d interconfiguration transitions, Gd{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−} and Eu{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−} charge transfer states(CTS)in addition to intraconfiguration transitions of Gd{sup 3+} ions.Furthermore the Gd{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer process was investigated and discussed in the framework of the multiphonon relaxation process. Besides, the GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor led to a strong red emission under 147/172 nm excitation, so that it can be considered as a promising red phosphor for mercury-free lamps and plasma display panels applications. -- Highlights: • Lanthanide pentaphosphates were synthesized by the sol–gel process. • A broad absorption was evidenced in the VUV range for GdP{sub 5}O{sub 14}:Eu{sup 3+}. • An efficient energy transfer was proved from pentaphosphate lattice to Eu{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence and isothermal thermoluminescence dating of high sensitivity and well bleached quartz from Brazilian sediments: from Late Holocene to beyond the Quaternary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Oliveira Sawakuchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating of sediments has led to considerable advance in the geochronology of the Quaternary. OSL dating is a well established technique to determine sediment burial ages from tens of years to few hundred thousand years. Recent studies have shown that Quaternary sediments of Brazil are dominated by quartz grains with high luminescence sensitivity, allowing the determination of precise and reliable OSL burial ages. In this paper, we show examples of OSL dating of quartz aliquots and single grains from different regions in Brazil, including young coastal-eolian Late Holocene ( 2 Ma in the low dose rate (0.5 - 1.0 Gy/ka environments typical for Brazilian sediments.

  1. Complexation of lactate with neodymium(III) and europium(III) at variable temperatures: studies by potentiometry, microcalorimetry, optical absorption, and luminescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guoxin; Martin, Leigh R; Rao, Linfeng

    2010-11-15

    The complexation of neodymium(III) and europium(III) with lactate was studied at variable temperatures by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry. The stability constants of three successive lactate complexes (ML(2+), ML(2)(+), and ML(3)(aq), where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for lactate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 °C were determined. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 °C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of trivalent lanthanides (Nd(3+) and Eu(3+)) with lactate is exothermic and the complexation becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Results from optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the complexes are inner-sphere chelate complexes in which the protonated α-hydroxyl group of lactate participates in the complexation.

  2. Complexation of Lactate with Nd(III) and Eu(III) at Variable Temperatures: Studies by Potentiometry, Microcalorimetry, Optical Absorption and Luminescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Guoxin; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2010-10-01

    Complexation of neodymium(III) and europium(III) with lactate was studied at variable temperatures by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy and microcalorimetry. Stability constants of three successive lactate complexes (ML{sup 2+}, ML{sup 2+} and ML{sub 3}(aq), where M stands for Nd and Eu, and L stands for lactate) at 10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 C were determined. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) with lactate is exothermic, and the complexation becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Results from optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the complexes are inner-sphere chelate complexes in which the protonated {alpha}-hydroxyl group of lactate participates in the complexation.

  3. Storage of optical excitations in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals; Speicherung optischer Anregungen in kolloidalen Halbleiter-Nanokristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Robert

    2009-07-22

    In the present theis it is described, how colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals can be used under influence of an electric field to store optical excitation energy at room temperature, to alter, and to supply controlledly. For this the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of heterogeneous nanocrystals was manipulated and spectroscopically studied. The applied od-shaped particles consist of a spherical core of CdSe, on which an elongated shell of CdS is monocrystallinely be grown. The electron is in such an asymmetric geometry delocalized over the hole nanorod, whereas the hole because of the high potential barrier remains bound in the CdSe core. The wave-function overlap of the charge carriers can therefore be influenced both by the length of the nanorod and by an external electric field. In the regime of prompt fluorescence the manipulation of the charge-carrier separation by an electric field led to a suppression of the radiative recombination. As consequence a fluorescence suppression of about 40% could be observed. After the removal of the electric field the separation was reduced and the stored energy is in an fluorescence increasement directedly liberated again. The strength of the storage efficiency lies with the strength of the electric field in a linear connection. Furthermore in this time range a quantum-confined Stark effect of upt o 14 meV could be detected at room temperature, although the effect is complicated by the different orientations and sizes of the nanorods in the ensemble. Hereby it is of advance to can adress with the applied detection technique a subensemble of nanocrystals. Furthermore a significant storage of the ensmble emission by up to 100 {mu}s conditioned by the electric electric fieldcould be demonstrated, which exceeds the fluorescence lifetime of these particles by the 10{sup 5} fold. As also could be shown by experiments on CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals surface states play a relevent role for the emission dynamics of nanocrystals

  4. LASER PHYSICS: Determination of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of Xe2Cl* in Cl2-Xe mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. S.; Kanaev, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.

    1987-07-01

    The composition dependences of the absolute quantum efficiency of the luminescence of the Xe2Cl* trimer, emitting in the blue-green part of the spectrum, were determined for Cl2-Xe mixtures excited at the wavelength of 137.2 nm. A high (up to 100%) efficiency of trimer formation observed under optical excitation conditions makes media of this kind promising for laser applications.

  5. Optoelectronic and nonlinear optical processes in low dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This has led to an overwhelming interest in quasi-zero dimensional semiconductors or quantum dots as tunable materials for multitude of exciting applications in optoelectronic and nonlinear optical devices and quantum information processing. Large nonlinear optical response and high luminescence quantum yield ...

  6. Luminescence of Ce.sup.3+./sup.- and Eu.sup.2+./sup.- doped silica glassesunder UV and X-ray excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chewpraditkul, W.; Shen, Y.; Chen, D.; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1-2 (2013), s. 94-98 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12185 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce 3+ * Eu 2+ * luminescence * photoluminescence decay * porous materials * scintillation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013

  7. Interplay between chromium content and lattice disorder on persistent luminescence of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sup 3+} for in vivo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suchinder K.; Bessière, Aurelie [Institut de Recherche de Chimie-Paris, CNRS – Chimie-ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Basavaraju, Neelima; Priolkar, Kaustubh R. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa 403206 (India); Binet, Laurent; Viana, Bruno [Institut de Recherche de Chimie-Paris, CNRS – Chimie-ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Gourier, Didier, E-mail: didier.gourier@chimie-paristech.fr [Institut de Recherche de Chimie-Paris, CNRS – Chimie-ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    In the quest of bright and long persistent far-red/near-infrared phosphors for in vivo optical imaging, the interest in the family of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel compounds doped with Cr{sup 3+} has been aroused in the most recent years. We show that the dopant concentration plays an important role in the total persistent luminescence output of the material. ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% Cr relative to (Ga+Cr) was prepared by solid state synthesis. 0.50% Cr was found optimal to obtain the most intense persistent luminescence after matrix excitation with X-rays or localized excitation in Cr{sup 3+} absorption band with 550 nm wavelength. Up to 0.5% Cr content, persistent luminescence increases as a consequence of an increased number of Cr{sup 3+} luminescent centers and associated defects. With 0.75% Cr content, a too large number of defects locally concentrated around Cr{sup 3+} ions are detrimental to the long-term persistent luminescence intensity. We supplement long lasting phosphorescence investigation with laser excited photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence results. - Highlights: • The red persistent luminescence of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr is optimum for 0.50% Cr{sup 3+} doping. • Higher doping introduces lattice disorder. • The phenomenon is studied by correlating photoluminescence, EPR and thermoluminescence.

  8. Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E

    2014-04-11

    The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.

  9. Inelastic collisions and density-dependent excitation suppression in a 87Sr optical lattice clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishof, M.; Martin, M. J.; Swallows, M. D.; Benko, C.; Lin, Y.; Quéméner, G.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J.

    2011-11-01

    We observe two-body loss of 3P0 87Sr atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We measure loss rate coefficients for atomic samples between 1 and 6 μK that are prepared either in a single nuclear-spin sublevel or with equal populations in two sublevels. The measured temperature and nuclear-spin preparation dependence of rate coefficients agree well with calculations and reveal that rate coefficients for distinguishable atoms are only slightly enhanced over those of indistinguishable atoms. We further observe a suppression of excitation and losses during interrogation of the 1S0-3P0 transition as density increases and Rabi frequency decreases, which suggests the presence of strong interactions in our dynamically driven many-body system.

  10. Inelastic collisions and density-dependent excitation suppression in a {sup 87}Sr optical lattice clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishof, M.; Martin, M. J.; Swallows, M. D.; Benko, C.; Lin, Y.; Quemener, G.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J. [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We observe two-body loss of {sup 3} P{sub 0} {sup 87}Sr atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We measure loss rate coefficients for atomic samples between 1 and 6 {mu}K that are prepared either in a single nuclear-spin sublevel or with equal populations in two sublevels. The measured temperature and nuclear-spin preparation dependence of rate coefficients agree well with calculations and reveal that rate coefficients for distinguishable atoms are only slightly enhanced over those of indistinguishable atoms. We further observe a suppression of excitation and losses during interrogation of the {sup 1} S{sub 0}-{sup 3} P{sub 0} transition as density increases and Rabi frequency decreases, which suggests the presence of strong interactions in our dynamically driven many-body system.

  11. Quantitative optical biomarkers of lung cancer based intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Zhan, Zhenlin; Lin, Hongxin; Zuo, Ning; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in the elastic fibers have been implicated in lung cancer. However, the label-free, microscopic imaging of elastic fibers in situ remains a major challenge. Here, we present the use of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signal as a novel means for quantification of the elastic fibers in intact fresh human lung tissues. We obtained the TPEF images of elastic fibers from ex vivo the human lung tissues. We found that three features, including the elastic fibers area, the elastic fibers orientation, the elastic fibers structure, provide the quantitative identification of lung cancer and the direct visual cues for cancer versus non-cancer areas. These results suggest that the TPEF signal can be used as the label-free optical biomarkers for rapid clinical lung diagnosis and instant image-guided surgery.

  12. Analysis of excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter at 1529 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Junyu; Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-27

    In this work, a detailed theoretical analysis of 1529 nm ES-FADOF (excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter) based on rubidium atoms pumped by 780 nm laser is introduced, where Zeeman splitting, Doppler broadening, and relaxation processes are considered. Experimental results are carefully compared with the derivation. The results prove that the optimal pumping frequency is affected by the working magnetic field. The population distribution among all hyperfine Zeeman sublevels under the optimal pumping frequency has also been obtained, which shows that 85Rb atoms are the main contribution to the population. The peak transmittance above 90% is obtained, which is in accordance with the experiment. The calculation also shows that the asymmetric spectra observed in the experiment are caused by the unbalanced population distribution among Zeeman sublevels. This theoretical model can be used for all kinds of calculations for FADOF.

  13. Spin vortices in cuprates: Magnetic excitations, optical conductivity, enhanced Nernst signal, and a persistent current generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu, E-mail: koizumi@ims.tsukuba.ac.j [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    When spin vortices are present, loop currents arise around them. These loop currents are germs of a macroscopic current, i.e., a macroscopic current is created as a collection of them, and eventually form a persistent current at temperatures below T{sub c}. We argue that this is what happening in the underdoped cuprates. The hourglass-shaped magnetic excitation spectrum observed in cuprates is considered as evidence of the presence of spin vortices; the Drude-like peak in the optical conductivity is also explained as arising from spin-wave excitations in the presence of spin vortices. The observed enhanced Nernst signals and magnetization in the psudogap phase is explained due to the flow of the loop currents. If we calculate T{sub c} in the underdoped sample as the temperature where the coherence establishes among the loop currents, the doping concentration dependence of it is given by T{sub c}=T{sub 0}lnx/(x{sub 0}) , which is shown to agree well with experiments.

  14. Direct 1O2 optical excitation: A tool for redox biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Blázquez-Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen (O2 displays very interesting properties. Its first excited state, commonly known as singlet oxygen (1O2, is one of the so-called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. It has been implicated in many redox processes in biological systems. For many decades its role has been that of a deleterious chemical species, although very positive clinical applications in the Photodynamic Therapy of cancer (PDT have been reported. More recently, many ROS, and also 1O2, are in the spotlight because of their role in physiological signaling, like cell proliferation or tissue regeneration. However, there are methodological shortcomings to properly assess the role of 1O2 in redox biology with classical generation procedures. In this review the direct optical excitation of O2 to produce 1O2 will be introduced, in order to present its main advantages and drawbacks for biological studies. This photonic approach can provide with many interesting possibilities to understand and put to use ROS in redox signaling and in the biomedical field.

  15. Preparations for an optical access to the lowest nuclear excitation in {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The isomeric lowest excited nuclear level of {sup 229}Th has been indirectly measured to be 7.6±0.5 eV (163±11 nm). This low transition energy, compared to energies typically involved in nuclear processes, would allow for the application of laser-spectroscopic methods. Also considering the isomeric lifetime of the excited state (estimated to be 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} s), which leads to an extremely sharp linewidth of Δω/ω ∝ 10{sup -20}, the isomer becomes a strong candidate for a nuclear-based frequency standard. In order to directly detect the isomeric ground-state decay and improve the accuracy of its energy as a prerequisite for an all-optical control, {sup 229m}Th is populated via a 2% decay branch in the α decay of {sup 233}U. The Thorium ions are extracted and cooled with the help of a buffer-gas stopping cell and an RFQ-cooler. In order to suppress accompanying α decay chain products other than {sup 229}Th, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is used. Following the QMS, the Thorium isomeric decay is expected to be detectable. Internal conversion as well as photonic decay is probed via different detection techniques. Latest results are presented.

  16. Entanglement of the quantum system with spin-spin coupling created by optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chenghua

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum entanglement characteristics of the system consisting an intermediary molecule with an optically excited triplet and two bilateral spin-1/2 nucleons. The two nuclear spins both couple to the excitation state which is caused by a pulsed laser. We study the linear entropy and entangling power of the evolution operator acting on the product state of the system. We deduce the entangling power when the energy state has a uniform distribution, and we find that the entanglement of the system shows a certain stability. In this paper, several standard expressions are analyzed and calculated in detail, including the detailed solution for the quantum entropy as well as the calculation of the linear entropy and entangling power, which are based on this solution. In comparing the linear entropy and entangling power, we find that the latter is the average of the former. Subsequently, we present an alternative derivation of the evolution operator and find that the result is consistent with that of the traditional method. When the evolution operator acts on the average of the product states, the entangling power of the evolution operator presents a distinct changing trend.

  17. Ultrafast atomic-scale visualization of acoustic phonons generated by optically excited quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Giovanni M; Hu, Jianbo; Liang, Wenxi; Bietti, Sergio; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Carbone, Fabrizio; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of atomic vibrations confined in quasi-zero dimensional systems is crucial from both a fundamental point-of-view and a technological perspective. Using ultrafast electron diffraction, we monitored the lattice dynamics of GaAs quantum dots-grown by Droplet Epitaxy on AlGaAs-with sub-picosecond and sub-picometer resolutions. An ultrafast laser pulse nearly resonantly excites a confined exciton, which efficiently couples to high-energy acoustic phonons through the deformation potential mechanism. The transient behavior of the measured diffraction pattern reveals the nonequilibrium phonon dynamics both within the dots and in the region surrounding them. The experimental results are interpreted within the theoretical framework of a non-Markovian decoherence, according to which the optical excitation creates a localized polaron within the dot and a travelling phonon wavepacket that leaves the dot at the speed of sound. These findings indicate that integration of a phononic emitter in opto-electronic devices based on quantum dots for controlled communication processes can be fundamentally feasible.

  18. Ultrafast atomic-scale visualization of acoustic phonons generated by optically excited quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni M. Vanacore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of atomic vibrations confined in quasi-zero dimensional systems is crucial from both a fundamental point-of-view and a technological perspective. Using ultrafast electron diffraction, we monitored the lattice dynamics of GaAs quantum dots—grown by Droplet Epitaxy on AlGaAs—with sub-picosecond and sub-picometer resolutions. An ultrafast laser pulse nearly resonantly excites a confined exciton, which efficiently couples to high-energy acoustic phonons through the deformation potential mechanism. The transient behavior of the measured diffraction pattern reveals the nonequilibrium phonon dynamics both within the dots and in the region surrounding them. The experimental results are interpreted within the theoretical framework of a non-Markovian decoherence, according to which the optical excitation creates a localized polaron within the dot and a travelling phonon wavepacket that leaves the dot at the speed of sound. These findings indicate that integration of a phononic emitter in opto-electronic devices based on quantum dots for controlled communication processes can be fundamentally feasible.

  19. Collective excitations and supersolid behavior of bosonic atoms inside two crossed optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.; Piazza, F.; Zwerger, W.

    2017-12-01

    We discuss the nature of symmetry breaking and the associated collective excitations for a system of bosons coupled to the electromagnetic field of two optical cavities. For the specific configuration realized in a recent experiment at ETH [1, 2], we show that, in absence of direct intercavity scattering and for parameters chosen such that the atoms couple symmetrically to both cavities, the system possesses an approximate U(1) symmetry which holds asymptotically for vanishing cavity field intensity. It corresponds to the invariance with respect to redistributing the total intensity I={I}1+{I}2 between the two cavities. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry gives rise to a broken continuous translation-invariance for the atoms, creating a supersolid-like order in the presence of a Bose–Einstein condensate. In particular, we show that atom-mediated scattering between the two cavities, which favors the state with equal light intensities {I}1={I}2 and reduces the symmetry to {{Z}}2\\otimes {{Z}}2, gives rise to a finite value ∼ \\sqrt{I} of the effective Goldstone mass. For strong atom driving, this low energy mode is clearly separated from an effective Higgs excitation associated with changes of the total intensity I. In addition, we compute the spectral distribution of the cavity light field and show that both the Higgs and Goldstone mode acquire a finite lifetime due to Landau damping at non-zero temperature.

  20. Evaluation of an X-Ray Dose Profile Derived from an Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter during Computed Tomographic Fluoroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (-50 to -6 mm, 50 to 6 mm was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies.

  1. Use of an airborne Fraunhofer line discriminator for the detection of solar stimulated luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert D.; Hemphill, William R.

    1976-01-01

    Luminescence is the property of some materials to emit light when excited by external stimuli such as ultraviolet or visible light or by chemical or mechanical action. The Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLO) is an airborne electro-optical device which operates as a non-imaging radiometer and permits detection of solar stimulated luminescence several orders of magnitude below the intensity detectable with the human eye. A prototype FLO, used in 1969 to monitor the dynamic of water currents in the San Francisco area, was than 5 parts per

  2. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  3. X-ray-sensitive storage phosphors with the optically stable luminescent centres

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, G B; Zvezdova, N P; Kochubey, D I; Sedova, Y G; Kochubey, D I; Kulipanov, G N; Lyakh, V V; Pindyurin, V F

    2000-01-01

    NaCl, KCl, KBr and LiF crystals doped by In, Tl, Ni, Pd and Ca were investigated as X-ray-sensitive materials. Influence of the way of doping of an impurity and growing of a crystal on such parameters of a material as: sensitivity to ionising radiation; radiative, optical and thermal stability of the image, obtained after an irradiation is investigated. As a result of the work, media for recording of the X-ray images are developed. These allow to reproduce the images in a mode of a photoluminescence. Spatial resolution and the dynamic range of registration of the developed materials concede to similar parameters of commercial storage luminophores like 'Image Plates' based on BaFBr : La. At the same time, as distinct from 'Image Plates', the developed radiophotoluminophores allow a long storage and multiple readout of the information recorded.

  4. Luminescent, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleaooa, Pule V. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Roodt, Andreas [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Mhlongo, Gugu G.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Center for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, ZA 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Kroon, Robin E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M., E-mail: ntwaeab@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, ZA 2050 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    The structure, particle morphology, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method are reported. ZnO and ZnS were combined at room temperature by an ex situ synthetic route to prepare ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited particle morphology different from that of ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles. The ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement as inferred from the widening of their respective bandgap energies. The electron paramagnetic resonance data provided evidence for the existence of magnetic clusters near the surface, electron to nuclei interactions and defect states. The ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites exhibited tunable emission that was dependent on the ratio of ZnO to ZnS. These composites were evaluated for application in different types of light emitting devices.

  5. Optical spectroscopy of orbital and magnetic excitations in vanadates and cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benckiser, Eva Vera

    2007-10-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, the low-energy excitations of undoped Mott insulators RVO{sub 3} with R = Y, Ho, and Ce, (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2} and La{sub 8}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 19} have been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. The compounds RVO{sub 3} with R=rare-earth ion recently have attracted a lot of interest because of their unusual structural, orbital, and magnetic properties. The compounds undergo a series of temperatureinduced phase transitions accompanied by a change of orbital and magnetic order. Furthermore, it has been proposed that YVO{sub 3} represents the first realization of a one-dimensional orbital liquid and an orbital Peierls phase, with a transition to an orbitally ordered phase at lower temperatures. In this thesis, we present the optical conductivity {sigma}({omega}) of RVO{sub 3} with R=Y, Ho, and Ce for energies from 0.1 to 1.6 eV as a function of temperature (10-300 K) and polarization of the incident light parallel to the crystallographic axes ({sigma}{sub a},{sigma}{sub b},{sigma}{sub c}). Our main experimental result is the observation of two absorption features at 0.55 eV in {sigma}{sub a}({omega}) and 0.4 eV in {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) which are assigned to collective orbital excitations, in contrast to conventional local crystal-field transitions. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that in RVO{sub 3} with R=Y, Ho, and Ce the orbital exchange interactions play a decisive role. In a second study, we have investigated the magnetic excitations of low-dimensional quantum magnets, namely the spin chain (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2} and the five-leg ladder La{sub 8}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 19}. For (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2}, two absorption features around 0.4 eV in {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) (chain direction) and {sigma}{sub b}({omega}) (inter-chain direction) are identified as magnetic contributions to the optical conductivity. The analysis of {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) enables the very precise determination of the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J{sub c} as a

  6. Structural and optical effects induced by gamma irradiation on NdPO{sub 4}: X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and luminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Rajesh, N.P., E-mail: rajeshnp@hotmail.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Inorganic NdPO{sub 4} crystal was grown first time using potassium polyphosphate (K{sub 6}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) flux. • NdPO{sub 4} crystal is insoluble in water, non-hygroscopic and high radiation resistance favoring for actinides host. • Actinide immobilization can be made at 1273 K. • High yield of 1061 nm photon emission. - Abstract: Rare earth orthophosphate (NdPO{sub 4}) monazite single crystals were grown using high temperature flux growth method employing K{sub 6}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} (K{sub 6}) as molten solvent. Their structural parameters were studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The grown crystals were examined by SEM and EDX techniques for their homogeniousity and inclusion in the crystals. The influence of gamma irradiation in structural and optical absorption properties were studied by the powder XRD, FTIR and reflectance spectroscopy. The effect of gamma irradiation on luminescence properties was recorded. No significant structural change is observed up to 150 kGy gamma dose. The gamma ray induced charge trap in the crystal was saturated to 40 kGy dose. The luminescence intensity decreases with an increase in the irradiation. The emission of luminescence intensity stabilizes above 40 kGy gamma dose.

