Sample records for excitation systems

  1. Stochastic Hierarchical Systems: Excitable Dynamics


    Leonhardt, Helmar; Zaks, Michael A.; Falcke, Martin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz


    We present a discrete model of stochastic excitability by a low-dimensional set of delayed integral equations governing the probability in the rest state, the excited state, and the refractory state. The process is a random walk with discrete states and nonexponential waiting time distributions, which lead to the incorporation of memory kernels in the integral equations. We extend the equations of a single unit to the system of equations for an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators, derive...

  2. Stochastic hierarchical systems: excitable dynamics. (United States)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Zaks, Michael A; Falcke, Martin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz


    We present a discrete model of stochastic excitability by a low-dimensional set of delayed integral equations governing the probability in the rest state, the excited state, and the refractory state. The process is a random walk with discrete states and nonexponential waiting time distributions, which lead to the incorporation of memory kernels in the integral equations. We extend the equations of a single unit to the system of equations for an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators, derive the mean field equations, and investigate bifurcations of steady states. Conditions of destabilization are found, which imply oscillations of the mean fields in the stochastic ensemble. The relation between the mean field equations and the paradigmatic Kuramoto model is shown.

  3. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

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    Milojčić Nemanja


    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  4. Magnetic excitations in rare earth systems (United States)

    Jensen, Jens


    The observation of magnetic excitations, by means of inelastic neutron scattering, provides valuable information on the magnetic forces acting in rare-earth systems. The RPA (random-phase approximation) theory, developed into its final form in the early seventies, is now a widely used tool for analyzing the excitation spectra in systems with well-defined local moments. These excitations reflect both the dynamics of the single moments and the interactions of these moments with their surroundings. A discussion of the information which has been obtained from studies of the magnetic excitations in the rare-earth metal is presented. The emphasis is laid on Pr-metal which has attracted much interest in recent years. Recent progress in the investigation of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, like the Laves-phase and the CsCl-type-compounds and the rare-earth pnictides, is also condidered. Some aspects of the magnetic properties of the actinides can be understood in terms of a model of localized moments, and we include a discussion of USb, where the spin-wave spectrum contains direct evidence that the spins are ordered in a triple- q structure. The magnetic excitations may be coupled to the phonons and in the metallic systems they interact with the electron- hole excitations of the conduction electrons. Therefore the sound velocities and the effective mass of the conduction electrons can be strongly affected by the spin system. Recent developments within these areas are also reviewed.

  5. Narrow-Band Excitation of Hysteretic Systems

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    W.Q. Zhu


    Full Text Available The stationary response of smooth and bilinear hysteretic systems to narrow-band random excitations is investigated by using the quasistatic method and digital simulation. It is shown that the response is qualitatively different in different ranges of values of the ratio of the excitation central frequency to the natural frequency of the system. In the resonant zone, the response is essentially non-Gaussian. For bilinear hysteretic systems with strong yielding, stochastic jumps may occur for a range of values of the ratio between nonresonant and resonant zones.

  6. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

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    G. Obregón-Pulido


    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  7. Stimulation of unidirectional pulses in excitable systems (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Ovsyshcher, I. E.; Fleidervish, I.; Crystal, E.; Rabinovitch, A.


    Using a judicious spatial shape of input current pulses (and electrodes), responses of an excitable system (FitzHugh-Nagumo) appear as unidirectional pulses (UDP’s) instead of bidirectional ones (in one dimension) or circular ones (in two dimensions). The importance of the UDP’s for a possible mechanism for pinpointing the reentry cycle position and for a possible use in tachycardia suppression is discussed.

  8. Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.


    One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.

  9. Ultra-short strong excitation of two-level systems (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Eleuch, Hichem; Grazioso, Fabio


    We present a model describing the use of ultra-short strong pulses to control the population of the excited level of a two-level quantum system. In particular, we study an off-resonance excitation with a few cycles pulse which presents a smooth phase jump i.e. a change of the pulse's phase which is not step-like, but happens over a finite time interval. A numerical solution is given for the time-dependent probability amplitude of the excited level. The control of the excited level's population is obtained acting on the shape of the phase transient, and other parameters of the excitation pulse.

  10. Modernization, reconstruction and development of excitation systems for synchronous generators

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    Arnautović Dušan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the previous results of work and development of excitation systems with digital automatic voltage regulators regarding their design, development, manufacturing and commissioning. A special attention was paid to the characteristics of excitation system voltage regulator.

  11. Plasmon excitations in two-dimensional atomic cluster systems

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    Yu, Yan-Qin; Yu, Ya-Bin, E-mail:; Xue, Hong-Jie; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Jie


    Properties of plasmon excitations in two-dimensional (2D) atomic cluster systems are theoretically studied within an extended Hubbard model. The collective oscillation equations of charge, plasmon eigen-equations and the energy-absorption spectrum formula are presented. The calculated results show that different symmetries of plasmons exist in the cluster systems, and the symmetry of charge distribution in the plasmon resonance originate from the intrinsic symmetry of the corresponding eigen-plasmon modes, but not from the symmetry of applied external fields; however, the plasmon excitation with a certain polarization direction should be excited by the field in this direction, the dipole mode of plasmons can be excited by both uniform and non-uniform fields, but multipole ones cannot be excited by an uniform field. In addition, we show that for a given electron density, plasmon spectra are red-shifted with increasing size of the systems.

  12. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.


    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  13. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu


    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  14. Benefits and Challenges of Over-Actuated Excitation Systems

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    Norman Fitz-Coy


    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive discussion on the benefits and technical challenges of controlling over-determined and over-actuated excitation systems ranging from 1-DOF to 6-DOF. The primary challenges of over-actuated systems result from the physical constraints imposed when the number of exciters exceeds the number of mechanical degree-of-freedom. This issue is less critical for electro-dynamic exciters which tend to be more compliant than servo-hydraulic exciters. To facilitate the technical challenges discussion, generalized methods for determining the drive output commands and the actuator input transform is presented. To further provide insights into the problem, over-actuated 1-DOF and 6-DOF examples are provided. Results are presented to support the discussions.

  15. Comparison of Excitation Signals in Active Magnetic Bearing System Identification

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    Jouni Vuojolainen


    Full Text Available Active magnetic bearings (AMBs offer frictionless suspension, vibration insulation, programmable stiffness, and damping, among other advantages, in levitated rotor applications. However, AMBs are inherently unstable and require accurate system models for the high-performance model-based multi-input multi-output control of rotor position. Control electronics with high calculation capacity and accurate sensors of AMBs provide an opportunity to implement various identification schemes. A variety of artificial excitation signal-based identification methods can thus be achieved with no additional hardware. In this paper, a selection of excitation signals, namely the pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS, chirp signal, multisine, and stepped sine are presented, applied, and compared with the AMB system identification. From the identification experiments, the rotor-bearing system, the inner current control loop, and values of position and current stiffness are identified. Unlike recently published works considering excitation-based identification of AMB rotor systems, it is demonstrated that identification of the rotor system dynamics can be carried out using various well-established excitation signals. Application and feasibility of these excitation signals in AMB rotor systems are analyzed based on experimental results.

  16. Folded Localized Excitations of the Maccari System (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Jie-Fang


    Using the variable separation approach, a quite general variable separation solution of the (2+1)-dimensional Maccari systems can be derived. Special type of soliton solutions, folded solitary waves (FSWs) and foldons, are obtained by selecting some types of multi-valued functions appropriately. The FSWs and foldons may be ``folded'' in quite complicated waves and possess interesting interaction properties.

  17. Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system

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    Janda Žarko


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.

  18. Noise-induced multimode behavior in excitable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Han, S K


    Based on experiments with electronic circuits, we show how a system of coupled excitable units can possess several noise-induced oscillatory modes. We characterize the multimode organization in terms of the coherence resonance effect. Multiple gain of regularity is found to be related to different...

  19. Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System

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    Zhaohui Ren


    Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.

  20. Reconstruction of Input Excitation Acting on Vibration Isolation System

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    Pan Zhou


    Full Text Available Vibration isolation systems are widely employed in automotive, marine, aerospace, and other engineering fields. Accurate input forces are of great significance for mechanical design, vibration prediction, and structure modification and optimization. One-stage vibration isolation system including engine, vibration isolators, and flexible supporting structure is modeled theoretically in this paper. Input excitation acting on the vibration isolation system is reconstructed using dynamic responses measured on engine and supporting structure under in-suit condition. The reconstructed forces reveal that dynamic responses on rigid body are likely to provide more accurate estimation results. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of excitation reconstructed by dynamic responses on flexible supporting structure, auto/cross-power spectral density function is utilized to reduce measurement noise.

  1. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

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    Zhang Xiu-yu


    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  2. Coherent Excitations Induced by Pumping a Mott System (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Claassen, Martin; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas

    Time-domain or non-equilibrium dynamics of correlated materials has attracted attention due to the possibility to characterize, tune and create complex ordered states. To understand how single and multi-particle excitations develop in a strongly-correlated systems during a pulsed pump, we perform a time-resolved exact-diagonalization study on a single-band Hubbard model. Starting from the Mott insulator at half-filling, we observe the suppression of antiferromagnetism and development of low-energy charge excitations through a series of Floquet-like sidebands. By correlating with the numerically evaluated single-particle spectra in non-equilibrium, the transient dynamics of multi-particle excitations can be attributed to the interplay between virtual Floquet sidebands and change of density of states due to the existence of strong correlations. The autocorrelation of this time-dependent spectral function reflects that it is the resonance of floquet states and upper Hubbard band that causes the remnant change of charge and spin excitations. This nonperturbative, nonequilibrium and nonstatic study reveals the underlying physical process while correlated electrons are pumped in experiment and provide the opportunity of designing nonequilibrium state of matter by a short pulsed laser.

  3. Simultaneous excitation system for efficient guided wave structural health monitoring (United States)

    Hua, Jiadong; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Lin, Jing


    Many structural health monitoring systems utilize guided wave transducer arrays for defect detection and localization. Signals are usually acquired using the ;pitch-catch; method whereby each transducer is excited in turn and the response is received by the remaining transducers. When extensive signal averaging is performed, the data acquisition process can be quite time-consuming, especially for metallic components that require a low repetition rate to allow signals to die out. Such a long data acquisition time is particularly problematic if environmental and operational conditions are changing while data are being acquired. To reduce the total data acquisition time, proposed here is a methodology whereby multiple transmitters are simultaneously triggered, and each transmitter is driven with a unique excitation. The simultaneously transmitted waves are captured by one or more receivers, and their responses are processed by dispersion-compensated filtering to extract the response from each individual transmitter. The excitation sequences are constructed by concatenating a series of chirps whose start and stop frequencies are randomly selected from a specified range. The process is optimized using a Monte-Carlo approach to select sequences with impulse-like autocorrelations and relatively flat cross-correlations. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is evaluated by several metrics and is experimentally demonstrated with sparse array imaging of simulated damage.

  4. Pattern reverberation in networks of excitable systems with connection delays (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Rosin, David P.; Worlitzer, Vasco M.; Yanchuk, Serhiy


    We consider the recurrent pulse-coupled networks of excitable elements with delayed connections, which are inspired by the biological neural networks. If the delays are tuned appropriately, the network can either stay in the steady resting state, or alternatively, exhibit a desired spiking pattern. It is shown that such a network can be used as a pattern-recognition system. More specifically, the application of the correct pattern as an external input to the network leads to a self-sustained reverberation of the encoded pattern. In terms of the coupling structure, the tolerance and the refractory time of the individual systems, we determine the conditions for the uniqueness of the sustained activity, i.e., for the functionality of the network as an unambiguous pattern detector. We point out the relation of the considered systems with cyclic polychronous groups and show how the assumed delay configurations may arise in a self-organized manner when a spike-time dependent plasticity of the connection delays is assumed. As excitable elements, we employ the simplistic coincidence detector models as well as the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models. Moreover, the system is implemented experimentally on a Field-Programmable Gate Array.

  5. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

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    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.


    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  6. Localized excitations in (2+1)-dimensional systems (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Lou, Sen-Yue; Zhang, Ying


    By means of a special variable separation approach, a common formula with some arbitrary functions has been obtained for some suitable physical quantities of various (2+1)-dimensional models such as the Davey-Stewartson (DS) model, the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov (NNV) system, asymmetric NNV equation, asymmetric DS equation, dispersive long wave equation, Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system, long wave-short wave interaction model, Maccari system, and a general (N+M)-component Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) system. Selecting the arbitrary functions appropriately, one may obtain abundant stable localized interesting excitations such as the multidromions, lumps, ring soliton solutions, breathers, instantons, etc. It is shown that some types of lower dimensional chaotic patterns such as the chaotic-chaotic patterns, periodic-chaotic patterns, chaotic line soliton patterns, chaotic dromion patterns, fractal lump patterns, and fractal dromion patterns may be found in higher dimensional soliton systems. The interactions between the traveling ring type soliton solutions are completely elastic. The traveling ring solitons pass through each other and preserve their shapes, velocities, and phases. Some types of localized weak solutions, peakons, are also discussed. Especially, the interactions between two peakons are not completely elastic. After the interactions, the traveling peakons also pass through each other and preserve their velocities and phases, however, they completely exchange their shapes.

  7. Study on the adjustment capability of the excitation system located inside superconducting machine electromagnetic shield (United States)

    Xia, D.; Xia, Z.


    The ability for the excitation system to adjust quickly plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of superconducting machines and power systems. However, the eddy currents in the electromagnetic shield of superconducting machines hinder the exciting magnetic field change and weaken the adjustment capability of the excitation system. To analyze this problem, a finite element calculation model for the transient electromagnetic field with moving parts is established. The effects of three different electromagnetic shields on the exciting magnetic field are analyzed using finite element method. The results show that the electromagnetic shield hinders the field changes significantly, the better its conductivity, the greater the effect on the superconducting machine excitation.

  8. Methodology to estimate parameters of an excitation system based on experimental conditions

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    Saavedra-Montes, A.J. [Carrera 80 No 65-223, Bloque M8 oficina 113, Escuela de Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Ramirez-Scarpetta, J.M. [Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Malik, O.P. [2500 University Drive N.W., Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)


    A methodology to estimate the parameters of a potential-source controlled rectifier excitation system model is presented in this paper. The proposed parameter estimation methodology is based on the characteristics of the excitation system. A comparison of two pseudo random binary signals, two sampling periods for each one, and three estimation algorithms is also presented. Simulation results from an excitation control system model and experimental results from an excitation system of a power laboratory setup are obtained. To apply the proposed methodology, the excitation system parameters are identified at two different levels of the generator saturation curve. The results show that it is possible to estimate the parameters of the standard model of an excitation system, recording two signals and the system operating in closed loop with the generator. The normalized sum of squared error obtained with experimental data is below 10%, and with simulation data is below 5%. (author)

  9. On a complex Duffing system with random excitation

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    Xu Yong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)], E-mail:; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)], E-mail:; Mahmoud, Gamal M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Assiut, 71516 Assiut (Egypt)], E-mail:


    In this paper, we consider a complex Duffing system subjected to nonstationary random excitation of the form, z(t)+2{omega}{xi}z{sup .}(t)+{omega}{sup 2}z+{epsilon}z(t)|z(t)|{sup 2}={alpha}F(t), where z(t) is a complex function, {alpha} = 1 + i, i denotes the imaginary unit, {omega}, {xi} represent natural frequency and damping coefficient respectively, {epsilon} is the small perturbation parameter and nonlinearity strength, and F(t) is a random function. This equation with F(t) = 0 has connection to the complex nonlinear Schroedinger equation which appears in many important fields of physics. The truncated Wiener-Hermite expansion is applied to derive the deterministic integro-differential equations. These equations have been solved by the small parameter perturbation approach to describe the root mean square response. The approximate solution moments for the original systems has been obtained analytically. Figures are presented to show the effect of the nonlinearity strength and the damping coefficients, respectively.

  10. Excited-state dynamics of hybrid multichromophoric systems: toward an excitation wavelength control of the charge separation pathways. (United States)

    Banerji, Natalie; Duvanel, Guillaume; Perez-Velasco, Alejandro; Maity, Santanu; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan; Vauthey, Eric


    The photophysical properties of two hybrid multichromophoric systems consisting of an oligophenylethynyl (OPE) scaffold decorated by 10 red or blue naphthalene diimides (NDIs) have been investigated using femtosecond spectroscopy. Ultrafast charge separation was observed with both red and blue systems. However, the nature of the charge-separated state and its lifetime were found to differ substantially. For the red system, electron transfer occurs from the OPE scaffold to an NDI unit, independently of whether the OPE or an NDI is initially excited. However, charge separation upon OPE excitation is about 10 times faster, and takes place with a 100 fs time constant. The average lifetime of the ensuing charge-separated state amounts to about 650 ps. Charge separation in the blue system depends on which of the OPE scaffold or an NDI is excited. In the first case, an electron is transferred from the OPE to an NDI and the hole subsequently shifts to another NDI unit, whereas in the second case symmetry-breaking charge separation between two NDI units occurs. Although the charges are located on two NDIs in both cases, different recombination dynamics are observed. This is explained by the location of the ionic NDI moieties that depends on the charge separation pathway, hence on the excitation wavelength. The very different dynamics observed with red and blue systems can be accounted for by the oxidation potentials of the respective NDIs that are higher and lower than that of the OPE scaffold. Because of this, the relative energies of the two charge-separated states (hole on the OPE or an NDI) are inverted.

  11. Research on the reliability of friction system under combined additive and multiplicative random excitations (United States)

    Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei


    In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.

  12. Non trivial effect of strong high-frequency excitation on a nonlinear controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    due to control is usually high compared to uncontrolled systems. A standard optimal controller for a standard nonlinear system (a movable cart used to balance a pendulum vertically) is shown to exhibit pronounced bias error in presence of HF-excitation. The bias increases with increased excitation...

  13. Effective properties of mechanical systems under high-frequency excitation at multiple frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel


    Effects of strong high-frequency excitation at multiple frequencies (multi-HFE) are analyzed for a class of generally nonlinear systems. The effects are illustrated for a simple pendulum system with a vibrating support, and for a parametrically excited flexible beam. For the latter, theoretical...

  14. Open system perspective on incoherent excitation of light-harvesting systems (United States)

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Botero, Juan D.; Brumer, Paul


    The nature of excited states of open quantum systems produced by incoherent natural thermal light is analyzed based on a description of the quantum dynamical map. Natural thermal light is shown to generate long-lasting coherent dynamics because of (i) the super-Ohmic character of the radiation, and (ii) the absence of pure dephasing dynamics. In the presence of an environment, the long-lasting coherences induced by suddenly turned-on incoherent light dissipate and stationary coherences are established. As a particular application, dynamics in a subunit of the PC645 light-harvesting complex is considered where it is further shown that aspects of the energy pathways landscape depend on the nature of the exciting light and number of chromophores excited. Specifically, pulsed laser and natural broadband incoherent excitation induce significantly different energy transfer pathways. In addition, we discuss differences in perspective associated with the eigenstate versus site basis, and note an important difference in the phase of system coherences when coupled to blackbody radiation or when coupled to a phonon background. Finally, an appendix contains an open systems example of the loss of coherence as the turn-on time of the light assumes natural time scales.

  15. Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation (United States)

    Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay


    An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).

  16. Excitability and self-pulsations near homoclinic bifurcations in semiconductor laser systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauskopf, B.; Schneider, K.; Sieber, J.; Wieczorek, S.; Wolfrum, M.


    Many laser systems show self-pulsations with a large amplitude that are born suddenly in a homoclinic bifurcation. Just before the onset of these self-pulsations the laser is excitable where the excitability threshold is formed by the stable manifold of a saddle point. We show that there exists a

  17. Adaptive Super-Twisting Observer for Estimation of Random Road Excitation Profile in Automotive Suspension Systems

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    J. J. Rath


    Full Text Available The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue of estimation of road profile, we develop an adaptive supertwisting observer for state and unknown road profile estimation. Under Lipschitz conditions for the nonlinear functions, the convergence of the estimation error is proven. Simulation results with Ford Fiesta MK2 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer for state and unknown input estimation for nonlinear active suspension system.

  18. Identification of the low-energy excitations in a quantum critical system

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    Tom Heitmann


    Full Text Available We have identified low-energy magnetic excitations in a doped quantum critical system by means of polarized neutron scattering experiments. The presence of these excitations could explain why Ce(Fe0.76Ru0.242Ge2 displays dynamical scaling in the absence of local critical behavior or long-range spin-density wave criticality. The low-energy excitations are associated with the reorientations of the superspins of fully ordered, isolated magnetic clusters that form spontaneously upon lowering the temperature. The system houses both frozen clusters and dynamic clusters, as predicted by Hoyos and Vojta [Phys. Rev. B 74, 140401(R (2006].