  7. Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.; Lembke, Dominik S.; Kis, Andras; Imamoğlu, A.

    2015-02-01

    A monolayer of a transition metal dichalcogenide such as WSe2 is a two-dimensional direct-bandgap valley-semiconductor having an effective honeycomb lattice structure with broken inversion symmetry. The inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone could be selectively addressed using circularly polarized light fields, suggesting the possibility for magneto-optical measurement and manipulation of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom . Here we report such experiments that demonstrate the valley Zeeman effect--strongly anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom using an external magnetic field. The valley-splitting measured using the exciton transition deviates appreciably from values calculated using a three-band tight-binding model for an independent electron-hole pair at +/-K valleys. We show, on the other hand, that a theoretical model taking into account the strongly bound nature of the exciton yields an excellent agreement with the experimentally observed splitting. In contrast to the exciton, the trion transition exhibits an unexpectedly large valley Zeeman effect that cannot be understood within the same framework, hinting at a different contribution to the trion magnetic moment. Our results raise the possibility of controlling the valley degree of freedom using magnetic fields in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides or observing topological states of photons strongly coupled to elementary optical excitations in a microcavity.

  8. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence in aluminophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, C., E-mail: claudionico@ua.pt [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, R., E-mail: rugaliz.91@gmail.com [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Graça, M.P.F., E-mail: mpfg@ua.pt [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Elisa, M., E-mail: astatin89@yahoo.com [Department of Optospintronics, National Institute of R and D for Optoelectronics, INOE 2000, 77125 Magurele (Romania); Sava, B.A., E-mail: savabogdanalexandru@yahoo.com [Department of Optospintronics, National Institute of R and D for Optoelectronics, INOE 2000, 77125 Magurele (Romania); Monteiro, R.C.C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2825-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rino, L., E-mail: lrino@ua.pt [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monteiro, T., E-mail: tita@ua.pt [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-01-15

    With a 4f{sup 6} electronic configuration, europium ions in the trivalent charge state are known to be efficient activators in wide band gap matrices. Embedded in the aluminophosphate (Li{sub 2}O–BaO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) glasses the optically activated Eu{sup 3+} ions lead to intense room temperature orange/red luminescence with 16–23 Cd/m{sup 2} by using ultraviolet pumping. The as-prepared and heat treated europium doped glasses for temperatures below and above T{sub g} were studied by room temperature Raman spectroscopy, absorption, photoluminescence excitation, temperature dependent and time dependent photoluminescence. When the samples are excited by 325 nm wavelength photons, an enhancement of the red luminescence intensity by ca. one order of magnitude was found to occur for temperatures between 14 K and 350 K, for all the doped glasses. On the other hand, by using resonant excitation on the {sup 5}L{sub 6} Eu{sup 3+} excited state (λ{sub exc}∼390 nm) the ion emission intensity was found to be nearly constant for temperatures up to 500 K. For higher temperatures a steeper decrease of the luminescence intensity occurs due to non-radiative competitive channels described by activation energies of ca. 235 meV and 450 meV by using 325 and 390 nm wavelength photons as excitation, respectively. The lifetime of the {sup 5}D{sub 0} level in these glasses is ca. 2.93 ms. A discussion of the thermal population and de-excitation mechanisms is performed. -- Highlights: • Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Li{sub 2}O–BaO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses were prepared by a wet non-conventional quenching method. • Trivalent Eu were found to be optically activated in all glasses with an intense luminescence at RT. • PL intensity increases from 14 K to RT with indirect excitation, and remains almost constant with direct excitation. • A model that fits the thermal population and quenching mechanisms is

  9. Structural, optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth phosphate glasses: Insights from 31P MAS NMR, absorption and photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaraiah, S.; Prasad, V. Reddy; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-05-01

    An investigation was carried out to observe structural and optical properties of 0.5 mol% Dy3+ doped different compositions of bismuth phosphate glasses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% Bi2O3). The structural characterization was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 31P magic angle spin nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. The optical properties were studied using absorption and photo luminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) were evaluated from absorption spectra. From photoluminescence spectra, experimental branching ratios (βexp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated. The decay profiles for 4F9/2 level were recorded and were fit exponential. The obtained results show the prepared Dy3+ doped bismuth phosphate glasses might be useful as good optical material for yellow emission.

  10. Luminescence spectroscopy of Rb2KTiOF5 oxyfluoride single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Sarychev, M. N.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    Spectra of photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray excited luminescence (XRL) in region of 1.5-5.5 eV, PL excitation spectra using synchrotron radiation (3.7-22 eV), time-resolved impulse cathode-luminescence (ICL) spectra, the temperature depending of the XRL, decay kinetics as well as thermoluminescence curves were measured for single crystals Rb2KTiOF5, a promising nonlinear optical material. Single crystals are transparent in microwave, visible and near UV range, inter-band transition energy is Eg = 4.2 eV. Crystalline structure has two disordered mixed position O/F, phase transition in the region of 215 K. All the obtained results indicate that in luminescence spectra nonelementary band 2.2 eV is connected to the emission of self-trapped excitons. Nonelementary band 2.2 eV associated with the presence local distortion in the octahedron TiOF5. It is observed that at interband excitation in VUV region at energies more than 3.5 Eg the effect of multiplication of electronic excitations appears. That determines the high output of XRL and ICL. Luminescence methods of quality control of grown crystals are proposed.

  11. Optical Properties Of Hybrid Composites Based On Highly Luminescent CdS and ZnS Nanocrystals In Different Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2009-06-01

    The luminescent CdS and ZnS nanocystals embedded in different polymer matrices like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly-vinyl pyridine (PVP) polymer matrices have been prepared by simple wet chemical precipitation method. The thin films of nanocomposites are deposited on glass substrate by spin-coating. The optical absorption spectra show a clear blue shift in absorption edge, such that the band gap calculated from the absorption spectra are higher than those calculated for the bulk. Photoluminescence spectra show defect related emission at different wavelength in visible range.

  12. Optical near-field studies of waveguiding organic nanofibers by angular dependent excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian

    defined and highly polarized. By UV excitation in a fluorescence microscope it has also been shown that nanofibers have waveguiding properties. To further characterize the waveguiding properties the optical near-field has to be investigated. This is done by transferring nanofibers to an quartz half sphere...

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized; Luminiscencia opticamente estimulada de ZnO obtenido por tratamiento termico de ZnS sintetizado quimicamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  14. Second harmonic generation in NLO polymers excited by Surface Plasmon enhanced electric field induced by femtosecond optical pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata Y.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We will report second harmonic generation (SHG in nonlinear optical (NLO polymers excited by surface plasmon enhanced optical fields. The surface plasmon (SP polariton was excited in an attenuated total reflection geometry having the Kretchmann configuration. The NLO polymers, consisting of Disperse Red1 as guest chromophores and poly (methyl methacrylate as host materials, were coated upon the Ag layers. Our experimental results indicated that the SHG signal intensity from the polymer coated Ag films was more than 10 times higher than that from the non-coated Ag films. The SHG autocorrelation traces excited by SP-enhanced fields were also studied and the correlation time was shorter than 150 fs, the temporal resolutions of the present spectrometer.

  15. Luminescence Properties of ScPO{sub 4} Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatner, L.A.; Trukhin, A.N.

    1999-08-16

    Flux-grown ScPO{sub 4} single crystals exhibit a number of luminescence bands in their x-ray-excited luminescence spectra - including sharp lines arising from rare-earth elements plus a number of broad bands at 5.6 cV, 4.4 eV, and 3 eV. The band at 5.6 eV was attributed to a self-trapped exciton (STE) [l], and it could be excited at 7 eV and higher energies. This luminescence is strongly polarized (P = 70 %) along the optical axes of the crystal and exhibits a kinetic decay time constant that varies from several ns at room temperature to {approximately}10 {micro}s at 60 K and up to {approximately}1 ms at 10 K. It is assumed that the STE is localized on the SC ions. The band at 3 eV can be excited in the range of the ScPO{sub 4} crystal transparency (decay time = 3 to 4 {micro}s.) This band is attributed to a lead impurity that creates different luminescence centers. At high temperatures, the band at 4.4 eV is dominant in the x-ray-excited TSL and afterglow spectra. Its intensity increases with irradiation time beginning at zero at the initial irradiation time. The 4.4 eV band does not appear in a fast process under a pulsed electron beam, showing that accumulation is necessary for its observation. A sample of ScPO{sub 4} doped with vanadium exhibited a prevalent band at 4.4 eV at T = 480 K.

  16. Spectroscopic characteristics of praseodymium-doped cubic double sodium-yttrium fluoride crystals Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+. Intensities of optical transitions and luminescence kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, A. M.; Ivanova, S. E.; Mirzaeva, A. A.; Joubert, M.-F.; Guyot, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, we have grown a series of cubic crystals Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+ (NYF:Pr3+) with a content of praseodymium in the range of 0.04-9 at %. We have determined the composition of crystals, evaluated their optical quality, and found the incorporation coefficient of Pr3+ ions into the Na0.4Y0.6F2.2 matrix ( K Pr ˜ 0.9). We have examined optical spectra of NaYF:Pr3+ crystals at room and low (7 K) temperatures in the range of 200-2500 nm. The low-temperature absorption spectra of NYF:Pr3+ crystals have been shown to consist of broad weakly structured bands. Based on the analysis of low-temperature absorption spectra, the structure of the Stark splitting of praseodymium levels has been represented in terms of a model of "quasi-centers," which are characterized by an inhomogeneous broadening of Stark components. From experimental absorption cross-section spectra at T = 300 K, we have calculated oscillator strengths for transitions from the ground state 3 H 4 to excited multiplets 3 H 5, 3 H 6, 3 F j ( j = 2, 3, 4), 1 G 4, 1 D 2, and (3 P j ,1 I 6) ( j = 0, 1, 2). Using the Judd-Ofelt method, we have determined intensity parameters Ω t and found that Ω2 = 0, Ω4 = 4.4 × 10-20, and Ω6 = 2.28 × 10-20 cm2. With these values, we have calculated the probabilities of radiative transitions, the branching coefficients, and the lifetimes of the radiative levels 1 D 2 and 3 P 0. The probabilities of multiphonon nonradiative transitions in NYF:Pr3+ crystals have been estimated. Using the method of kinetic spectroscopy with selective excitation, we have investigated the luminescence decay kinetics of praseodymium from the 3 P 0 and 1 D 2 levels upon their selective resonant excitation by nanosecond laser pulses. The inference has been made that Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+ crystals are processable; admit doping by praseodymium in high concentrations; and, with respect to all their radiative characteristics, can be potentially considered as active media for

  17. Optical imaging of nanosized structures by using plasmonically excited cascade near-field coupling with a carbon nanotube probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Tachizaki, Takehiro; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2017-10-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) overcomes the diffraction limit, thereby realizing a spatial resolution far beyond the wavelength of light used. However, NSOM still has a problem in repeatable imaging at the high spatial resolution and high contrast with conventional aperture or apertureless probes that are needed for practical applications. Here, we describe an optical imaging technique based on plasmonically excited cascade near-field coupling that has the potential to achieve single-nanometer spatial resolution with high imaging repeatability. This technique makes use of a plasmon waveguide coupled with a high-stiffness carbon nanotube optical probe. Through the action of surface plasmon polaritons, the input far-field light is converted into an optical near field that is used as an excitation source. This excitation near field is strongly enhanced and concentrated on the probe tip such that it generates a second near field as a nanosized probe spot on the apex of the tip. Extremely high-resolution optical imaging is accomplished by scanning the sample surface with the probe spot. At a wavelength of 850 nm, a 5-nm-wide metallic striped pattern on a cross-sectional superlattice sample was clearly resolved as a permittivity distribution.

  18. Phototrophic hydrogen production in photobioreactors coupled with solar-energy-excited optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Saratale, Ganesh D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Lee, Chi-Mei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China); Chen, Pei-Chung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Hung Kuang University, Taichung (China)

    2008-12-15

    A novel solar-energy-excited optical fiber (SEEOF) photobioreactor (PBR) was developed to enhance the phototrophic H{sub 2} production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 using acetate (HAc) as the sole carbon source. The PBR was illuminated by combinative light sources, including an internal illumination with optical fiber excited by solar energy (OF(sunlight)) as well as external irradiation of tungsten filament lamp (TL). The photo-H{sub 2} producing performance of the SEEOF photobioreactor was further improved by using an innovative light dependent resistor (LDR) system, which could maintain sufficient and continual light supply. The results show that combination of OF(sunlight)/TL was more effective than the TL/TL illumination system, leading to a 138% and 136% increase in cumulative H{sub 2} production (V{sub H{sub 2}}) and H{sub 2} yield (Y{sub H{sub 2}}), respectively. The LDR-coupled SEEOF photobioreactor was able to solve the problems of diurnal variation in solar light intensity, enabling the control of a constant total light irradiation intensity on the PBR surface. Combining OF(sunlight)/TL with LDR, the V{sub H{sub 2}} and Y{sub H{sub 2}} were nearly 27% higher than without LDR. For bioreactor scale up from 50 to 1800 ml working volume, the LDR-coupled SEEOF photobioreactor worked well during daytime, leading to a marked improvement in phototrophic H{sub 2} production with a V{sub H{sub 2}} and Y{sub H{sub 2}} of 3606 ml and 2.45 mol H{sub 2}/mol HAc, respectively. Moreover, continuous cultures operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h show a high hydrogen production rate of 32.4 ml/l/h with stable operation for over 15 days. This optimal performance of LDR-coupled SEEOF photobioreactor is superior to most reported results and is a favorable choice of electricity-saving PBR strategy to improve photo-H{sub 2} production efficiency. (author)

  19. Time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence of Al2O3:C for ion beam therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Doull, Brandon A.; Ahmed, Md; Brons, Stephan; Tessonnier, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the time-resolved (TR) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al2O3:C detectors and investigate methodologies to improve the accuracy of these detectors in ion beam therapy dosimetry, addressing the reduction in relative response to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles common to solid-state detectors. Al2O3:C OSL detectors (OSLDs) were exposed to proton, 4He, 12C and 16O beams in 22 particle/energy combinations and read using a custom-built TR-OSL reader. The OSL response {{r}\\text{OSL}} , relative to 60Co gamma dose to water, and the ratio between the UV and blue OSL emission bands of Al2O3:C (UV/blue ratio) were determined as a function of the LET. Monte-Carlo simulations with the multi-purpose interaction and transport code FLUKA were used to estimate the absorbed doses and particle energy spectra in the different irradiation conditions. The OSL responses {{r}\\text{OSL}} varied from 0.980 (0.73 keV μm-1) to 0.288 (120.8 keV μm-1). The OSL UV/blue ratio varied by a factor of two in the investigated LET range, but the variation for 12C beams was only 11%. OSLDs were also irradiated at different depths of carbon ion spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs), where it was shown that doses could be obtained with an accuracy of  ±2.0% at the entrance channel and within the SOBP using correction factors calculated based on the OSL responses obtained in this study. The UV/blue ratio did not allow accurate estimation of the dose-averaged LET for 12C SOBPs, although the values obtained can be explained with the data obtained in this study and the additional information provided by the Monte-Carlo simulations. The results demonstrate that accurate OSLD dosimetry can be performed in ion beam therapy using appropriate corrections for the OSL response.

  20. Temperature lags of luminescence measurements in a commercial luminescence reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, Nafiye G. [ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, George S., E-mail: gspolymeris@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beşevler, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The temperature recorded in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence equipments is not the temperature of the sample but that of the heating element on which the thermocouple is attached. Depending upon the rate of heating, a temperature difference appears between the samples and the heating element, termed as temperature lag, which could have serious effects on the curve shapes and trapping parameters. In the present work the temperature lag effect is studied in a newly developed luminescence equipment measuring both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that the temperature lag could be large for heating rates above 2 K/s and it is strongly dependent upon the sample holder. A simple approximation method is proposed in order to both predict as well as correct for temperature lag effects in luminescence measurements.

  1. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenbo [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia, KAIS 5500, 2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  2. Sound wave and laser excitation for acousto-optical landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutzmann, P.; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Klien, V.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Hebel, M.; Putten, F.J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. An important issue in ALD is the acoustic excitation of the soil. Laser excitation is promising for complete standoff detection using lasers for excitation and monitoring. Acoustic

  3. Family of graphene-assisted resonant surface optical excitations for terahertz devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I.-Tan; Liu, Jia-Ming; Tsai, Hsin-Cheng; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Syu, Jheng-Yuan; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    The majority of the proposed graphene-based THz devices consist of a metamaterial that can optically interact with graphene. This coupled graphene-metamaterial system gives rise to a family of resonant modes such as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of graphene, the geometrically induced SPPs, also known as the spoof SPP modes, and the Fabry-Perot (FP) modes. In the literature, these modes are usually considered separately as if each could only exist in one structure. By contrast, in this paper, we show that even in a simple metamaterial structure such as a one-dimensional (1D) metallic slit grating, these modes all exist and can potentially interact with each other. A graphene SPP-based THz device is also fabricated and measured. Despite the high scattering rate, the effective SPP resonances can still be observed and show a consistent trend between the effective frequency and the grating period, as predicted by the theory. We also find that the excitation of the graphene SPP mode is most efficient in the terahertz spectral region due to the Drude conductivity of graphene in this spectral region.

  4. Luminescent detection of hydrazine and hydrazine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M [Newton, MA; Thomas, III, Samuel W.

    2012-04-17

    The present invention generally relates to methods for modulating the optical properties of a luminescent polymer via interaction with a species (e.g., an analyte). In some cases, the present invention provides methods for determination of an analyte by monitoring a change in an optical signal of a luminescent polymer upon exposure to an analyte. Methods of the present invention may be useful for the vapor phase detection of analytes such as explosives and toxins. The present invention also provides methods for increasing the luminescence intensity of a polymer, such as a polymer that has been photobleached, by exposing the luminescent polymer to a species such as a reducing agent.

  5. Solubility of YAG:Nd in borate glass-luminescence and Raman investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba-Romanowski, W. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Solarz, P., E-mail: solarz@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, D.; Runka, T. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Szysiak, A.; Stepien, R. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-05-26

    Highlights: > In the present work we investigate glass-ceramic systems obtained by melting the sintered samples mentioned above. > Intention of the work is to get a more close insight into the nature of luminescent centres in these materials. In the first approach low temperature luminescence spectra recorded upon a bulk excitation, denoted as 'macroscopic' are analysed to assess the effect of the solubility of crystalline phase. > In the second approach denoted as 'microscopic' selected areas of samples were illuminated by an incident light beam with a diameter of about 1 micrometer and resulting Raman scattering spectra and luminescence spectra are compared. - Abstract: YAG:Nd powders obtained by grinding a single crystal and synthesized by modified sol-gel and combustion methods were embedded at the stage of melting in a multicomponent borate glass to obtain luminescent glass-ceramic systems. Room temperature optical absorption spectra, luminescence spectra at room temperature and at 10 K and micro-Raman spectra were recorded to determine the location of Nd{sup 3+} ions in composite materials. It has been concluded that their luminescence characteristics depend critically on the preparation method hence the morphology of precursor crystalline YAG:Nd powders as a consequence of dissimilar solubility of crystallites in a host glass.

  6. Lanthanide doped ultrafine hybrid nanostructures: multicolour luminescence, upconversion based energy transfer and luminescent solar collector applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyam; Shahi, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2017-01-05

    We herein demonstrate novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) composed of inorganic NPs, NaY0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4, and an organic β-diketonate complex, Eu(TTA)3Phen, for energy harvesting applications. Both the systems maintain their core integrity and remain entangled through weak interacting forces. HNPs incorporate the characteristic optical behaviour of both the systems i.e. they give an intense red emission under UV excitation, due to Eu3+ in organic complexes, and efficient green upconversion emission of Er3+ in inorganic NPs for NIR (980 nm) excitation. However, (i) an energy transfer from Er3+ (inorganic NPs) to Eu3+ (organic complex) under NIR excitation, and (ii) an increase in the decay time of 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ for HNPs as compared to the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex, under different excitation wavelengths, are added optical characteristics which point to an important role of the interface between both the systems. Herein, the ultra-small size (6-9 nm) and spherical shape of the inorganic NPs offer a large surface area, which improves the weak interaction force between both the systems. Furthermore, the HNPs dispersed in the PMMA polymer have been successfully utilized for luminescent solar collector (LSC) applications.

  7. luminescence properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    )-based phosphors which were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method, their crystal structures and luminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) showed that phosphors sintered at 1000 ◦C for ...

  8. Luminescence decay of S Zn::Ag and O Zn:Ga scintillation detectors excited by a pulsed laser; Evolucion temporal de la luminiscencia producida por un laser pulsado de los detectores de centello SZn:Ag y OZn:Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Campos, J.

    1981-07-01

    In the present work a high sensitivity experimental set up for luminescence decay measurements in the 1 0 {sup -}1 sec range has been developed. As an application, luminescence light decay In S Zn:Ag and 0Zn:Ga after excitation by a pulsed N{sub 2} laser has been measured. In SZnrAg, measurements of total light decay was compared with donor acceptor pairs theory. In both substances, spectral evolution in the first 15 sec was investigated. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Controlling plasmon-enhanced luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electrons in a metal or an ionized gas. Plasmons dominate the optical properties of noble-metal nanoparticles, which enables a variety of applications. This thesis focuses on plasmon-enhanced luminescence of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and optically

  10. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Manson-Smith, S K

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provi...