  19. Functional Assessment of Corticospinal System Excitability in Karate Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Moscatelli

    Full Text Available To investigate the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1 in the coordination performance of karate athletes through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.Thirteen right-handed male karate athletes (25.0±5.0 years and 13 matched non-athlete controls (26.7±6.2 years were enrolled. A single-pulse TMS was applied using a figure-eight coil stimulator. Resting motor threshold (rMT was determined. Surface electromyography was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Motor evoked potential (MEP latencies and amplitudes at rMT, 110%, and 120% of rMT were considered. Functional assessment of the coordination performance was assessed by in-phase (IP and anti-phase (AP homolateral hand and foot coordination tasks performed at 80, 120, and 180 bpm.Compared to controls, athletes showed lower rMT (p<0.01, shorter MEP latency (p<0.01 and higher MEP amplitude (p<0.01, with a significant correlation (r = 0.50, p<0.01 between rMT and MEP latency. Coordination decreased with increasing velocity, and better IP performances emerged compared to AP ones (p<0.001. In general, a high correlation between rMT and coordination tasks was found for both IP and AP conditions.With respect to controls, karate athletes present a higher corticospinal excitability indicating the presence of an activity-dependent alteration in the balance and interactions between inhibitory and facilitatory circuits determining the final output from the M1. Furthermore, the high correlation between corticospinal excitability and coordination performance could support sport-specific neurophysiological arrangements.

  20. Controlled excitation of resonance self-oscillations in one-dimensional distributed systems (United States)

    Izrailovich, M. Ya.


    On the basis of the method of equivalent linearization combined with the method of moments, laws of self-oscillation excitation are obtained that provide the modes with maximum intensity of resonance (or quasi-resonance) oscillations in one-dimensional systems with distributed parameters. A restriction of a general type is imposed on the law of excitation. In the particular case of an integral quadratic restriction, the law of excitation leads to the generation of purely harmonic self-oscillations. The use of an extended (multiplicatively stabilizing) control provides the uniqueness and stability of the quasi-optimal mode of self-oscillation.

  1. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther


    A dynamic system under parametric excitation in the form of a non-Erlang renewal jump process is considered. The excitation is a random train of nonoverlapping rectangular pulses with equal, deterministic heights. The time intervals between two consecutive jumps up (or down), are the sum of two...... independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...

  2. Spectral decomposition of a turbulence-excited vibroacoustic system (United States)

    Kook, H.-S.; Park, S.-H.; Ih, K.-D.


    The applicability of the spectral decomposition method to noise spectra generated inside a cavity enclosed by turbulence-excited elastic structures is investigated. Based on previous theoretical and experimental findings, we show that the noise spectra may be spectrally decomposable if the convection speed of the boundary layer is relatively slow, and thus all resonant structural modes are hydrodynamically fast. As an application, spectral decomposition is attempted for data obtained from two ground vehicles tested in an aeroacoustically treated wind tunnel. We show that the synthesized noise spectra generated from the decomposed source and filter functions are in fairly good agreement with the measured spectra. This study is also concerned with the spectral decomposition algorithm. Similar to an algorithm recently proposed by other researchers, the proposed algorithm formulates the spectral decomposition as simultaneous equations. Input data generated from numerical simulations are used to compare the various algorithms in terms of computational accuracy and cost. Unlike conventional methods that calculate the decomposed function incrementally, we show that algorithms based on simultaneous equations yield far better results in terms of accuracy at the expense of increased computational memory. However, the proposed algorithm requires significantly fewer equations and unknowns compared to the recently proposed algorithm that is based on a formulation of simultaneous equations.

  3. Optimization and applications of an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Klomkaew, Phiwat; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.


    Currently, the majority of microscopic and endoscopic technologies utilize white light illumination. For a number of applications, hyper-spectral imaging can be shown to have significant improvements over standard white-light imaging techniques. This is true for both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have suffered from slow application times. Often, minutes are required to gather a full imaging stack. Here we will describe the system and evaluate optimizations and applications of a novel excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. We have developed and are optimizing a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides an order of magnitude increased signal strength. Optimization of the light path, optical components and illumination sources have allowed us to achieve high speed image acquisition. This high speed allows for potential live video acquisition. This excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging technology has potential to impact a range of applications. The current system allows triggering of up to 16 wavelengths at less than 1 millisecond per image using digital strobing. Analog intensity control is also provided for a fully customizable excitation profile. A significant advantage of excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging is can identify multiple targets simultaneously in real time. We are optimizing the system to compare sensitivity and specificity of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging with pathology techniques. Finally, we are exploring utilizing this technology to measure cAMP distribution in three dimensions within a cell.





    The instrumental distortions due to adjustable parameters of the SR250 boxcar integrator/averager system and a pulsed-laser luminescence spectrometer on the excited-state lifetime decay waveforms were investigated. A theoretical model which takes into account the exponential moving average for this instrument and also RC distortion on the time-dependent luminescence signal is presented. An analytical expression relating the sample's excited-state lifetime and the adjustable instrumental param...

  5. Using axicons for depth discrimination in excitation-emission laser scanning imaging systems (United States)

    Iglesias, Ignacio


    Besides generating good approximations to zero-order Bessel beams, an axicon lens coupled to a spatial filter can be used to collect light while preserving information on the depth coordinate of the source location. To demonstrate the principle, we describe an experimental excitation-emission fluorescence imaging system that uses an axicon twice: to generate an excitation Bessel beam and to collect the emitted light.

  6. Excitable systems with noise and delay, with applications to control: renewal theory approach. (United States)

    Pototsky, Andrey; Janson, Natalia


    We present an approach for the analytical treatment of excitable systems with noise-induced dynamics in the presence of time delay. An excitable system is modeled as a bistable system with a time delay, while another delay enters as a control term taken after Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992)] as a difference between the current system state and its state tau time units before. This approach combines the elements of renewal theory to estimate the essential features of the resulting stochastic process as functions of the parameters of the controlling term.

  7. Excitable systems with noise and delay, with applications to control: Renewal theory approach (United States)

    Pototsky, Andrey; Janson, Natalia


    We present an approach for the analytical treatment of excitable systems with noise-induced dynamics in the presence of time delay. An excitable system is modeled as a bistable system with a time delay, while another delay enters as a control term taken after Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992)] as a difference between the current system state and its state τ time units before. This approach combines the elements of renewal theory to estimate the essential features of the resulting stochastic process as functions of the parameters of the controlling term.

  8. Utilization of excitation signal harmonics for control of nonlinear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    signal together with Fourier analysis to generate a feedback signal and simulations have shown that different system gains and time constants does not change the global equilibrium/operating point. An evaporator in a refrigeration system was used as example in the simulations, however, it is anticipated...

  9. Relay protection coordination with generator capability curve, excitation system limiters and power system relay protections settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Danilo


    Full Text Available The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B" are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according to which the calculations are done are described. Criteria used to provide the protection to fulfill the backup protection role in the event of malfunction of the main protection of the transmission system. are clarified. The calculation of all protection functions (32 functions of generator B1 were performed in the project "Coordination of relay protection blocks B1 and B2 with the system of excitation and power system protections -TENT B".

  10. Analysis and Control of Parametrically Excited Dynamical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinha, Subhash


    The primary objective of this research is to develop new tools of analysis and control strategies for mechanical systems which can be modeled as a set of differential equations with time-periodic coefficients...

  11. Increasing average power in medical ultrasonic endoscope imaging system by coded excitation (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin


    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through biopsy channel of electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro pre-motor, which requires that the length of ultrasonic probe is no more than 14mm and the diameter is no more than 2.2mm. As a result, the ultrasonic excitation power is very low and it is difficult to obtain a sharp image. In order to increase the energy and SNR of ultrasonic signal, we introduce coded excitation into the ultrasonic imaging system, which is widely used in radar system. Coded excitation uses a long coded pulse to drive ultrasonic transducer, which can increase the average transmitting power accordingly. In this paper, in order to avoid the overlapping between adjacent echo, we used a four-figure Barker code to drive the ultrasonic transducer, which is modulated at the operating frequency of transducer to improve the emission efficiency. The implementation of coded excitation is closely associated with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer. In this paper, the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer excited by a shock pulse δ(t) is firstly analyzed, and then the exciting pulse generated by special ultrasonic transmitting circuit composing of MD1211 and TC6320. In the final part of the paper, we designed an experiment to validate the coded excitation with transducer operating at 5MHz and a glass filled with ultrasonic coupling liquid as the object. Driven by a FPGA, the ultrasonic transmitting circuit output a four-figure Barker excitation pulse modulated at 5MHz, +/-20 voltage and is consistent with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer after matched by matching circuit. The reflected echo from glass possesses coded character, which is identical with the simulating result by Matlab. Furthermore, the signal's amplitude is higher.

  12. Laser-excited fluorescence spectrometric system for tissue diagnostics (United States)

    Zharkova, Natalia N.; Kozlov, Dmitrij N.; Polivanov, Yu. N.; Pykhov, R. L.; Smirnov, V. V.


    A compact experimental spectrometric system designed for experimental and clinical fluorescence diagnostic observations of tumors is described. Methods of tumor diagnostics using fluorescence spectra of photosensitizers employed for photodynamic therapy has been developed. The system has been tested in P.A. Hertzen Moscow Research Oncology Institute for direct and endoscopic fluorescence diagnostics of tumors in the course of clinical trials of new domestically produced drugs.

  13. Metastable states in parametrically excited multimode Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirr, E


    Consider a linear autonomous Hamiltonian system with time periodic bound state solutions. In this paper we study their dynamics under time almost periodic perturbations which are small, localized and Hamiltonian. The analysis proceeds through a reduction of the original infinite dimensional dynamical system to the dynamics of two coupled subsystems: a dominant m-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations (normal form), governing the projections onto the bound states and an infinite dimensional dispersive wave equation. The present work generalizes previous work of the authors, where the case of a single bound state is considered. Here, the interaction picture is considerably more complicated and requires deeper analysis, due to a multiplicity of bound states and the very general nature of the perturbation's time dependence. Parametric forcing induces coupling of bound states to continuum radiation modes, bound states directly to bound states, as well as coupling among bound states, which is mediate...

  14. Charging power optimization for nonlinear vibration energy harvesting systems subjected to arbitrary, persistent base excitations (United States)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.


    The vibrations of mechanical systems and structures are often a combination of periodic and random motions. Emerging interest to exploit nonlinearities in vibration energy harvesting systems for charging microelectronics may be challenged by such reality due to the potential to transition between favorable and unfavorable dynamic regimes for DC power delivery. Therefore, a need exists to devise an optimization method whereby charging power from nonlinear energy harvesters remains maximized when excitation conditions are neither purely harmonic nor purely random, which have been the attention of past research. This study meets the need by building from an analytical approach that characterizes the dynamic response of nonlinear energy harvesting platforms subjected to combined harmonic and stochastic base accelerations. Here, analytical expressions are formulated and validated to optimize charging power while the influences of the relative proportions of excitation types are concurrently assessed. It is found that about a 2 times deviation in optimal resistive loads can reduce the charging power by 20% when the system is more prominently driven by harmonic base accelerations, whereas a greater proportion of stochastic excitation results in a 11% reduction in power for the same resistance deviation. In addition, the results reveal that when the frequency of a predominantly harmonic excitation deviates by 50% from optimal conditions the charging power reduces by 70%, whereas the same frequency deviation for a more stochastically dominated excitation reduce total DC power by only 20%. These results underscore the need for maximizing direct current power delivery for nonlinear energy harvesting systems in practical operating environments.

  15. Optical Fiber System For The Optical Monitoring Of Membrane Potentials Of Excitable Tissues. (United States)

    Nassif, G.; Fillette, F.; Kado, R. T.


    Spectrometry of potential-sensitive dyes permits now the monitoring of membrane potential (MP) variations on excitable tissues. It is also possible to monitor qualitatively the electromechanical activity (EMA) on contractile tissues using this same method. We improved two new optical fiber systems for measuring fluorescence. System 1 used two 200 um optical fibers permitting fluorescence excitation of the potential sensitive dye (PSD) (1st Fiber) and the measurement of its fluorescence (2nd Fiber). System 2 used two 200 um optical fibers for a differencial measurement of excitation reflexion and fluorescence through two different optical filters. The two fibers are assembled in a tube to constitute the "Optrode". In System 1, a single photodiode placed behind a 665 nm high pass optical filter (HPOF) is preamplified by a LH-0022 op. amplifier. In system 2, two photodiodes are placed respectively behind a 645 nm and a 665 nm HPOFs and differencialy preampli-fied by a AD-521 instrumentation amplifier. Analogic signals are lowpass filtered with a LT-1062 digital filter. PSDs WW781 and RH 237 were used respectively on myocardial and nervous tissues. Fluorescence excitation of PSD WW 781 was performed with a 5 mWatts Helium-Neon LASER (He-Ne) beam focused into the first opti-cal fiber of System 1 or illuminating directly the stained tissue. Fluorescence excitation of PSD RH 237 was performed with a 100 Watts filament lamp through a 400-500 nm blue bandpass filter (BBPF). These two systems are now used to study MP variations on myocardial and nervous tissues. We are now able to study the effects of different drugs on the EMA of heart muscle. This technique is usable "in Vitro" and "in Vivo". This optical fiber method easy to improve for a low cost permits now to perform studies on excitable tissues in a non traumatic way with foreseeable applications to pharmacological investigations on experimental models.

  16. Video-rate two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging system with interleaved digitization. (United States)

    Dow, Ximeng Y; Sullivan, Shane Z; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J


    A fast (up to video rate) two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging system based on interleaved digitization is demonstrated. The system is compatible with existing beam-scanning microscopes with minor electronics and software modification. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed using laser dyes and biological tissue.

  17. Low-cost photoacoustic imaging systems based on laser diode and light-emitting diode excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkai Yao


    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging, an emerging biomedical imaging modality, holds great promise for preclinical and clinical researches. It combines the high optical contrast and high ultrasound resolution by converting laser excitation into ultrasonic emission. In order to generate photoacoustic signal efficiently, bulky Q-switched solid-state laser systems are most commonly used as excitation sources and hence limit its commercialization. As an alternative, the miniaturized semiconductor laser system has the advantages of being inexpensive, compact, and robust, which makes a significant effect on production-forming design. It is also desirable to obtain a wavelength in a wide range from visible to near-infrared spectrum for multispectral applications. Focussing on practical aspect, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art developments of low-cost photoacoustic system with laser diode and light-emitting diode excitation source and highlights a few representative installations in the past decade.

  18. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.


    The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....

  19. Time reversal of the excitation wave form in a dissipative pattern-forming system. (United States)

    Heuer, Jana; John, Thomas; Stannarius, Ralf


    We discuss the consequences of time reversal of the excitation parameters on the stability of a periodically driven dynamic system. The example chosen, electrohydrodynamic convection of nematics, is a well-investigated dissipative pattern-forming system, usually driven with time-periodic external electric fields E(t) . The dynamic model that describes linear stability at onset can be represented by a set of two differential equations for the amplitudes of the dynamic variables. Floquet analysis reveals an astonishing dynamic property: Under time reversal of any periodic excitation function E(t) , the dynamic equations reproduce the same stability thresholds, pattern types, and critical pattern wavelengths, even when the dynamics of all involved system variables are essentially different for the excitations E(t) and E(-t) . Experimental confirmation of these mathematical predictions is provided by the measurement of threshold curves and the analysis of the time-resolved optical characteristics of the convection roll patterns.

  20. Structural System Identification with Extended Kalman Filter and Orthogonal Decomposition of Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ding


    Full Text Available Both the structural parameter and external excitation have coupling influence on structural response. A new system identification method in time domain is proposed to simultaneously evaluate structural parameter and external excitation. The method can be used for linear and hysteresis nonlinear structural condition assessment based on incomplete structural responses. In this method, the structural excitation is decomposed by orthogonal approximation. With this approximation, the strongly time-variant excitation identification is transformed to gentle time-variant, even constant parameters identification. Then the extended Kalman filter is applied to simultaneously identify state vector including the structural parameters and excitation orthogonal parameters in state space based on incomplete measurements. The proposed method is validated numerically with the simulation of three-story linear and nonlinear structures subject to external force. The external force on the top floor and the structural parameters are simultaneously identified with the proposed system identification method. Results from both simulations indicate that the proposed method is capable of identifing the dynamic load and structural parameters fairly accurately with contaminated incomplete measurement for both of the linear and nonlinear structural systems.

  1. Periodic responses of a pulley-belt system with one-way clutch under inertia excitation (United States)

    Ding, Hu


    The stable steady-state periodic response of a two-pulley belt drive system coupled with an accessory by a one-way clutch is presented. For the first time, the pulley-belt system is studied under double excitations. Specifically, the dual excitations consist of harmonic motion of the driving pulley and inertia excitation. The belt spans are modeled as axially moving viscoelastic beams by considering belt bending stiffness. Therefore, integro-partial-differential equations are derived for governing the transverse vibrations of the belt spans. Moreover, the transverse vibrations of the moving belt are coupled with the rotation vibrations of the pulleys by nonlinear dynamic tension. For describing the unidirectional decoupling function of the one-way device, rotation vibrations of the driven pulley and accessory are modeled as coupled piecewise ordinary differential equations. In order to eliminate the influence of the boundary of the belt spans, the non-trivial equilibriums of the pulley-belt system are numerically determined. Furthermore, A nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous dynamical system is derived by introducing a coordinate transform. Coupled vibrations of the pulley-belt system are investigated via the Galerkin truncation. The natural frequencies of the coupled vibrations are obtained by using the fast Fourier transform. Moreover, frequency-response curves are abstracted from time histories. Therefore, resonance areas of the belt spans, the driven pulley and the accessory are presented. Furthermore, validity of the Galerkin method is examined by comparing with the differential and integral quadrature methods (DQM & IQM). By comparing the results with and without one-way device, significant damping effect of clutch on the dynamic response is discovered. Furthermore, the effects of the intensity of the driving pulley excitation and the inertia excitation are studied. Moreover, numerical results demonstrate that the two excitations interact on the steady

  2. Pattern formation in diffusive excitable systems under magnetic flow effects (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Takembo, Clovis N.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, Timoléon C.


    We study the spatiotemporal formation of patterns in a diffusive FitzHugh-Nagumo network where the effect of electromagnetic induction has been introduced in the standard mathematical model by using magnetic flux, and the modulation of magnetic flux on membrane potential is realized by using memristor coupling. We use the multi-scale expansion to show that the system equations can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation. The linear stability analysis is performed and discussed with emphasis on the impact of magnetic flux. It is observed that the effect of memristor coupling importantly modifies the features of modulational instability. Our analytical results are supported by the numerical experiments, which reveal that the improved model can lead to nonlinear quasi-periodic spatiotemporal patterns with some features of synchronization. It is observed also the generation of pulses and rhythmics behaviors like breathing or swimming which are important in brain researches.

  3. Self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction (United States)

    Xijun, Liu; Dajun, Wang; Yushu, Chen


    The nonlinear vibration theory and the experimental modal analysis are used in this paper to study the self-excited vibration of the shell-liquid coupled system induced by dry friction. The effect of dry friction stick-slip coefficients and rubbing velocity on self-excited vibration, and the limit cycle and Hopf bifurcation solution of the system are obtained. In particular, it is shown that the phenomenon of 4 point (or 6 point) water droplet spurting of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin is the result of the perfect combination of the self-excited vibration induced by dry friction and its special modes, which indicates the significant scientific value of the Chinese cultural relic Dragon Washbasin.

  4. Modernization of the Control Systems of High-Frequency, Brush-Free, and Collector Exciters of Turbogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, E. N., E-mail:; Komkov, A. L.; Ivanov, S. L.; Timoshchenko, K. P. [JSC “Scientific and Industrial Enterprise “Rusélprom-Élektromash” (Russian Federation)


    Methods of modernizing the regulation systems of electric machinery exciters with high-frequency, brush-free, and collector exciters by means of microprocessor technology are examined. The main problems of modernization are to increase the response speed of a system and to use a system stabilizer to increase the stability of the power system.

  5. Estimation of first excursion probability for mechanical appendage system subjected to nonstationary earthquake excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kohei (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan))


    An estimation technique whereby the first excursion probability of the mechanical appendage system subjected to the nonstationary seismic excitation can be conventionally calculated is proposed. The first excursion probability of the appendage system is estimated by using this method and the following results are obtained. (1) The probability from this technique is more convervative than that from a simulation technique taking artificial time histories compatible to the design spectrum as input excitation. (2) The first excursion probability is practically independent of the natural period of the appendage system when the tolerable barrier level is normalized by the response amplification factor given by the design spectrum. (3) The first excursion probability decreases as the damping ratio of the appendage system increases. It also decreases as the mass ratio of the appendage system to the supporting system increases. (4) For the inelastic appendage system, the first excursion probability is reduced, if an appropriate elongation is permitted.

  6. Transient vibration analytical modeling and suppressing for vibration absorber system under impulse excitation (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Yu, Hu; Gao, Yulong


    The impulse excitation of mechanism causes transient vibration. In order to achieve adaptive transient vibration control, a method which can exactly model the response need to be proposed. This paper presents an analytical model to obtain the response of the primary system attached with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) under impulse excitation. The impulse excitation which can be divided into single-impulse excitation and multi-impulse excitation is simplified as sinusoidal wave to establish the analytical model. To decouple the differential governing equations, a transform matrix is applied to convert the response from the physical coordinate to model coordinate. Therefore, the analytical response in the physical coordinate can be obtained by inverse transformation. The numerical Runge-Kutta method and experimental tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of the analytical model proposed. The wavelet of the response indicates that the transient vibration consists of components with multiple frequencies, and it shows that the modeling results coincide with the experiments. The optimizing simulations based on genetic algorithm and experimental tests demonstrate that the transient vibration of the primary system can be decreased by changing the stiffness of the DVA. The results presented in this paper are the foundations for us to develop the adaptive transient vibration absorber in the future.

  7. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging System with Chirp-Coded Excitation for Assessing Biomechanical Properties of Elasticity Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chun Chun


    Full Text Available The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC and absolution difference (AD algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe. The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images.

  8. Ernest Everett Just: Egg and Embryo as Excitable Systems (United States)

    Byrnes, W. Malcolm; Newman, Stuart A.


    Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) was an African American embryologist of international standing whose research interests lay in the area of fertilization and early development in marine invertebrates. Perhaps best known for his discovery of the dynamical and structural blocks to polyspermy that sweep over the egg upon fertilization, E. E. Just also was the first to associate cell surface changes with stages of embryonic development. He was deeply familiar with the natural history of the animals whose eggs he studied, and his knowledge of natural settings led him to emphasize the importance of using laboratory conditions that closely match those in nature. Based on more than thirty years of work, he came to believe that it was the cell surface that played the most critical role in development, heredity and evolution. He promoted a holistic view of cells and organisms in opposition to the gene-centric view that was becoming more prevalent with the rise of genetics, but rejected the vitalism espoused by some biologists of his era, calling instead for “a physics and chemistry in a new dimension …superimposed upon the now known physics and chemistry” to account for biological phenomena. Just’s incisive critique of genetic reductionism finds echoes in contemporary multiscale, systems approaches in biology. His speculations on the relationship between developmental and evolutionary mechanisms resonate with today’s evolutionary developmental biology. After a brief biographical sketch, this paper outlines and discusses some of Just’s scientific contributions, and shows how his ideas remain relevant today. PMID:24665037

  9. Study on Seismic Control of Power Transmission Tower-Line Coupled System under Multicomponent Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian


    Full Text Available The seismic control of power transmission tower-line coupled system subjected to multicomponent excitations is studied in this paper. The schematic of tuned mass damper is introduced, and equations of motion of a system with tuned mass damper under multi-component excitations are proposed. Three-dimensional finite tower-line system models are created based on practical engineering in studying the response of this system without and with control. The time domain analysis takes into account geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation. The optimal design of the transmission tower-line system with tuned mass damper is obtained according to different mass ratio. The effects of wave travel, coherency loss, and different site conditions on the system without and with control are investigated, respectively.

  10. Microscopic theory of the one-particle excitation spectrum of normal Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel' , V. A.; Shaginyan, V. R.


    A microscopic theory of one-particle excitations in normal Fermi systems is proposed in the framework of the density-functional method. A system of equations is obtained which makes it possible to calculate the effective mass of a quasiparticle, starting from the interaction between the particles in the vacuum. A system of equations for calculating the thermodynamic functions of heated nuclear matter is also proposed. The equations do not contain any parameters.

  11. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper reports the experimental observations on the x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) along with the afterglow and colour center features found for the barium salts, represented by the formula, Ba, where and are the halides. The system thus consists of four dihalides (BaF2, . . . ,BaI2) and six ...

  12. Startle stimuli exert opposite effects on human cortical and spinal motor system excitability in leg muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, T V; Pötter-Nerger, M; Holler, I


    Increased excitability of the spinal motor system has been observed after loud and unexpected acoustic stimuli (AS) preceding H-reflexes. The paradigm has been proposed as an electrophysiological marker of reticulospinal tract activity in humans. The brainstem reticular formation also maintains...

  13. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    substantially with the level of damping. For example, a strongly damped pendulum, with a hinge vibrated at high frequency along an elliptical path with horizontal or vertical axis, will line up along a line offset from the vertical; the offset vanishes for very light or very strong damping, attaining a maximum...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...

  14. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    substantially with the level of damping. For example, a strongly damped pendulum, with a hinge vibrated at high frequency along an elliptical path with horizontal or vertical axis, will line up along a line offset from the vertical; the offset vanishes for very light or very strong damping, attaining a maximum...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...

  15. Beyond Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Using Only Single Excitations: Methods for Computational Studies of Excited States in Complex Systems. (United States)

    Herbert, John M; Zhang, Xing; Morrison, Adrian F; Liu, Jie


    Single-excitation methods, namely, configuration interaction singles and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), along with semiempirical versions thereof, represent the most computationally affordable electronic structure methods for describing electronically excited states, scaling as [Formula: see text] absent further approximations. This relatively low cost, combined with a treatment of electron correlation, has made TDDFT the most widely used excited-state quantum chemistry method over the past 20+ years. Nevertheless, certain inherent problems (beyond just the accuracy of this or that exchange-correlation functional) limit the utility of traditional TDDFT. For one, it affords potential energy surfaces whose topology is incorrect in the vicinity of any conical intersection (CI) that involves the ground state. Since CIs are the conduits for transitions between electronic states, the TDDFT description of photochemistry (internal conversion and intersystem crossing) is therefore suspect. Second, the [Formula: see text] cost can become prohibitive in large systems, especially those that involve multiple electronically coupled chromophores, for example, the antennae structures of light-harvesting complexes or the conjugated polymers used in organic photovoltaics. In such cases, the smallest realistic mimics might already be quite large from the standpoint of ab initio quantum chemistry. This Account describes several new computational methods that address these problems. Topology around a CI can be rigorously corrected using a "spin-flip" version of TDDFT, which involves an α → β spin-flipping transition in addition to occupied → virtual excitation of one electron. Within this formalism, singlet states are generated via excitation from a high-spin triplet reference state, doublets from a quartet, etc. This provides a more balanced treatment of electron correlation between ground and excited states. Spin contamination is problematic away from the

  16. Base excitation testing system using spring elements to pivotally mount wind turbine blades (United States)

    Cotrell, Jason; Hughes, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy; Lambert, Scott


    A system (1100) for fatigue testing wind turbine blades (1102) through forced or resonant excitation of the base (1104) of a blade (1102). The system (1100) includes a test stand (1112) and a restoring spring assembly (1120) mounted on the test stand (1112). The restoring spring assembly (1120) includes a primary spring element (1124) that extends outward from the test stand (1112) to a blade mounting plate (1130) configured to receive a base (1104) of blade (1102). During fatigue testing, a supported base (1104) of a blad (1102) may be pivotally mounted to the test stand (1112) via the restoring spring assembly (1120). The system (1100) may include an excitation input assembly (1140) that is interconnected with the blade mouting plate (1130) to selectively apply flapwise, edgewise, and/or pitch excitation forces. The restoring spring assemply (1120) may include at least one tuning spring member (1127) positioned adjacent to the primary spring element (1124) used to tune the spring constant or stiffness of the primary spring element (1124) in one of the excitation directions.

  17. The Effect of High-Frequency Parametric Excitation on a Stochastically Driven Pantograph-Catenary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Huan


    Full Text Available In high-speed electric trains, a pantograph is mounted on the roof of the train to collect power through contact with an overhead catenary wire. The effect of fast harmonic and parametric excitation on a stochastically driven pantograph-catenary system is studied in this paper. A single-degree-of-freedom model of the pantograph-catenary system is adopted, wherein the stiffness of the nonlinear spring has a time-varying component characterized by both low and high frequencies. Using perturbation and harmonic averaging, a Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation governing the stationary response of the pantograph-catenary system is set up. Based on the transition probability density of the stationary response, it is found that even small high-frequency parametric excitation has an appreciable effect on the system response. Among other things, it shifts the resonant frequency and often changes the response characteristics markedly.

  18. Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.

  19. Relaxation of vibrationally excited states in solid "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems (United States)

    Aliev, A. R.; Akhmedov, I. R.; Kakagasanov, M. G.; Aliev, Z. A.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Amirov, A. M.


    The processes of molecular relaxation in the solid NaNO3-NaNO2 and KNO3-KNO2 "nitrate-nitrite" binary systems have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The relaxation time of the vibration ν1(A) of an NO- 3 anion in the binary system is found to be shorter than that in individual nitrate. The increase in the relaxation rate is explained by the existence of an additional mechanism of relaxation of vibrationally excited states of the nitrate ion in the system. This mechanism is related to the excitation of vibration of another anion (NO- 2) and generation of a lattice phonon. It has been established that this relaxation mechanism is implemented provided that the difference between the frequencies of the aforementioned vibrations correspond to the range of sufficiently high density of states in the phonon spectrum.

  20. Low-noise current excitation sub-system for medical EIT. (United States)

    Rafiei-Naeini, M; McCann, H


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many potential applications in medicine. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of EIT can be enhanced significantly by increasing the measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), to which a significant contribution is made by the SNR of the current excitation sub-system. In this paper we present a prototype EIT current excitation sub-system with 80 dB SNR, exploiting both digital and analogue techniques. It uses digital waveform synthesis, a 16-bit DAC and subsequent reconstruction filter, to drive an enhanced Howland current source. Detailed analysis and testing of the current sub-system are presented. Its output impedance is 10 MOmega for different load impedances, varying slowly over the frequency range from 10 kHz up to 4 MHz.

  1. Heat capacity for systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Stránský, Pavel, E-mail:


    Heat capacities of model systems with finite numbers of effective degrees of freedom are evaluated using canonical and microcanonical thermodynamics. Discrepancies between both approaches, which are observed even in the infinite-size limit, are particularly large in systems that exhibit an excited-state quantum phase transition. The corresponding irregularity of the spectrum generates a singularity in the microcanonical heat capacity and affects smoothly the canonical heat capacity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions • ESQPT-generated singularities of the microcanonical heat capacity • Non-monotonous dependences of the canonical heat capacity • Discord between canonical and microcanonical pictures in the infinite-size limit.

  2. Vibrational resonance induced by transition of phase-locking modes in excitable systems. (United States)

    Yang, Lijian; Liu, Wangheng; Yi, Ming; Wang, Canjun; Zhu, Qiaomu; Zhan, Xuan; Jia, Ya


    We study the occurrence of vibrational resonance as well as the underlying mechanism in excitable systems. The single vibration resonance and vibration bi-resonance are observed when tuning the amplitude and frequency of high-frequency force simultaneously. Furthermore, by virtue of the phase diagram of low-frequency-signal-free FitzHugh-Nagumo model, it is found that each maxima of response measure is located exactly at the transition boundary of phase patterns. Therefore, it is the transition between different phase-locking modes that induces vibrational resonance in the excitable systems. Finally, this mechanism is verified in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model. Our results provide insights into the transmission of weak signals in nonlinear systems, which are valuable in engineering for potential applications.

  3. Research for Coupled van der Pol Systems with Parametric Excitation and Its Application (United States)

    Qian, Y. H.; Fu, H. X.


    In this article, we study the primary resonances of van der Pol systems with parametric excitation using the multiple scales method (MSM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM). First, we study the nonlinear dynamic response of a coupled system with parametric excitation when the ratio of internal resonances are different, and obtain the four-dimensional average equation of the rectangular coordinate form using the MSM, thereby periodic motions are found in the system. Second, using the HAM, we obtain the four periodic solutions, in which there are two sets of in-phase periodic solutions and two sets of out-of-phase periodic solutions. Finally, we obtain the frequency response curves using the MSM and the HAM, in which it is found that the differences could be ignored.

  4. A low-cost photoacoustic microscopy system with a laser diode excitation (United States)

    Wang, Tianheng; Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Zhu, Quing


    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is capable of mapping microvasculature networks in biological tissue and has demonstrated great potential for biomedical applications. However, the clinical application of the PAM system is limited due to the use of bulky and expensive pulsed laser sources. In this paper, a low-cost optical-resolution PAM system with a pulsed laser diode excitation has been introduced. The lateral resolution of this PAM system was estimated to be 7 µm by imaging a carbon fiber. The phantoms made of polyethylene tubes filled with blood and a mouse ear were imaged to demonstrate the feasibility of this PAM system for imaging biological tissues. PMID:25401019

  5. Synchronization of three homodromy coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system of plane motion (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Liang; Wen, Bang-Chun; Zhao, Chun-Yu


    In this paper, the synchronization problem of three homodromy coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system of plane motion is studied. By introducing the average method of modified small parameters, we deduced dimensionless coupling equation of three exciters, which converted the problem of synchronization into that of the existence and stability of zero solutions for the average differential equations of the small parameters. Based on the dimensionless coupling torques and characteristics of the corresponding limited functions, the synchronization criterion for three exciters was derived as the absolute value of dimensionless residual torque difference between arbitrary two motors being less than the maximum of their dimensionless coupling torques. The stability criterion of its synchronous state lies in the double-condition that the inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive as well. The synchronization determinants are the coefficients of synchronization ability, also called as the general dynamical symmetry coefficients. The double-equilibrium state of the vibrating system is manifested by numeric method, and the numeric and simulation results derived thereof indicate the indispensable and crucial role the structural parameters of the vibrating system play in the stability criterion of synchronous operation. Besides, by adjusting its structural parameters, the elliptical motion of the vibrating system successfully met the requirements in engineering applications.

  6. Quantifying uncertainties of a Soil-Foundation Structure-Interaction System under Seismic Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, C


    We applied a spectrum of uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to the study of a two-dimensional soil-foundation-structure-interaction (2DSFSI) system (obtained from Professor Conte at UCSD) subjected to earthquake excitation. In the process we varied 19 uncertain parameters describing material properties of the structure and the soil. We present in detail the results for the different stages of our UQ analyses.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this research project has been the development of techniques for estimating the power spectra of stochastic processes using wavelet transform, and the development of related techniques for determining the response of linear/nonlinear systems to excitations which are described via the wavelet transform. Both of the objectives have been achieved, and the research findings have been disseminated in papers in archival journals and technical conferences.

  8. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)


    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  9. Multichannel terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system at 1030 nm excitation wavelength. (United States)

    Brahm, Anika; Wilms, Annika; Dietz, Roman J B; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We present Terahertz (THz) imaging with a 1D multichannel time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system which operates with a photoconductive array of 15 detection channels excited by a 1030 nm femtosecond fiber laser. The emitter and detector are photoconductive antennas based on InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer heterostructures (MLHS). We characterized the THz optics and the resolution of the system. The performance is demonstrated by the multichannel imaging of two samples. A simultaneous measurement of 15 THz pulses with a pixel pitch of 1 mm increases the measurement speed of the TDS system by factor 15.

  10. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel


    , as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...... for a more general class of continuous systems in differential operator form are also provided.......One effect of strong mechanical high-frequency excitation may be to apparently "stiffen" a structure, a well-described phenomenon for discrete systems. The present study provides theoretical and experimental results on this effect for continuous elastic structures. A laboratory experiment is set up...

  11. Molecular hydrogen and excitation in the HH 1-2 system (United States)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Garnavich, P. M.


    We present a series of molecular hydrogen images of the Herbig-Haro 1-2 system in the 1-0 S(1) transition at 2.121 microns, with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 sec. The distribution of H2 is then compared with that of the excitation, given by the (S II) 6717+6731 to H-alpha line ratio. We find that most optical condensations in the HH 1-2 system, including the VLA 1 jet, have H2 counterparts. H2 emission is detected in most low excitation knots, as expected for low velocity shocks (50 km/s less than), but also in high excitation regions, like in HH 1F and HH 2A min. For these latter objects, the H2 emission could be due to the interaction of the preionizing flux, produced by 150-200 km/s shocks, with the surrounding interstellar matter, i.e., fluorescence. The lack fluorescent lines in the ultraviolet (UV), however, suggest a different mechanism. H2 is detected at the tip of the VLA 1 jet, where the knot morphology suggests the presence of a second bow shock. H2 is detected also SE of HH 2E and SW of HH 1F, in regions with known NH3 emission.

  12. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro


    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  13. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States. (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao


    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  14. Performance Evaluation on Transmission Tower-Line System with Passive Friction Dampers Subjected to Wind Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen


    Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.

  15. The excitation system of 727.5 MVA synchronous generator of the unit B1 in TPP 'Nikola Tesla B'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Zoran


    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical solution for the replacement of the excitation system of the unit B1 in TPP 'Nikola Tesla B' as a part of the maintenance service in 2012. Since the generators of TPP 'Nikola Tesla B' have the greatest power in the power system of Serbia, it was necessary to achieve high reliability of the excitation system so that the process of producing electricity is not endangered Considering this, the implemented excitation system uses modern technology with redundancy both in the power and control blocks, which resulted in an increase in the hot reserve by 100%. In addition, it was necessary to adjust the excitation system to increased generator power and performance from 618MW to 667.5MW. In this paper, the main parameters of the excitation system are given: the power, the excitation system control, the thyristor ignition system, the event recorder system, the digital relay protection, as well as the measuring and signaling functions.

  16. Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber (United States)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.


    The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester

  17. Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic (United States)

    González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime


    This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.

  18. Coordinated Switching Control of the Excitation and Steam Valve System Based on State and Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang


    Full Text Available A single unit infinite system of the excitation and steam valve control was proposed based on Barrier Lyapunov theory of restrictive log type. The input amplitude constraint of the steam valve control was considered, and the coordinated nonlinear backstepping controller was designed by switching mechanism. At the same time, the generator rotor effect was considered to be an external unknown large disturbance on the output system, and the conservativeness of the simple estimates for the upper and lower bounds and scaling disturbance was reduced by Minimax. The Minimax method also ensured that the output of the controller and the power angle were within the prescribed range and inhibited the system output effect of disturbance as much as possible. Finally, simulation results of the generator disturbance of mechanical power in the single unit infinite system show that the control scheme effectively improves the transient stability of the dynamic processes of power systems.

  19. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system for microscopic and endoscopic applications (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.


    Current microscopic and endoscopic technologies for cancer screening utilize white-light illumination sources. Hyper-spectral imaging has been shown to improve sensitivity while retaining specificity when compared to white-light imaging in both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have historically suffered from slow acquisition times due to the narrow bandwidth of spectral filters. Often minutes are required to gather a full image stack. We have developed a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides 2-3 orders of magnitude increased signal strength. This reduces acquisition times significantly, allowing for live video acquisition. Here, we describe a preliminary prototype excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system that can be coupled with endoscopes or microscopes for hyperspectral imaging of tissues and cells. Our system is comprised of three subsystems: illumination, transmission, and imaging. The illumination subsystem employs light-emitting diode arrays to illuminate at different wavelengths. The transmission subsystem utilizes a unique geometry of optics and a liquid light guide. Software controls allow us to interface with and control the subsystems and components. Digital and analog signals are used to coordinate wavelength intensity, cycling and camera triggering. Testing of the system shows it can cycle 16 wavelengths at as fast as 1 ms per cycle. Additionally, more than 18% of the light transmits through the system. Our setup should allow for hyperspectral imaging of tissue and cells in real time.

  20. Multiple mode analysis of the self-excited vibrations of rotary drilling systems (United States)

    Germay, Christophe; Denoël, Vincent; Detournay, Emmanuel


    This paper extends the analysis of the self-excitated vibrations of a drilling structure presented in an earlier paper [T. Richard, C. Germay, E. Detournay, A simplified model to explore the root cause of stick-slip vibrations in drilling systems with drag bits, Journal of Sound and Vibration 305 (3) (2007) 432-456] by basing the formulation of the model on a continuum representation of the drillstring rather than on a characterization of the drilling structure by a 2 degree of freedom system. The particular boundary conditions at the bit-rock interface, which according to this model are responsible for the self-excited vibrations, account for both cutting and frictional contact processes. The cutting process combined with the quasi-helical motion of the bit leads to a regenerative effect that introduces a coupling between the axial and torsional modes of vibrations and a state-dependent delay in the governing equations, while the frictional contact process is associated with discontinuities in the boundary conditions when the bit sticks in its axial and angular motion. The dynamic response of the drilling structure is computed using the finite element method. While the general tendencies of the system response predicted by the discrete model are confirmed by this computational model (for example that the occurrence of stick-slip vibrations as well as the risk of bit bouncing are enhanced with an increase of the weight-on-bit or a decrease of the rotational speed), new features in the self-excited response of the drillstring can be detected. In particular, stick-slip vibrations are predicted to occur at natural frequencies of the drillstring different from the fundamental one (as sometimes observed in field operations), depending on the operating parameters.