  11. Characterization of a direct dc-excited discharge in water by optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schram, Daan [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gonzalez, Manuel A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rego, Robby [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, VITO Materials, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Kong, Michael G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.bruggeman@ugent.be

    2009-05-01

    Dc-excited discharges generated in water at the tip of a tungsten wire which is located at the orifice of a quartz capillary are investigated by time-averaged optical emission spectroscopy. Two distinctive discharge modes are observed. For small conductivities of the liquid the discharge is a streamer-like discharge in the liquid itself (liquid mode). For conductivities above typically 45 {mu}S cm{sup -1} a large vapour bubble is formed and a streamer discharge in this vapour bubble is observed (bubble mode). Plasma temperatures and electron densities are investigated for both modes. The gas temperature is estimated from the rotational temperature of N{sub 2}(C-B) and is 1600 {+-} 200 K for the bubble mode and 1900 {+-} 200 K for the liquid mode. The rotational temperature of OH(A-X) is up to 2 times larger and cannot be used as an estimate for the gas temperature. The rotational population distribution of OH(A), {nu} = 0 is also non-Boltzmann with a large overpopulation of high rotational states. This discrepancy in rotational temperatures is discussed in detail. Electron densities are obtained from the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer beta line. The electron densities in the liquid mode are of the order of 10{sup 21} m{sup -3}. In the bubble mode electron densities are significantly smaller: (3-4) x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. These values are compared with the Stark broadening of the hydrogen alpha and gamma lines and with electron densities obtained from current density measurements. The chemical reactivities of the bubble and liquid modes are compared by means of the hydrogen peroxide production rate.

  12. Violet-green excitation for NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ions in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2-Ga2O3 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Cheng, Jimeng; Zhao, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Hu, Lili; Guzik, Malgorzata; Boulon, Georges

    2014-04-21

    60Bi(2)O(3)-20B(2)O(3)-10SiO(2)-10Ga(2)O(3) glasses doped with 1-9 mol% Yb(2)O(3) were prepared and investigated mainly on their violet-green excitation for the typical NIR emission of Yb(3+), generally excited in the NIR. Two violet excitation bands at 365 nm and 405 nm are related to Yb(2+) and Bi(3+). 465 nm excitation band and 480 nm absorption band in the blue-green are assigned to Bi(0) metal nanoparticles/grains. Yb-content-dependence of the excitation and absorption means that Bi(0) is the reduced product of Bi(3+), but greatly competed by the redox reaction of Yb(2+) ↔ Yb(3+). It is proved that the violet-green excitations result in the NIR emission of Yb(3+). On the energy transfer, the virtual level of Yb(3+)-Yb(3+) as well as Bi(0) dimers probably plays an important role. An effective and controllable way is suggested to achieve nano-optical applications by Bi(0) metal nanoparticles/grains and Yb(3+).

  13. Optical spectroscopy of excited exciton states in MoS2 monolayers in van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C.; Semina, M. A.; Cadiz, F.; Manca, M.; Courtade, E.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Cai, H.; Tongay, S.; Lassagne, B.; Renucci, P.; Amand, T.; Marie, X.; Glazov, M. M.; Urbaszek, B.

    2018-01-01

    The optical properties of MoS2 monolayers are dominated by excitons, but for spectrally broad optical transitions in monolayers exfoliated directly onto SiO2 substrates detailed information on excited exciton states is inaccessible. Encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) allows approaching the homogenous exciton linewidth, but interferences in the van der Waals heterostructures make direct comparison between transitions in optical spectra with different oscillator strength more challenging. Here we reveal in reflectivity and in photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy the presence of excited states of the A exciton in MoS2 monolayers encapsulated in hBN layers of calibrated thickness, allowing us to extrapolate an exciton binding energy of ≈220 meV. We theoretically reproduce the energy separations and oscillator strengths measured in reflectivity by combining the exciton resonances calculated for a screened two-dimensional Coulomb potential with transfer matrix calculations of the reflectivity for the van der Waals structure. Our analysis shows a very different evolution of the exciton oscillator strength with principal quantum number for the screened Coulomb potential as compared to the ideal two-dimensional hydrogen model.

  14. Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yeteng; Tian, Gan; Gu, Zhanjun; Yang, Yijun; Gu, Lin; Zhao, Yuliang; Ma, Ying; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-05-01

    Nd3+-sensitized quenching-shield sandwich-structured upconversion nanoparticles are reported, which exhibit highly efficient upconversion photoluminescence under excitation by an 800 nm continuous-wave laser. The transition-layer structure is essential to bridge energy transfer from the sensitizer to the activator and simultaneously block energy back-transfer from the activator to the sensitizer. These 800 nm-excited upconversion nanoparticles are a key step toward the development of upconversion nanophosphors for biological applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Optical Diagnostics for High-Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments, such as in jet turbine engines. Taking advantage of the translucent nature of TBCs, optical diagnostics have been developed that can provide an informed assessment of TBC health that will allow mitigating action to be taken before TBC degradation threatens performance or safety. In particular, rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers have been integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence that monitors TBC erosion, delamination, and temperature gradients. Erosion monitoring of TBC-coated specimens is demonstrated by utilizing visible luminescence that is excited from a sublayer that is exposed by erosion. TBC delamination monitoring is achieved in TBCs with a base rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer by the reflectance-enhanced increase in luminescence produced in regions containing buried delamination cracks. TBC temperature monitoring is demonstrated using the temperature-dependent decay time for luminescence originating from the specific coating depth associated with a rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers is discussed, including co-doping strategies to produce more penetrating near-infrared luminescence. It is demonstrated that integration of the rare-earth-doped sublayers is achieved with no reduction in TBC life. In addition, results for multilayer TBCs designed to also perform as radiation barriers are also presented.

  16. Luminescence of a Transition Metal Complex Inside a Metamaterial Nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Timothy U; Earl, Stuart K; Ng, Charlene; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; White, Jonathan M; Polyzos, Anastasios; Gómez, Daniel E

    2017-08-01

    Modification of the local density of optical states using metallic nanostructures leads to enhancement in the number of emitted quanta and photocatalytic turnover of luminescent materials. In this work, the fabrication of a metamaterial is presented that consists of a nanowire separated from a metallic mirror by a polymer thin film doped with a luminescent organometallic iridium(III) complex. The large spin-orbit coupling of the heavy metal atom results in an excited state with significant magnetic-dipole character. The nanostructured architecture supports two distinct optical modes and their assignment achieved with the assistance of numerical simulations. The simulations show that one mode is characterized by strong confinement of the electric field and the other by strong confinement of the magnetic field. These modes elicit drastic changes in the emitter's photophysical properties, including dominant nanocavity-derived modes observable in the emission spectra along with significant increases in emission intensity and the total decay rate. A combination of simulations and momentum-resolved spectroscopy helps explain the mechanism of the different interactions of each optical mode supported by the metamaterial with the excited state of the emitter. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy-selective optical excitation and detection in InAs/InP quantum dot ensembles using a one-dimensional optical microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamouras, A.; Britton, M.; Khairy, M. M.; Mathew, R.; Hall, K. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H4R2 (Canada); Dalacu, D.; Poole, P.; Poitras, D.; Williams, R. L. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate the selective optical excitation and detection of subsets of quantum dots (QDs) within an InAs/InP ensemble using a SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based optical microcavity. The low variance of the exciton transition energy and dipole moment tied to the narrow linewidth of the microcavity mode is expected to facilitate effective qubit encoding and manipulation in a quantum dot ensemble with ease of quantum state readout relative to qubits encoded in single quantum dots.

  18. Development of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J M; Jagannathan, R; Stokes, D L; Kasili, P M; Panjehpour, M; Phan, M N; Overholt, B F; DeNovo, R C; Pan, X; Lee, R J; Vo-Dinh, T

    2003-12-01

    In this work, the development and applications of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo disease diagnosis including oral carcinoma are described. The optical diagnosis system was based on an OPO laser for multi-wavelength excitation and time-resolved detection. The pulsed Nd-YAG-pumped OPO laser system (6 ns, 20 Hz) is compact and has a rapid, broad, and uniform tuning range. Time-gated detection of intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) making use of external triggering was used to effectively eliminate the laser scattering and contribute to the highly sensitive in vivo measurements. Artificial tissue-simulating phantoms consisting of polystyrene microspheres and tissue fluorophores were tested to optimize the gating parameters. 51-ns gate width and 39-ns gate delays were determined to be the optimal parameters for sensitive detection. In vivo measurements with the optical diagnosis system were applied to esophagus, stomach, and small intestine using an endoscope in canine animal studies. The rapid tuning capability of the optical diagnosis system contributed greatly to the optimization of wavelength for the observation of porphyrin in the small intestine. When the small intestine was thoroughly washed with water, the emission band which corresponds to porphyrin disappeared. Based on this observation, it was concluded that the detected signal was yielded by porphyrin-containing bile secretion. Also, multispectral analyses using multiple excitations from 415 to 480 nm at 5 nm intervals confirmed the porphyrin detection in the small intestine. The optical diagnosis system was also applied to the detection of human xenograft of oral carcinoma in mice using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) which is a photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug. Significant differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity between normal and tumor tissue could be obtained 2 hours after the injection of 5-ALA into mice due to the

  19. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in cubic piezoelectric slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -growth direction, and will be jointly excited by electrical stimulus. We demonstrate this for an electrically excited freestanding slab for two cases of high-symmetry crystal-growth directions and finally show the impact of the Drude model for permittivity on the phonon dispersion. In particular, it is verified...

  20. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    As infrastructures are aging, the evaluation of their health is becoming crucial. To do so, numerous Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are available. Among them, thermal shearography and active infrared thermography represent two full field and contactless methods for surface inspection. The synchronized use of both methods presents multiples advantages. Most importantly, both NDT are based on different material properties. Thermography depend on the thermal properties and shearography on the mechanical properties. The cross-correlation of both methods result in a more accurate and exact detection of the defects. For real site application, the simultaneous use of both methods is simplified due to the fact that the excitation method (thermal) is the same. Active infrared thermography is the measure of the temperature by an infrared camera of a surface subjected to heat flux. Observation of the variation of temperature in function of time reveal the presence of defects. On the other hand, shearography is a measure of out-of-plane surface displacement. This displacement is caused by the application of a strain on the surface which (in our case) take the form of a temperature gradient inducing a thermal stress To measure the resulting out-of-plane displacement, shearography exploit the relation between the phase difference and the optical path length. The phase difference is measured by the observation of the interference between two coherent light beam projected on the surface. This interference is due to change in optical path length as the surface is deformed [1]. A series of experimentation have been conducted in laboratory with various sample of concrete reinforced with CFRP materials. Results obtained reveal that with both methods it was possible to detect defects in the gluing. An infrared lamp radiating was used as the active heat source. This is necessary if measurements with shearography are to be made during the heating process. A heating lamp in the

  1. White luminescence emission from silicon implanted germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Angélica Guadalupe; Escobosa-Echavarría, Arturo Escobosa; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy

    2018-01-01

    Germanium crystals were implanted with low-energy and high-dose silicon ions. The implantation led to amorphization of a near-surface layer due to the formation of many adatoms and vacancies. Adatoms can be absorbed in germanium by the amorphous matrix faster than vacancies. The excess of vacancies and their ability to cluster resulted in formation of a porous structure beneath the surface. Pores of different sizes and depths were observed experimentally. A subsequent thermal annealing was carried out at 973 K in order to repair the damage due to the implantation. The annealing resulted, among other things, in oxidation of the pores. Visible white luminescence was observed for the as-implanted samples at the 325 nm excitation wavelength; the photoluminescence intensity increased after the annealing. The optical properties were attributed to the combined effects of different defects and the formation of germanium oxides with oxygen deficiencies.

  2. Optically Pumped Lasing of Ar(4p -->4s) Excited in Linear Microplasma Arrays at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Wilson; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin; Davis, Steven; Hoskinson, Alan; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    The optically pumped rare-gas metastable laser is a chemically inert analogue to alkali laser systems. These devices require efficient generation of electronically excited metastable atoms in a continuous-wave electric discharge in flowing gas mixtures at elevated pressure. Linear arrays of microstrip resonators are well suited for this task. We have observed CW optical gain and lasing at 912 nm using linear micro-discharge arrays to generate metastable rare-gas atoms at atmospheric pressure. Ar(4s) metastables are generated in flowing Ar/He mixtures by low-power, CW linear array microplasmas operating near 900 MHz and 1 atm. The metastables are optically excited to selected states in the Ar(4p) manifold by a tunable, CW Ti:S laser. Collisional energy transfer within the manifold produces a population inversion. The Ar(4s) concentration and the optical gain are probed by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory and High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office.

  3. Luminescent metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, M D; Bauer, C A; Bhakta, R K; Houk, R J T

    2009-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) display a wide range of luminescent behaviors resulting from the multifaceted nature of their structure. In this critical review we discuss the origins of MOF luminosity, which include the linker, the coordinated metal ions, antenna effects, excimer and exciplex formation, and guest molecules. The literature describing these effects is comprehensively surveyed, including a categorization of each report according to the type of luminescence observed. Finally, we discuss potential applications of luminescent MOFs. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design luminescent MOFs, and those engaged in the extension of MOFs to applications such as chemical, biological, and radiation detection, medical imaging, and electro-optical devices (141 references).

  4. Multispectral upconversion luminescence intensity ratios for ascertaining the tissue imaging depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yu; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Ding, Yadan; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Zhang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has been developed to accurately ascertain the tissue imaging depth based on the relative luminescence intensity ratio of multispectral NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs. A theoretical mode was set up, where the parameters in the quantitative relation between the relative intensities of the upconversion luminescence spectra and the depth of the UCNPs were determined using tissue mimicking liquid phantoms. The 540 nm and 650 nm luminescence intensity ratios (G/R ratio) of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs were monitored following excitation path (Ex mode) and emission path (Em mode) schemes, respectively. The model was validated by embedding NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs in layered pork muscles, which demonstrated a very high accuracy of measurement in the thickness up to centimeter. This approach shall promote significantly the power of nanotechnology in medical optical imaging by expanding the imaging information from 2-dimensional to real 3-dimensional.Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have in recent years emerged as excellent contrast agents for in vivo luminescence imaging of deep tissues. But information abstracted from these images is in most cases restricted to 2-dimensions, without the depth information. In this work, a simple method has been developed to accurately ascertain the tissue imaging depth based on the relative luminescence intensity ratio of multispectral NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ UCNPs. A theoretical mode was set up, where the parameters in the quantitative relation between the relative intensities of the upconversion luminescence spectra and the depth of the UCNPs were determined using tissue mimicking liquid phantoms. The 540 nm and 650 nm luminescence intensity ratios (G/R ratio) of NaYF4:Yb3

  5. Silicon as a virtual plasmonic material: Acquisition of its transient optical constants and the ultrafast surface plasmon-polariton excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail: sikudr@sci.lebedev.ru; Makarov, S. V.; Rudenko, A. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Saltuganov, P. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Seleznev, L. V.; Yurovskikh, V. I.; Zayarny, D. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Apostolova, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energetics (Bulgaria)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrafast intense photoexcitation of a silicon surface is complementarily studied experimentally and theoretically, with its prompt optical dielectric function obtained by means of time-resolved optical reflection microscopy and the underlying electron-hole plasma dynamics modeled numerically, using a quantum kinetic approach. The corresponding transient surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves of the photo-excited material were simulated as a function of the electron-hole plasma density, using the derived optical dielectric function model, and directly mapped at several laser photon energies, measuring spatial periods of the corresponding SPP-mediated surface relief nanogratings. The unusual spectral dynamics of the surface plasmon resonance, initially increasing with the increase in the electron-hole plasma density but damped at high interband absorption losses induced by the high-density electron-hole plasma through instantaneous bandgap renormalization, was envisioned through the multi-color mapping.

  6. Violet stimulated luminescence: geo- or thermochronometer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Guralnik, Benny; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The method of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is widely used, but generally limited to the past ~0.1 million years (Ma) due to early saturation of the desired signal. Violet stimulated luminescence (VSL) of quartz has previously been shown as a promising alternative, with a ...

  7. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  8. Data processing correction of the irising effect of a fast-gating intensified charge-coupled device on laser-pulse-excited luminescence spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondic, L; Dohnalová, K; Pelant, I; Zídek, K; de Boer, W D A M

    2010-06-01

    Intensified charge-coupled devices (ICCDs) comprise the advantages of both fast gating detectors and spectrally broad CCDs into one device that enables temporally and spectrally resolved measurements with a few nanosecond resolution. Gating of the measured signal occurs in the image intensifier tube, where a high voltage is applied between the detector photocathode and a microchannel plate electron multiplier. An issue arises in time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy when signal onset characterization is required. In this case, the transient gate closing process that causes the detected signal always arises in the middle of the ICCD chip regardless of the spectral detection window--the so-called irising effect. We demonstrate that in case when the detection gate width is comparable to the opening/closing time and the gate is pretriggered with respect to the signal onset, the irising effect causes the obtained data to be strongly distorted. At the same time, we propose a software procedure that leads to the spectral correction of the irising effect and demonstrate its validity on the distorted data.

  9. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... the possible thermal side-effects of the excitation light moderate. These key results facilitate means to break through the general shallow depth limit of upconverting-nanoparticle-based fluorescence techniques, necessary for a range of biomedical applications, including diffuse optical imaging, photodynamic...

  10. Electronic structure of InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots studied by high-excitation luminescence in magnetic fields up to 73 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, D.; Raymond, S.; Studenikin, S.; Babinski, A.; Leotin, J.; Frings, P.; Potemski, M.; Sachrajda, A

    2004-04-30

    We report on high-excitation photoluminescence (PL) measurements of an ensemble of InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots with large inter-shell spacing (75 meV) in magnetic fields up to 73 T. The PL spectra show a complex picture of levels splitting and crossings. A simple two-band single-particle model provides a good approximation to explain the observed magneto-PL spectra.

  11. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2018-01-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  12. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  13. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  14. Investigation of in-vivo skin autofluorescence lifetimes under long-term cw optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihachev, A; Ferulova, I; Vasiljeva, K; Spigulis, J [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2014-08-31

    The main results obtained during the last five years in the field of laser-excited in-vivo human skin photobleaching effects are presented. The main achievements and results obtained, as well as methods and experimental devices are briefly described. In addition, the impact of long-term 405-nm cw low-power laser excitation on the skin autofluorescence lifetime is experimentally investigated. (laser biophotonics)

  15. The temperature behavior and mechanism of exciton luminescence in quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, A F; Biryukov, D Yu

    2017-07-19

    The processes of direct and indirect optical excitation of spatially confined excitons in quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silica thin-film matrix have been reported and discussed. A generalized scheme for the electronic transitions is employed for a detailed description of luminescence temperature behavior using various excitation methods. This scheme considers three different models of exciton relaxation and substantiates the occupation of the triplet radiative states as a result of singlet-triplet intersystem crossing or excitation energy transfer from free excitons of the matrix. Analytical expressions describing five types of different temperature curves were derived. It is established that their shapes are exactly defined by the excitation mechanism and the parameters involved in the numerical model. The conditions allowing the estimation of the energy and kinetic characteristics of QD photoluminescence are formulated. We have shown that the confinement effect causes a decrease in the thermal activation barriers and frequency characteristics for non-radiative transitions. An application of the developed concepts allows predicting and estimating the temperature dependences for direct and indirect optically excited QD luminescence employing silicon nanoclusters in a silica thin-film matrix as an example.

  16. Final Technical Report [Scalable methods for electronic excitations and optical responses of nanostructures: mathematics to algorithms to observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Yousef

    2014-03-19

    The master project under which this work is funded had as its main objective to develop computational methods for modeling electronic excited-state and optical properties of various nanostructures. The specific goals of the computer science group were primarily to develop effective numerical algorithms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT). There were essentially four distinct stated objectives. The first objective was to study and develop effective numerical algorithms for solving large eigenvalue problems such as those that arise in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The second objective was to explore so-called linear scaling methods or Methods that avoid diagonalization. The third was to develop effective approaches for Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT). Our fourth and final objective was to examine effective solution strategies for other problems in electronic excitations, such as the GW/Bethe-Salpeter method, and quantum transport problems.

  17. Optical Communication among Oscillatory Reactions and Photo-Excitable Systems: UV and Visible Radiation Can Synchronize Artificial Neuron Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Giubila, Maria Sole; Germani, Raimondo; Romani, Aldo; Nicoziani, Andrea; Spalletti, Anna; Heron, B Mark

    2017-06-19

    Neuromorphic engineering promises to have a revolutionary impact in our societies. A strategy to develop artificial neurons (ANs) is to use oscillatory and excitable chemical systems. Herein, we use UV and visible radiation as both excitatory and inhibitory signals for the communication among oscillatory reactions, such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky and the chemiluminescent Orban transformations, and photo-excitable photochromic and fluorescent species. We present the experimental results and the simulations regarding pairs of ANs communicating by either one or two optical signals, and triads of ANs arranged in both feed-forward and recurrent networks. We find that the ANs, powered chemically and/or by the energy of electromagnetic radiation, can give rise to the emergent properties of in-phase, out-of-phase, anti-phase synchronizations and phase-locking, dynamically mimicking the communication among real neurons. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Integrating Optical Fiber Bridges in Microfluidic Devices to Create Multiple Excitation/Detection Points for Single Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patabadige, Damith E W; Sadeghi, Jalal; Kalubowilage, Madumali; Bossmann, Stefan H; Culbertson, Anne H; Latifi, Hamid; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2016-10-18

    A microfluidic device is reported that employs an out-of-plane optical fiber bridge to generate two excitation and two detection spots in a microfluidic channel using only one excitation source and one detector. This fiber optic bridge was integrated into a single cell analysis device to detect an intact cell just prior to lysis and the injected lysate 2, 5, 10, or 15 mm downstream of the injection point. Using this setup the absolute migration times for analytes from cells stochastically entering the lysis intersection could be determined for the first time in an automated fashion. This allowed the evaluation of several separation parameters, including analyte band velocity, migration time drift, diffusion coefficient, injection plug length, separation efficiency (N), and plate height (H), which previously could only be estimated. To demonstrate the utility of this system, a peptide substrate for protein kinase B (PKB) was designed, synthesized, and loaded into T-lymphocytes in order to measure PKB activity in individual cells. The optical fiber bridge is easy to implement, inexpensive, and flexible in terms of changing the distances between the two detection points.