  1. Immersion and Invariance-Based Coordinated Generator Excitation and SVC Control for Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirak Kanchanaharuthai


    Full Text Available A nonlinear coordinated control of excitation and SVC of an electrical power system is proposed for transient stability, and voltage regulation enhancement after the occurrence of a large disturbance and a small perturbation. Using the concept of Immersion and Invariance (I&I design methodology, the proposed nonlinear controller is used to not only achieve power angle stability, frequency and voltage regulation but also ensure that the closed-loop system is transiently and asymptotically stable. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller design, the simulation results illustrate that, in spite of the case where a large perturbation occurs on the transmission line or there is a small perturbation to mechanical power inputs, the proposed controller can not only keep the system transiently stable but also simultaneously accomplish better dynamic properties of the system as compared to operation with the existing controllers designed through a coordinated passivation technique controller and a feedback linearization scheme, respectively.

  2. Classification of wave regimes in excitable systems with linear cross diffusion. (United States)

    Tsyganov, M A; Biktashev, V N


    We consider principal properties of various wave regimes in two selected excitable systems with linear cross diffusion in one spatial dimension observed at different parameter values. This includes fixed-shape propagating waves, envelope waves, multienvelope waves, and intermediate regimes appearing as waves propagating at a fixed shape most of the time but undergoing restructuring from time to time. Depending on parameters, most of these regimes can be with and without the "quasisoliton" property of reflection of boundaries and penetration through each other. We also present some examples of the behavior of envelope quasisolitons in two spatial dimensions.

  3. Ground and excited states for exotic three-body atomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasaneo G.


    Full Text Available An Angular Correlated Configuration Interaction method is extended and applied to exotic threebody atomic systems with general masses. A recently proposed angularly correlated basis set is used to construct, simultaneously and with a single diagonalization, ground and excited states wave functions which: (i satisfy exactly Kato cusp conditions at the two-body coalescence points; (ii have only linear parameters; (iii show a fast convergency rate for the energy; (iv form an orthogonal set. The efficiency of the construction is illustrated by the study a variety of three-body atomic systems [m1− m2− m3z3+ ] with two negatively charged light particles, with 123 diverse masses m1− and m2−, and a heavy positively charged nucleus m3z3+. The calculated ground 11S and several excited n1,3S state energies are compared with those given in the literature, when available. We also present a short discussion on the critical charge necessary to get a stable three-body system supporting two electrons, an electron and a muon, or two muons.

  4. Structures of Annulenes and Model Annulene Systems in the Ground and Lowest Excited States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Remigio Salvi


    Full Text Available The paper introduces general considerations on structural properties of aromatic, antiaromatic and non-aromatic conjugated systems in terms of potential energy along bond length alternation and distortion coordinates, taking as examples benzene, cyclobutadiene and cyclooctatetraene. Pentalene, formally derived from cyclooctatetraene by cross linking, is also considered as a typical antiaromatic system. The main interest is concerned with [n]annulenes and model [n]annulene molecular systems, n ranging from 10 to 18. The rich variety of conformational and  configurational isomers and of dynamical processes among them is described. Specific attention is devoted to bridged [10]- and [14]annulenes in the ground and lowest excited states as well as to s-indacene and biphenylene. Experimental data obtained from vibrational and electronic spectroscopies are discussed and compared with ab initio calculation results. Finally, porphyrin, tetraoxaporphyrin dication and diprotonated porphyrin are presented as annulene structures adopting planar/non-planar geometries depending on the steric hindrance in the inner macrocycle ring. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation processes from excited state levels have been observed by means of time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short account is also given of porphycene, the structural isomer of porphyrin, and of porphycene properties.

  5. Entanglement of the quantum system with spin-spin coupling created by optical excitation (United States)

    Fu, Chenghua


    In this paper, we investigate the quantum entanglement characteristics of the system consisting an intermediary molecule with an optically excited triplet and two bilateral spin-1/2 nucleons. The two nuclear spins both couple to the excitation state which is caused by a pulsed laser. We study the linear entropy and entangling power of the evolution operator acting on the product state of the system. We deduce the entangling power when the energy state has a uniform distribution, and we find that the entanglement of the system shows a certain stability. In this paper, several standard expressions are analyzed and calculated in detail, including the detailed solution for the quantum entropy as well as the calculation of the linear entropy and entangling power, which are based on this solution. In comparing the linear entropy and entangling power, we find that the latter is the average of the former. Subsequently, we present an alternative derivation of the evolution operator and find that the result is consistent with that of the traditional method. When the evolution operator acts on the average of the product states, the entangling power of the evolution operator presents a distinct changing trend.

  6. Integrated optical systems for excitation delivery and broadband detection in micro-fluidic electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors have designed and assembled two generations of integrated micro-optical systems that deliver pump light and detect broadband laser-induced fluorescence in micro-fluidic chemical separation systems employing electrochromatography. The goal is to maintain the sensitivity attainable with larger, tabletop machines while decreasing package size and increasing throughput (by decreasing the required chemical volume). One type of micro-optical system uses vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as the excitation source. Light from the VCSELs is relayed with four-level surface relief diffractive optical elements (DOEs) and delivered to the chemical volume through substrate-mode propagation. Indirect fluorescence from dye-quenched chemical species is collected and collimated with a high numerical aperture DOE. A filter blocks the excitation wavelength, and the resulting signal is detected as the chemical separation proceeds. Variations of this original design include changing the combination of reflective and transmissive DOEs and optimizing the high numerical aperture DOE with a rotationally symmetric iterative discrete on-axis algorithm. The authors will discuss the results of these implemented optimizations.

  7. Fission-like events in the 12C+169Tm system at low excitation energies (United States)

    Sood, Arshiya; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, Pawan; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Kumar, R.; Aydin, S.; Singh, B. P.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Prasad, R.


    Background: Fission has been found to be a dominating mode of deexcitation in heavy-ion induced reactions at high excitation energies. The phenomenon of heavy-ion induced fission has been extensively investigated with highly fissile actinide nuclei, yet there is a dearth of comprehensive understanding of underlying dynamics, particularly in the below actinide region and at low excitation energies. Purpose: Prime objective of this work is to study different aspects of heavy-ion induced fission ensuing from the evolution of composite system formed via complete and/or incomplete fusion in the 12C+169Tm system at low incident energies, i.e., Elab≈6.4 , 6.9, and 7.4 A MeV, as well as to understand charge and mass distributions of fission fragments. Method: The recoil-catcher activation technique followed by offline γ spectroscopy was used to measure production cross sections of fission-like events. The evaporation residues were identified by their characteristic γ rays and vetted by the decay-curve analysis. Charge and mass distributions of fission-like events were studied to obtain dispersion parameters of fission fragments. Results: In the present work, 26 fission-like events (32 ≤Z ≤49 ) were identified at different excitation energies. The mass distribution of fission fragments is found to be broad and symmetric, manifesting their production via compound nuclear processes. The dispersion parameters of fission fragments obtained from the analysis of mass and isotopic yield distributions are found to be in good accord with the reported values obtained for different fissioning systems. A self-consistent approach was employed to determine the isobaric yield distribution. Conclusions: The present work suggests that fission is one of the competing modes of deexcitation of complete and/or incomplete fusion composites at low excitation energies, i.e., E*≈57 , 63, and 69 MeV, where evaporation of light nuclear particle(s) and/or γ rays are assumed to be the sole

  8. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul


    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  9. Structural intensity analysis of a large container carrier under harmonic excitations of propulsion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Seung Cho


    Full Text Available The structural intensity analysis, which calculates the magnitude and direction of vibrational energy flow from vibratory velocity and internal force at any point of a structure, can give information on dominant transmission paths, positions of sources and sinks of vibration energy. This paper presents a numerical simulation system for structural intensity analysis and visualization to apply for ship structures based on the finite element method. The system consists of a general purpose finite element analysis program MSC/Nastran, its pre- and post-processors and an in-house program module to calculate structural intensity using the model data and its forced vibration analysis results. Using the system, the structural intensity analysis for a 4,100 TEU container carrier is carried out to visualize structural intensity fields on the global ship structure and to investigate dominant energy flow paths from harmonic excitation sources to superstructure at resonant hull girder and superstructure modes.

  10. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo,, E-mail:; Zakaria,, E-mail:; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail:; Triyono,, E-mail:; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)


    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  11. Detection of pretreated fingerprint fluorescence using an LED-based excitation system. (United States)

    Takatsu, Masahisa; Shimoda, Osamu; Onishi, Kyoko; Onishi, Akira; Oguri, Naoki


    Optimization of a light emitting diode (LED)-based excitation system for the detection of pretreated fingerprint fluorescence is described. Fluorescent ridges can usually be excited by irradiation with forensic light sources such as xenon arc lamps or quartz-halogen lamps with high-power output and suitable filters. However, they are too expensive for many crime laboratories in smaller organizations. We concentrated on LEDs which have advantages over conventional light sources in that they are simpler and of lower cost, but the power output and quality of each individual LED unit is not sufficient for the detection of weak fluorescent ridges. To resolve this subject, blue and green LED arrays composed of ninety LED units were adopted and suitable low pass filters for them were designed. An experimental system, consisting of blue and green LED arrays with the suitable low pass filters for illumination, high pass filters for viewing, a digital camera and a computer, was tested. The fluorescent images of cyanoacrylate ester fumed/rhodamine 6G stained fingerprint on white polyethylene sheet and weak fluorescent ridges of ninhydrin/indium chloride treated fingerprint on white paper were successfully detected and photographed. It was shown that the improvement of LED beam in intensity and quality can compensate the disadvantages, resulting in well-contrasted images.

  12. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise (United States)

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao


    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  13. Control of synchronization and spiking regularity by heterogenous aperiodic high-frequency signal in coupled excitable systems (United States)

    Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Chan, Wai-Lok; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin


    This paper investigates the synchronization and spiking regularity induced by heterogenous aperiodic (HA) signal in coupled excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo systems. We found new nontrivial effects of couplings and HA signals on the firing regularity and synchronization in coupled excitable systems without a periodic external driving. The phenomenon is similar to array enhanced coherence resonance (AECR), and it is shown that AECR-type behavior is not limited to systems driven by noises. It implies that the HA signal may be beneficial for the brain function, which is similar to the role of noise. Furthermore, it is also found that the mean frequencies, the amplitudes and the heterogeneity of HA stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating spiking regularity and synchronization in coupled excitable systems. These results may be significant for the control of the synchronized firing of the brain in neural diseases like epilepsy.

  14. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems (United States)

    López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  15. Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems. (United States)

    López-Bara, F I; López-Aguilar, F


    Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole-antipole pairs, possibly having Bose-Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.

  16. Selective excitation in a three-state system using a hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yunheung; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook


    The chirped-pulse interaction in the adiabatic coupling regime induces cyclic permutations of the energy states of a three-level system in the $V$-type configuration, which process is known as the three-level chirped rapid adiabatic passage. Here we show that a spectral hole in a chirped pulse can turn on and off one of the two adiabatic crossing points of this process, reducing the system to an effective two-level system. The given hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic transition results in selective excitation of the three-level system, controlled by the laser intensity and spectral position of the hole as well as the sign of the chirp parameter. Experiments are performed with shaped femtosecond laser pulses and the three lowest energy-levels (5S$_{1/2}$, 5P$_{1/2}$, and 5P$_{3/2}$) of atomic rubidium ($^{85}$Rb), of which the result shows good agreement with the theoretically analyzed dynamics. The result indicates that our method, being combined with the ordinary chirped-RAP, implements an adiabatic transitions b...

  17. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation. (United States)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui


    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  18. Dynamic response of mechanical systems to impulse process stochastic excitations: Markov approach (United States)

    Iwankiewicz, R.


    Methods for determination of the response of mechanical dynamic systems to Poisson and non-Poisson impulse process stochastic excitations are presented. Stochastic differential and integro-differential equations of motion are introduced. For systems driven by Poisson impulse process the tools of the theory of non-diffusive Markov processes are used. These are: the generalized Itô’s differential rule which allows to derive the differential equations for response moments and the forward integro-differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation from which the equation governing the probability density of the response is obtained. The relation of Poisson impulse process problems to the theory of diffusive Markov processes is given. For systems driven by a class of non-Poisson (Erlang renewal) impulse processes an exact conversion of the original non-Markov problem into a Markov one is based on the appended Markov chain corresponding to the introduced auxiliary pure jump stochastic process. The derivation of the set of integro-differential equations for response probability density and also a moment equations technique are based on the forward integro-differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. An illustrating numerical example is also included.

  19. Design of excitation signals for active system monitoring in a performance assessment setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    This paper investigates how the excitation signal should be chosen for a active performance setup. The signal is used in a setup where the main purpose is to detect whether a parameter change of the controller has changed the global performance significantly. The signal has to be able to excite t...

  20. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.


    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  1. Analysis and control of the effects of over excitation limiters on the stability of the Itaipu HVAC transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, J.L.; Macedo, N.J.; Santo, S.E.; Praca, A.S. [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The effect of over excitation limiters on power system voltage stability is presented in this paper. A linear analysis based on system eigenvalues for various operating conditions shows that voltage collapse is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. Time simulations using digital tools and real-time simulator were performed to verify lin ear results and study large disturbances. A control system designed to keep system in secure region is proposed. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Numerical prediction analysis of propeller exciting force for hull–propeller–rudder system in oblique flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Sun


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the characteristics of propeller exciting force, the hybrid grid is adopted and the numerical prediction of KCS ship model is performed for hull–propeller–rudder system by Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS method and volume of fluid (VOF model. Firstly, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics for bare hull at oblique state is carried out. The results show that with the increasing of the drift angle, the coefficients of resistance, side force and yaw moment are constantly increasing, and the bigger the drift angle, the worse the overall uniformity of propeller disk. Then, propeller bearing force for hull–propeller–rudder system in oblique flow is calculated. It is found that the propeller thrust and torque fluctuation coefficient peak in drift angle are greater than that in straight line navigation, and the negative drift angle is greater than the positive. The fluctuation peak variation law of coefficient of side force and bending moment are different due to various causes.

  3. Localized excitations in discrete nonlinear Schrodinger systems: Effects of nonlocal dispersive interactions and noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Johansson, Magnus


    A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r(-s) on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech-like are exp......A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r(-s) on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech......-like are exploited and the results of both approaches are compared. Both on-site and inter-site stationary states sue investigated. It is shown that for s sufficiently large air features of the model me qualitatively the same as in the DNLS model with nearest-neighbor interaction. For s less than some critical value......, s(cr), there is an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states exist at each excitation number. The bistability of on-site solitons may occur for dipole-dipole dispersive interaction (s = 3), while s(cr) for inter-sire solitons is close to 2.1. In the framework of the DNLS equation...

  4. Twisting in the excited state of an N-methylpyridinium fluorescent dye modulated by nano-heterogeneous micellar systems. (United States)

    Cesaretti, A; Carlotti, B; Gentili, P L; Germani, R; Spalletti, A; Elisei, F


    A push-pull N-methylpyridinium fluorescent dye with a pyrenyl group as the electron-donor portion was investigated within the nano-heterogeneous media provided by some micellar systems. The molecule was studied by stationary and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in spherical micellar solutions and viscoelastic hydrogels, in order to throw light on the role played by twisting in its excited state deactivation. As proven by femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion and transient absorption experiments, the excited state dynamics of the molecule is ruled by charge transfer and twisting processes, which, from the locally excited (LE) state initially populated upon excitation, progressively lead to twisted (TICT) and planar (PICT) intramolecular charge transfer states. The inclusion within micellar aggregates was found to slow down and/or limit the rotation of the molecule with respect to what had previously been observed in water, while its confinement within the hydrophobic domains of the gel matrixes prevents any molecular torsion. The increasing viscosity of the medium, when passing from water to micellar systems, implies that the detected steady-state fluorescence comes from an excited state which is not fully relaxed, as is the case with the TICT state in micelles or the LE state in hydrogels, where the detected emission changes its usual orange colour to yellow.

  5. Study on hydraulic exciting vibration due to flexible valve in pump system with method of characteristics in the time domain (United States)

    Yu, Y. H.; Liu, D.; Yang, X. F.; Si, J.


    To analyse the flow characteristics of leakage as well as the mechanism of selfexcited vibration in valves, the method of characteristics was used to assess the effect of flexible valve leakage on the self-excited vibration in water-supply pump system. Piezometric head in upstream of the valve as a function of time was obtained. Two comparative schemes were proposed to simulate the process of self-excited vibration by changing the length, the material of the pipeline and the leakage of valves in the above pump system. It is shown that the length and material of the pipe significantly affect the amplitude and cycle of self-excited vibration as well as the increasing rate of the vibration amplitude. In addition, the leakage of the valve has little influence on the amplitude and cycle of self-excited vibration, but has a significant effect on the increasing rate of vibration amplitude. A pipe explosion accident may occur without the inhibiting of self-excited vibration.

  6. Stand-Alone Front-End System for High-Frequency, High-Frame-Rate Coded Excitation Ultrasonic Imaging (United States)

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk


    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 Vpp. The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single-element lightweight (<0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measurement showed that the −6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 µm and lateral resolution was 120 µm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation. PMID:23443698

  7. Generalization of the variational principle and the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems for excited states of Fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonis, A., E-mail:


    Through the entanglement of a collection of K non-interacting replicas of a system of N interacting Fermions, and making use of the properties of reduced density matrices the variational principle and the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn are generalized to excited states. The generalization of the variational principle makes use of the natural orbitals of an N-particle density matrix describing the state of lowest energy of the entangled state. The extension of the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn is based on the ground-state formulation of density functional theory but with a new interpretation of the concept of a ground state: It is the state of lowest energy of a system of KN Fermions that is described in terms of the excited states of the N-particle interacting system. This straightforward implementation of the line of reasoning of ground-state density functional theory to a new domain leads to a unique and logically valid extension of the theory to excited states that allows the systematic treatment of all states in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of an interacting system. - Highlights: • Use of entanglement in connection with the properties of density matrices. • An anti-symmetric entangled state of order KN expressed in terms of excited states of an interacting N-particle system.

  8. Improvement of low speed induction generator performances and reducing the power of excitation and voltage control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budisan, N. [Politechnica Univ. of Timisoara (Romania); Hentea, T.; Mahil, S. [Purdue Univ. Calumet, Hammond, IN (United States); Madescu, G. [Romanian Academy, Timisoara (Romania)


    In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Modelling and Analysis of Automobile Vibration System Based on Fuzzy Theory under Different Road Excitation Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen


    Full Text Available A fuzzy increment controller is designed aimed at the vibration system of automobile active suspension with seven degrees of freedom (DOF. For decreasing vibration, an active control force is acquired by created Proportion-Integration-Differentiation (PID controller. The controller’s parameters are adjusted by a fuzzy increment controller with self-modifying parameters functions, which adopts the deviation and its rate of change of the body’s vertical vibration velocity and the desired value in the position of the front and rear suspension as the input variables based on 49 fuzzy control rules. Adopting Simulink, the fuzzy increment controller is validated under different road excitation, such as the white noise input with four-wheel correlation in time-domain, the sinusoidal input, and the pulse input of C-grade road surface. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can reduce obviously the vehicle vibration compared to other independent control types in performance indexes, such as, the root mean square value of the body’s vertical vibration acceleration, pitching, and rolling angular acceleration.

  10. An organic transistor-based system for reference-less electrophysiological monitoring of excitable cells (United States)

    Spanu, A.; Lai, S.; Cosseddu, P.; Tedesco, M.; Martinoia, S.; Bonfiglio, A.


    In the last four decades, substantial advances have been done in the understanding of the electrical behavior of excitable cells. From the introduction in the early 70's of the Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET), a lot of effort has been put in the development of more and more performing transistor-based devices to reliably interface electrogenic cells such as, for example, cardiac myocytes and neurons. However, depending on the type of application, the electronic devices used to this aim face several problems like the intrinsic rigidity of the materials (associated with foreign body rejection reactions), lack of transparency and the presence of a reference electrode. Here, an innovative system based on a novel kind of organic thin film transistor (OTFT), called organic charge modulated FET (OCMFET), is proposed as a flexible, transparent, reference-less transducer of the electrical activity of electrogenic cells. The exploitation of organic electronics in interfacing the living matters will open up new perspectives in the electrophysiological field allowing us to head toward a modern era of flexible, reference-less, and low cost probes with high-spatial and high-temporal resolution for a new generation of in-vitro and in-vivo monitoring platforms. PMID:25744085

  11. Exciting interdisciplinary physics quarks and gluons, atomic nuclei, relativity and cosmology, biological systems

    CERN Document Server


    Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy).  New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics. Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are d...