  19. Flow injection small-volume fiber-optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave excitation and fluorescence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Huang, Ying; Ye, Zhongbin; Guan, Yafeng

    2011-05-01

    A small-volume fiber-optic pH sensor (FOEWS) based on evanescent wave excitation is developed and evaluated. The sensor is simply fabricated by inserting a decladded optical fiber into a transparent capillary tube. A microchannel between the optical fiber and the capillary inner wall was formed and acted as flow cell for solution flowing through. The pH-sensitive fluorophore of fluorescein can be excited by the evanescent wave field produced on the fiber core surface to produce emission fluorescence. pH value was then sensed by its enhancing effect on the emission fluorescence intensity. The response range of the sensor is from pH 2.09 to pH 8.85 and the linear range is from pH 3.25 to 8.85. The proposed sensor has a small detection volume of 2.5 μL and a short response time of 8 s. It has been applied to measure pH values of real water samples and was in good agreement with the results obtained by commercial pH meter. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  20. Computational studies on the excited states of luminescent platinum(II) alkynyl systems of tridentate pincer ligands in radiative and nonradiative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Han; Lam, Elizabeth Suk-Hang; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2013-10-09

    Platinum(II) alkynyl complexes of various tridentate pincer ligands, [Pt(trpy)(C≡CR)](+) (trpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine), [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+) (R'-bzimpy = 2,6-bis(N-alkylbenzimidazol-2'-yl)pyridine and R' = alkyl), [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] (R'-bzimb = 1,3-bis(N-alkylbenzimidazol-2'-yl)benzene and R' = C4H9), have been found to possess rich photophysical properties. The emission in dilute solutions of [Pt(trpy)(C≡CR)](+) originated from a triplet alkynyl-to-tridentate pincer ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) excited state, with mixing of a platinum-to-tridentate pincer ligand metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, while that of [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] originated from a triplet excited state of intraligand (IL) character of the tridentate ligand mixed with a platinum-to-tridentate ligand MLCT character. Interestingly, both emissions were observed in [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+) in some cases. In addition, [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] displayed a photoluminescence quantum yield higher than that of [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+). Computational studies have been performed on the representative complexes [Pt(trpy)(C≡CPh)](+) (1), [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CPh)](+) (2), and [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CPh)] (3), where R' = CH3 and Ph = C6H5, to provide an in-depth understanding of the nature of their emissive origin as well as the radiative and nonradiative processes. In particular, the factors governing the ordering of the triplet excited states and radiative decay rate constants of the emissive state ((3)ES) have been examined. The potential energy profiles for the deactivation process from the (3)ES via triplet metal-centered ((3)MC) states have also been explored. This work reveals for the first time the potential energy profiles for the thermal deactivation pathway of square planar platinum(II) complexes.

  1. Luminescent characteristics of UV excited Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}: Pr{sup 3+} reddish-orange phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Mohan P, Remya; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N.V.; Biju, P.R., E-mail: prb.mgu@gmail.com

    2016-02-15

    Pr{sup 3+} doped Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} phosphors were synthesised by solid state reaction process. The structure, surface morphology and photoluminescence of the prepared phosphors were analysed using XRD, SEM and photoluminescence spectroscopy respectively. The XRD pattern confirmed orthorhombic perovskite structure of the Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}: x Pr{sup 3+} phosphor. Agglomeration of particles with irregular shapes is observed from the SEM images. The emission spectra of Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}: x Pr{sup 3+} phosphor shows the samples can be effectively excited with UV light at 336 nm and exhibit a strong reddish-orange emission at 611 nm. Concentration dependence of emission intensity shows concentration quenching effect on increasing Pr{sup 3+} concentration after x = 0.1 because of dipole–dipole interaction. Using Blasse's formula, critical distance for energy transfer was calculated. The CIE co-ordinates, CCT, colour purity and luminescence decay of the prepared phosphors were also calculated. These results offer the prepared phosphor as a suitable candidate for various photonic applications. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}: x Pr{sup 3+} perovskite structured phosphors were synthesized. • Under UV excitation, the PL spectra show strong reddish-orange emission. • The emission from {sup 3}P{sub J} levels of Pr{sup 3+} were absent due to the presence of IVCT band. • Concentration quenching due to dipole–dipole interaction was observed. • For x = 0.1, sample shows a maximum emission intensity with 91.7% colour purity.

  2. Transient optical response of ultrafast nonequilibrium excited metals: effects of electron-electron contribution to collisional absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombier, J P; Combis, P; Audouard, E; Stoian, R

    2008-03-01

    Approaching energy coupling in laser-irradiated metals, we point out the role of electron-electron collision as an efficient control factor for ultrafast optical absorption. The high degree of laser-induced electron-ion nonequilibrium drives a complex absorption pattern with consequences on the transient optical properties. Consequently, high electronic temperatures determine largely the collision frequency and establish a transition between absorptive regimes in solid and plasma phases. In particular, taking into account umklapp electron-electron collisions, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of the laser-matter interaction to calculate laser energy deposition during the electron-ion nonequilibrium stage and subsequent matter transformation phases. We observe strong correlations between optical and thermodynamic properties according to the experimental situations. A suitable connection between solid and plasma regimes is chosen in accordance with models that describe the behavior in extreme, asymptotic regimes. The proposed approach describes as well situations encountered in pump-probe types of experiments, where the state of matter is probed after initial excitation. Comparison with experimental measurements shows simulation results which are sufficiently accurate to interpret the observed material behavior. A numerical probe is proposed to analyze the transient optical properties of matter exposed to ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation at moderate and high intensities. Various thermodynamic states are assigned to the observed optical variation. Qualitative indications of the amount of energy coupled in the irradiated targets are obtained.

  3. Limit of detection of a fiber optics gyroscope using a super luminescent radiation source; Limite de deteccion de un giroscopio de fibra optica usando una fuente de radiacion superluminiscente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, G.E. [Laboratorio de Optica Aplicada, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nikolaev, V.A. [Departamento de Optica y Radiofisica Cuantica, Universidad Estatal de Telecomunicaciones de San Petersburgo, M.A. Bonch-Bruyevich, Kanal Moika 61, Saint Petersburg 191186, (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to establish the dependence of characteristics of the fiber optics gyroscope (FOG) with respect to the parameters of the super luminescent emission source based on doped optical fiber with rare earth elements (Super luminescent Fiber Source, SFS), argument the pumping rate election of the SFS to obtain characteristics limits of the FOG sensibility. By using this type of emission source in the FOG is recommend to use the rate when the direction of the pumping signal coincide with the super luminescent signal. The most results are the proposition and argumentation of the SFS election as emission source to be use in the FOG of the phase type. Such a decision allow to increase the characteristics of the FOG sensibility in comparison with the use of luminescent source of semiconductors emission which are extensively used in the present time. The use of emission source of the SFS type allow to come closer to the threshold of the obtained sensibility limit (detection limit) which is determined with the shot noise. (Author)

  4. Optical and Near Infrared Study of the Cepheus E outflow, a very low excitation object

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, S.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Garnavich, P.M.; Curiel, S.; A. C. Raga; Bohm, K. H.; Raymond, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present images and spectra of the Cepheus E (Cep E) region at both optical and infrared wavelengths. Only the brightest region of the southern lobe of the Cep E outflow reveals optical emission, suggesting that the extinction close to the outflow source plays an important r\\^ole in the observed difference between the optical and IR morphologies. Cep E is a unique object since it provides a link between the spectroscopic properties of the optical Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and those of deeply...

  5. Ultrafast Optical Excitation of a Persistent Surface-State Population in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, Jonathan

    2012-03-14

    Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.

  6. Electronic, structural and optical properties of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals: the role of the excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantele, G.; Ninno, D.; Iadonisi, G. [Coherentia-INFM and Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' - Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Degoli, Elena; Bisi, O.; Ossicini, Stefano [INFM-S' ' 3 and Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Fogliani, 42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Luppi, Eleonora; Magri, Rita [INFM-S' ' 3 and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we report on a first-principle calculation of the electronic and structural properties of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals both in the ground- and in an excited-state configuration. The presence of an electron-hole pair created under excitation is taken into account and its effects on both the electronic spectrum and the cluster geometry are pointed out. The interpretation of the results is done within a four-level model, which also allows the explanation of the experimentally observed Stokes shift. Size-related aspects are also analysed and discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. The response of thermally and optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C to high-energy heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaza, R.; Yukihara, E. G.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    2004-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of Al2O3 dosimeters to high-energy heavy charged particles (HCP) has been studied using the heavy ion medical accelerator at Chiba, Japan. The samples were Al2O3 single-crystal chips, of the type usually known as TLD-500, and Luxel(TM) dosimeters (Al2O3:C powder in plastic) from Landauer Inc. The samples were exposed to 4He (150 MeV/u), 12C (400 MeV/u), 28Si (490 MeV/us) and 56Fe (500 MeV/u) ions, with linear energy transfer values covering the range from 2.26 to 189 keV/micrometers in water and doses from 1 to 100 mGy (to water). A 90Sr/90Y beta source, calibrated against a 60Co secondary standard, was used for calibration purposes. For OSL, we used both continuous-wave OSL measurements (CW-OSL, using green light stimulation at 525 nm) and pulsed OSL measurements (POSL, using 532 nm stimulation from a Nd:YAG Q-switched laser). The efficiencies (eta HCP, gamma) of the different HCPs at producing OSL or TL were observed to depend not only upon the linear energy transfer (LET) of the HCP, but also upon the sample type (single crystal chip or Luxel(TM)) and the luminescence method used to define the signal--i.e. TL, CW-OSL initial intensity, CW-OSL total area, or POSL. Observed changes in shape of the decay curve lead to potential methods for extracting LET information of unknown radiation fields. A discussion of the results is given, including the potential use of OSL from Al2O3 in the areas of space radiation dosimetry and radiation oncology. c2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear Optics of Hexaphenyl Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Neuendorf, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear optical response of films of needle-shaped para-hexaphenyl nanoaggregates on mica surfaces is investigated. Two-photon luminescence as well as optical second harmonic generation (SHG) are observed following excitation with femtosecond pulses at 770 nm. Polarization dependent...... measurements reveal that the nonlinear optical transition dipole moment is oriented with an angle of 75° with respect to the needles long axes. The absolute value of the macroscopic second-order susceptibility, averaged over a size distribution of p-6P nanoaggregates, is estimated to be of the order of 6...

  9. Luminescence materials for pH and oxygen sensing in microbial cells - structures, optical properties, and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xianshao; Pan, Tingting; Chen, Lei; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen

    2017-09-01

    Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses on pH, oxygen, and dual pH and oxygen sensors specifically for their application in microbial cells. In addition, we focused not only on sensor materials with different chemical structures, but also on design and applications of sensors for better understanding cellular metabolism of microbial cells. Finally, we also provided an outlook for future materials design and key challenges in reaching broad applications in microbial cells.

  10. Optical excitation of valley and spin currents of chiral edge states in graphene with Rashba spin-orbital coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2017-10-01

    Graphene on a substrate with a topological line defect possesses chiral edge states that exhibit linear dispersion and have opposite Fermi velocities for two valleys. The chiral edge states are localized at the line defect. With the presence of Rashba spin-orbital coupling, the dispersion of the chiral edge states splits into two. The optical excitation is modeled by the generalized semiconductor Bloch equation based on tight-binding theory. Charge, valley, and spin currents generated by normally incident plane waves through the photogalvanic effect as well as those generated by oblique light through the surface-plasmon drag effect are studied. Conditions for optical generation of purely localized valley or spin currents, which are solely originated from the chiral edge states, are discussed.

  11. Direct determination of sizes of excitations from optical measurements on ion-implanted GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspnes, D.E.; Kelso, S.M.; Olson, C.G.; Lynch, D.W.

    1982-06-28

    Using a simple model that describes the decrease of the amplitudes of optical structures in ion-implanted crystals, projected areas of several valence and core excitons in GaAs are determined. The last remnant of crystal-related optical structure vanishes for crystallite areas less than (16 A)/sup 2/.

  12. Persistent Luminescence Nanophosphor Involved Near-Infrared Optical Bioimaging for Investigation of Foodborne Probiotics Biodistribution in Vivo: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoyao; Liu, Jing-Min; Zhang, Dongdong; Ge, Kun; Wang, Peihua; Liu, Huilin; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Shuo

    2017-09-20

    Probiotics has attracted great attention in food nutrition and safety research field, but thus far there are limited analytical techniques for visualized and real-time monitoring of the probiotics when they are ingested in vivo. Herein, the optical bioimaging technique has been introduced for investigation of foodborne probiotics biodistribution in vivo, employing the near-infrared (NIR) emitting persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs) of Cr 3+ -doped zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) as the contrast nanoprobes. The ultrabrightness, super long afterglow, polydispersed size, low toxicity, and excellent photostability and biocompatibility of PLNPs were demonstrated to be qualified as a tracer for labeling probiotics via antibody (anti-Gram positive bacteria LTA antibody) recognition as well as contrast agent for long-term bioimaging the probiotics. In vivo optical bioimaging assay showed that the LTA antibody functionalized ZGGO nanoprobes that could be efficiently tagged to the probiobics were successfully applied for real-time monitoring and nondamaged probing of the biodistribution of probiotics inside the living body after oral administration. This work presents a proof-of-concept that exploited the bioimaging methodology for real-time and nondamaged researching the foodborne probiotics behaviors in vivo, which would open up a novel way of food safety detection and nutrition investigation.

  13. Distinguishing between ultrafast optical harmonic generation and multi-photon-induced luminescence from ZnO thin films by frequency-resolved interferometric autocorrelation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Mascheck, M; Silies, M; Yatsui, T; Kitamura, K; Ohtsu, M; Lienau, C

    2010-11-22

    The nonlinear optical properties of thin ZnO film are studied using interferometric autocorrelation (IFRAC) microscopy. Ultrafast, below-bandgap excitation with 6-fs laser pulses at 800 nm focused to a spot size of 1 µm results in two emission bands in the blue and blue-green spectral region with distinctly different coherence properties. We show that an analysis of the wavelength-dependence of the interference fringes in the IFRAC signal allows for an unambiguous assignment of these bands as coherent second harmonic emission and incoherent, multiphoton-induced photoluminescence, respectively. More generally our analysis shows that IFRAC allows for a complete characterization of the coherence properties of the nonlinear optical emission from nanostructures in a single-beam experiment. Since this technique combines a very high temporal and spatial resolution we anticipate broad applications in nonlinear nano-optics.

  14. Distinguishing between ultrafast optical harmonic generation and multi-photon-induced luminescence from ZnO thin films by interferometric frequency-resolved autocorrelation microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Slawa; Mascheck, Manfred; Silies, Martin [Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universitaet, Oldenburg (Germany); Yatsui, Takashi; Kitamura, Kokoro; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Lienau, Christoph [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of a thin ZnO film are studied using interferometric frequency-resolved autocorrelation (IFRAC) microscopy. By exciting the film with 6-fs, below-bandgap laser pulses at 800nm focused to a spot size of 1 {mu}m two emission bands in the blue and bluegreen spectral region with distinctly different coherence properties can be detected. We show that an analysis of the wavelength-dependence of the interference fringes in the IFRAC signal allows for an unambiguous assignment of these bands as coherent second harmonic emission and incoherent, multiphoton-induced photoluminescence, respectively. More generally our analysis shows that IFRAC allows for a complete characterization of the coherence properties of the nonlinear optical emission from nanostructures in a single-beam experiment. Since this technique combines a very high temporal and spatial resolution we anticipate broad applications in nonlinear nano-optics.

  15. Efficient manganese luminescence induced by Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth fluoride and phosphate nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manganese materials with attractive optical properties have been proposed for applications in such areas as photonics, light-emitting diodes, and bioimaging. In this paper, we have demonstrated multicolor Mn2+ luminescence in the visible region by controlling Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth nanocrystals [NCs]. CeF3 and CePO4 NCs doped with Mn2+ have been prepared and can be well dispersed in aqueous solutions. Under ultraviolet light excitation, both the CeF3:Mn and CePO4:Mn NCs exhibit Mn2+ luminescence, yet their output colors are green and orange, respectively. By optimizing Mn2+ doping concentrations, Mn2+ luminescence quantum efficiency and Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer efficiency can respectively reach 14% and 60% in the CeF3:Mn NCs.

  16. Magnetic tuning of upconversion luminescence in Au/NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gangtao; Zhong, Zhiqiang; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Shiping; Hu, Shigang; Hu, Pan; Hu, Junshan; Wu, Shaobing; Han, Junbo; Liu, Yunxin

    2017-04-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ have received increasing attention due to their unique optical-magnetic bifunctional properties. Here, we show that the luminescent intensity from NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles decreases monotonously with increasing the applied magnetic field from 0 to 37.1 T, while plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence in Au/NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocomposite is independent of a magnetic field lower than 6 T. The surface plasmon resonances could compensate for the energetic mismatching between the excitation light and the energy-level gaps induced by magnetic field and enhance the radiative efficiency, which is the main factor for achieving this stable upconversion emission in this nanocomposite under a magnetic field not higher than 6 T. These findings provide a novel route for exploring the magnetic control of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide-doped bifunctional nanoparticles.

  17. Temporal and Remote Tuning of Piezophotonic-Effect-Induced Luminescence and Color Gamut via Modulating Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man-Chung; Chen, Li; Bai, Gongxun; Huang, Long-Biao; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-09-18

    Light-emitting materials have been extensively investigated because of their widespread applications in solid-state lighting, displays, sensors, and bioimaging. In these applications, it is highly desirable to achieve tunable luminescence in terms of luminescent intensity and wavelength. Here, a convenient physical approach of temporal and remote tuning of light-emitting wavelength and color is demonstrated, which is greatly different from conventional methods. It is shown that by modulating the frequency of magnetic-field excitation at room temperature, luminescence from the flexible composites of ZnS:Al, Cu phosphors induced by the piezophotonic effect can be tuned in real time and in situ. The mechanistic investigation suggests that the observed tunable piezophotonic emission is ascribed to the tilting band structure of the ZnS phosphor induced by magnetostrictive strain under a high frequency of magnetic-field excitation. Furthermore, some proof-of concept devices, including red-green-blue full-color displays and tunable white-light sources are demonstrated simply by frequency modulation. A new understanding of the fundamentals of both luminescence and magnetic-optics coupling is thus provided, while offering opportunities in magnetic-optical sensing, piezophotonics, energy harvesting, novel light sources, and displays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Luminescence basic concepts, applications and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2014-01-01

    The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been th

  19. Advances in luminescence instrument systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the development of luminescence measurement systems and techniques at Riso. These include: (1) optical stimulation units based on new-generation powerful blue light (470 nm) emitting diodes providing up to 28 mW/cm(2) for OSL measurements; (2) an infrared (830 nm...

  20. Luminescence efficiency during ion implantation of sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, A.; Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    Luminescence signals produced during ion implantation of sapphire are related to the F,F{sup +} and F{sub 2} defect centres. However, the efficiency of light production changes with ion beam dose, the rate of energy deposition and radiation damage, hence the signals are not proportional to the defect concentrations. Data are presented which suggest that the light is primarily produced by electronic excitation. Luminescence efficiency within the region of nuclear collisions is very low. It is not possible to determine the energy dependence of the luminescence intensity, as a function of ion energy, by energy variations within a single target crystal. (author).

  1. Dynamics of coupled plasmon polariton wave packets excited at a subwavelength slit in optically thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Lingxiao; Seideman, Tamar; Petek, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We study by numerical simulations the excitation and propagation dynamics of coupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave packets (WPs) in optically thin Ag films and a bulk Ag/vacuum interface under the illumination of a subwavelength slit by 400 nm continuous wave (cw) and femtosecond pulsed light. The generated surface fields include contributions from both SPPs and quasicylindrical waves, which dominate in different regimes. We explore aspects of the coupled SPP modes in Ag thin films, including symmetry, propagation, attenuation, and the variation of coupling with incident angle and film thickness. Simulations of the electromagnetic transients initiated with femtosecond pulses reveal new features of coupled SPP WP generation and propagation in thin Ag films. Our results show that, under pulsed excitation, the SPP modes in an Ag thin film break up into two distinct bound surface wave packets characterized by marked differences in symmetries, group velocities, attenuation lengths, and dispersion properties. The nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scale excitation and propagation dynamics of the coupled SPP WPs are revealed in detail by movies recording the evolution of their transient field distributions.

  2. Optical chromatography using a photonic crystal fiber with on-chip fluorescence excitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashok, AC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available . Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, ?Theory of optical chromatography,? Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701?2710 (1997). (C) 2010 OSA 15 March 2010 / Vol. 18, No. 6 / OPTICS EXPRESS 6396 #123906 - $15.00 USD Received 8 Feb 2010; revised 4 Mar 2010; accepted 4... Mar 2010; published 12 Mar 2010 14. P. C. Ashok, R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, ?Towards integrated optical chromatography using photonic crystal fiber,? K. Dholakia, and C. G. Spalding, eds., (SPIE, 2009), p. 74000R. 15...

  3. Gold nanoantenna resonance diagnostics via transversal particle plasmon luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissert, Matthias D; Moosmann, Carola; Ilin, Konstantin S; Siegel, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen

    2011-02-14

    We perform two-photon excitation confocal experiments on coupled gold nanoantennas and observe time-integrated luminescence spectra that match plasmonic mode emission in the far-field. We show that the transversal particle plasmon mode can be excited, using excitation light that is cross-polarized with respect to the gold luminescence signal and therefore oriented along the long axis of the dipole gold antenna. We provide evidence for losses in polarization information from the excitation channel to the luminescence response due to the nature of the energy and momentum transfer. Finally, we map out the two-photon induced luminescence intensity profile for a fixed excitation wavelength λ and varying antenna arm length L.

  4. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier: role of second excited state on ultrahigh bit-rate signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Seyed Mohsen; Razaghi, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Abdollah

    2017-04-20

    In this paper, a theoretical model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QDSOA) is proposed. The dynamics of carriers in ground, excited, and continuum states and wetting layer are considered in this model. The effects of the second excited state (ES2) inclusion are investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in the proposed QDSOA model. Moreover, the inhomogeneous broadening effect due to size distribution of dots, and the homogeneous broadening effect of a single dot in the gain spectrum by grouping of dots based on their optical resonant frequency, are included in the model. Furthermore, grouping of photon modes is considered in the model. It is shown that improvement of QDSOA performance is possible by considering ES2 in rate equations. Gain saturation in different injection currents is obtained for various square-shaped pulse train bit-rates. It is shown that carriers' relaxation time plays an important role in signal amplification and processing of QDSOA. The results illustrate that QDSOA can be used for high bit-rate signal processing devices (up to 450 Gbps) with negligible wave distortion and fast gain recovery.

  5. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr V. Multian; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E.; Anna V. Vakaliuk; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M.; Diyuk, Vitaliy E.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Oleksandr V. Mischanchuk; Vladyslav V. Lisnyak; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g?1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the ther...

  6. Rabi Spectroscopy and Excitation Inhomogeneity in a 1D Optical Lattice Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Blatt, S.; Thomsen, J. W.; Campbell, G. K.; Ludlow, A. D.; Swallows, M. D.; Martin, M. J.; Boyd, M. M.; Ye, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of atomic motion on precision Rabi spectroscopy of ultracold fermionic atoms confined in a deep, one dimensional (1D) optical lattice. We analyze the spectral components of longitudinal sideband spectra and present a model to extract information about the transverse motion and sample temperature from their structure. Rabi spectroscopy of the clock transition itself is also influenced by atomic motion in the weakly confined transverse directions of the optical latt...