  12. General theory of excitation energy transfer in donor-mediator-acceptor systems. (United States)

    Kimura, Akihiro


    General theory of the excitation energy transfer (EET) in the case of donor-mediator-acceptor system was constructed by using generalized master equation (GME). In this theory, we consider the direct and indirect transitions in the EET consistently. Hence, our theory includes the quantum mechanical interference between the direct and indirect transitions automatically. Memory functions in the GME were expressed by the overlap integrals among the time-dependent emission spectrum of the donor, the absorption spectrum of the mediator, the time-dependent emission spectrum of the mediator, and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. In the Markov limit of the memory functions, we obtained the rate of EET which consists of three terms due to the direct transition, the indirect transition, and the interference between them. We found that the interference works effectively in the limit of slow thermalization at the intermediate state. The formula of EET rate in this limit was expressed by the convolution of the EET interaction and optical spectra. The interference effect strongly depends on the width of the absorption spectrum of mediator molecule and the energy gap between the donor and the mediator molecules.

  13. The Design and Implementation of Test System Based on Programmable Excitation Power Supply for Mining Comprehensive Protector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jie Zhang


    Full Text Available As comprehensive protectors for coal mining (referred to comprehensive protectors in use are prone to fail, it can timely screen out the invalid comprehensive protector by periodic functional test when it is used (it is called test in use to ensure the production safety. The test in use needs the specialized test equipment, which is not used in delivery inspection by the manufacturers of comprehensive protectors. Thus, testing excitation power becomes a constraint for the improvement of the accuracy of test in use and the degree of automation. To solve the problem, this paper developed a power frequency programmed input-output testing excitation power supply, and on that basis it also realized the mining comprehensive protector test system in use with the excitation circuit and voltage program-controlled output.

  14. Increasing Mud Pump Motor Reliability against Malfunctions of DC Motor Excitation System (United States)

    Nikulin, O. V.; Shabanov, V. A.


    The most widely used drilling machinery, such as mud pumps, draw-works, and rotors, use direct-current (DC) motors with independent excitation as the electric drive. Drilling machinery drives operate in harsh ambient conditions, including those with the presence of moisture, dust and vibration, which increases the malfunction rate of both drilling equipment and their electric drives. One of the frequently encountered malfunctions are DC motor excitation coil faults, which disrupt the normal functioning of electric drives, often leading to shutdown of the drilling process. In a four-pole DC motor, the malfunction of one coil leads to lack of excitation current in just one coil pair, while the other pair remains functional. In this case, DC motors and drilling equipment can remain operational, which would allow for continuing the drilling process. This paper considers the possibility of operation of a DC motor on a drilling rig in those cases when one pair of excitation coils is non-functional, and describes the device for switching between the excitation coils and the auxiliary winding in a DC motor with independent excitation.

  15. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.


    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  16. New Tools for New Missions - Unmanned Aircraft Systems Offer Exciting Capabilities (United States)

    Bland, G.; Miles, T.; Pieri, D. C.; Coronado, P. L.; Fladeland, M. M.; Diaz, J. A.; Cione, J.; Maslanik, J. A.; Roman, M. O.; de Boer, G.; Argrow, B. M.; Novara, J.; Stachura, M.; Neal, D.; Moisan, J. R.


    There are numerous emerging possibilities for utilizing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to investigate a variety of natural hazards, both for prediction and analysis of specific events. Additionally, quick response capabilities will provide affordable, low risk support for emergency management teams. NASA's partnerships with commercial, university and other government agency teams are bringing new capabilities to research and emergency management communities. New technology platforms and instrument systems are gaining momentum for stand-off remote sensing observations, as well as penetration and detailed in-situ examination of natural and anthropogenic phenomena. Several pioneering investigations have provided the foundation for this development, including NASA projects with Aerosonde, Dragon Eye, and SIERRA platforms. With miniaturized instrument and platform technologies, these experiments demonstrated that previously unobtainable observations may significantly aid in the understanding, prediction, and assessment of natural hazards such as storms, volcanic eruptions, floods, and the potential impact of environmental changes. Remote sensing observations of storms and fires have also been successfully demonstrated through NASA's efforts with larger UAS such as the Global Hawk and Ikhana platforms. The future may unfold with new high altitude and/or long endurance capabilities, in some cases with less size and costs as payload capacity requirements are reduced through further miniaturization, and alternatively with expanded instrumentation and mission profiles. Several new platforms and instrument development projects are underway that will enable affordable, quick response observations. Additionally, distributed measurements that will provide near-simultaneous coverage at multiple locations will be possible - an exciting new mission concept that will greatly aid many observation scenarios. Partnerships with industry, academia, and other government agencies are all

  17. Performance Evaluation of Tuned Liquid Dampers on Response of a SDOF System Under Earthquake Excitation and Harmonic Load


    Hossein Shad; Azlan Bin Adnan; Hamid Pesaran Behbahani


    A Single-Degree-of-Freedom system with the addition of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) was analyzed experimentally and numerically. In this study, a shaking table and finite element software were used in order to obtain the acceleration responses of seven structure-TLD systems. The TLD frequencies were calculated by formula and models frequencies were calculated via finite element software and experimental work. The models were excited by a sine and an earthquake load. The results obtained from the...

  18. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John


    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  19. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei


    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  20. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR. (United States)

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I


    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  1. Cerebellum tunes the excitability of the motor system: evidence from peripheral motor axons. (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Manto, Mario


    Cerebellum is highly connected with the contralateral cerebral cortex. So far, the motor deficits observed in acute focal cerebellar lesions in human have been mainly explained on the basis of a disruption of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections. Cerebellar circuits have also numerous anatomical and functional interactions with brainstem nuclei and projects also directly to the spinal cord. Cerebellar lesions alter the excitability of peripheral motor axons as demonstrated by peripheral motor threshold-tracking techniques in cerebellar stroke. The biophysical changes are correlated with the functional scores. Nerve excitability measurements represent an attractive tool to extract the rules underlying the tuning of excitability of the motor pathways by the cerebellum and to discover the contributions of each cerebellar nucleus in this key function, contributing to early plasticity and sensorimotor learning.

  2. Optical and structural characterisation of low dimensional structures using electron beam excitation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, A


    suppressed by nonradiative recombination centres. The temperatures at which the QW luminescence starts to quench and the activation energies of luminescence quenching are found to depend on excitation conditions, sample quality and QW depth. The results of CL intensity dependence on the excitation intensity revealed that luminescence from good quality QW structures is dominated by radiative recombination processes even at high temperatures during thermal quenching. In contrast, in defected structures non-radiative recombination mechanisms dominate the luminescence properties at all temperatures. Secondary electron images of hexagonal growth hillocks of GaN obtained at a range of electron beam excitation energies vary because of the different signals involved in the imaging. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements have been used for phase identification and lattice constants determination in a strained GaN epilayer. This thesis presents studies on optical and structural characterisation of low dimensiona...

  3. Excitability of the T-tubular system in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O B; Ørtenblad, Niels; Lamb, G D


    Strenuous exercise causes an increase in extracellular [K(+)] and intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) of working muscles, which may reduce sarcolemma excitability. The excitability of the sarcolemma is, however, to some extent protected by a concomitant increase in the activity of muscle Na...... frequency stimulation. It is concluded that a reduction in the chemical gradient for K(+), as takes place during intensive exercise, may depress T-tubular function, but that a concomitant exercise-induced increase in [Na(+)](i) protects T-tubular function by stimulating the Na(+)-K(+) pump....

  4. Influence of environment induced correlated fluctuations in electronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in model photosynthetic systems. (United States)

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David F


    Two-dimensional photon-echo experiments indicate that excitation energy transfer between chromophores near the reaction center of the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides occurs coherently with decoherence times of hundreds of femtoseconds, comparable to the energy transfer time scale in these systems. The original explanation of this observation suggested that correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies, driven by large scale protein motions could result in long lived coherent energy transfer dynamics. However, no significant site energy correlation has been found in recent molecular dynamics simulations of several model light harvesting systems. Instead, there is evidence of correlated fluctuations in site energy-electronic coupling and electronic coupling-electronic coupling. The roles of these different types of correlations in excitation energy transfer dynamics are not yet thoroughly understood, though the effects of site energy correlations have been well studied. In this paper, we introduce several general models that can realistically describe the effects of various types of correlated fluctuations in chromophore properties and systematically study the behavior of these models using general methods for treating dissipative quantum dynamics in complex multi-chromophore systems. The effects of correlation between site energy and inter-site electronic couplings are explored in a two state model of excitation energy transfer between the accessory bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in a reaction center system and we find that these types of correlated fluctuations can enhance or suppress coherence and transfer rate simultaneously. In contrast, models for correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies show enhanced coherent dynamics but necessarily show decrease in excitation energy transfer rate accompanying such coherence enhancement. Finally, for a three state model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen light

  5. Dynamic interactions of an integrated vehicle-electromagnetic energy harvester-tire system subject to uneven road excitations (United States)

    Xing, Jing Tang; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Sulian; Tan, Mingyi


    An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers' riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future.

  6. Coherent effects in the relaxation dynamics of a multilevel quantum system excited by ultrashort light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbukh, I.Sh; Kovarsky, V.A.; Perelman, N.F.


    Interference effects in luminescence produced by short light pulse excitation of a single quantum level interacting with a quasi-continuum of background states have been considered. Different regimes of subsequent luminescence quenching are revealed and analytically studied in a unified way: radiationless decay controlled emission, multiple repetitions of the initial pulse form, anharmonic dephasing and following revival, etc. (orig.).

  7. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  8. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X,Y ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fluorobromide, the undoped salt gave a broad luminescence peak located at 440 nm, while the ... The undoped BaFBr acquired a bluish pink colour, and the doped salt displayed a pink colour after the .... lived excited state, before decay, allows momentum conservation by the interaction with the lattice, so that the ...

  9. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes and motor system excitability. (United States)

    Studer, Petra; Kratz, Oliver; Gevensleben, Holger; Rothenberger, Aribert; Moll, Gunther H; Hautzinger, Martin; Heinrich, Hartmut


    Neurofeedback (NF) is being successfully applied, among others, in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B), and slow cortical potential (SCP) training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present, randomized, controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59), the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Neurofeedback training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol-specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects did not reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol-specific effects on

  10. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes, and motor system excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eStuder


    Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF is being successfully applied, among others, in children with ADHD and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B, and slow cortical potential (SCP training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present randomized controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59, the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes, and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. NF training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects didn’t reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol specific effects on attention and motor system excitability

  11. Scalable implementations of accurate excited-state coupled cluster theories: application of high-level methods to porphyrin based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Olson, Ryan M.; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo


    The development of reliable tools for excited-state simulations is emerging as an extremely powerful computational chemistry tool for understanding complex processes in the broad class of light harvesting systems and optoelectronic devices. Over the last years we have been developing equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) methods capable of tackling these problems. In this paper we discuss the parallel performance of EOMCC codes which provide accurate description of the excited-state correlation effects. Two aspects are discuss in details: (1) a new algorithm for the iterative EOMCC methods based on the novel task scheduling algorithms, and (2) parallel algorithms for the non-iterative methods describing the effect of triply excited configurations. We demonstrate that the most computationally intensive non-iterative part can take advantage of 210,000 cores of the Cray XT5 system at OLCF. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of non-iterative many-body methods for achieving experimental level of accuracy for several porphyrin-based system.

  12. A Fuzzy Predictive PID Control Scheme for the Excitation System of Synchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yang


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the process control theories in the electrical engineering, new control strategies which lead to better performances are urgently demanded for the excitation control of synchronous generators. For the sake of improving the convergence rate of the terminal voltage and covering the weakness in the adaptability of operational conditions of conventional controls in disturbances, a fuzzy predictive PID excitation control method is proposed in this paper. This control scheme can be divided into three steps in every sample interval: PID parameter adaptation, rolling state prediction and real-time control movement integration. Numerical simulations have been conducted under different operational conditions with the proposed method as well as the conventional ones, respectively. Experimental comparisons indicate the superiority in voltage regulation performance of the proposed method.

  13. Development of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo diagnosis. (United States)

    Song, J M; Jagannathan, R; Stokes, D L; Kasili, P M; Panjehpour, M; Phan, M N; Overholt, B F; DeNovo, R C; Pan, X; Lee, R J; Vo-Dinh, T


    In this work, the development and applications of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo disease diagnosis including oral carcinoma are described. The optical diagnosis system was based on an OPO laser for multi-wavelength excitation and time-resolved detection. The pulsed Nd-YAG-pumped OPO laser system (6 ns, 20 Hz) is compact and has a rapid, broad, and uniform tuning range. Time-gated detection of intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) making use of external triggering was used to effectively eliminate the laser scattering and contribute to the highly sensitive in vivo measurements. Artificial tissue-simulating phantoms consisting of polystyrene microspheres and tissue fluorophores were tested to optimize the gating parameters. 51-ns gate width and 39-ns gate delays were determined to be the optimal parameters for sensitive detection. In vivo measurements with the optical diagnosis system were applied to esophagus, stomach, and small intestine using an endoscope in canine animal studies. The rapid tuning capability of the optical diagnosis system contributed greatly to the optimization of wavelength for the observation of porphyrin in the small intestine. When the small intestine was thoroughly washed with water, the emission band which corresponds to porphyrin disappeared. Based on this observation, it was concluded that the detected signal was yielded by porphyrin-containing bile secretion. Also, multispectral analyses using multiple excitations from 415 to 480 nm at 5 nm intervals confirmed the porphyrin detection in the small intestine. The optical diagnosis system was also applied to the detection of human xenograft of oral carcinoma in mice using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) which is a photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug. Significant differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity between normal and tumor tissue could be obtained 2 hours after the injection of 5-ALA into mice due to the

  14. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  15. Optical Communication among Oscillatory Reactions and Photo-Excitable Systems: UV and Visible Radiation Can Synchronize Artificial Neuron Models. (United States)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Giubila, Maria Sole; Germani, Raimondo; Romani, Aldo; Nicoziani, Andrea; Spalletti, Anna; Heron, B Mark


    Neuromorphic engineering promises to have a revolutionary impact in our societies. A strategy to develop artificial neurons (ANs) is to use oscillatory and excitable chemical systems. Herein, we use UV and visible radiation as both excitatory and inhibitory signals for the communication among oscillatory reactions, such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky and the chemiluminescent Orban transformations, and photo-excitable photochromic and fluorescent species. We present the experimental results and the simulations regarding pairs of ANs communicating by either one or two optical signals, and triads of ANs arranged in both feed-forward and recurrent networks. We find that the ANs, powered chemically and/or by the energy of electromagnetic radiation, can give rise to the emergent properties of in-phase, out-of-phase, anti-phase synchronizations and phase-locking, dynamically mimicking the communication among real neurons. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Probabilistic analysis for the response of nonlinear base isolation system under the ground excitation induced by high dam flood discharge (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Zhang, Jinliang; Lian, Jijian; Liu, Fang; Li, Xinyao


    According to theoretical analysis, a general characteristic of the ground vibration induced by high dam flood discharge is that the dominant frequency ranges over several narrow frequency bands, which is verified by observations from the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station. Nonlinear base isolation is used to reduce the structure vibration under ground excitation and the advantage of the isolation application is that the low-frequency resonance problem does not need to be considered due to its excitation characteristics, which significantly facilitate the isolation design. In order to obtain the response probabilistic distribution of a nonlinear system, the state space split technique is modified. As only a few degrees of freedom are subjected to the random noise, the probabilistic distribution of the response without involving stochastic excitation is represented by the δ function. Then, the sampling property of the δ function is employed to reduce the dimension of the Fokker-Planck- Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and the low-dimensional FPK equation is solvable with existing methods. Numerical results indicate that the proposed approach is effective and accurate. Moreover, the response probabilistic distributions are more reasonable and scientific than the peak responses calculated by conventional time and frequency domain methods.

  17. Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system. (United States)

    Zheng, Huadan; Dong, Lei; Ma, Ying; Wu, Hongpeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Yin, Xukun; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang


    A sub-ppb-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2) QEPAS sensor is developed by use of a cost-effective wide stripe laser diode (LD) emitting at 450 nm and a novel background noise suppression method called scattered light modulation cancellation method (SL-MOCAM). The SL-MOCAM is a variant of modulation spectroscopy using two light sources: excitation and balance light sources. The background noise caused by the stray light of the excitation light sources can be eliminated by exposing the QEPAS spectrophone to the modulated balance light. The noise in the LD-excited QEPAS system is investigated in detail and the results shows that > ~90% background noise can be effectively eliminated by the SL-MOCAM. For NO2 detection, a 1σ detection limit of ~60 ppb is achieved for 1 s integration time and the detection limit can be improved to 0.6 ppb with an integration time of 360 s. Moreover, the SLMOCAM shows a remote working ability in the preliminary investigation.

  18. Stochastic responses of Van der Pol vibro-impact system with fractional derivative damping excited by Gaussian white noise (United States)

    Xiao, Yanwen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Liang


    This paper focuses on the study of the stochastic Van der Pol vibro-impact system with fractional derivative damping under Gaussian white noise excitation. The equations of the original system are simplified by non-smooth transformation. For the simplified equation, the stochastic averaging approach is applied to solve it. Then, the fractional derivative damping term is facilitated by a numerical scheme, therewith the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain the numerical results. And the numerical simulation results fit the analytical solutions. Therefore, the proposed analytical means to study this system are proved to be feasible. In this context, the effects on the response stationary probability density functions (PDFs) caused by noise excitation, restitution condition, and fractional derivative damping are considered, in addition the stochastic P-bifurcation is also explored in this paper through varying the value of the coefficient of fractional derivative damping and the restitution coefficient. These system parameters not only influence the response PDFs of this system but also can cause the stochastic P-bifurcation.

  19. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju


    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  20. Excitation and Adaptation in Bacteria–a Model Signal Transduction System that Controls Taxis and Spatial Pattern Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Xue


    Full Text Available The machinery for transduction of chemotactic stimuli in the bacterium E. coli is one of the most completely characterized signal transduction systems, and because of its relative simplicity, quantitative analysis of this system is possible. Here we discuss models which reproduce many of the important behaviors of the system. The important characteristics of the signal transduction system are excitation and adaptation, and the latter implies that the transduction system can function as a “derivative sensor” with respect to the ligand concentration in that the DC component of a signal is ultimately ignored if it is not too large. This temporal sensing mechanism provides the bacterium with a memory of its passage through spatially- or temporally-varying signal fields, and adaptation is essential for successful chemotaxis. We also discuss some of the spatial patterns observed in populations and indicate how cell-level behavior can be embedded in population-level descriptions.

  1. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  2. Integrated modeling and analysis of ball screw feed system and milling process with consideration of multi-excitation effect (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Tao; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wanhua


    The present researches about feed drive system and milling process are almost independent with each other, and ignore the interaction between the two parts, especially the influence of nonideal motion of feed drive system on milling process. An integrated modeling method of ball screw feed system and milling process with multi-excitation effect is proposed in this paper. In the integrated model, firstly an analytical model of motor harmonic torque with consideration of asymmetrical drive circuit and asymmetrical permanent magnet is given. Then, the numerical simulation procedure of cutter/workpiece engagement during milling process with displacement fluctuation induced by harmonic torque is put forward, which is followed by the solving flow for the proposed integrated model. Based on the integrated model, a new kind of quality defect shown as contour low frequency oscillation on machined surface is studied by experiments and simulations. The results demonstrate that the forming mechanism of the contour oscillation can be ascribed to the multi-excitation effect with motor harmonic torque and milling force. Moreover, the influence of different milling conditions on the contour oscillation characteristics, particularly on surface roughness, are further discussed. The results indicate that it is necessary to explain the cause of the new kind of quality defect with a view of system integration.

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled 1,1 '-Diphenylethylene: Electronically Excited and Ionic States of a Prototypical Cross-Conjugated System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C. A.; Zgierski, M. Z.; Buma, W. J.


    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated pi-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio

  4. The contribution of electronically excited states to the radiation chemistry of organic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsky, S.


    The photocurrent from anthracene in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 2.2- dimethylbutane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, and tetramethylsilane has been studied as a function of excitation energy from the ionization threshold to the onset of strong solvent absorption. The fluroescence from solutions of hexafluorobenzene in cyclopentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and tetramethylsilane irradiated with {beta}-particles has been studied as a function of the hexafluorobenzene concentration from c = 10{sup {minus}3}-10{sup {minus}1} M. The data are analyzed to permit extraction of the geminate ion-pair scavenging probability. The absorption of 160 nm light by cyclohexane in mixtures of cyclohexane, benzene and tetraphenylmethylenediamine results in an emission spectrum consisting of the simultaneous fluorescence from all three components. A mechanism for the development of this spectrum and its dependence on benzene concentration is constructed and shown to be quantitatively consistent with the results of independent measurements on the separate components. 55 refs.

  5. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijun, E-mail: [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Zhang, Mingju [Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  6. KIC 4544587: an eccentric, short-period binary system with δ Sct pulsations and tidally excited modes (United States)

    Hambleton, K. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Prša, A.; Guzik, J. A.; Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.; Conroy, K.; Littlefair, S. P.; Fuller, J.