  7. Three-dimensional weight-accumulation algorithm for generating multiple excitation spots in fast optical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Yu; Toyoda, Haruyoshi

    2017-11-01

    We report here an algorithm for calculating a hologram to be employed in a high-access speed microscope for observing sensory-driven synaptic activity across all inputs to single living neurons in an intact cerebral cortex. The system is based on holographic multi-beam generation using a two-dimensional phase-only spatial light modulator to excite multiple locations in three dimensions with a single hologram. The hologram was calculated with a three-dimensional weighted iterative Fourier transform method using the Ewald sphere restriction to increase the calculation speed. Our algorithm achieved good uniformity of three dimensionally generated excitation spots; the standard deviation of the spot intensities was reduced by a factor of two compared with a conventional algorithm.

  8. Holographic 3D multi-spot two-photon excitation for fast optical stimulation in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Yu; Toyoda, Haruyoshi

    2017-04-01

    We report here a holographic high speed accessing microscope of sensory-driven synaptic activity across all inputs to single living neurons in the context of the intact cerebral cortex. This system is based on holographic multiple beam generation with spatial light modulator, we have demonstrated performance of the holographic excitation efficiency in several in vitro prototype system. 3D weighted iterative Fourier Transform method using the Ewald sphere in consideration of calculation speed has been adopted; multiple locations can be patterned in 3D with single hologram. Standard deviation of intensities of spots are still large due to the aberration of the system and/or hologram calculation, we successfully excited multiple locations of neurons in living mouse brain to monitor the calcium signals.

  9. Study of TL and optically stimulated luminescence of K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Cu nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandlik, Nandkumar [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Department of Physics, Ferguson College, Pune 411004 (India); Sahare, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kulkarni, M.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Bhatt, B.C. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Nanocrytstalline K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Cu phosphor was synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and annealed at different temperatures (400–900 °C) for 2 h. The XRD spectrum shows the cubic structure with crystallite size ∼20 nm. The same was also confirmed from the TEM image which shows the formation of nanorods having diameter ∼20 nm and length of ∼200 nm. They are found to be quite uniform in shapes and sizes. These samples were irradiated with gamma radiation for the doses varying from 0.01 Gy to 10 kGy and their thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics and continuous wave optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) have been studied. The sample annealed at 700 °C was found to be most sensitive than others. The glow curves of the nanophosphor show a major peak at around 175 °C and other two peaks of low intensity at around 85 °C and 305 °C. The traps responsible for the three thermoluminescence peaks in K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Cu are also found to be sensitive to the OSL. The qualitative correlation between TL peaks and CW-OSL response is established. The TL response of the sample annealed at 700 °C for 2 h and irradiated with different gamma doses shows a linear behavior from 0.01 up to 300 Gy and become sublinear in the range of 300 Gy–1 kGy before it saturates with further increase in the dose, while, the OSL response of the same sample shows linearity up to 1 kGy. Simple glow curve structure, easy method of synthesis, and linear dose response make the nanocrystalline phosphor a good candidate for radiation dosimetry, especially for the estimation of high doses of gamma rays where the microcrystalline phosphors generally saturate. -- Highlights: • Nanocrytstalline K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Cu phosphor was synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. • Thermoluminescence (TL) and continuous wave optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) characteristics have been studied. • The TL glow

  10. Excitations, optical absorption spectra, and optical excitonic gaps of heterofullerenes: I. C60, C59N+ and C48N12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, R; Bryant, G W; Sun, G; C.Nicklaus, M; Heringer, D; Frauenheim, T; Manaa, M R; Smith, Jr., V H; Araki, Y; Ito, O

    2003-10-02

    Low-energy excitations and optical absorption spectrum of C{sub 60} are computed by using time-dependent (TD) Hartree-Fock (HF), TD-density functional theory (TD-DFT), TD-DFT-based tight-binding (TD-DFT-TB) and a semiempirical ZINDO method. A detailed comparison of experiment and theory for the excitation energies, optical gap and absorption spectrum of C{sub 60} is presented. It is found that electron correlations and collective effects of exciton pairs play important roles in assigning accurately the spectral features of C{sub 60} and the TD-DFT method with non-hybrid functionals or a local spin density approximation leads to more accurate excitation energies than with hybrid functionals. The level of agreement between theory and experiment for C{sub 60} justifies similar calculations of the excitations and optical absorption spectrum of a monomeric azafullerene cation C{sub 59}N{sup +} exhibits distinguishing spectral features different from C{sub 60}: (1) the first singlet is dipole-allowed and the optical gap is redshifted by 1.44 eV; (2) several weaker absorption maxima occur in the visible region; (3) the transient triplet-triplet absorption at 1.60 eV (775 nm) is much broader and the decay of the triplet state is much faster. The calculated spectra of C{sub 59}N{sup +} characterize and explain well our measured ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and transient absorption spectra of the carborane anion salt [C{sub 59}N][Ag(CB{sub 11}H{sub 6}Cl{sub 6}){sub 2}]. For the most stable isomer of C{sub 48}N{sub 12}, we predict that the first singlet is dipole-allowed, the optical gap is redshifted by 1.22 eV relative to that of C{sub 60}, and optical absorption maxima occur at 585, 528, 443, 363, 340, 314 and 303 nm. We point out that the characterization of the UV-vis and transient absorption spectra of C{sub 48}N{sub 12} isomers is helpful in distinguishing the isomer structures required for applications in molecular electronics. For C{sub 59}N{sup +} and C{sub 48}N

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and VUV excited luminescence properties of LixNa(1-x)Sm(PO3)4 polyphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, S.; Hammami, S.; Megriche, A.; Zambon, D.; Mahiou, R.

    2016-12-01

    Stoichiometric phosphors Li(x)Na(1-x)Sm(PO3)4(x = 0, 0.5, 1) were prepared in the solid state and were characterized at room temperature using X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained LiSm(PO3)4 and NaSm(PO3)4 polycrystalline samples are single-phased and have centrosymmetric monoclinic structure. The observed results show the presence of characteristic bands due to (PO2)- terminal and P-O-P bridging groups. However, the Li0.5Na0.5Sm(PO3)4 material seems to be a mixture of the Li and Na homologues. The VUV excitation and emission spectra of as-synthesized compounds were measured. It was found that the Sm3+ ions show an orange-red emission which corresponds to the group transitions 4G5/2 → 6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2), with the strongest transition (4G5/2 → 6H7/2) peaking at around 597 nm. The decay curves were pure exponential. The derived time constants are comprise between 14 μs and 31 μs, the lowest value is for NaSm(PO3)4. The decays were modeled in the frame of fast diffusion model with a rough estimation of fast cross-relaxation mechanism which returns a cross-relaxation rate of 3-7 × 104 s-1 and diffusion constant of 1-2 × 10-9 cm2 s-1.

  12. STUDY OF OPTICAL AND LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF POTASSIUM-ALUMINA-BORATE GLASS DOPED WITH Cr3+ IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gorbachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-alumina-borate glass doped with chromium ions have been synthesized and investigated, and results are presented. We have synthesized glass of 25K2O-25Al2O3-50B2O3 speciation with addition of 0.2 weight per cent of Cr. It was found out, that heat treatment induces changes in absorption and photoluminescence spectra. According to x-ray diffraction measurements, it has been shown that Al4B2O9 nanocrystalls have been obtained. The average diameter of nanocrystalls is 15 nm. Luminescence spectra have shown that Cr3+ ions are in an octahedral crystalline surrounding of the alumina ions similar to the spectrum of ruby crystal. A conclusion has been done that nanocrystalls of Al4B2O9: Cr3+ are obtained, most probably, in the researched glass. Synthesized material can be used as the base for fiber amplifier in data-transmission systems and as an active substance for medical lasers.

  13. Quasi-particle energies and optical excitations of ZnS monolayer honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhi, Masoud, E-mail: shahrokhimasoud37@gmail.com

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The electronic and optical properties of ZnS honeycomb sheet are investigated. • The electronic properties were analyzed at three levels of GW approach. • The optical properties of these materials are investigated using the BSE approach. • Optical properties of ZnS sheet strongly dominated by excitonic effects. • Spectrum is dominated by strongly bound Frenkel excitons. - Abstract: Using ab-initio density functional theory calculations combined with many-body perturbation formalism we carried out the electronic structure and optical properties of 2D graphene-like ZnS structure. The electronic properties were analyzed at three levels of many-body GW approach (G{sub 0}W{sub 0}, GW{sub 0} and GW) constructed over a Generalized Gradient Approximation functional. Our results indicate that ZnS sheet has a direct band gap at the Γ-point. Also it is seen that inclusion of electron–electron interaction does not change the sort of direct semiconducting band gap in ZnS sheet. The optical properties and excitonic effects of these materials are investigated using the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) approach. The formation of first exciton peaks at 3.86, 4.26, and 4.57 eV with large binding energy of 0.36, 0.49 and 0.73 eV using G{sub 0}W{sub 0} + BSE, GW{sub 0} + BSE and GW + BSE, respectively, was observed. We show that the optical absorption spectrum of 2D ZnS structure is dominated by strongly bound Frenkel excitons. The enhanced excitonic effects in the ZnS monolayer sheet can be useful in designing optoelectronic applications.

  14. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication for exciting whispering gallery modes in microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroudmand, F.

    2014-05-01

    This article demonstrates an investigation and analysis of a tapered fiber fabrication using an etchant droplet method. To achieve precise control on process, a two-step etching method is proposed (using 48% concentration of HF acid and Buffered HF) which results in low-loss adiabatic tapered fiber. A spectrum analysis monitoring in addition to a microscopy system was used to verify the etching progress. Tapers with losses less than 0.4 dB in air and 4.5 dB in water are demonstrated. A biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method was used to excite the WGMs on a microsphere surface in aquatic environment.

  15. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  16. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-11-03

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications.

  17. Luminescence performance of Eu 3-doped lead-free zinc phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Luminescence performance of Eu$^{3+}-doped lead-free zinc phosphate glasses for red emission. Y C RATNAKARAM V ... These glasses were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques at room temperature. Allthe glasses showed relatively broad fluorescence excitation and luminescence spectra. Luminescence ...

  18. Optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules determined by the dipole ( γ,γ) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Quan; Liu, Ya-Wei; Xu, Xin; Ni, Dong-Dong; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2017-07-01

    The dipole (γ,γ) method, which is the inelastic X-ray scattering operated at a negligibly small momentum transfer, has been developed to determine the absolute optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules. This new method is free from the line saturation effect, and its Bethe-Born conversion factor varies much more slowly with the excitation energy than that of the dipole (e, e) method. Thus the dipole (γ,γ) method provides a reliable approach to obtain the benchmark optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations for gaseous atoms and molecules. In this paper, we give a review of the dipole (γ,γ) method and some recent measurements of absolute optical oscillator strengths of gaseous atoms and molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  19. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia....... The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...

  20. Effect of Ag on structural, optical and luminescence properties of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamakshi; Deshpande, M. P.; Chaki, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    Silver (Ag)-doped (0, 5, 10 and 15%) ZnS nanoparticles are synthesized by microwave-assisted chemical route using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). We study the compositional, structural, optical and luminescence properties by energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. Synthesized Ag-doped ZnS nanoparticles do not possess any impurity as seen from EDAX spectra. TEM images show particles to be in spherical shape with agglomeration, and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed that they are polycrystalline in nature. Allowed LO and TO modes corresponding to cubic phase for all the samples are observed in Raman spectra. FTIR spectroscopy is used to study the interaction between PVP and as-synthesized nanoparticles. Blue shift can be seen in pure and Ag-doped ZnS nanoparticles compared to bulk ZnS as seen from absorption spectra. Green emission is observed in PL spectra due to Ag doping without showing any quenching behavior.

  1. Thermal quenching of luminescence processes in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    of these processes is, in general, thermally dependent, and leads either to enhancement or quenching of the luminescence with increasing temperature. Previous studies have measured the combined thermal activation characteristics of all three processes, and show a strong dependence on stimulation energy......The technique of optically stimulated luminescence has important uses in the dose evaluation of irradiated feldspars. The luminescence process involves the eviction of electrons from donor traps, charge transfer through the conduction band, and recombination at acceptor sites; each....... In this article, an initial attempt is made to isolate only the recombination part of the luminescence cycle, and determine its thermal characteristics separately. A Variety of luminescence transitions are examined in a range of both alkali and plagioclase feldspars; three distinct emission types are identified...

  2. Silver-induced reconstruction of an adeninate-based metal–organic framework for encapsulation of luminescent adenine-stabilized silver clusters† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional structural, physicochemical and optical characterisation. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tc00260a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Dries; Coutino-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; Stassen, Ivo; Fenwick, Oliver; Richard, Fanny; Samorì, Paolo; Ameloot, Rob; Hofkens, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Bright luminescent silver-adenine species were successfully stabilized in the pores of the MOF-69A (zinc biphenyldicarboxylate) metal–organic framework, starting from the intrinsically blue luminescent bio-MOF-1 (zinc adeninate 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylate). Bio-MOF-1 is transformed to the MOF-69A framework by selectively leaching structural adenine linkers from the original framework using silver nitrate solutions in aqueous ethanol. Simultaneously, bright blue-green luminescent silver-adenine clusters are formed inside the pores of the recrystallized MOF-69A matrix in high local concentrations. The structural transition and concurrent changes in optical properties were characterized using a range of structural, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques (steady-state and time-resolved luminescence, quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy). The presented results open new avenues for exploring the use of MOFs containing luminescent silver clusters for solid-state lighting and sensor applications. PMID:28496980

  3. Optical Bragg, atomic Bragg and cavity QED detections of quantum phases and excitation spectra of ultracold atoms in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jinwu, E-mail: jy306@ccs.msstate.edu [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, K.Y.; Li, Yan [Department of Physics, East China Normal university, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Chen, Yan [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Zhang, W.P. [Department of Physics, East China Normal university, Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases and quantum phase transitions between these phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases and phase transitions effectively remains an outstanding challenge. In this paper, we will develop a systematic and unified theory of using the optical Bragg scattering, atomic Bragg scattering or cavity QED to detect the ground state and the excitation spectrum of many quantum phases of interacting bosons loaded in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices. The physically measurable quantities of the three experiments are the light scattering cross sections, the atom scattered clouds and the cavity leaking photons respectively. We show that the two photon Raman transition processes in the three detection methods not only couple to the density order parameter, but also the valence bond order parameter due to the hopping of the bosons on the lattice. This valence bond order coupling is very sensitive to any superfluid order or any valence bond (VB) order in the quantum phases to be probed. These quantum phases include not only the well-known superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases such as various kinds of charge density waves (CDW), valence bond solids (VBS), and CDW-VBS phases with both CDW and VBS orders unique to frustrated lattices, and also various kinds of supersolids. We analyze respectively the experimental conditions of the three detection methods to probe these various quantum phases and their corresponding excitation spectra. We also address the effects of a finite temperature and a harmonic trap. We contrast the three scattering methods with recent in situ measurements inside a harmonic trap and argue that the two kinds of measurements are complementary to each other. The combination of both kinds of detection methods could be used to match the combination of

  4. Formation of ZnO luminescent films on SiN films for light source of high-resolution optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Aki; Kanamori, Satoshi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Kominami, Hiroko; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nakanishi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated ZnO/SiN films for use as a light source of a high-resolution optical microscope and characterized the properties of the films, and demonstrated images obtained with the microscope using the fabricated ZnO/SiN films. A 100-nm-thick ZnO film deposited on a SiN film showed a much higher CL intensity than the SiN film, and it was enhanced by high-temperature annealing of the ZnO film. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope images of gold particles of 200 nm diameter taken using the ZnO/SiN film and SiN indicated that the ZnO/SiN films can provide a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and a higher frame rate than the SiN film. It was shown that the dynamic observation of living cells becomes possible using the high-resolution optical microscope with a bright light source. Moreover, this fact promises that such optical microscope can contribute to progress in the medical and biological fields.

  5. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Chan [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Il An, Gwang [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se-Il [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungmin [Korea Basic Science Institute Chuncheon Center, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Joo [Department of Physics and Energy Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-710 (Korea, Republic of); Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaetae [Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Welch, Michael J. [Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.k [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [{sup 32}P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy {beta}{sup +}/{beta}{sup -} particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [{sup 32}P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic {beta}{sup +} or {beta}{sup -} particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  6. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-25

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics.

  7. Understanding the effects of packing and chemical terminations on the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    In a first-principles study based on many-body perturbation theory, we analyze the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with increasing packing density and different terminations, considering for comparison the corresponding gas-phase molecules and dimers. Intermolecular coupling increases with the density of the chromophores independently of the functional groups. The intense π → π* resonance that triggers photo-isomerization is present in the spectra of isolated dimers and diluted SAMs, but it is almost completely washed out in tightly packed architectures. Intermolecular coupling is partially inhibited by mixing differently functionalized azobenzene derivatives, in particular when large groups are involved. In this way, the excitation band inducing the photo-isomerization process is partially preserved and the effects of dense packing partly counterbalanced. Our results suggest that a tailored design of azobenzene-functionalized SAMs which optimizes the interplay between the packing density of the chromophores and their termination can lead to significant improvements in the photo-switching efficiency of these systems.

  8. Optical electric-field enhancement at a metal surface arising from surface-plasmon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W H; Ford, G W

    1981-03-01

    Surface plasmons can be excited on a metal by an external plane-wave beam through the use of prism or grating couplers or by introducing roughness. This can enhance the electric field at the surface compared with that in the incident beam, and it has been suggested that this effect is an important aspect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. A general upper limit for this field enhancement is derived on the basis of energy conservation. Numerical results are given for Ag, Au, and Cu. With a perfect coupler on a Ag surface, the maximum increase of the square of the electric field in the 2-3-eV range is congruent with300. On randomly roughened surfaces, the estimated enhancements are of the order of unity.

  9. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E; Vakaliuk, Anna V; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M; Diyuk, Vitaliy E; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O; Mischanchuk, Oleksandr V; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya

    2017-12-01

    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g-1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The bromination dramatically reduces the microporosity producing practically non-porous material, while the incorporated into the micropores bromine induces the dielectric and structural impact on surface polarizability and conductivity due to the charging effect. We have found that the elastic optical scattering in proper solid angles in the forward and the backward hemispheres is sensitive to the kind of the bromine bonding, e.g., physical adsorption or chemisorption, and the bromination level, respectively, that can be utilized for the express remote fabrication control of the nanoscale carbons with given interfaces.

  10. Locally Excited State-Charge Transfer State Coupled Dyes as Optically Responsive Neuron Firing Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dumitru; Butcher, John B; Waddell, Paul G; Andras, Peter; Benniston, Andrew C

    2017-10-17

    A selection of NIR-optically responsive neuron probes was produced comprising of a donor julolidyl group connected to a BODIPY core and several different styryl and vinylpyridinyl derived acceptor moieties. The strength of the donor-acceptor interaction was systematically modulated by altering the electron withdrawing nature of the aryl unit. The fluorescence quantum yield was observed to decrease as the electron withdrawing effect of the aryl subunit increased in line with changes of the Hammett parameter. The effectiveness of these fluorophores as optically responsive dyes for neuronal imaging was assessed by measuring the toxicity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each dye. A great improvement of SNR was obtained when compared to the first-generation BODIPY-based voltage sensitive dyes with concomitant toxicity decrease. The mechanism for the optical response is disparate from conventional cyanine-based dyes, opening up a new way to produce effective voltage sensitive dyes that respond well into the NIR region. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nanosecond nonlinear optical extinction in dispersed multi walled carbon nanotubes excited at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sean M.; Hold, Stephanie V.; Cadek, Martin; Drury, Anna; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-03-01

    Experimental measurements of nonlinear optical extinction of nanosecond laser pulses by a set of conjugated co-polymer/multi walled carbon nanotube composites dispersed in solution is reported here. The polymer poly(meta-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-para-phenylenevinylene) and multi walled carbon nanotube composites were varied according to nanotube mass content. The fabrication technique employed to produce the composite material is discussed. The experiments were performed using an open aperture Z-scan with 6 ns gaussian pulses at 532 nm from a frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:Yag laser. The nonlinear optical extinction of the incident pulses displays enhanced dissipation of the incident light for lower incident intensities relative to increasing multi walled carbon nanotube content. Either the multi walled carbon nanotubes or the polymer dominates the nonlinear response of the composite depending on the relative mass of polymer to nanotube. Mechanistic implications of the optical dissipation are also discussed and investigated via angular dependent scattering measurements.

  12. Luminescent properties of ytterbium-doped ternary lanthanum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminska, A., E-mail: kaminska@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Cybinska, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Zhydachevskii, Ya. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv 79646 (Ukraine); Sybilski, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Meyer, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstrasse 6, D-50939 Koeln (Germany); Suchocki, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Bydgoszcz, Weyssenhoffa 11, 85-072, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2011-07-28

    Highlights: > Ytterbium-doped ternary lanthanum chloride as a promising light-emitting material. > The luminescence properties of K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Yb{sup 3+} powders with different Yb concentration. > Very good temperature stability of the powders for higher Yb concentration. - Abstract: Studies of the absorption and temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra and luminescence decay times of the intra-shell f-f transitions ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2} {r_reversible} {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) of Yb{sup 3+} ions in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Yb{sup 3+} powders with 5, 10, 15 and 25% of ytterbium are presented. The spectroscopic properties of the powders with different ytterbium content are compared. Experiments were performed at the temperatures from 25 to 300 K. The strong emission around 982 nm has been observed under direct excitation of the luminescence center with 960 nm line of continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by Ar-ion laser. The temperature quenching effect of the luminescence was rather week, especially in the samples with higher concentration of ytterbium (15 and 25%). Additionally the probability of the f-f radiative transitions of the Yb{sup 3+} ions in these powders was almost temperature independent for more heavily doped samples (with 15 and 25% of Yb) and only weakly temperature dependent for less doped samples (with 5 and 10% of Yb). These results reveal high thermal stability of the optical properties of the examined powders.

  13. Electronic excitation induced modifications of optical and morphological properties of PCBM thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, T. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Singhal, R., E-mail: rsinghal.phy@mnit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Vishnoi, R. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Department of Physics, Vardhman (P.G.) College, Bijnor 246701, U.P. (India); Sharma, P. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Patra, A.; Chand, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Post Box No. 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Biswas, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Spin casted PCBM thin films are irradiated by 90 MeV Ni{sup 7+} ion beam. • The decrease in band gap was found after irradiation. • There is a decomposition of molecular bond due to ion irradiation. • Roughness is also found to be dependent on incident ion fluence. - Abstract: Phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is a fullerene derivative and most commonly used in organic photovoltaic devices both as electron acceptor and transporting material due to high electron mobility. PCBM is easy to spin caste on some substrate as it is soluble in chlorobenzene. In this study, the spin coated thin films of PCBM (on two different substrate, glass and double sided silicon) were irradiated using 90 MeV Ni{sup 7+} swift heavy ion beam at low fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 9} to 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to study the effect of ion beam irradiation. The pristine and irradiated PCBM thin films were characterized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the optical properties before and after irradiation. These thin films were further analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the morphological modifications which are induced by energetic ions. The variation in optical band gap after irradiation was measured using Tauc’s relation from UV–visible absorption spectra. A considerable change was observed with increasing fluence in optical band gap of irradiated thin films of PCBM with respect to the pristine film. The decrease in FTIR band intensity of C{sub 60} cage reveals the polymerization reaction due to high energy ion impact. The roughness is also found to be dependent on incident fluences. This study throws light for the application of PCBM in organic solar cells in form of ion irradiation induced nanowires of PCBM for efficient charge carrier transportation in active layer.

  14. Electronic excitation induced modifications of optical and morphological properties of PCBM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T.; Singhal, R.; Vishnoi, R.; Sharma, P.; Patra, A.; Chand, S.; Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.; Biswas, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is a fullerene derivative and most commonly used in organic photovoltaic devices both as electron acceptor and transporting material due to high electron mobility. PCBM is easy to spin caste on some substrate as it is soluble in chlorobenzene. In this study, the spin coated thin films of PCBM (on two different substrate, glass and double sided silicon) were irradiated using 90 MeV Ni7+ swift heavy ion beam at low fluences ranging from 1 × 109 to 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to study the effect of ion beam irradiation. The pristine and irradiated PCBM thin films were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the optical properties before and after irradiation. These thin films were further analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the morphological modifications which are induced by energetic ions. The variation in optical band gap after irradiation was measured using Tauc's relation from UV-visible absorption spectra. A considerable change was observed with increasing fluence in optical band gap of irradiated thin films of PCBM with respect to the pristine film. The decrease in FTIR band intensity of C60 cage reveals the polymerization reaction due to high energy ion impact. The roughness is also found to be dependent on incident fluences. This study throws light for the application of PCBM in organic solar cells in form of ion irradiation induced nanowires of PCBM for efficient charge carrier transportation in active layer.

  15. Spatio-temporal Theory of Lasing Action in Optically-Pumped Rotationally Excited Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    6Departamento de Fı́sica Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid, Spain ∗csliang@mit.edu Abstract: We investigate...De Lucia, “Millimeter wave spectroscopic studies of collision-induced energy transfer processes in the 13CH3F laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19...energy transfer in optically pumped far-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2069–2077 (1989). 8. H. O. Everitt and F. C. De Lucia, “A time

  16. Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeks, James A; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo cellular scale fluorescence lifetime imaging of the mouse retina has the potential to be a sensitive marker of retinal cell health. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescence lifetime imaging of extrinsic fluorophores using adaptive optics fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (AOFLIO). We recorded AOFLIO images of inner retinal cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and capillaries labeled with fluorescein. We demonstrate that AOFLIO can be used to differentiate spectrally overlapping fluorophores in the retina. With further refinements, AOFLIO could be used to assess retinal health in early stages of degeneration by utilizing lifetime-based sensors or even fluorophores native to the retina.

  17. Synthesis of Luminescent Near-Infrared AgInS2 Nanocrystals as Optical Probes for In Vivo Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwei; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Guimiao; Ye, Ling; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jing; Schwartz, Stanley A; Zhang, Xihe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    Near infrared quantum dots have been receiving great attention as fluorescent optical probes for in vivo imaging applications. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and surface functionalization of cadmium free ternary AgInS2 nanocrystals emitting in the near infrared range for successful in vitro and in vivo bioimaging applications. The FDA approved triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 was used to encapsulate the nanocrystals and made them dispersible in aqueous solution. By employing a ...

  18. 4D super-resolution microscopy with conventional fluorophores and single wavelength excitation in optically thick cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baddeley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical super-resolution imaging of fluorescently stained biological samples is rapidly becoming an important tool to investigate protein distribution at the molecular scale. It is therefore important to develop practical super-resolution methods that allow capturing the full three-dimensional nature of biological systems and also can visualize multiple protein species in the same sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the use of a combination of conventional near-infrared dyes, such as Alexa 647, Alexa 680 and Alexa 750, all excited with a 671 nm diode laser, enables 3D multi-colour super-resolution imaging of complex biological samples. Optically thick samples, including human tissue sections, cardiac rat myocytes and densely grown neuronal cultures were imaged with lateral resolutions of ∼15 nm (std. dev. while reducing marker cross-talk to <1%. Using astigmatism an axial resolution of ∼65 nm (std. dev. was routinely achieved. The number of marker species that can be distinguished depends on the mean photon number of single molecule events. With the typical photon yields from Alexa 680 of ∼2000 up to 5 markers may in principle be resolved with <2% crosstalk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach is based entirely on the use of conventional, commercially available markers and requires only a single laser. It provides a very straightforward way to investigate biological samples at the nanometre scale and should help establish practical 4D super-resolution microscopy as a routine research tool in many laboratories.

  19. Three-dimensional structure and multistable optical switching of triple-twisted particle-like excitations in anisotropic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.; Lansac, Yves; Clark, Noel A.; Trivedi, Rahul P.

    2010-02-01

    Control of structures in soft materials with long-range order forms the basis for applications such as displays, liquid-crystal biosensors, tunable lenses, distributed feedback lasers, muscle-like actuators and beam-steering devices. Bistable, tristable and multistable switching of well-defined structures of molecular alignment is of special interest for all of these applications. Here we describe the facile optical creation and multistable switching of localized configurations in the molecular orientation field of a chiral nematic anisotropic fluid. These localized chiro-elastic particle-like excitations-dubbed `triple-twist torons'-are generated by vortex laser beams and embed the localized three-dimensional (3D) twist into a uniform background. Confocal polarizing microscopy and computer simulations reveal their equilibrium internal structures, manifesting both skyrmion-like and Hopf fibration features. Robust generation of torons at predetermined locations combined with both optical and electrical reversible switching can lead to new ways of multistable structuring of complex photonic architectures in soft materials.

  20. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower “effective” pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  1. Review of biomedical Čerenkov luminescence imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Kaveh; Pashazadeh, Ali Mahmoud; Pogue, Brian W

    2015-08-01

    Čerenkov radiation is a fascinating optical signal, which has been exploited for unique diagnostic biological sensing and imaging, with significantly expanded use just in the last half decade. Čerenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI) has desirable capabilities for niche applications, using specially designed measurement systems that report on radiation distributions, radiotracer and nanoparticle concentrations, and are directly applied to procedures such as medicine assessment, endoscopy, surgery, quality assurance and dosimetry. When compared to the other imaging tools such as PET and SPECT, CLI can have the key advantage of lower cost, higher throughput and lower imaging time. CLI can also provide imaging and dosimetry information from both radioisotopes and linear accelerator irradiation. The relatively short range of optical photon transport in tissue means that direct Čerenkov luminescence imaging is restricted to small animals or near surface human use. Use of Čerenkov-excitation for additional molecular probes, is now emerging as a key tool for biosensing or radiosensitization. This review evaluates these new improvements in CLI for both medical value and biological insight.

  2. Luminescence properties of YVO4:Eu nanocrystals in nanoporous high-silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Qi, Shimei; Zhao, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    A feasible method was used to synthesize YVO4:Eu nanocrystals in nanoporous high-silica glass (YVOE-HSG). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to investigate its morphology, structure, and optical properties, respectively. The Eu ions were introduced as luminescence centers into the sample YVOE-HSG. Under 291 nm excitation, the samples exhibit the characteristic transitions of Eu3+ and Eu2+. With the increase of Eu3+ doping concentration, the positions of main excitation peaks shift to long waves. The reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ is observed, and the chromaticity coordinates (x, y) can move from the red light to cool white and then to blue light. The efficient energy transfer from VO43- to Eu3+ and Eu2+ is confirmed. Results indicated that the sample has potential application in white light-emitting diodes under UV excitation.

  3. Luminescent solutions and films of new europium complexes with chelating ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Kaminskaya, Tatiana P.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.; Popov, Vladimir V.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.

    2015-03-01

    The development of new complexes of rare earth elements (REE) with chelating organic ligands opens up the possibility of purposeful alteration in the composition and structure of the complexes, and therefore tuning their optical properties. New ligands possessing two pyridine rings in their structure were synthesized to improve coordination properties and photophysical characteristics of REE compounds. Complexes of trivalent europium with novel chelating ligands were investigated using luminescence and absorption spectroscopy, as well as atomic force microscopy. Luminescence properties of new compounds were studied both for solutions and films deposited on the solid support. All complexes exhibit the characteristic red luminescence of Eu (III) ion with the absolute lumenescence quantum yield in polar acetonitrile solution varying from 0.21 to 1.45 % and emission lifetime ranged from 0.1 to 1 ms. Excitation spectra of Eu coordination complexes correspond with absorption bands of chelating ligand. The energy levels of the triplet state of the new ligands were determined from the phosphorescence at 77 K of the corresponding Gd (III) complexes. The morphology of films of europium complexes with different substituents in the organic ligands was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It strongly depends both on the type of substituent in the organic ligand, and the rotation speed of the spin-coater. New europium complexes with chelating ligands containing additional pyridine fragments represent outstanding candidates for phosphors with improved luminescence properties.

  4. Optical quantification of harmonic acoustic radiation force excitation in a tissue-mimicking phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Suomi, Visa; Cleveland, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tracking was used to characterize acoustic radiation force (ARF) induced displacements in a tissue-mimicking phantom. Amplitude modulated (AM) 3.3 MHz ultrasound was used to induce ARF in the phantom which was embedded with 10 {\\mu}m microspheres that were tracked using a microscope objective and high speed camera. For sine and square AM the harmonic components of the fundamental and second and third harmonic frequencies were measured. The displacement amplitudes were found to increase linearly with ARF up to 10 {\\mu}m with sine modulation having 19.5% lower peak-to-peak amplitude values than square modulation. Square modulation produced almost no second harmonic but energy was present in the third harmonic. For the sine modulation energy was present in the second harmonic and low energy in the third harmonic. A finite element model was used to simulate the deformation and was both qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with the measurements.

  5. Growth Rates and Stability of Tree Covered Islands on the Anabranching Vaal River, Free State South Africa, Established Using Quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Zebert, A.; Tooth, S.

    2016-12-01

    Mixed bedrock-alluvial anabranching rivers form some of the world's most spectacular fluvial scenery but their dynamics remain poorly documented. Previous conceptual models have outlined how alluvial islands form on the underlying bedrock template but timescales of island development are largely unknown owing to limited geochronology. This study uses optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to establish the growth rates and stability of alluvial islands on the Vaal River at Parys, South Africa. The Vaal traverses the World Heritage-listed Vredefort Dome, an eroded, ancient meteorite impact site. The river enters and exits the dome as a 150-170 m wide single channel flanked by sedimentary rocks, but changes to a distinctive 1.5 km wide anabranching river with 10-15 channels and numerous islands as it flows across granitoid rocks exposed in the dome's core. The numerous islands are formed of rock and/or alluvium, and support extensive native riparian tree communities, providing habitat diversity that contrasts with the surrounding semi-arid, grass- and shrub-covered terrain. We measured the age and aggradation rates of 9 islands in the anabranching reach using OSL. Single grain measurements of quartz were made using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) approach. Equivalent dose populations have up to 60% overdispersion, common for fluvial samples, and the minimum age model was used to calculate final ages. Results demonstrate that the complex of alluvial islands is relatively young, with all having formed in the past 1000 years. The alluvial islands grow rapidly (mean vertical aggradation >0.28 cm/yr) during low to moderate floods (Q lateral erosion, vertical stripping, and dissection by newly-forming anabranches. The ages demonstrate that the alluvial islands are essentially dynamic, short-lived features that develop on a bedrock template that is underlying slower, long-term erosion.

  6. Calibration of the Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal for linear energy transfer (LET) measurements in therapeutic proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2014-08-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors (OSLDs) have shown potential for measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) in proton therapy beams. However, the technique lacks the efficiency needed for clinical implementation, and a faster, simpler approach to LET measurements is desirable. The goal of this work was to demonstrate and evaluate the potential of calibrating Al2O3:C OSLDs for LET measurements using new methods. We exposed batches of OSLDs to unmodulated proton beams of varying LET and calibrated three parameters of the resulting OSL signals as functions of fluence-averaged LET (ϕ-LET) and dose-averaged LET (D-LET). These three parameters included the OSL curve shape evaluated under continuous wave stimulation (CW-OSL), the OSL curve shape evaluated under pulsed stimulation (P-OSL), and the intensity ratio of the two main emission bands in the Al2O3:C OSL emission spectrum (ultraviolet [UV]/blue ratio). To test the calibration, we then irradiated new batches of OSLDs in modulated proton beams of varying LET, and used the OSL signal parameters to calculate ϕ-LET and D-LET under these new test conditions. Using the P-OSL curve shape, D-LET was measured within 5.7% of the expected value. We conclude that from a single 10 s readout (following initial calibration), both the absorbed dose and LET in proton therapy beams can be measured using OSLDs. This has potential future applications in the quality assurance of proton therapy treatment plans, particularly for those that may account for LET or relative biological effectiveness in their optimization. The methods demonstrated in this work may also be applicable to other particle therapy beams, including carbon ion beams.

  7. Optical properties and mechanisms in Cr3+, Bi3+-codoped oxide-based spinel nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Morgane; Coelho-Diogo, Cristina; Bonhomme, Christian; Touatib, Nadia; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa; Viana, Bruno; Chanéac, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    At the nanoscale, the ZnGa2O4 spinel doped with chromium (III) is an interesting material for in vivo optical imaging due to its bright red persistent luminescence after UV and visible excitation. Moreover its persistent luminescent properties can be improved with the incorporation of bismuth (III) as a co-dopant without any structure changes. The nanoparticles are synthesized by soft chemistry using microwave heating in aqueous media. These very small sized nanophosphors (around 10 nm) present interesting long lasting persistent luminescence after annealing at 1000°C and they can be excited both under UV and under visible LED excitation. In this work we try to understand the mechanisms of the persistent luminescent properties of such nanomaterials. Thermoluminescence is performed to investigate trapping and detrapping processes as well as trap distribution. The chromium local environment is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. 71Ga Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is used to get information on the gallium ions repartition (tetrahedral or octahedral site) in the structure. Comparison of optical properties versus local structure increases the understanding of the persistent luminescence mechanism and gives insights to the new modalities for their use as nanoprobes for in vivo imaging.

  8. Understanding the influence of nanoenvironment on luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The role of the rare-earth ion concentration, crystal size and crystal phase on the up- and downconversion emission of rare-earth ions in oxide nanocrystals and their underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is also found that the luminescence lifetime of the excited state rare-earth ions is sensitive to the particle crystalline ...

  9. Evidence of the participation of electronic excited states in the mechanism of positronium formation in substitutional Tb1-xEux(dpm)(3) solid solutions studied by optical and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Fulgencio, F.; Oliveira, F.C. [UNESP; Windmoeller, D.; Brito, Hermi Felinto de; Malta, O. L.; Sa, G. F. de; Magalhaes, W.F.; Machado, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Positronium formation in the bimary molecular solid solutions Tb1-xEux (dpm)(3) (dpm = dipivaloylmethanate) has been investigated. A strong linear correlation between the D-5(4) Tb(III) energy level excited state lifetime and the positronium formation probability has been observed. This correlation indicates that the ligand-to-metal charge transfer LMCT states act in both luminescence quenching and positronium formation inhibition, as previously proposed. A kinetic mechanism is proposed to ex...

  10. Optical Quantification of Harmonic Acoustic Radiation Force Excitation in a Tissue-Mimicking Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Visa; Edwards, David; Cleveland, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Optical tracking was used to characterize acoustic radiation force-induced displacements in a tissue-mimicking phantom. Amplitude-modulated 3.3-MHz ultrasound was used to induce acoustic radiation force in the phantom, which was embedded with 10-μm microspheres that were tracked using a microscope objective and high-speed camera. For sine and square amplitude modulation, the harmonic components of the fundamental and second and third harmonic frequencies were measured. The displacement amplitudes were found to increase linearly with acoustic radiation force up to 10 μm, with sine modulation having 19.5% lower peak-to-peak amplitude values than square modulation. Square modulation produced almost no second harmonic, but energy was present in the third harmonic. For the sine modulation, energy was present in the second harmonic and low energy in the third harmonic. A finite-element model was used to simulate the deformation and was both qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with the measurements. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad, E-mail: sabaiean@scu.ac.ir; Heydari, Mehdi; Ajamgard, Narges [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-43135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The effects of Ag nano-strips with triangle, rectangular and trapezoid cross sections on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density of ultra-thin solar cells were investigated. By putting the nano-strips as a grating structure on the top of the solar cells, the waveguide, surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes, which are excited with the assistance of nano-strips, were evaluated in TE and TM polarizations. The results show, firstly, the TM modes are more influential than TE modes in optical and electrical properties enhancement of solar cell, because of plasmonic excitations in TM mode. Secondly, the trapezoid nano-strips reveal noticeable impact on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density enhancement than triangle and rectangular ones. In particular, the absorption of long wavelengths which is a challenge in ultra-thin solar cells is significantly improved by using Ag trapezoid nano-strips.

  12. Studies on linear, nonlinear optical and excited state dynamics of silicon nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report results from our studies on the fabrication and characterization of silicon (Si nanoparticles (NPs and nanostructures (NSs achieved through the ablation of Si target in four different liquids using ∼2 picosecond (ps pulses. The consequence of using different liquid media on the ablation of Si target was investigated by studying the surface morphology along with material composition of Si based NPs. The recorded mean sizes of these NPs were ∼9.5 nm, ∼37 nm, ∼45 nm and ∼42 nm obtained in acetone, water, dichloromethane (DCM and chloroform, respectively. The generated NPs were characterized by selected area electron diffraction (SAED, high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM, Raman spectroscopic techniques and Photoluminescence (PL studies. SAED, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy data confirmed that the material composition was Si NPs in acetone, Si/SiO2 NPs in water, Si-C NPs in DCM and Si-C NPs in chloroform and all of them were confirmed to be polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphological information of the fabricated Si substrates was obtained using the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM technique. FESEM data revealed the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS for the case of ablation in acetone and water while random NSs were observed for the case of ablation in DCM and chloroform. Femtosecond (fs nonlinear optical properties and excited state dynamics of these colloidal Si NPs were investigated using the Z-scan and pump-probe techniques with ∼150 fs (100 MHz and ∼70 fs (1 kHz laser pulses, respectively. The fs pump-probe data obtained at 600 nm consisted of single and double exponential decays which were tentatively assigned to electron-electron collisional relaxation (1 ps. Large third order optical nonlinearities (∼10−14 e.s.u. for these colloids have been estimated from Z-scan data at an excitation wavelength of 680 nm suggesting that the colloidal Si NPs find

  13. Studies on linear, nonlinear optical and excited state dynamics of silicon nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Syed; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Pathak, A. P. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telangana (India); Krishna Podagatlapalli, G.; Mounika, R.; Venugopal Rao, S., E-mail: soma-venu@yahoo.com, E-mail: soma-venu@uohyd.ac.in [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telangana (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report results from our studies on the fabrication and characterization of silicon (Si) nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures (NSs) achieved through the ablation of Si target in four different liquids using ∼2 picosecond (ps) pulses. The consequence of using different liquid media on the ablation of Si target was investigated by studying the surface morphology along with material composition of Si based NPs. The recorded mean sizes of these NPs were ∼9.5 nm, ∼37 nm, ∼45 nm and ∼42 nm obtained in acetone, water, dichloromethane (DCM) and chloroform, respectively. The generated NPs were characterized by selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopic techniques and Photoluminescence (PL) studies. SAED, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy data confirmed that the material composition was Si NPs in acetone, Si/SiO{sub 2} NPs in water, Si-C NPs in DCM and Si-C NPs in chloroform and all of them were confirmed to be polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphological information of the fabricated Si substrates was obtained using the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) technique. FESEM data revealed the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) for the case of ablation in acetone and water while random NSs were observed for the case of ablation in DCM and chloroform. Femtosecond (fs) nonlinear optical properties and excited state dynamics of these colloidal Si NPs were investigated using the Z-scan and pump-probe techniques with ∼150 fs (100 MHz) and ∼70 fs (1 kHz) laser pulses, respectively. The fs pump-probe data obtained at 600 nm consisted of single and double exponential decays which were tentatively assigned to electron-electron collisional relaxation (<1 ps) and non-radiative transitions (>1 ps). Large third order optical nonlinearities (∼10{sup −14} e.s.u.) for these colloids have been estimated from Z-scan data at an excitation wavelength of 680 nm

  14. Photostimulable near-infrared persistent luminescent nanoprobes for ultrasensitive and longitudinal deep-tissue bio-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhen, Zipeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Feng; Mishra, Jyoti P; Tang, Wei; Chen, Hongmin; Huang, Xinglu; Wang, Lianchun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Jin; Pan, Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence imaging suffers from suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio and shallow detection depth, which is caused by the strong tissue autofluorescence under constant external excitation and the scattering and absorption of short-wavelength light in tissues. Here we address these limitations by using a novel type of optical nanoprobes, photostimulable LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles, which, with very-long-lasting NIR persistent luminescence and unique photo-stimulated persistent luminescence (PSPL) capability, allow optical imaging to be performed in an excitation-free and hence, autofluorescence-free manner. LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) nanoparticles pre-charged by ultraviolet light can be repeatedly (>20 times) stimulated in vivo, even in deep tissues, by short-illumination (~15 seconds) with a white light-emitting-diode flashlight, giving rise to multiple NIR PSPL that expands the tracking window from several hours to more than 10 days. Our studies reveal promising potential of these nanoprobes in cell tracking and tumor targeting, exhibiting exceptional sensitivity and penetration that far exceed those afforded by conventional fluorescence imaging.