    We present Kepler photometry and ground-based spectroscopy of KIC 4544587, a short-period eccentric eclipsing binary system with self-excited pressure and gravity modes, tidally excited modes, tidally influenced p modes and rapid apsidal motion of 182 yr per cycle. The primary and secondary components of KIC 4544587 reside within the δ Scuti and γ Dor instability region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, respectively. By applying the binary modelling software PHOEBE to prewhitened Kepler photometric data and radial velocity data obtained using the William Herschel Telescope and 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak Northern Observatory (KPNO), the fundamental parameters of this important system have been determined, including the stellar masses, 1.98 ±0.07 and 1.60 ± 0.06 M⊙, and radii, 1.76 ± 0.03 and 1.42 ± 0.02 R⊙, for the primary and secondary components, respectively. Frequency analysis of the residual data revealed 31 modes, 14 in the gravity mode region and 17 in the pressure mode region. Of the 14 gravity modes, 8 are orbital harmonics: a signature of tidal resonance. While the measured amplitude of these modes may be partially attributed to residual signal from binary model subtraction, we demonstrate through consideration of the folded light curve that these frequencies do in fact correspond to tidally excited pulsations. Furthermore, we present an echelle diagram of the pressure mode frequency region (modulo the orbital frequency) and demonstrate that the tides are also influencing the p modes. A first look at asteroseismology hints that the secondary component is responsible for the p modes, which is contrary to our expectation that the hotter star should pulsate in higher radial overtone, higher frequency p modes.

  7. Excited states 4

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the excited states of molecular activity. One paper investigates the resonance Raman spectroscopy as the key to vibrational-electronic coupling. This paper reviews the basic theory of Raman scattering; it also explains the derivation of the Raman spectra, excitation profiles, and depolarization ratios for simple resonance systems. Another paper reviews the magnetic properties of triplet states, including the zero-field resonance techniques, the high-field experiments, and the spin Hamiltonian. This paper focuses on the magnetic

  8. Rectangular Ring Antenna Excited by Circular Disc Monopole for WiMAX System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souphanna Vongsack


    Full Text Available This research presents a rectangular ring antenna excited by a circular disc monopole (CDM mounted in front of a square reflector. The proposed antenna is designed to cover a frequency range of 2.300–5.825 GHz and thereby is suitable for WiMAX applications. Multiple parametric studies were carried out using the CST Microwave Studio simulation program. A prototype antenna was fabricated and experimented. The measurements were taken and compared with the simulation results, which indicates good agreement between both results. The prototype antenna produces an impedance bandwidth (|S11| < −10 dB that covers the WiMAX frequency range and a constant unidirectional radiation pattern (θ=0° and ∅=90°. The minimum and maximum gains are 3.7 and 8.7 dBi, respectively. The proposed antenna is of compact size and has good unidirectional radiation performance. Thus, it is very suitable for a multitude of WiMAX applications.

  9. MRT letter: Two-photon excitation-based 2pi light-sheet system for nano-lithography. (United States)

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim


    We propose two-photon excitation-based light-sheet technique for nano-lithography. The system consists of 2π-configured cylindrical lens system with a common geometrical focus. Upon superposition, the phase-matched counter-propagating light-sheets result in the generation of identical and equi spaced nano-bump pattern. Study shows a feature size of as small as few tens of nanometers with a inter-bump distance of few hundred nanometers. This technique overcomes some of the limitations of existing nano-lithography techniques, thereby, may pave the way for mass-production of nano-structures. Potential applications can also be found in optical microscopy, plasmonics, and nano-electronics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. System characterization of neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and its relevance to observed dynamics of spontaneous seizure-like transitions (United States)

    Zalay, Osbert C.; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.


    Most forms of epilepsy are marked by seizure episodes that arise spontaneously. The low-magnesium/high-potassium (low-Mg2+/high-K+) experimental model of epilepsy is an acute model that produces spontaneous, recurring seizure-like events (SLEs). To elucidate the nature of spontaneous seizure transitions and their relationship to neuronal excitability, whole-cell recordings from the intact hippocampus were undertaken in vitro, and the response of hippocampal CA3 neurons to Gaussian white noise injection was obtained before and after treatment with various concentrations of low-Mg2+/high-K+ solution. A second-order Volterra kernel model was estimated for each of the input-output response pairs. The spectral energy of the responses was also computed, providing a quantitative measure of neuronal excitability. Changes in duration and amplitude of the first-order kernel correlated positively with the spectral energy increase following treatment with low-Mg2+/high-K+ solution, suggesting that variations in neuronal excitability are coded by the system kernels, in part by differences to the profile of the first-order kernel. In particular, kernel duration was more sensitive than amplitude to changes in spectral energy, and correlated more strongly with kernel area. An oscillator network model of the hippocampal CA3 was constructed to investigate the relationship of kernel duration to network excitability, and the model was able to generate spontaneous, recurrent SLEs by increasing the duration of a mode function analogous to the first-order kernel. Results from the model indicated that disruption to the dynamic balance of feedback was responsible for seizure-like transitions and the observed intermittency of SLEs. A physiological candidate for feedback imbalance consistent with the network model is the destabilizing interaction of extracellular potassium and paroxysmal neuronal activation. Altogether, these results (1) validate a mathematical model for epileptiform

  11. Approximate Forward Difference Equations for the Lower Order Non-Stationary Statistics of Geometrically Non-Linear Systems subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    Geometrically non-linear multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems subject to random excitation are considered. New semi-analytical approximate forward difference equations for the lower order non-stationary statistical moments of the response are derived from the stochastic differential equations...... of motion, and, the accuracy of these equations is numerically investigated. For stationary excitations, the proposed method computes the stationary statistical moments of the response from the solution of non-linear algebraic equations....

  12. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection (United States)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved by 39% compared to that of the Xenon flash lamp based unit, due to the LEDs narrower emission spectrum and longer pulse width. Key parameters of the LED system are discussed to further optimize the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-background, and hence the sensitivity of the instrument.

  13. Noble metal nanoparticles on quartz supports as SERS substrates excited by a diode laser system for SERDS (United States)

    Ossig, Robert; Kwon, Yong-Hyok; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef; Träger, Frank; Hubenthal, Frank


    In this contribution we present surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements of pyrene as a function of the surface plasmon resonance position of noble metal nanoparticle ensembles, which served as SERS substrates. The noble metal nanoparticle ensembles were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions by Volmer-Weber growth on quartz substrates. For the SERS measurements, the substrates were mounted in a flow-through cell as part of the optical Raman set-up. A diode laser microsystem with an emission wavelength of 488 nm was used. The system generates two slightly different emission wavelengths (Δλ ~ 0.3 nm) with a spectral width of ~ 10 pm and an optical power of ~ 10 mW. With this set-up SERS as well as shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) can be carried out. For trace analysis of pyrene in water SERS/SERDS experiments were accomplished as a function of molecule concentration and spectral position of the plasmon resonance. The best results with a limit of detection of 2 nmol of pyrene were obtained with a nanoparticle ensemble with a plasmon resonance in the vicinity of the excitation wavelength of λ = 488 nm. If the plasmon resonance frequency is slightly off-resonance the detection limit is significantly lower. The latter results are discussed in more detail and we will demonstrate that the morphology and the optical properties of the SERS substrates crucially influence the LOD.

  14. A VUV detection system for the direct photonic identification of the first excited isomeric state of 229Th (United States)

    Seiferle, Benedict; von der Wense, Lars; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Thirolf, Peter G.


    With an expected energy of 7.6(5) eV, 229Th possesses the lowest excited nuclear state in the landscape of all presently known nuclei. The energy corresponds to a wavelength of about 160 nm and would conceptually allow for an optical laser excitation of a nuclear transition. We report on a VUV optical detection system that was designed for the direct detection of the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. 229(m)Th ions originating from a 233U α-recoil source are collected on a micro electrode that is placed in the focus of an annular parabolic mirror. The latter is used to parallelize the UV fluorescence that may emerge from the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. The parallelized light is then focused by a second annular parabolic mirror onto a CsI-coated position-sensitive MCP detector behind the mirror exit. To achieve a high signal-to-background ratio, a small spot size on the MCP detector needs to be achieved. Besides extensive ray-tracing simulations of the optical setup, we present a procedure for its alignment, as well as test measurements using a D2 lamp, where a focal-spot size of ≈100 μm has been achieved. Assuming a purely photonic decay, a signal-to-background ratio of ≈7000:1 could be achieved.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1'-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system. (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Rijs, Anouk; van Walree, Cornelis A; Zgierski, Marek Z; Buma, Wybren J


    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We find that the excitation spectrum of S(1) displays extensive vibrational progressions that we identify to arise from large changes in the torsional angles of the phenyl rings upon electronic excitation. The extensive activity of the antisymmetric inter-ring torsional vibration provides conclusive evidence for a loss of symmetry upon excitation, leading to an inequivalence of the two phenyl rings. Nonresonant zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy from the ground state of the neutral molecule to the ground state of the radical cation, on the other hand, demonstrates that upon ionization symmetry is retained, and that the geometry changes are considerably smaller. Apart from elucidating how removal of an electron affects the structure of the molecule, these measurements provide an accurate value for the adiabatic ionization energy (65274 ± 1 cm(-1) (8.093 eV)). Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectra obtained after excitation of vibronic levels in S(1) confirm these conclusions and provide us with an extensive atlas of ionic vibronic energy levels. For higher excitation energies the excitation spectrum of S(1) becomes quite congested and shows unexpected large intensities. Ab initio calculations strongly suggest that this is caused by a conical intersection between S(1) and S(2). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril


    Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post-critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik


    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  18. Terahertz and Microwave Devices Based on the Photo-Excited Low Dimensional Electronic System (United States)


    electron system. This research aimed to advance the understanding of such radiation-induced phenomena in the two-dimensional electron system, while helping...photovoltaic detection of cyclotron resonance in the regime of radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations, Physical Review B, (06 2013...The Joseph Hadley Outstanding Advanced Graduate Student Award in Physics & Astronomy - 2012 • Olesya I. Sarajlic, The Outstanding Graduate

  19. Excited Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi, Asia


    Full Text Available Excited (or agitated delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:77-83.

  20. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei


    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gnatov


    Full Text Available Recently, repair and recovery of vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Results. The calculation of excited loads attractions in a symmetrical inductor system in the universal tool of magnetic-pulse straightening is provided. According to the obtained analytical dependence of the numerical evaluation of volumetric construction diagrams, phase and amplitude of the radial dependence of the spatial distribution of the excited efforts of attraction is obtained. The influence of the magnetic properties of the blank screen and manifested in the appearance of powerful magnetic attraction forces is determined. Originality. A new trend of research of magnetic-pulse working of thin-walled metals has been formulated and received further development, which allows to create not only new equipment, but principally new technological processes of external non-contact repair and recovery of vehicle body panels. Scientific basis of electrodynamic and magnetic attraction of thin-walled sheet metals with using the energy of high-power pulsed fields was created for the first time and proved theoretically and experimentally. Scientific and technical solutions in design of effective tools based on single-turn inductor systems of cylindrical geometry for straightening and recovery of car body panels were formulated and proved theoretically, as well as experimentally. Practical value. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic

  2. Comparative performance of passive devices for piping system under seismic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Jangid, R.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India)


    Highlights: • Correlated the analytical results obtained from the proposed analytical procedures with experimental results in the case of XPD. • Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with passive devices is observed. • Significant increase in the modal damping of the piping system is noted. • There exist an optimum parameters of the passive devices. • Good amount of energy dissipation is observed by using passive devices. - Abstract: Among several passive control devices, X-plate damper, viscous damper, visco-elastic damper, tuned mass damper and multiple tuned mass dampers are popular and used to mitigate the seismic response in the 3-D piping system. In the present paper detailed studies are made to see the effectiveness of the dampers when used in 3-D piping system subjected to artificial earthquake with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results obtained using Wen's model are compared with the corresponding experimental results available which indicated a good match with the proposed analytical procedure for the X-plate dampers. It is observed that there is significant reduction in the seismic response of interest like relative displacement, acceleration and the support reaction of the piping system with passive devices. In general, the passive devices under particular optimum parameters such as stiffness and damping are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping system.

  3. Spin-Wave Analysis for Kagome-Triangular Spin System and Coupled Spin Tubes: Low-Energy Excitation for the Cuboc Order (United States)

    Ochiai, Masahiro; Seki, Kouichi; Okunishi, Kouichi


    The coupled spin tube system, which is equivalent to a stacked Kagome-triangular spin system, exhibits the cuboc order — a non-coplanar spin order with a twelve-sublattice structure accompanying spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry — in the Kagome-triangular plane. On the basis of the spin-wave theory, we analyze spin-wave excitations of the planar Kagome-triangular spin system, where the geometric phase characteristic to the cuboc spin structure emerges. We further investigate spin-wave excitations and dynamical spin structure factors for the coupled spin tubes, assuming the staggered cuboc order.

  4. Different Types of Vibrations Interacting with Electronic Excitations in Phycoerythrin 545 and Fenna-Matthews-Olson Antenna Systems. (United States)

    Aghtar, Mortaza; Strümpfer, Johan; Olbrich, Carsten; Schulten, Klaus; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich


    The interest in the phycoerythrin 545 (PE545) photosynthetic antenna system of marine algae and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria has drastically increased since long-lived quantum coherences were reported for these complexes. For the PE545 complex, this phenomenon is clearly visible even at ambient temperatures, while for the FMO system it is more prominent at lower temperatures. The key to elucidate the role of the environment in these long-lived quantum effects is the spectral density. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations combined with quantum chemistry calculations to study the coupling between the biological environment and the vertical excitation energies of the bilin pigment molecules in PE545 and compare them to prior calculations on the FMO complex. It is found that the overall strength of the resulting spectral densities for the PE545 system is similar to the experiment-based counterpart but also to those in the FMO complex. Molecular analysis, however, reveals that the origin for the spectral densities in the low frequency range, which is most important for excitonic transitions, is entirely different. In the case of FMO, this part of the spectral density is due to environmental fluctuations, while, in case of PE545, it is essentially only due to internal modes of the bilin molecules. This finding sheds new light on possible explanations of the long-lived quantum coherences and that the reasons might actually be different in dissimilar systems.

  5. Multireference excitation energies for bacteriochlorophylls A within light harvesting system 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anda, Andre; Hansen, Thorsten; De Vico, Luca


    Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria is one of the most popular antenna complexes used to study Nature's way of collecting and channeling solar energy. The dynamics of the absorbed energy is probed by ultrafast spectroscopy. Simulation of these experiments relies on fitting a range ...

  6. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek


    of the fibers. The experimental findings are complemented via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The presented results lead to a better understanding and control of hybrid-mode systems, which are crucial elements in future low-loss energy transfer devices. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo...

  7. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    of the fibers. The experimental findings are complemented via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The presented results lead to a better understanding and control of hybrid-mode systems, which are crucial elements in future low-loss energy transfer devices. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo...

  8. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko


    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. © IMechE 2016.

  9. Stability, diffusion and interactions of nonlinear excitations in a many body system (United States)

    Coste, Christophe; Jean, Michel Saint; Dessup, Tommy


    When repelling particles are confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trap by a transverse potential, a configurational phase transition happens. All particles are aligned along the trap axis at large confinement, but below a critical transverse confinement they adopt a staggered row configuration (zigzag phase). This zigzag transition is a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation in extended systems and in systems with cyclic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. Among many evidences, phase coexistence is exhibited by localized nonlinear patterns made of a zigzag phase embedded in otherwise aligned particles. We give the normal form at the bifurcation and we show that these patterns can be described as solitary wave envelopes that we call bubbles. They are stable in a large temperature range and can diffuse as quasi-particles, with a diffusion coefficient that may be deduced from the normal form. The potential energy of a bubble is found to be lower than that of the homogeneous bifurcated phase, which explains their stability. We observe also metastable states, that are pairs of solitary wave envelopes which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We evidence a strong effect of the discreteness of the underlying particles system and introduce the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive so that the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble. In contrast, the bubbles interaction is found to be repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: it is attractive for NF-systems, repulsive for F-systems, and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance.

  10. Robust excitation control design using sliding-mode technique for multimachine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbia-Vega, A.; de Leon-Morales, J.; Salas-Pena, O.; Mata-Jimenez, M.T. [Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Fridman, L. [Department of Control, Division of Electrical Engineering Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    An output feedback controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability of nonlinear multimachine power systems considered as a classical model with flux decay dynamics. Combining high-order sliding-mode techniques with a robust high-order sliding-mode differentiator, a robust decentralized controller is obtained. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed control scheme and its robustness properties. (author)

  11. Laser excitation and fully non-contact sensing ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage evaluation (United States)

    Dhital, Dipesh; Lee, Jung Ryul; Park, Chan Yik; Flynn, Eric


    Various types of damages occur in aerospace, mechanical and many other engineering structures, and a reliable nondestructive evaluation technique is essential to detect any possible damage at the initiation phase. Ultrasound has been widely used but the conventional contact ultrasonic inspection techniques are not suitable for mass and couplant sensitive structures and are relatively slow. This study presents a fully non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic generation and piezoelectric air-coupled transducer (ACT)/laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensing technique combined with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI), ultrasonic spectral imaging (USI) and wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging (WUPI) algorithms to extract defect-sensitive features aimed at performing a thorough diagnosis of damage. Optimization enables improved performance efficiency of ACT and LDV to be used as receivers for non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system as shown from the experimental results in this study. Real fatigue closed surface micro crack on metal structure was detected using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/ACT sensing system, with size detection accuracy as high as 96%. Impact damages on carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite wing-box specimen were detected and localized using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/LDV sensing system.

  12. Wigner's quantum phase-space current in weakly-anharmonic weakly-excited two-state systems (United States)

    Kakofengitis, Dimitris; Steuernagel, Ole


    There are no phase-space trajectories for anharmonic quantum systems, but Wigner's phase-space representation of quantum mechanics features Wigner current J . This current reveals fine details of quantum dynamics —finer than is ordinarily thought accessible according to quantum folklore invoking Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Here, we focus on the simplest, most intuitive, and analytically accessible aspects of J. We investigate features of J for bound states of time-reversible, weakly-anharmonic one-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems which are weakly-excited. We establish that weakly-anharmonic potentials can be grouped into three distinct classes: hard, soft, and odd potentials. We stress connections between each other and the harmonic case. We show that their Wigner current fieldline patterns can be characterised by J's discrete stagnation points, how these arise and how a quantum system's dynamics is constrained by the stagnation points' topological charge conservation. We additionally show that quantum dynamics in phase space, in the case of vanishing Planck constant ℏ or vanishing anharmonicity, does not pointwise converge to classical dynamics.

  13. Spectroscopic and electric dipole properties of Sr+Ar and SrAr systems including high excited states (United States)

    Hamdi, Rafika; Abdessalem, Kawther; Dardouri, Riadh; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier


    The spectroscopic properties of the fundamental and several excited states of Sr+Ar and SrAr, Van der Waals systems are investigated by employing an ab initio method in a pseudo-potential approach. The potential energy curves and the spectroscopic parameters are displayed for the 1–10 2Σ+, 1–6 2Π and 1–3 2Δ electronic states of the Sr+Ar molecule and for the 1–6 1Σ+, 1–4 3Σ+, 1–3 1,3Π and 1–3 1,3Δ states of the neutral molecule SrAr. In addition, from these curves, the vibrational levels and their energy spacing are deduced for Σ+, Π and Δ symmetries. The spectra of the permanent and transition dipole moments are studied for the 1,3Σ+ states of SrAr, which are considered to be two-electron systems and 2Σ+ states of the single electron Sr+Ar ion. The spectroscopic parameters obtained for each molecular system are compared with previous theoretical and experimental works. A significant correlation revealed the accuracy of our results.

  14. A feedback control strategy for the airfoil system under non-Gaussian colored noise excitation. (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Tao, Gang


    The stability of a binary airfoil with feedback control under stochastic disturbances, a non-Gaussian colored noise, is studied in this paper. First, based on some approximated theories and methods the non-Gaussian colored noise is simplified to an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Furthermore, via the stochastic averaging method and the logarithmic polar transformation, one dimensional diffusion process can be obtained. At last by applying the boundary conditions, the largest Lyapunov exponent which can determine the almost-sure stability of the system and the effective region of control parameters is calculated.

  15. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation (United States)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.