  15. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: a.kaplan.1@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  16. Nonlinear optical effect and excited electron dynamics of semiconductor nanocrystals; Handotai nano kessh no hisenkei kogaku koka to reiki denshi dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Investigations were given on nanocrystals of CuCl and CdTe with regard to their nonlinear optical mechanism. The experiment used a femto-second pump probe spectroscope. The experiment on CuCl nanocrystals revealed the following facts: in the case where one photon is absorbed into one nanocrystal, cascade mitigation occurs to the pair of electrons and holes, and exciters; and in the case where two photons are absorbed into one nanocrystal, exciter molecules are made via the pair of electrons and holes and the exciters. Thus, it was found that the optical nonlinearity occurs when more than two photons are absorbed into one nanocrystal, and inter-exciter interactions and formation of the exciter molecules are the physical causes thereof. The experiment on CdTe nanocrystals indicated that electrons and holes produced by laser beam are distributed instantaneously between the size-quantized discrete levels, and that temperature in the electron system drops with lapse of time. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  17. The late-glacial fluvial terrace t7 at Raunheim (lower River Main), Germany. Constraining the chronological placement by optical stimulated luminescence dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Kadereit, Annette; Zipf, Lars; Flettner, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The lower River Main valley exhibits up to seven fluvial terrace levels (t1 - t7, according to the stratigraphy of Semmel 1969). The lowermost terrace (t7) represents the most recently formed level which due to stratigraphical considerations is assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age (Semmel 1969). However, the chronological placement of the terrace has not been determined by numerical dating so far. The area was apparently roamed by Late Palaeolithic people as evidenced by artefacts which were discovered on a former sandy river bank between 87 m and 91 m above sea level on top of the t7 east of the town of Raunheim. We took this opportunity to open four trenches in order to localize additional in situ Palaeolithic artefacts and to investigate the stratigraphy of the sediments and soils and, for the first time, to provide numerical ages in order to narrow down the period of the t7 activity. Eight samples from three profiles in three of the trenches were collected for optical stimulated (OSL) dating. OSL dating occurred applying a blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol (Murray & Wintle 2000) to small aliquots (few 102 grains) of quartz coarse grain separates (125 - 212 µm). The trenches showed that the t7 sediments consist of fluvial sand over gravel. They are overlain by calcareous loamy and sandy overbank deposits. At the investigated site the Holocene Cambisol at the surface passes into a Gleysol that has developed in a palaeochannel which is incised into the t7. The trenches revealed further that only parts of the Late Palaeolithic site are in situ and therefore contemporaneous with the fluvial sediments beneath the Cambisol. The upper part of the sections consists of colluvial deposits lying on truncated Cambisols. The OSL dating places the section into the period spanning the last glacial maximum (LGM) / late glacial to the late Holocene. The oldest investigated fluvial t7 sediments date around 24.7 ka. Slightly

  18. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  19. The kinematic behaviour of optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines in Galactic planetary nebulae*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Miriam; Ruiz-Escobedo, Francisco; Rechy-García, Jackeline S.; García-Rojas, Jorge

    2017-11-01

    The kinematics of the plasma in 14 planetary nebulae (PNe) is analysed by measuring the expansion velocities (Vexp) of different ions as derived from their collisionally excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines (ORLs). Vexp is analysed as a function of the ionization potential of ions, which at a first approximation represents the distance of the ion from the central star. In most cases, the kinematics of ORLs is incompatible with the kinematics of CELs at the same ionization potential, especially if CELs and ORLs are considered for the same ion. In general, Vexp from ORLs is lower than Vexp from CELs, indicating that, if the gas is in ionization equilibrium, ORLs are emitted by a gas located closer to the central star. The velocity field derived from CELs shows a gradient accelerating outwards as predicted from hydrodynamic modelling of PNe ionization structures. The velocity field derived from ORLs is different. In many cases, the velocity gradient is flatter or non-existent and highly and lowly ionized species present nearly the same Vexp. In addition, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for ORLs is usually smaller than FWHM(CEL). Our interpretation is that ORLs are mainly emitted by a plasma that coexists with the plasma emitting CELs, but does not fit the ionization structures predicted by models. Such a plasma should have been ejected in a different event from the plasma emitting CELs.

  20. The use of unburned propellant powder for shooting-distance determination. Part I: Infrared luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Rolf; Graf, Stefan; Christen, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Unburned propellant powder particles in gunshot residue (GSR) were detected at near infrared by optical excitation in the visible wavelength range. A series of ammunition (different brands and different manufacturers) was analyzed concerning the luminescence of their propellant. Shooting target samples with different shooting distances were produced on standard textile tissue and analyzed with this optical infrared inspection. The number of luminescent GSR particles per area was measured and curves with particle density vs. shooting distance were drawn. The method was applied on three ammunition types with different particle morphology shot with a pistol and one ammunition type shot with a revolver. The shooting series performed with the revolver showed a large particle density variation within the samples of identical shooting distances. In this case, the ratio of the amount of particles within the area around the bullet hole and within a ring with a defined distance from the bullet hole was calculated. These data resulted in measures with much lower standard deviations, which is a prove that the distribution pattern depends on the shooting distance and not on the amount of GSR particles. It has been shown, that imaging of target tissue with the aid of infrared luminescence is an easy, fast, reproducible and non-destructive method for shooting-distance determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and Application of Fiber-Optic Sensors in Environmental and Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars Fledelius

    The light guiding properties of optical fibers are the fundament for fiber-optic sensors. The composition of the fiber materials as well as the fabrication methods for both glass optical fibers and plastic optical fibers (POF) are useful knowledge for improvements of the sensor design. A majority...... of sensing materials includes imbedded luminescent dyes and all O2 fiber-optic sensors are based on O2 quenching of a luminophore. The mechanisms of luminescence and O2 quenching are described. A new procedure for etching a recess in the tip of multimode graded index optical glass fibers was used to improve...... the mechanical stability of O2 optodes after the sensor chemistry was immobilized into the recess. The recess improved focusing of the excitation light. An O2 optode sensor array was constructed for long-term measurements in soil and sediments. The construction and measuring characteristics of the sensor array...

  2. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work......, especially on optically stimulated luminescence methods for retrospective assessment of accident doses carried out at Riso National Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Helsinki as part bf a joint European Union research project. We demonstrate that doses lower than 100 mGy can be measured from...

  3. Characterization and luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabasovic, M.S., E-mail: majap@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Sevic, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Krizan, J. [Faculty for Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Terzic, M. [Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Mozina, J. [Faculty for Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinkovic, B.P.; Savic-Sevic, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Mitric, M. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Rabasovic, M.D.; Romcevic, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanopowders Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} doped by europium ions (Eu{sup 3+}) have been synthesized. • Their luminescence properties have been measured at room temperature. • The temporal evolution of laser induced phenomena are presented using time-resolved technique. • Lifetime analysis for luminescence bands in emission spectra has been done. - Abstract: Nanopowders based on gadolinium zirconium oxide (Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) doped by europium ions (Eu{sup 3+}) were successfully prepared using a flame combustion method. This material is suitable for various optical devices. The structure of prepared materials has been confirmed and characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The luminescence properties of synthesized nanopowders were characterized by emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes by using the streak camera system. PL spectra were obtained at three different excitation wavelengths (Optical Parametric Oscilator (OPO) at 360 nm, laser diode at 365 nm and Ar laser line at 514.5 nm). The strong emission lines at 611 nm and 630 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} long lived transition could be used as a new red light source in optical devices.

  4. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the detailed investigations on the dosimetric electron trap in feldspar only little has been done to understand the luminescence centers. We use a comparison of multiple spectroscopic techniques, site selective photoluminescence spectroscopy and time resolved measurements to further...... our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding......, that the green emission may not arise from Mn2+ in our sample and that photoionisation of this centre may be possible by excitation to the band tail states. The deep red emission is tied to the Fe3+, and the exponential rise in the UV excitation efficiency of this centre is discussed in the context of the band...

  5. Development and implementation of a remote audit tool for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy using optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kevin E; Alvarez, Paola; Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Lawyer, Ann; Followill, David

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to create a mailable phantom with measurement accuracy suitable for Radiological Physics Center (RPC) audits of high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources at institutions participating in National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative clinical trials. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) were chosen as the dosimeter to be used with the phantom. The authors designed and built an 8 × 8 × 10 cm(3) prototype phantom that had two slots capable of holding Al2O3:C OSLDs (nanoDots; Landauer, Glenwood, IL) and a single channel capable of accepting all (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy sources in current clinical use in the United States. The authors irradiated the phantom with Nucletron and Varian (192)Ir HDR sources in order to determine correction factors for linearity with dose and the combined effects of irradiation energy and phantom characteristics. The phantom was then sent to eight institutions which volunteered to perform trial remote audits. The linearity correction factor was kL = (-9.43 × 10(-5) × dose) + 1.009, where dose is in cGy, which differed from that determined by the RPC for the same batch of dosimeters using (60)Co irradiation. Separate block correction factors were determined for current versions of both Nucletron and Varian (192)Ir HDR sources and these vendor-specific correction factors differed by almost 2.6%. For the Nucletron source, the correction factor was 1.026 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.023-1.028], and for the Varian source, it was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.995-1.005). Variations in lateral source positioning up to 0.8 mm and distal∕proximal source positioning up to 10 mm had minimal effect on dose measurement accuracy. The overall dose measurement uncertainty of the system was estimated to be 2.4% and 2.5% for the Nucletron and Varian sources, respectively (95% CI). This uncertainty was sufficient to establish a ± 5% acceptance criterion for source strength audits under a formal RPC audit program. Trial

  6. Rates of river incision across the main tectonic units of the Pamir identified using optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Margret C.; Gloaguen, Richard; Krbetschek, Matthias; Szulc, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Calculated incision rates along the Panj, the main river of the Pamir, are used to investigate any influence by tectonics or climate on the architecture of the river. The depositional ages of Panj River terraces were calculated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of terrace sand. Fluvial incision rates were generated by integrating the terrace depositional ages with accurate kinematic GPS measurements of terrace heights above the modern Panj. We investigated 16 terraces along the Panj at the western Pamir margin and one terrace from the Vakhsh River to the north of the Pamir. The results reveal brief periods of fluvial deposition over the past 26 kyr. The oldest Panj terrace depositional ages coincide with early MIS 2 and MIS 2/1 glaciations on the Pamir Plateau. Younger terrace ages have no apparent link with glacial cycles. Terraces with varying heights above the modern Panj at different localities yielded similar depositional ages. This suggests that local conditions have determined fluvial incision rates. Combining all of the terrace measurements, the average incision rate of the Panj over the last 26 kyr has been ~ 5.6 mm/yr. A high mean incision rate of ~ 7.3 mm/yr was calculated from terraces where the Panj has cut a steep-sided valley through the Shakhdara dome. Significantly lower incision rates (~ 2-3 mm/yr) were calculated from terraces where the Panj flows along the southern boundaries of the Shakhdara and Yazgulom domes. At those localities, graded segments of the Panj River profile and increased valley widths are indicative of local base levels. Downstream of the Yazgulom dome, river incision rates are generally lower (~ 4-5 mm/yr) than the Panj average. However, there is one exception where higher incision rates (~ 6 mm/yr) were calculated upstream of the Darvaz Fault Zone, a major tectonic feature that forms the western boundary of the Pamir. The Vakhsh River terrace to the north of the Pamir yielded a lower incision rate (~ 3 mm

  7. Estimating dose to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator outside the treatment fields using a skin QED diode, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Maria F., E-mail: chanm@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Song, Yulin; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Li Jingdong; Huang, David; Burman, Chandra [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the relative sensitivity of skin QED diodes, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) (microStar Trade-Mark-Sign DOT, Landauer), and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of distance from a photon beam field edge when applied to measure dose at out-of-field points. These detectors have been used to estimate radiation dose to patients' implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) located outside the treatment field. The ICDs have a thin outer case made of 0.4- to 0.6-mm-thick titanium ({approx}2.4-mm tissue equivalent). A 5-mm bolus, being the equivalent depth of the devices under the patient's skin, was placed over the ICDs. Response per unit absorbed dose-to-water was measured for each of the dosimeters with and without bolus on the beam central axis (CAX) and at a distance up to 20 cm from the CAX. Doses were measured with an ionization chamber at various depths for 6- and 15-MV x-rays on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator. Relative sensitivity of the detectors was determined as the ratio of the sensitivity at each off-axis distance to that at the CAX. The detector sensitivity as a function of the distance from the field edge changed by {+-} 3% (1-11%) for LiF TLD-700, decreased by 10% (5-21%) for OSLD, and increased by 16% (11-19%) for the skin QED diode (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at the equivalent depth of 5 mm for 6- or 15-MV photon energies. Our results showed that the use of bolus with proper thickness (i.e., {approx}d{sub max} of the photon energy) on the top of the ICD would reduce the scattered dose to a lower level. Dosimeters should be calibrated out-of-field and preferably with bolus equal in thickness to the depth of interest. This can be readily performed in clinic.

  8. Towards a new understanding of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in NE Germany - Results from Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthgens, C.; Böse, M.; Krbetschek, M.

    2009-04-01

    The initial aim of the project was to work out a chronology of the distinct Weichselian ice marginal positions in NE Germany because recent geochronological data were still absent. Samples of fluvioglacial sands have been taken from outwash plains (sandar) which have a clear connection to one of the distinct ice margins. To achieve the geochronological aim of the project Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, primarily using techniques based on the single aliquot regeneration dose protocol (SAR) for the dating of quartz, have been applied. Results of these OSL datings do not agree with the classification of the Weichselian Pleniglacial that had been based on morphostratigraphic interpretations during the last 130 years. The unambiguous geomorphological differentiation of the Brandenburg (W1B), Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Stages (W2) and their geochronological position turned out to be questionable. The ice advance to the Brandenburg (W1B) ice marginal position has traditionally been ascribed to the LGM. The ages obtained from OSL measurements conducted within this project indicate that the ice advance might already have occurred in the early OIS 2. OSL results from the Luckenwalde outwash plain have shown that it is also likely that a considerable number of landforms attributed to the LGM are in fact of Saalian age, only partly overridden by the W1B glacier but not reshaped by this process. This implies a very thin, probably warm-based ice cover. A quick and short lived Weichselian ice advance adapted to a pronounced Saalian morphology. The Pomeranian (W2) stage is the morphologically most prominent ice margin in north-eastern Germany, which was formed during a strong readvance of the inland ice from the depression of the Baltic Sea. The OSL dating results obtained within this project suggest that this ice advance occurred at around 23-20 ka BP. In contrast, the Frankfurt (W1F) stage is considered to be a long-lasting marginal position during

  9. SU-F-P-50: Performance Evaluation of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) NanoDots in Therapy and Imaging In-Vivo Dose Measurement During Patient Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Sarkar, B; Kaur, H; Rathinamuthu, S; Giri, U; Jassal, K; Ganesh, T; Munshi, A; Mohanti, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathiya, J [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of optically stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanoDots as in-vivo dosimeter. For the measurements of surface doses as well as scattered plus leakage doses, nanoDots were used during the setup verification as well as during the treatment delivery. Methods: For a total seven patients undergoing radiotherapy by volumetric modulated arc therapy, surface doses from image guidance and scattered plus leakage doses from treatment delivery were measured. Two sets of calibration curves were generated – one for therapy and another for imaging. Two different nanoDots were used for imaging and therapy doses. Imaging nanoDots were placed at the isocenter only at the time of CBCT and therapy nanoDots were placed at 25 cm away from the isocenter (either in cranial or in caudal direction) only at the time of treatment delivery. During the entire course, nanoDots were placed at the same measurement points. NanoDots were read after 15 minutes of their exposure. For the next fraction, nanoDots were corrected for the residual doses from the previous fractions. Results: Measured surface doses during imaging were 0.14±0.32 cGy, 0.11±0.04 cGy, 0.12±0.53 cGy, 0.04±0.02 cGy, 0.13±0.23 cGy, 0.11±0.43 cGy, 0.10±0.04 cGy with overall mean dose of 0.08±0.1 cGy. Measured doses during treatment delivery, indicative of scattered and leakage dose, were 0.84±0.43 cGy, 1.3±0.4 cGy, 1.4±0.4 cGy, 0.18±0.48 cGy, 0.78±0.29 cGy, 0.27±0.08 cGy, 0.78±0.07 cGy with overall mean dose of 0.61±1.3 cGy. Conclusion: This dosimeter can be used as supplementary unit to verify the doses. No change in the prescription is recommended based on nanoDots measurement. This study is on-going therefore we are presenting only mere number of patients. A large volume data will be presented after completion of the study with proper statistical analysis.

  10. In vivo dosimetry with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters for conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy: A 2-year multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Adam C; Chen, Yu; Kapur, Ajay; Apicello, Laura; Kuruvilla, Abraham; Rea, Anthony J; Jamshidi, Abolghassem; Potters, Louis

    Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) are utilized for in vivo dosimetry (IVD) of modern radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Dosimetric precision achieved with conventional techniques may not be attainable. In this work, we measured accuracy and precision for a large sample of clinical OSLD-based IVD measurements. Weekly IVD measurements were collected from 4 linear accelerators for 2 years and were expressed as percent differences from planned doses. After outlier analysis, 10,224 measurements were grouped in the following way: overall, modality (photons, electrons), treatment technique (3-dimensional [3D] conformal, field-in-field intensity modulation, inverse-planned IMRT, and VMAT), placement location (gantry angle, cardinality, and central axis positioning), and anatomical site (prostate, breast, head and neck, pelvis, lung, rectum and anus, brain, abdomen, esophagus, and bladder). Distributions were modeled via a Gaussian function. Fitting was performed with least squares, and goodness-of-fit was assessed with the coefficient of determination. Model means (μ) and standard deviations (σ) were calculated. Sample means and variances were compared for statistical significance by analysis of variance and the Levene tests (α = 0.05). Overall, μ ± σ was 0.3 ± 10.3%. Precision for electron measurements (6.9%) was significantly better than for photons (10.5%). Precision varied significantly among treatment techniques (P < .0001) with field-in-field lowest (σ = 7.2%) and IMRT and VMAT highest (σ = 11.9% and 13.4%, respectively). Treatment site models with goodness-of-fit greater than 0.90 (6 of 10) yielded accuracy within ±3%, except for head and neck (μ = -3.7%). Precision varied with treatment site (range, 7.3%-13.0%), with breast and head and neck yielding the best and worst precision, respectively. Placement on the central axis of cardinal gantry

  11. Broadband photoluminescence of silicon nanowires excited by near-infrared continuous wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongbao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shaojing; Yang, Jianxin; Shi, KeZhang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Debin; Xing, Xiaobo

    2018-02-01

    In advanced nanomaterials field, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) play an increasing significant role due to the outstanding optical properties. Although various kinds of investigations for SiNWs in optical characteristic have been proposed, it remained rare study of the photoluminescence (PL) phenomenon. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an upconversion PL with broadband spectrum by exciting SiNWs using 980 nm continuous wave laser. PL spectra are efficiently detected and range from 500 nm to 920 nm. An electron can be transferred to higher excitation energy levels by absorbing one photon with the assistance of multi-phonons, producing hot luminescence. The proposed concept of PL phenomenon can be extended to biosensor, fluorescence labeling systems, and miniature broadband optical source emitters.

  12. Raman study of collective plasmon-longitudinal optical phonon excitations in cubic GaN and AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusep, Yu. A.; Silva, M. T. O.; Fernandez, J. R. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Leite, J. R.; Frey, T.; As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.

    2002-05-01

    The plasmon-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon collective excitations were studied by Raman scattering in cubic GaN doped with Si and in intrinsically doped cubic AlxGa1-xN alloys. The specific asymmetry of the corresponding Raman lines, associated with the dispersion of the coupled excitations was clearly detected in GaN. The spatial coherence of the relevant coupled oscillations was determined from the comparison of the experimental Raman spectra with the calculated ones. A broad line, which was previously attributed to the overdamped plasmon-LO phonon oscillations, was also observed in the GaN and AlxGa1-xN samples in the range between the transversal optical and LO phonon frequencies.

  13. Formation of femtosecond pulses during the SRS self-transformation of optical solitons in fiber-optic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkin, V. N.

    1987-07-01

    A physical model is proposed which describes the SRS self-transformation of femtosecond pulses in a nonlinear dispersing medium. The dynamics of the decomposition of the coupled states of solitons in fiber-optic waveguides to femtosecond wave packets is analyzed. An indirect method for measuring the lifetime of the excited state of vibrational resonances in glass is proposed which is based on an analysis of the correlation functions of luminescence.

  14. Neuronal excitation and permeabilization by 200-ns pulsed electric field: An optical membrane potential study with FluoVolt dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Semenov, Iurii; Casciola, Maura; Xiao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    Electric field pulses of nano- and picosecond duration are a novel modality for neurostimulation, activation of Ca 2+ signaling, and tissue ablation. However it is not known how such brief pulses activate voltage-gated ion channels. We studied excitation and electroporation of hippocampal neurons by 200-ns pulsed electric field (nsPEF), by means of time-lapse imaging of the optical membrane potential (OMP) with FluoVolt dye. Electroporation abruptly shifted OMP to a more depolarized level, which was reached within 10s), so cells remained above the resting OMP level for at least 20-30s. Activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) enhanced the depolarizing effect of electroporation, resulting in an additional tetrodotoxin-sensitive OMP peak in 4-5ms after nsPEF. Omitting Ca 2+ in the extracellular solution did not reduce the depolarization, suggesting no contribution of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). In 40% of neurons, nsPEF triggered a single action potential (AP), with the median threshold of 3kV/cm (range: 1.9-4kV/cm); no APs could be evoked by stimuli below the electroporation threshold (1.5-1.9kV/cm). VGSC opening could already be detected in 0.5ms after nsPEF, which is too fast to be mediated by the depolarizing effect of electroporation. The overlap of electroporation and AP thresholds does not necessarily reflect the causal relation, but suggests a low potency of nsPEF, as compared to conventional electrostimulation, for VGSC activation and AP induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lanthanide Organic Framework Luminescent Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Brites, Carlos D S; Carlos, Luís D

    2016-10-10

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are excellent platforms for engineering luminescence properties as their building blocks, metal ions, linkers, and guest ions or molecules, are all potential sources of light emission. Temperature is one of the most important physical properties affecting the dynamics and viability of natural and engineered systems. Because the luminescence of certain lanthanide-bearing MOFs changes considerably with temperature, in the last few years, these materials have been explored as optical thermometers, especially in temperature sensing based on the intensity ratios of two separate electronic transitions. This review discusses the main concepts and ideas assisting the design of such ratiometric thermometers, and identifies the main challenges presented to this nascent field: develop nanothermometers for bio-applications and nanomedicine; understand the energy transfer mechanisms determining the thermal sensitivity; achieve effective primary thermometers; realize multifunctional nanothermometers; integrate Ln 3+ -based thermometers in commercial products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optical spectroscopy reveals transition of CuInS2/ZnS to CuxZn1−xInS2/ZnS:Cu alloyed quantum dots with resultant double-defect luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolin Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and luminescence mechanisms of the CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs after epitaxial growth of ZnS shell are in debate. The light absorption/emission spectroscopy reveals that after ZnS shell growth the cation diffusion at the CuInS2/ZnS interface results in formation of the alloyed CuxZn1− xInS2/ZnS:Cu QDs. These core/shell QDs exhibit dual-color photoluminescence with abnormal blue shift with decreasing excitation photon energy. The results show that the green and orange emissions originate separately from defects in the core and the shell. The absorption tail of the ZnS QDs turns from Urbach to Halperin-Lax type after Cu doping.