    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  16. Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: “High”-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Oláh


    Full Text Available It is well known that certain active ingredients of the plants of Cannabis genus, i.e., the “phytocannabinoids” [pCBs; e.g., (−-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, (−-cannabidiol, etc.] can influence a wide array of biological processes, and the human body is able to produce endogenous analogs of these substances [“endocannabinoids” (eCB, e.g., arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, etc.]. These ligands, together with multiple receptors (e.g., CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, etc., and a complex enzyme and transporter apparatus involved in the synthesis and degradation of the ligands constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS, a recently emerging regulator of several physiological processes. The ECS is widely expressed in the human body, including several members of the innate and adaptive immune system, where eCBs, as well as several pCBs were shown to deeply influence immune functions thereby regulating inflammation, autoimmunity, antitumor, as well as antipathogen immune responses, etc. Based on this knowledge, many in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at exploiting the putative therapeutic potential of cannabinoid signaling in inflammation-accompanied diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis or in organ transplantation, and to dissect the complex immunological effects of medical and “recreational” marijuana consumption. Thus, the objective of the current article is (i to summarize the most recent findings of the field; (ii to highlight the putative therapeutic potential of targeting cannabinoid signaling; (iii to identify open questions and key challenges; and (iv to suggest promising future directions for cannabinoid-based drug development.

  17. Neutron scattering studies of bio-polymer-water systems: solvent mobility and collective excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, H.D. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.


    The understanding of bio-polymer-water interactions at the molecular level depends crucially on a good characterization of dissipative processes and on accurate model parameters derived from experiments. The fundamental interest of this study is the coupling between hard and soft degrees of freedom, the dynamics of hydrogen-bonded molecular components and the effect of hydration on collective modes. The experiments and results discussed in this paper demonstrate how neutron scattering provides new insights into the dynamics of hydrated biomolecules. The ability to do diffraction-cum-spectroscopy over a large Q,{omega}-range corresponding to the space and time scales of bio-polymer-water interactions opens new ways which can be exploited for testing and refining theoretical models and simulations. Outstanding assets of neutron techniques in this context are the capability to probe diffusive as well as cooperative processes over scale lengths from about 1 to a few angstroms, together with the possibility of varying scattering contrast between the constituents of a heterogeneous system. Two systems are considered: a globular, slightly hydrated protein (phycocyanin) and a highly hydrated network of polysaccharide fibers. The phycocyanin results draw attention to the fact that the energy landscape of a hydrated biomolecule is very complex. Some of the concepts and models used in theoretical work will need to be refined substantially in order to accommodate data from experimental techniques capable of providing genuine spatio-temporal information. The characterization of hydration phenomena by two or three discrete relaxation times is too simplistic and the two-state models are inadequate to describe protein hydration. (J.S.). 39 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Zebrafish: an exciting model for investigating the spatio-temporal pattern of enteric nervous system development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, Reshma


    AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for whole mount immunohistochemistry. Antibodies to Phox2b were used to identify enteric neurons. Specimens were mounted on slides and imaging was performed using a fluorescent laser confocal microscope. RESULTS: GFAP:GFP labelling outside the spinal cord was identified in embryos from 48 hpf. The patterning was intracellular and consisted of elongated profiles that appeared to migrate away from the spinal cord into the periphery. At 72 and 96 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed dorsally and ventrally to the intestinal tract. At 120 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed throughout the intestinal wall, and clusters of enteric neurons were identified using Phox2b immunofluorescence along the pathway of GFAP:GFP positive processes, indicative of a migratory pathway of ENS precursors from the spinal cord into the intestine. CONCLUSION: The pattern of migration of GFAP:GFP expressing cells outside the spinal cord suggests an organized, early developing migratory pathway to the ENS. This shows for the

  19. Resonant electronic excitation energy transfer by exchange mechanism in the quantum dot system (United States)

    Chikalova-Luzina, O. P.; Samosvat, D. M.; Vyatkin, V. M.; Zegrya, G. G.


    A microscopic theory of nonradiative resonance energy transfer between spherical A3B5 semiconductor quantum dots by the exchange mechanism is suggested. The interdot Coulomb interaction is taken into consideration. It is assumed that the quantum dot-donor and the quantum dot-acceptor are made from the same A3B5 compound and are embedded in the matrix of another material that produces potential barriers for electrons and holes. The dependences of the energy transfer rate on the quantum-dot system parameters are found in the frame of the Kane model that provides the most adequate description of the real spectra of A3B5 semiconductors. The analytical treatment is carried out with using the density matrix method, which enabled us to perform an energy transfer analysis both in the weak-interaction approximation and in the strong-interaction approximation. The numerical calculations showed the saturation of the energy transfer rate at the distances between the donor and the acceptor approaching the contact one. The contributions of the exchange and direct Coulomb intractions can be of the same order at the small distances and can have the same value in the saturation range.

  20. Electroacupuncture at ST37 Enhances Jejunal Motility via Excitation of the Parasympathetic System in Rats and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqian Yuan


    Full Text Available Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine. Further, the efficacy of EA at different intensities (1/2/4/6/8 mA was measured in wild-type mice and β1β2-/- mice and M2M3-/- mice. Results. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the excitatory effect of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility disappeared in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. EA at ST37 was less effective in M2M3-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, to a certain extent, there existed “intensity-response” relationship between jejunal motility and EA. Conclusions. EA at ST37 can enhance jejunal motility in rats and mice mainly via excitation of the parasympathetic pathway. There is an “intensity-response” relationship between EA and effect on jejunal motility.

  1. An integrated computer-controlled system for assisting researchers in cortical excitability studies by using transcranial magnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Giordano, D; Kavasidis, I; Spampinato, C; Bella, R; Pennisi, G; Pennisi, M


    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is the most important technique currently available to study cortical excitability. Additionally, TMS can be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes, replacing the more painful transcranial electric stimulation (TES). In this paper we present an innovative and easy-to-use tool that enables neuroscientists to design, carry out and analyze scientific studies based on TMS experiments for both diagnostic and research purposes, assisting them not only in the practicalities of administering the TMS but also in each step of the entire study's workflow. One important aspect of this tool is that it allows neuroscientists to specify research designs at will, enabling them to define any parameter of a TMS study starting from data acquisition and sample group definition to automated statistical data analysis and RDF data storage. It also supports the diagnosing process by using on-line support vector machines able to learn incrementally from the diseases instances that are continuously added into the system. The proposed system is a neuroscientist-centred tool where the protocols being followed in TMS studies are made explicit, leaving to the users flexibility in exploring and sharing the results, and providing assistance in managing the complexity of the final diagnosis. This type of tool can make the results of medical experiments more easily exploitable, thus accelerating scientific progress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chaotic dynamic and control for micro-electro-mechanical systems of massive storage with harmonic base excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail:; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia. UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)], E-mail:; Gil Chica, Javier [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail:


    This paper explores chaotic behaviour and control of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), which consist of thousands of small read/write probe tips that access gigabytes of data stored in a non-volatile magnetic surface. The model of the system is formed by two masses connected by a nonlinear spring and a viscous damping. The paper shows that, by means of an adequate feedback law, the masses can behave as two coupled Duffing's oscillators, which may reach chaotic behaviour when harmonic forces are applied. The chaotic motion is destroyed by applying the following control strategies: (i) static output feedback control law with constant forces and (ii) geometric nonlinear control. The aim is to drive the masses to a set point even with harmonic base excitation, by using chaotic dynamics and nonlinear control. The paper shows that it is possible to obtain a positioning time around a few ms with sub-nanometre accuracy, velocities, accelerations and forces, as it appears in the design of present MEMS devices. Numerical simulations are used to verify the mathematical discussions.

  3. A `shoelace' antenna system for direct excitation of C-Mod's quasi-coherent mode and boundary layer turbulence (United States)

    Labombard, B.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Parker, R.; Burke, W.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Zaks, J.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Wolfe, S.; Woskov, P.; Wuktich, S.


    Experiments indicate that short wavelength, drift-Alfvenic turbulence largely sets the transport levels in the plasma edge: pressure gradients in L and H-mode are `clamped' at canonical values of the MHD parameter (αMHD) ; broadband and coherent fluctuations have strong magnetic signatures, with k⊥ρs ~ 0.1 being prominent. A quasi-coherent mode (50 kHz < f < 150 kHz, 1 < k⊥ < 2 cm-1) drives particle transport in C-Mod's EDA H-modes, making them steady-state without ELMs. With the idea of exciting, controlling or otherwise exploiting this transport behavior, we are developing a novel, high k⊥ antenna system to drive drift-Alfvenic modes at the outer midplane with k⊥ ~ 1.5 cm-1. A `shoelace' style winding is placed in close proximity to the last-closed flux surface. In principle, this scheme inductively drives parallel current fluctuations that mimic intrinsic plasma fluctuations but at larger amplitude. Details of the antenna system design, its planned modes of operation and initial results will be presented. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  4. Nonlinear characteristics of the rotating exciter system of power plant generators in case of electricity accidents; Transientes Verhalten des rotierenden Erregersystems von Kraftwerksgeneratoren bei elektrischen Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataei, Nader


    Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1 '-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C.A.; Zgierski, M.Z.; Buma, W.J.


    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1′-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We

  6. Mapping of electron-hole excitations in the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe2 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. (United States)

    Monney, C; Zhou, K J; Cercellier, H; Vydrova, Z; Garnier, M G; Monney, G; Strocov, V N; Berger, H; Beck, H; Schmitt, T; Aebi, P


    In high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ti L edge of the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe(2), we observe sharp low energy loss peaks from electron-hole pair excitations developing at low temperature. These excitations are strongly dispersing as a function of the transferred momentum of light. We show that the unoccupied bands close to the Fermi level can effectively be probed in this broadband material. Furthermore, we extract the order parameter of the charge-density-wave phase from temperature-dependent measurements.

  7. Possible weakly first-order superconducting transition induced by magnetic excitations in the YBCO system: A fluctuation conductivity study (United States)

    Hneda, Marlon Luiz; da Silva Berchon, Luciano; Pureur, Paulo; das Neves Vieira, Valdemar; Jaeckel, Sandra Teixeira; Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Menegotto Costa, Rosângela


    Fluctuation conductivity is experimentally studied in the genuine critical region near the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7 - δ, YBa2Cu2.985Fe0.015O7 - δ and Y0.95Ca0.05Ba2Cu3O7 - δ single crystal samples. Two fluctuation regimes where the electrical conductivity diverges as a power-law of the reduced temperature were systematically observed. In the first regime, farther from the critical temperature Tc, the transition behaves as predicted by the thermodynamics of the three dimensional-XY (3D-XY) universality class characteristic of a second-order phase transition. In the asymptotic regime closer to Tc a power-law regime characterized by a much smaller exponent is observed. The smallest value ever reported for the fluctuation conductivity exponent in the high-Tc superconductors is obtained for the Fe- and Ca-doped systems. We suggest that the regime beyond 3D-XY is a crossover towards a weakly first-order transition induced by internal magnetic excitations.

  8. Study of the excitation mechanisms of the second positive system in the negative glow of a N{sub 2}-Ar discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isola, L; Lopez, M; Gomez, B J, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) 27 Febrero 210 Bis. (S2000EZP) Rosario (Argentina)


    In an Ar-N{sub 2} discharge, the high excitation transfer from Ar({sup 3}P{sub 2,0}) to N{sub 2} produces an overpopulation of the high rotational levels of the bands of the second positive system (SPS), and so the spectra interpretation is not straightforward. This paper presents a fit function for the SPS bands measured in Ar-N{sub 2}, which allows us to study the excitation process contributions to the N{sub 2}(C) level. The procedure was tested in the negative glow of a pulsed Ar-N{sub 2} discharge at a pressure of 2.5 Torr, for different mixture concentrations. In this discharge, through the fitting, it was possible to calculate the variation of the N{sub 2}(C) densities produced by different excitation processes as well as the variation of Ar metastable density.

  9. Topological excitations in magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Doria, M.M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Rodrigues, E.I.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    In this work we propose a new route to describe topological excitations in magnetic systems through a single real scalar field. We show here that spherically symmetric structures in two spatial dimensions, which map helical excitations in magnetic materials, admit this formulation and can be used to model skyrmion-like structures in magnetic materials.

  10. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence of solvation and conformational disorder: Exploring range-separation tuning (United States)

    de Queiroz, Thiago B.; Kümmel, Stephan


    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to predict with time-dependent density functional theory, which is the otherwise predominant method for calculating molecular structure and excitations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that range-separated hybrid functionals, in particular with an "optimally tuned" range separation parameter, describe charge-transfer excitations reliably for different molecules. Many of these studies focused on molecules in vacuum. Here we investigate the influence of solvation on the electronic excitations of thiophene oligomers, i.e., paradigm low gap systems. We take into account bulk solvation using a continuum solvation model and geometrical distortions from molecular dynamics. From our study, three main findings emerge. First, geometrical distortions increase absorption energies by about 0.5 eV for the longer thiophene oligomers. Second, combining optimal tuning of the range separation parameter with a continuum solvation method is not straightforward and has to be approached with great care. Third, optimally tuned range-separated hybrids without a short-range exchange component tend to inherit undesirable characteristics of semi-local functionals: with increasing system size the range separation parameter takes a smaller value, leading to a functional of effectively more semi-local nature and thus not accurately capturing, e.g., the saturation of the optical gap with increasing system size.

  11. p-sd Shell Gap Reduction in Neutron-Rich Systems and Cross-ShellExcitations in 20O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeking, M.; Tabor, S.L.; Pavan, J.; Volya, A.; Aguilar, A.L.; Calderin, I.J.; Campbell, D.B.; Cluff, W.T.; Diffenderfer, E.; Fridmann,J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Kemper, K.W.; Lee, S.; Riley, M.A.; Roeder, B.T.; Teal, C.; Tripathi, V.; Wiedenhover, I.


    Excited states in {sup 20}O were populated in the reaction {sup 10}Be({sup 14}C,{alpha}) at Florida State University (FSU). Charged particles were detected with a particle telescope consisting of 4 annularly segmented Si surface barrier detectors and {gamma} radiation was detected with the FSU {gamma} detector array. Five new states were observed below 6 MeV from the {alpha}-{gamma} and {alpha}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data. Shell model calculations suggest that most of the newly observed states are core-excited 1p-1h excitations across the N=Z=8 shell gap. Comparisons between experimental data and calculations for the neutron-rich O and F isotopes imply a steady reduction of the p-sd shell gap as neutrons are added.

  12. Strategies to enhance the excitation energy-transfer efficiency in a light-harvesting system using the intra-molecular charge transfer character of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihira, Nao [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Sugai, Yuko [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Kosumi, Daisuke [Institute of Pulsed Power Science; Kumamoto University; Kumamoto; Japan; Iha, Masahiko [South Product Co. Ltd.; Uruma-shi; Japan; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Katsumura, Shigeo [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Gardiner, Alastair T. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan


    Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that is mainly found in light-harvesting complexes from brown algae and diatoms. Due to the presence of a carbonyl group attached to polyene chains in polar environments, excitation produces an excited intra-molecular charge transfer. This intra-molecular charge transfer state plays a key role in the highly efficient (~95%) energy-transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyllain the light-harvesting complexes from brown algae. In purple bacterial light-harvesting systems the efficiency of excitation energy-transfer from carotenoids to bacteriochlorophylls depends on the extent of conjugation of the carotenoids. In this study we were successful, for the first time, in incorporating fucoxanthin into a light-harvesting complex 1 from the purple photosynthetic bacterium,Rhodospirillum rubrumG9+ (a carotenoidless strain). Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was applied to this reconstituted light-harvesting complex in order to determine the efficiency of excitation energy-transfer from fucoxanthin to bacteriochlorophyllawhen they are bound to the light-harvesting 1 apo-proteins.

  13. Evidence of dynamical dipole excitation in the fusion-evaporation of the 40Ca+152Sm heavy system (United States)

    Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alba, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Agodi, C.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Emanuele, U.; Farinon, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.


    The excitation of the dynamical dipole mode along the fusion path was investigated for the first time in the formation of a heavy compound nucleus in the A ˜190 mass region. The compound nucleus was formed at identical conditions of excitation energy and spin from two entrance channels: the charge-asymmetric 40Ca+152Sm and the nearly charge-symmetric 48Ca+144Sm at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. High-energy γ rays and light charged particles were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy) coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The charged particle multiplicity spectra and angular distributions were used to pin down the average excitation energy, the average mass, and the average charge of the compound nucleus. The γ -ray multiplicity spectrum and angular distribution related to the nearly charge-symmetric channel were employed to obtain new data on the giant dipole resonance in the compound nucleus. The dynamical dipole mode excitation in the charge-asymmetric channel was evidenced, in a model-independent way, by comparing the γ -ray multiplicity spectra and angular distributions of the two entrance channels with each other. Calculations of the dynamical dipole mode in the 40Ca+152Sm channel, based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics, are presented. Possible interesting implications in the superheavy-element quest are discussed.

  14. Formation of Bonded Exciplex in the Excited States of Dicyanoanthracene-Pyridine System : Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, D.; Sethio, D.; Martoprawiro, M.A.; Filatov, M.; Gaol, FL; Nguyen, QV


    Strong quenching of fluorescence was recently observed in pyridine solutions of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene chromophore. It was hypothesized that quenching may be attributed to the formation of bound charge transfer complexes in the excited states of the molecules. In this work, using time-dependent

  15. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no signifi...

  16. The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers. (United States)

    Hewett, J; Nadeau, V; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H; Ibbotson, S; Allen, J W; Sibbett, W; Padgett, M


    A novel, compact and low-cost multispectral fluorescence imaging system with an integrated excitation light source is described. Data are presented demonstrating the application of this method to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence before, during and after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers. The excitation source comprised a fluorescent tube with the phosphor selected to emit broadband violet light centered at 394 nm. The camera system simultaneously captured spectrally specific images of the fluorescence of the photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, the illumination profile and the skin autofluorescence. Real-time processing enabled images to be manipulated to create a composite image of high contrast. The application and validation of this method will allow further detailed studies of the characteristics and time-course of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, during topical photodynamic therapy in human skin in vivo.

  17. Contribution of electronically excited states to the radiation chemistry of organic systems. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsky, S.


    The effect of n-perfluorohexane to quench both the emission and photoionization current of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) in isooctane and in tetramethylsilane has been shown to be consistent with an interaction of perfluorohexane with some relatively long-lived, coherently excited state of TMPD that is generated at the photoionization threshold and which decays either to the emitting state of TMPD or to a geminate ion-pair. The 0/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/ electron impact spectra of the stable isomers of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and C/sub 5/ saturated hydrocarbons are being determined. Preliminary results show large structural effects on the lowest Rydberg singlet-triplet splittings. Two photon excited emission spectra of decalin, bicyclohexyl, and cyclohexane have been observed in good agreement with previously reported one-photon spectra. A weak emission from propylene has also been detected. From measurement of the photosensitized singlet emission of p-xylene by bicyclohexyl excited at 1740 A, it appears that the bicyclohexyl triplet contributes importantly to the sensitization. Also previously reported deviations from Stern-Volmer behavior in the fast-electron-excited process are found too in the photo-excited process (at 1740 A) and therefore cannot be attributed exclusively to ionic processes. The much larger ratio of excimer to monomer intensity in polystyrene as compared to neat liquid benzene appears to be due mainly to a reduced entropy of dissociation of the excimer when the phenyls are tied to the polymer backbone. Excimers formed therefore from distant phenyl groups may manifest themselves at high quencher concentrations and thus provide a new technique for probing polymer conformation.

  18. Prediction of the voltage drop due to the diode commutation process in the excitation system of salient-pole synchronous generators


    Nuzzo, Stefano; Galea, Michael; Gerada, C.; Brown, N.L.


    The commutation processes in uncontrolled diode rectifiers have been extensively studied and modelled. However, in some applications, such as electrical power generation, the effects of these processes are often neglected. In low to medium rated, field wound, synchronous generators, the excitation system makes up a significant percentage of the whole generating set. Thus, the voltage drop due to the diode commutations can be quite significant. It is therefore of critical importance that these...

  19. Energies of doubly excited 1,3 P ° resonances in He-like (Z =2-40) systems below the N = 3 hydrogenic threshold (United States)

    Sakho, I.


    Eight doubly excited 1,3 P ° resonances in He-like systems below the N = 3 hydrogenic threshold are investigated in the framework of Screening Constant by Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC) formalism. The Rydberg series investigated are labelled in the (K, T, A) classification scheme. Accurate data are tabulated for the entire He-isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 40 with 3 ≤ n ≤ 9, n the principal quantum number of the outer electron.