  17. GeS2-In2S3-CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-11-21

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+)) doped 65GeS2-25In2S3-10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+) ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions.

  18. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  19. Magnetic-luminescent spherical particles synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Norma L.; Flores, Dora L.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2015-07-01

    The combination of magnetic and luminescent properties in a single particle system, opens-up a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this work, we performed the synthesis of magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis performed in a tubular furnace. In order to achieve the composite formation, commercial superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a luminescent Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 shell in a low-cost one-step process. The spray pyrolysis method yields deagglomerated spherical shape magneto/luminescent particles. The photoluminescence spectra under UV excitation (λExc = 265 nm) of the magnetic Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 compound showed the characteristic red emission of Eu3+ (λEm = 612 nm). This magneto/luminescent system will find applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  20. Luminescence spectra and kinetics of disordered solid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.

    1999-01-01

    for the temporal evolution of the luminescence band. It is shown that the changes of band shape with time come from the interplay of population dynamics of extended states and spatially isolated ''radiative" states. Finally, the measurements of the decay of the spectrally integrated luminescence intensity at long......We have studied both theoretically and experimentally the luminescence spectra and kinetics of crystalline, disordered solid solutions after pulsed excitation. First, we present the model calculations of the steady-state luminescence band shape caused by recombination of excitons localized...... only a relatively small group of ''radiative" states forms the steady-state luminescence band. The continuum percolation theory is applied to distinguish the ''radiative'' localized states, which are isolated in space and have no ways for nonradiative transitions along the tail states. It is found...

  1. Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JingJing; Wei, RongFei; Liu, XueYun; Guo, Hai

    2012-04-23

    Oxyfluoride glasses containing Ag species and rare earth (RE) ions (Dy(3+), Sm(3+), Tb(3+)) were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The type of luminescent species of novel excitation band (230-300 nm peaked at 255 nm) and emission band (300-600 nm peaked at 350 nm) were investigated by absorption, excitation, emission spectra, as well as decay lifetime measurements and can be ascribed to isolated Ag(+) ions. Owing to energy transfer from Ag(+) to RE ions, significant enhancements of RE ions emission (76 times for Sm(3+), 41 times for Dy(3+)) were observed for non-resonant UV excitation (255 nm). Our research may extend the understanding of interactions between RE ions and Ag species. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  2. A low-cost smartphone-based platform for highly sensitive point-of-care testing with persistent luminescent phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Andrew S; Raja, Balakrishnan; Mandadi, Vinay; Townsend, Blane; Lee, Miles; Buell, Alex; Vu, Binh; Brgoch, Jakoah; Willson, Richard C

    2017-03-14

    Through their computational power and connectivity, smartphones are poised to rapidly expand telemedicine and transform healthcare by enabling better personal health monitoring and rapid diagnostics. Recently, a variety of platforms have been developed to enable smartphone-based point-of-care testing using imaging-based readout with the smartphone camera as the detector. Fluorescent reporters have been shown to improve the sensitivity of assays over colorimetric labels, but fluorescence readout necessitates incorporating optical hardware into the detection system, adding to the cost and complexity of the device. Here we present a simple, low-cost smartphone-based detection platform for highly sensitive luminescence imaging readout of point-of-care tests run with persistent luminescent phosphors as reporters. The extremely bright and long-lived emission of persistent phosphors allows sensitive analyte detection with a smartphone by a facile time-gated imaging strategy. Phosphors are first briefly excited with the phone's camera flash, followed by switching off the flash, and subsequent imaging of phosphor luminescence with the camera. Using this approach, we demonstrate detection of human chorionic gonadotropin using a lateral flow assay and the smartphone platform with strontium aluminate nanoparticles as reporters, giving a detection limit of ≈45 pg mL -1 (1.2 pM) in buffer. Time-gated imaging on a smartphone can be readily adapted for sensitive and potentially quantitative testing using other point-of-care formats, and is workable with a variety of persistent luminescent materials.

  3. Site symmetry and crystal field of Ce{sup 3+} luminescent centres in KMgF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Honda, M.; Kawamata, N. [Faculty of Science, Naruto University of Education, Naruto (Japan); Fujita, T.; Shimamura, K.; Fukuda, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2001-04-09

    The electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Ce{sup 3+} in KMgF{sub 3} observed at low temperatures (<20 K) show that two tetragonal and two orthorhombic Ce{sup 3+} centres exist in the absence of a cubic centre. These Ce{sup 3+} centres are strongly associated with substitution of Ce{sup 3+} ions for K{sup +} ions with K{sup +}-ion vacancies at three different sites and for a Mg{sup 2+} ion with a vacancy of the nearest neighbour Mg{sup 2+} ion along the [101] direction as charge compensators. The optical absorption spectrum of Ce{sup 3+} in KMgF{sub 3} measured at room temperature consists of two intense broadbands with peaks at 229 and 237 nm, and two weak bands with peaks at 203 and 211 nm corresponding to the transition from the ground state {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} to the 5d{sup 1} excited states of Ce{sup 3+}. The Ce{sup 3+} luminescence spectrum excited at 229 or 237 nm at room temperature is composed of broadbands with double peaks at 265 and 282 nm, which are due to the ground-state splitting between {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}. The peak of the weak luminescence band excited at a tail (250-280 nm) of the intense absorption bands is shifted to lower energy. The intense and weak Ce{sup 3+} luminescence bands are assigned to Ce{sup 3+} ions substituting for K{sup +} ions away from and near to K{sup +}-ion vacancies, respectively. The luminescence from Ce{sup 3+} ions substituting for Mg{sup 2+} ions could not be observed at room temperature. (author)

  4. Observing quantum control of up-conversion luminescence in Dy3+ ion doped glass from weak to intermediate shaped femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Cheng, Wenjing; Yao, Yunhua; Xu, Cheng; Zheng, Ye; Deng, Lianzhong; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong; Zhang, Shian

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth ions in real-time, in a dynamical and reversible manner, is very important for their application in laser sources, fiber-optic communications, light-emitting diodes, color displays and biological systems. In previous studies, the up-conversion luminescence control mainly focused on the weak femtosecond laser field. Here, we further extend this control behavior from weak to intermediate femtosecond laser fields. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the up-conversion luminescence in Dy3+ ion doped glass can be artificially controlled by a π phase step modulation, but the up-conversion luminescence control behavior will be affected by the femtosecond laser intensity, and the up-conversion luminescence is suppressed by lower laser intensity while enhanced by higher laser intensity. We establish a new theoretical model (i.e. the fourth-order perturbation theory) to explain the physical control mechanism by considering the two- and four-photon absorption processes, and the theoretical results show that the relative weight of four-photon absorption in the whole excitation process will increase with the increase in laser intensity, and the interference between two- and four-photon absorptions results in up-conversion luminescence control modulation under different laser intensities. These theoretical and experimental works can provide a new method to control and understand up-conversion luminescence in rare-earth ions, and also may open a new opportunity to the related application areas of rare-earth ions.

  5. Excited State and Non-linear Optical Properties of NIR Absorbing β-Thiophene-Fused BF2-Azadipyrromethene Dyes-Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawale, Yogesh; Rhyman, Lydia; Elzagheid, Mohamed I; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-11-21

    Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory computations were used to understand the electronic and photophysical parameters of NIR β-thiophene-fused BF2-azadipyrromethene dyes. The computed data are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally and they provide insights into the origin of red shifted optical spectra compared to the parent aza-BODIPY, low Stokes shift, non-linear optical responses and quantitative description of the singlet-triplet energy gap. The resultant decrease in the HOMO - LUMO energy gap is responsible for the red shift. The possible use as non-linear optical materials is supported by large enhancement in the non-linear optical properties. On the basis of vertical triplet energies, their possible potential therapeutic use as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy is proposed. The singlet-triplet energetic gaps suggest that the β-thiophene-fused BF2-azadipyrromethene dyes can act as a sensitizer to produce an efficient generation of singlet oxygen. Their optimal use as an efficient singlet fission materials has been proposed on the basis of excitation energies in the ground, lowest singlet and triplet excited states.

  6. NIR luminescent Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured planar and channel waveguides: Optical and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cesar dos Santos [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica de Materiais - (GPQM), Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praca Dom Helvecio, 74, 36301-160, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Drielly Cristina de [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Maia, Lauro June Queiroz [Grupo Fisica de Materiais, Instituto de Fisica, UFG, Campus Samambaia, Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiania/GO (Brazil); Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leonidas [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife/PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Laboratorio de Materiais Fotonicos, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970, Araraquara/SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-09-14

    Optical and structural properties of planar and channel waveguides based on sol-gel Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} are reported. Microstructured channels with high homogeneous surface profile were written onto the surface of multilayered densified films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a femtosecond laser etching technique. The densification of the planar waveguides was evaluated from changes in the refractive index and thickness, with full densification being achieved at 900 Degree-Sign C after annealing from 23 up to 500 min, depending on the ZrO{sub 2} content. Crystal nucleation and growth took place together with densification, thereby producing transparent glass ceramic planar waveguides containing rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals dispersed in a silica-based glassy host. Low roughness and crack-free surface as well as high confinement coefficient were achieved for all the compositions. Enhanced NIR luminescence of the Er{sup 3+} ions was observed for the Yb{sup 3+}-codoped planar waveguides, denoting an efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel high NIR luminescent nanostructured planar and channel waveguides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructured channels written by a femtosecond laser etching technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transparent glass ceramic with rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals in a silica host. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced NIR luminescence, efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New planar channel waveguides to be applied as EDWA in the C telecommunication band.

  7. Studies of positron induced luminescence from polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tolk, N.H. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1994-06-01

    Light emission from polymers (anthracene dissolved in polystryrene) induced by low-energy positrons and electrons has been studied. Results indicate a clear difference between optical emissions under positron and electron bombardment. The positron-induced luminescence spectrum is believed to be generated by both collisional and annihilation processes.

  8. Optical properties of Sm3+ -doped TeO2sbnd WO3sbnd GeO2 glasses for solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, T.; Gopal, K. Rama; Suvarna, R. Padma; Jamalaiah, B. Chinna; Rao, Ch Srinivasa

    2018-03-01

    Sm3+ -doped oxyfluoride tellurite-tungsten (TWGSm) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The optical properties were investigated through photoluminescence excitation, emission and luminescence decay analysis. The optical band gap energy was determined as ∼3.425 eV for 1.0 mol% of Sm3+ -doped TWGSm glass. Upon 404 nm excitation, the TWGSm glasses emit luminescence through 4G5/2 → 6H5/2 (563 nm), 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 (600 nm), 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 (645 nm) and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 (705 nm) transitions. The Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed using absorption spectrum and obtained radiative parameters were used to estimate the laser characteristics of present glasses. The concentration of Sm3+ has been optimized as 1.0 mol% for efficient luminescence. The luminescence decay of 4G5/2 emission level was studied by monitoring the emission and excitation wavelengths at 600 and 404 nm, respectively. The experimental lifetime of 4G5/2 level was decrease with increase of Sm3+ concentration. The 1.0 mol% of Sm3+ -doped TWGSm glass could be the best choice for solid state visible lasers to emit orange luminescence.

  9. Characterization and Luminescence Properties of Color-Tunable Dy3+-Doped BaY2ZnO5 Nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonika; Khatkar, S. P.; Khatkar, Avni; Kumar, Rajesh; Taxak, V. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dy3+-doped BaY2ZnO5 nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by use of a solution combustion process. The effects of sintering temperature and dysprosium concentration on the structural and luminescence characteristics of the phosphors were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of pure orthorhombic BaY2ZnO5 with the space group Pbnm at 1100°C. Morphological investigation revealed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surfaces. The luminescence features of the nanophosphor were studied by use of photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence emission (PL), with luminescence decay curves and color ( x, y) coordinates. On excitation at 355 nm, BaY2ZnO5 nanophosphor doped with trivalent dysprosium ion emits white light as a mixture of blue (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and yellow (4F9/2 → 6H13/2) emission. Concentration quenching is explained on the basis of cross-relaxation between intermediate Dy3+ states. Thus, BaY2ZnO5:Dy3+ nanophosphor may be suitable for producing efficient white light for ultraviolet-light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), fluorescent lamps, and a variety of optical display panels.

  10. High efficiency white luminescence in Tm{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} tri-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere pumped by 976 nm laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Huang, Yantang, E-mail: huangyantang@fzu.edu.cn; Wu, Tianjiao; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Peijin

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, transparent Tm{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} tri-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic samples containing LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals were prepared by a melt quenching method, and were subsequently fabricated into transparent microspheres with handles. A new method to study the luminescent properties of Tm{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} tri-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic was proposed, which was using the biconical tapered fiber-microsphere coupled structure. The structure has characteristics of low excitation optical power, easy preparation and convenient testing. We obtained strong white light including the blue (471 nm), green (523 nm and 544 nm) and red (651 nm) emission under the excitation of a 976 nm laser diode (LD) and the relationship of the luminous flux of white light versus pump power simultaneously. In addition, the up-conversion (UC) luminescence mechanism of rare earth (RE) ions and the reason of high luminescence efficiency in our experiment were also explained. The white light obtained by UC of 976 nm laser has more advantages than that by down-conversion of blue light. It may be applied in many fields such as background light, lighting, etc. - Highlights: • A new method to study the luminescent properties of glass materials is proposed. • The white light was obtained by up-conversion of 976 nm laser. • The mechanism of up-conversion luminescence was clearly explained. • The advantages of the white luminescence excited by 976 nm were reported.

  11. Doping-induced luminescence in polyacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürti, J.; Kuzmany, H.

    1988-09-01

    In situ measurements of the emission of secondary radiation from trans-polyacetylene during electrochemical p and n doping are reported. The luminescencelike emission was observed to be reversible with the doping and undoping process, and it was independent with respect to three different electrolyte systems: Li+ClO-4 in sulfolane, Li+ClO-4 in propylenecarbonate, and Li+BF-4 in propylenecarbonate, which proves its origin from the polymer backbone. No reversible luminescence occurs during n doping. The intensity of the luminescence spectrum has a maximum for the laser excitation in the yellow-green spectral region. The maximum position of the luminescence spectrum shifts by about 3000 cm-1 for a shift of the excitation energy of 7000 cm-1. The observed luminescence phenomena are explained by the polaron-doping mechanism in the disordered part of the sample and photoselective resonance process. A quantitative description is presented by calculating the energy for polaron levels by the Hückel method including geometry relaxation.

  12. Luminescence and the light emitting diode the basics and technology of leds and the luminescence properties of the materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, E W; Pamplin, BR

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence and the Light Emitting Diode: The Basics and Technology of LEDS and the Luminescence Properties of the Materials focuses on the basic physics and technology of light emitting diodes (LEDS) and pn junction lasers as well as their luminescence properties. Optical processes in semiconductors and the useful devices which can be made are discussed. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the crystal structure and growth, as well as the optical and electrical properties of LED materials. The detailed fabrication of the LED is then considered, along with the lu

  13. Gas Sorption, Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, and Luminescence Properties of a Multifunctional srs-Type Metal-Organic Framework Built by Tris(4-carboxylphenylduryl)amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Ping; Tan, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian

    2015-07-06

    A chiral 8-fold interpenetrating srs-type metal-organic framework FIR-28 (FIR denotes Fujian Institute of Research) exhibits a surface area of 1029 m(2)/g and high C3H8/CH4 separation capacity in excess of 154 and displays strong powder second-harmonic-generation efficiency, with more than half over potassium dihydrogen phosphate powder. Moreover, the luminescence properties of FIR-28 are dependent on the solvent guests.

  14. CMOS Imaging of Pin-Printed Xerogel-Based Luminescent Sensor Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Khan, Rifat; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2010-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of a luminescence-based miniaturized multisensor system using pin-printed xerogel materials which act as host media for chemical recognition elements. We developed a CMOS imager integrated circuit (IC) to image the luminescence response of the xerogel-based sensor array. The imager IC uses a 26 × 20 (520 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each active pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. The imager includes a correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control circuit; the image data is read-out as coded serial signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite the target analyte responsive luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a prototype, we developed a 4 × 4 (16 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of 4 sensor elements in the array (arranged in a row) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a strategic mix of two oxygen sensitive luminophores ([Ru(dpp)3]2+ and ([Ru(bpy)3]2+) in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager consumes an average power of 8 mW operating at 1 kHz sampling frequency driven at 5 V. The developed prototype system demonstrates a low cost and miniaturized luminescence multisensor system.

  15. Experimental observation of spatially resolved photo-luminescence intensity distribution in dual mode upconverting nanorod bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Singh, V. N.; Singh, Nidhi; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for demonstration of photoluminescence intensity distribution in upconverting nanorod bundles using confocal microscopy is reported. Herein, a strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent dual mode upconverting/downshift Y1.94O3:Ho3+0.02/Yb3+0.04 nanorod bundles by a facile hydrothermal route has been introduced. These luminescent nanorod bundles exhibit strong green emission at 549 nm upon excitations at 449 nm and 980 nm with quantum efficiencies of ~6.3% and ~1.1%, respectively. The TEM/HRTEM results confirm that these bundles are composed of several individual nanorods with diameter of ~100 nm and length in the range of 1-3 μm. Furthermore, two dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution study has been carried out using confocal photoluminescence microscope throughout the nanorod bundles. This study provides a new direction for the potential use of such emerging dual mode nanorod bundles as photon sources for next generation flat panel optical display devices, bio-medical applications, luminescent security ink and enhanced energy harvesting in photovoltaic applications.

  16. The Intersection of CMOS Microsystems and Upconversion Nanoparticles for Luminescence Bioimaging and Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies.

  17. The intersection of CMOS microsystems and upconversion nanoparticles for luminescence bioimaging and bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liping; Doughan, Samer; Han, Yi; DaCosta, Matthew V; Krull, Ulrich J; Ho, Derek

    2014-09-10

    Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies.

  18. Electronic excitation-induced structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Ni-doped HoFeO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Zubida [National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Srinagar (India); National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Ikram, Mohd; Mir, Sajad A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Sultan, Khalid [Central University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Abida [Govt Degree College for Women, Department of Physics, Anantnag, Kashmir (India); Majid, Kowsar [National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Srinagar (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2017-06-15

    Present study investigates the electronic excitation-induced modifications in the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Ni-doped HoFeO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. Electronic excitations were induced by 200 MeV Ag{sup 12+} ion beam. These thin films were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the crystallite growth occurs in the preferred (111) orientation with orthorhombic structure. The XRD results also show that the crystallite size decreases with ion irradiation. AFM results after irradiation show significant changes in the surface roughness and morphology of these films. The optical parameters measured from absorption measurements reveal reduction in the band gap with Ni doping and enhancement of band gap after irradiation. The magnetization vs field measurement at 75 K shows enhancement in saturation magnetization after irradiation for HoFe{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.1 and 0.3) films compared to HoFeO{sub 3} film. Present study shows electronic excitation induces significant changes in the physical properties of these films. (orig.)

  19. A Bloch equation approach to intensity dependent optical spectra of light harvesting complex II: excitation dependence of light harvesting complex II pump-probe spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marten; Renger, Thomas; Knorr, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the recent progress in the resolution of the structure of the antenna light harvesting complex II (LHC II) of the photosystem II, we propose a microscopically motivated theory to predict excitation intensity-dependent spectra. We show that optical Bloch equations provide the means to include all 2( N ) excited states of an oligomer complex of N coupled two-level systems and analyze the effects of Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation on pump-probe spectra. We use LHC Bloch equations for 14 Coulomb coupled two-level systems, which describe the S (0) and S (1) level of every chlorophyll molecule. All parameter introduced into the Hamiltonian are based on microscopic structure and a quantum chemical model. The derived Bloch equations describe not only linear absorption but also the intensity dependence of optical spectra in a regime where the interplay of Pauli Blocking effects as well as exciton-exciton annihilation effects are important. As an example, pump-probe spectra are discussed. The observed saturation of the spectra for high intensities can be viewed as a relaxation channel blockade on short time scales due to Pauli blocking. The theoretical investigation is useful for the interpretation of the experimental data, if the experimental conditions exceed the low intensity pump limit and effects like strong Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation need to be considered. These effects become important when multiple excitations are generated by the pump pulse in the complex.

  20. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube-sensitized europium nanoprobes for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avti, Pramod K; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanoid-based optical probes with excitation wavelengths in the ultra-violet (UV) range (300–325 nm) have been widely developed as imaging probes. Efficient cellular imaging requires that lanthanoid optical probes be excited at visible wavelengths, to avoid UV damage to cells. The efficacy of europium-catalyzed single-walled carbon nanotubes (Eu-SWCNTs), as visible nanoprobes for cellular imaging, is reported in this study. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3 and MCF-7) and normal cells (NIH 3T3), treated with Eu-SWCNT at 0.2 μg/mL concentration, showed bright red luminescence after excitation at 365 nm and 458 nm wavelengths. Cell viability analysis showed no cytotoxic effects after the incubation of cells with Eu-SWCNTs at this concentration. Eu-SWCNT uptake is via the endocytosis mechanism. Labeling efficiency, defined as the percentage of incubated cells that uptake Eu-SWCNT, was 95%–100% for all cell types. The average cellular uptake concentration was 6.68 ng Eu per cell. Intracellular localization was further corroborated by transmission electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. The results indicate that Eu-SWCNT shows potential as a novel cellular imaging probe, wherein SWCNT sensitizes Eu3+ ions to allow excitation at visible wavelengths, and stable time-resolved red emission. The ability to functionalize biomolecules on the exterior surface of Eu-SWCNT makes it an excellent candidate for targeted cellular imaging. PMID:22619533