  20. Excited Electronic and Vibrational State Decomposition of Energetic Materials and Model Systems on Both Nanosecond and Femtosecond Time Scales (United States)


    The Journal of Chemical Physics , ( 2012): 0. doi: 10.1063/1.4752654 Atanu Bhattacharya, Yuanqing Guo, Elliot R. Bernstein. A comparison of the decomposition of electronically excited nitro-containing molecules with energetic moieties C–NO2, N–NO2, and O–NO2, The Journal of Chemical Physics , ( 2012): 0. doi: 10.1063/1.3668139 Yuanqing Guo, Atanu Bhattacharya, Elliot R. Bernstein. Ultrafast S1 to S0 Internal Conversion Dynamics for Dimethylnitramine through a Conical

  1. Excitable scale free networks (United States)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.


    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  2. Enhanced neutron pair transfer and collective excitations in the system sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 Pb+ sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 Sn at barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, I; Kaspar, M; Kozhoukharov, I; Rejmund, M; Wollersheim, H J; Oertzen, W V; Fachbereich-Physik, F U B; Thummerer, S; Bohlen, H G; Gebauer, B; Kröll, T; Thompson, I J


    At energies below the Coulomb barrier, neutron transfer and Coulomb excitation have been measured in a very heavy asymmetric nuclear system, in sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 Pb+ sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 Sn. These are semi-magic nuclei showing super-fluid properties. Particle-gamma coincidence techniques using 5 Euroball Cluster detectors (EB), combined in a set-up with the Heidelberg-Darmstadt NaI Crystal Ball (CB), have been used. Position-sensitive detectors allowed the observation of scattering processes covering angles from 110 up to 150 degrees. The fragments are identified via the known gamma-decays of the lowest excited states using the high resolution of EB. Using the unique feature of the set-up with the CB, transfer to well-defined final channels with known quantum numbers is selected using the high-efficiency multiplicity filter of the CB with no second gamma-ray, i.e. without feeding. The data are analysed using the semi-classical approach and transfer probabilities are obtained. Coulomb excitation has been analysed...

  3. Fluorescence lifetime selectivity in excitation-emission matrices for qualitative analysis of a two-component system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millican, D.W.; McGown, L.B. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))


    Steady-state fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and phase-resolved EEMs (PREEMs) collected at modulation frequencies of 6, 18, and 30 MHz, were used for qualitative analysis of mixtures of benzo(k)fluoranthene ({tau} = 8 ns) and benzo(b)fluoranthene ({tau} = 29 ns) in ethanol. The EEMs of the individual components were extracted from mixture EEMs by means of wavelength component vector-gram (WCV) analysis. Phase resolution was found to be superior to steady-state measurements for extraction of the component spectra, for mixtures in which the intensity contributions from the two components are unequal.

  4. Simple many-body based screening mixing ansatz for improvement of G W /Bethe-Salpeter equation excitation energies of molecular systems (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas


    We propose a simple many-body based screening mixing strategy to considerably enhance the performance of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) approach for prediction of excitation energies of molecular systems. This strategy enables us to closely reproduce results of highly correlated equation of motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) through optimal use of cancellation effects. We start from the Hartree-Fock (HF) reference state and take advantage of local density approximation (LDA) based random phase approximation (RPA) screening, denoted as W0-RPA@LDA with W0 as the dynamically screened interaction built upon LDA wave functions and energies. We further use this W0-RPA@LDA screening as an initial screening guess for calculation of quasiparticle energies in the framework of G0W0 @HF. The W0-RPA@LDA screening is further injected into the BSE. By applying such an approach on a set of 22 molecules for which the traditional G W /BSE approaches fail, we observe good agreement with respect to EOM-CCSD references. The reason for the observed good accuracy of this mixing ansatz (scheme A) lies in an optimal damping of HF exchange effect through the W0-RPA@LDA strong screening, leading to substantial decrease of typically overestimated HF electronic gap, and hence to better excitation energies. Further, we present a second multiscreening ansatz (scheme B), which is similar to scheme A with the exception that now the W0-RPA@HF screening is used in the BSE in order to further improve the overestimated excitation energies of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and disilane (Si2H6 ). The reason for improvement of the excitation energies in scheme B lies in the fact that W0-RPA@HF screening is less effective (and weaker than W0-RPA@LDA), which gives rise to stronger electron-hole effects in the BSE.

  5. Emerging Picture of Black Hole in Double-Star System Promises Exciting Yield of New Physics Data (United States)


    As scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) report on analysis of "moving pictures" of powerful jets of material emerging from a double-star system 10,000 light-years away, new evidence from other research confirms that the source of the jets is a black hole. A series of images made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes, made by Robert Hjellming and Michael Rupen of NRAO, appears in the June 8 issue of the scientific journal Nature. When these radio "snapshots" of jets emerging from an X-ray nova in the constellation Scorpius were made in August and September of 1994, the source of the jets was only suspected of harboring a black hole. It is now certain that a black hole is the source of the jets, thanks to an intense observing effort using ground-and space-based telescopes at wavelengths ranging from gamma rays to radio waves. The system, discovered only last year, with a star similar in size to our Sun orbiting the black hole, now promises to show astronomers -- at long last -- details of how black holes can power super-energetic jets of material to nearly the speed of light. The latest results come from studies made with radio and optical telescopes operated for the National Science Foundation. Black holes are concentrations of matter so dense that their gravitational attraction prevents even light from escaping them. "This is the first time we can say that one of the components of a jet-emitting binary is a black hole based on fundamental astronomy, rather than on fitting observational data to complicated models," said Hjellming, an NRAO astronomer in Socorro, NM. This resulted from observations of the object -- called GRO J1655-40 -- with instruments covering widely different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum -- observations that reinforced each other to make a solid case. Researchers are excited about the discovery. It means, they say, that scientists can study this object and begin to

  6. Exact ensemble density functional theory for excited states in a model system: investigating the weight dependence of the correlation energy

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, Killian; Fromager, Emmanuel


    Ensemble density functional theory (eDFT) is an exact time-independent alternative to time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) for the calculation of excitation energies. Despite its formal simplicity and advantages in contrast to TD-DFT (multiple excitations, for example, can be easily taken into account in an ensemble), eDFT is not standard which is essentially due to the lack of reliable approximate exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for ensembles. Following Burke and coworkers [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245131 (2016)], we propose in this work to construct an exact eDFT for the nontrivial asymmetric Hubbard dimer, thus providing more insight into the weight dependence of the ensemble xc energy in various correlation regimes. For that purpose, an exact analytical expression for the weight-dependent ensemble exchange energy has been derived. The complementary exact ensemble correlation energy has been computed by means of Legendre-Fenchel transforms. Interesting features like discontinuities in the ensemble xc potential in the...

  7. Quantum dynamics of excitations and decoherence in many-spin systems detected with Loschmidt echoes: its relation to their spreading through the Hilbert space. (United States)

    Sánchez, C M; Levstein, P R; Buljubasich, L; Pastawski, H M; Chattah, A K


    In this work, we overview time-reversal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in many-spin systems evolving under the dipolar Hamiltonian. The Loschmidt echo (LE) in NMR is the signal of excitations which, after evolving with a forward Hamiltonian, is recovered by means of a backward evolution. The presence of non-diagonal terms in the non-equilibrium density matrix of the many-body state is directly monitored experimentally by encoding the multiple quantum coherences. This enables a spin counting procedure, giving information on the spreading of an excitation through the Hilbert space and the formation of clusters of correlated spins. Two samples representing different spin systems with coupled networks were used in the experiments. Protons in polycrystalline ferrocene correspond to an 'infinite' network. By contrast, the liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline in the nematic mesophase represents a finite proton system with a hierarchical set of couplings. A close connection was established between the LE decay and the spin counting measurements, confirming the hypothesis that the complexity of the system is driven by the coherent dynamics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. A note on the periodic and chaotic responses of an SDOF system with piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic- and flow-induced excitations (United States)

    Lin, Wang; Qiao, Ni


    In this note, the periodic and chaotic responses of two single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models are investigated and some interesting results obtained. The first model (original model) has been developed by Narayanan and Sekar [Periodic and chaotic responses of an SDOF system with piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic and flow induced excitations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 184 (2) (1997) 281-298] and the second one corresponds to a modified system. The original model, involving a one-sided clearance ( y0) between the mass and the linear spring, is subjected to combined harmonic ( F cos ωt) and flow-induced excitations. Narayanan and Sekar (1997) has shown that periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions of this original model may occur in a range of flow velocities for the case: y0=0 and F≠0. In the present work, numerical calculations are carried out for several other important cases of the original system, showing some interesting, and sometimes unexpected results. The modified model, in particular, involving both-sided clearances, is analyzed numerically subsequently. The effect of flow velocity, clearances on the global dynamics of this modified system is discussed finally.

  9. Determination of excited states of quantum systems by finite difference time domain method (FDTD) with supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudiarta, I. Wayan; Angraini, Lily Maysari, E-mail: [Physics Study Program, University of Mataram, Jln. Majapahit 62 Mataram, NTB (Indonesia)


    We have applied the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM) procedure to determine excited energies of one dimensional quantum systems. The theoretical basis of FDTD, SUSY-QM, a numerical algorithm and an illustrative example for a particle in a one dimensional square-well potential were given in this paper. It was shown that the numerical results were in excellent agreement with theoretical results. Numerical errors produced by the SUSY-QM procedure was due to errors in estimations of superpotentials and supersymmetric partner potentials.

  10. Exciting story of the high-end television projection systems and the novel compact EIDOPHOR AE-12 (United States)

    Schulz-Hennig, Joerg F.


    With the new light valve technologies and availability of international broad-band communication channels high-end large screen TV projection is a highly growing contribution to the multi-media world of today. The exciting story already started 58 years ago with the invention of the EIDOPHOR diffractive oil light modulator. The long way to turn electronic cinema into a reality triggered novel applications, e.g. teleconferencing and real time surgery transmissions at universities. Several technical approaches of spatial light modulation were tried, and finally several different solutions are feasible to provide video projectors, meeting the requirements of the different display applications of today and tomorrow. The technical history is reviewed and the limitations and feasibilities of new technologies are presented in respect to existing and new applications.

  11. Dynamic Model and Vibration Power Flow of a Rigid-Flexible Coupling and Harmonic-Disturbance Exciting System for Flexible Robotic Manipulator with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.

  12. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD


    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  13. Dynamic Features of the Highly Excited Vibrational States of the HOCl Non-Integrable System Based on the Dynamic Potential and Lyapunov Exponent Approaches. (United States)

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao


    In this article the dynamic features of the highly excited vibrational states of the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) non-integrable system are studied using the dynamic potential and Lyapunov exponent approaches. On the condition that the 3:1 resonance between the H-O stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes accompany the 2:1 Fermi resonance between the O-Cl stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes, it is found that the dynamic potentials of the highly excited vibrational states vary regularly with different Polyad numbers (P numbers). As the P number increases, the dynamic potentials of the H-O stretching mode remain the same, but those of the H-O-Cl bending mode gradually become complex. In order to investigate the chaotic and stable features of the highly excited vibrational states of the HOCl non-integrable system, the Lyapunov exponents of different energy levels lying in the dynamic potentials of the H-O-Cl bending mode (P = 4 and 5) are calculated. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponents of the energy levels staying in the junction of Morse potential and inverse Morse potential are relative large, which indicates the degrees of chaos for these energy levels is relatively high, but the stabilities of the corresponding states are good. These results could be interpreted as the intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) acting strongly via the HOCl bending motion and causing energy transfers among different modes. Based on the previous studies, these conclusions seem to be generally valid to some extent for non-integrable triatomic molecules.

  14. Isovector monopole excitation energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Lipparini, E.; Stringary, S.


    Using a hydrodynamical model whose parameters have been adjusted to fit the polarizability and excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance we predict excitation energies of the isovector monopole resonance. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data. The mass dependence of the excitation energy is strongly influenced by nuclear geometry.

  15. Initial Design Calculations for a Detection System that will Observe Resonant Excitation of the 680 keV state in 238U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Hagmann, C


    We present calculations and design considerations for a detection system that could be used to observe nuclear resonance fluorescence in {sup 238}U. This is intended as part of an experiment in which a nearly monochromatic beam of light incident on a thin foil of natural uranium resonantly populates the state at 680 keV in {sup 238}U. The beam of light is generated via Compton upscattering of laser light incident on a beam of relativistic electrons. This light source has excellent energy and angular resolution. In the current design study we suppose photons emitted following de-excitation of excited nuclei to be observed by a segmented array of BGO crystals. Monte Carlo calculations are used to inform estimates for the design and performance of this detector system. We find that each detector in this array should be shielded by about 2 cm of lead. The signal to background ratio for each of the BGO crystals is larger than ten. The probability that a single detector observes a resonant photon during a single pulse of the light source is near unity.

  16. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei


    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  17. Breakdown of linear response theory under low-power excitation in NMR. I. The case of long-lived signals in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems. (United States)

    Gong, Zhaoyuan; Walls, Jamie D


    In this work, we examine the application of linear response theory to the problem of low-power excitation in inhomogeneously broadened spin systems when the strength of the radiofrequency (RF) pulse, νRF, is smaller than the inhomogeneous linewidth. Even for small overall excitations [Θ = 2πνRFTp ≪ 1 where Tp is the RF pulse length], linear response theory is shown to break down for spins with resonance frequencies that are on the order of νRF, which is due to the fact that the RF interaction cannot be treated as a small perturbation in this case. This breakdown in linear response theory can be partially corrected for by enforcing unitarity in the linear response. Furthermore, the nature of the spin echo generated by a πX-pulse applied immediately after a low-power pulse is investigated. Numerical calculations and experiments performed in an inhomogeneously broadened H2O/D2O solution confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this work.

  18. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Henriette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  19. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori


    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  20. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  1. Energy transfer in anisotropic systems: A. Excitation migration in substitutionally disordered one-dimensional solids. B. The spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwemer, D.A.


    The energy and dynamics of excited states in a variety of anisotropic environments, including isotopically and chemically mixed crystals and molecular overlayers adsorbed on a nickel (111) surface, are investigated. The relationship between local and long-range structure and spectroscopic properties is explored. A theory for energy transfer in substitutionally disordered solids is presented. Explicit expressions for the ''diffusion'' coefficients and the energy partitioning ratios in binary systems are derived. Energy transfer between localized states is found to be facilitated by concurrent tunnelling and thermal promotion. Experimental results for triplet energy partitioning between mobile and stationary trap states as a function of mobile trap concentration in the ternary d/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene--h/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene--pyrazine system are analyzed. It is shown that both tunnelling and thermal detrapping contribute to triplet exciton mobility below 4.2 K. Singlet exciton migration makes an important contribution to trap equilibration before intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold. Spin coherence experiments are used to determine the energy level structure, physical geometry, and exciton dynamics of a series of impurity-induced traps in 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The uv spectra of pyrazine, pyridine, and naphthalene adsorbed on a nickel single crystal (111) surface are measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry at low temperatures. The excited electronic and vibronic energy levels measured are similar to bulk molecular crystal values, but pyrazine and pyridine show small, but significant deviations. The ordering of molecular overlays is observed spectroscopically and information about overlayer crystal structure is deduced. 148 references, 48 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Excitations in Topological Superfluids and Superconductors (United States)

    Wu, Hao

    In this thesis I present the theoretical work on Fermionic surface states, and %the bulk Bosonic collective excitations in topological superfluids and superconductors. Broken symmetries %Bulk-edge correspondence in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. A Solution Method for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear MDOF Systems with Random Properties subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micaletti, R. C.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    structural properties. The resulting state-space formulation is a system of ordinary stochastic differential equations with random coefficient and deterministic initial conditions which are subsequently transformed into ordinary stochastic differential equations with deterministic coefficients and random...... initial conditions. This transformation facilitates the derivation of differential equations which govern the evolution of the unconditional statistical moments of response. Primary consideration is given to linear systems and systems with odd polynomial nonlinearities, for in these cases...... there is a significant reduction in the number of equations to be solved. The method is illustrated for a five-story shear-frame structure with nonlinear interstory restoring forces and random damping and stiffness properties. The results of the proposed method are compared to those estimated by extensive Monte Carlo...

  4. Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schober H.


    Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.

  5. Loss of excitation of synchronous generator (United States)

    Krištof, Vladimír; Mešter, Marián


    This paper presents results of study of loss-of-excitation phenomena simulations. Loss of excitation is a very common fault in synchronous machine operating and can be caused by short circuit of the field winding, unexpected field breaker open or loss-of-excitation relay mal-operation. According to the statistic [1], the generator failure due to loss-of-excitation accounts for 69% of all generator failures. There has been concern over possible incorrect operation of the relay when operating the generator in the under-excited region, during stable transient swings and during major system disturbances. This article can serve as inputs for system operators in preparation of operation area or protection relaying area.

  6. Efficient Blind System Identification of Non-Gaussian Auto-Regressive Models with HMM Modeling of the Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chunjian; Andersen, Søren Vang


    We propose two blind system identification methods that exploit the underlying dynamics of non-Gaussian signals. The two signal models to be identified are: an Auto-Regressive (AR) model driven by a discrete-state Hidden Markov process, and the same model whose output is perturbed by white Gaussian...... outputs. The signal models are general and suitable to numerous important signals, such as speech signals and base-band communication signals. Applications to speech analysis and blind channel equalization are given to exemplify the efficiency of the new methods....

  7. Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation. (United States)

    Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas


    Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.

  8. Nuclear expansion with excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, J.N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Samaddar, S.K. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:


    The expansion of an isolated hot spherical nucleus with excitation energy and its caloric curve are studied in a thermodynamic model with the SkM{sup *} force as the nuclear effective two-body interaction. The calted results are shown to compare well with the recent experimental data from energetic nuclear collisions. The fluctuations in temperature and density are also studied. They are seen to build up very rapidly beyond an excitation energy of {approx}9 MeV/u. Volume-conserving quadrupole deformation in addition to expansion indicates, however, nuclear disassembly above an excitation energy of {approx}4 MeV/u.

  9. Unrestricted density functional theory based on the fragment molecular orbital method for the ground and excited state calculations of large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hiroya, E-mail: [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fedorov, Dmitri G. [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1423-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kitaura, Kazuo [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Minoru [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    We extended the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method interfaced with density functional theory (DFT) into spin unrestricted formalism (UDFT) and developed energy gradients for the ground state and single point excited state energies based on time-dependent DFT. The accuracy of FMO is evaluated in comparison to the full calculations without fragmentation. Electronic excitations in solvated organic radicals and in the blue copper protein, plastocyanin (PDB code: 1BXV), are reported. The contributions of solvent molecules to the electronic excitations are analyzed in terms of the fragment polarization and quantum effects such as interfragment charge transfer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The efect of parametric excitation in self-excited has been investigated in two-degrees of freedom problems. The possibility of suppressing self-excited vibrationsby using parametric excitation and the dynamic behavior of those kind systems were discussed. In the this paper, we consider a system in three-degrees of freedom problem which by using a linear transformation the system becomes an Autoparametric. The system consists of a central mass and two external masses where those masses are conectedby springs with the same constant stiffness. The flow-generated self-excited force is actingon the external masses, it is represented by Rayleigh force. The variable stiffness isperiodically varying in time, represents a parametric excitation. It turns out that forcertain parameter ranges full vibration cancellation is possible. The analysis of linearcase of system shows that there are two conditions in order to obtain an interval ofthe parametric excitation. Using the averaging method the fully non-linear system is investigated producing as non-trivial solutions unstable periodic solutions. The behaviorof this unstable solution is studied in the full system.

  11. Studies of HeH: Dissociative Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan E.


    Full Text Available We have used structure and scattering calculations to determine the potential energy curves, non-adiabatic couplings and autoionization widths for the HeH system. These will be used to study a variety of processes ranging from dissociative recombination to mutual neutralization. As an example, we present our results on the direct dissociative excitation of HeH+ by electron impact via excitation to the two lowest excited states of the ion. The results are found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  12. Excitations in organic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, Vladimir M


    During the last decade our expertise in nanotechnology has advanced considerably. The possibility of incorporating in the same nanostructure different organic and inorganic materials has opened up a promising field of research, and has greatly increased the interest in the study of properties of excitations in organic materials. In this book not only the fundamentals of Frenkel exciton and polariton theory are described, but also the electronic excitations and electronic energytransfers in quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, at surfaces, at interfaces, in thin films, in multilayers,

  13. Two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence


    Zheng, Wei; Li, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.


    We discovered that hemoglobin emits high energy Soret fluorescence when two-photon excited by the visible femtosecond light sources. The unique spectral and temporal characteristics of hemoglobin fluorescence were measured by using a time-resolved spectroscopic detection system. The high energy Soret fluorescence of hemoglobin shows the spectral peak at 438 nm with extremely short lifetime. This discovery enables two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to become a potentially powerful t...

  14. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.


    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  15. Positron excitation of neon (United States)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.


    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  16. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  17. Excitation of Stellar Pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.


    In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....

  18. Dynamics of transfer of electron excitation in a donor-acceptor system with a carbon chain and ways of its relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sevryukova


    Full Text Available The optical properties and dynamics of transport of electron excitation and the ways of its relaxation in the supramolecular D–π–A complex on the basis of merocyanines have been investigated. There have been found two components in the transfer of charge: fast and slow, which correspond to different conformational states of the carbon chain in merocyanines. It was found that the main photoluminescence of the studied molecular solutions of merocyanines by its nature is similar to the exciplex luminescence, as a manifestation of resonant and charge transfer interaction in an excited state. The lifetime in this state is about 2000 ps.

  19. The Mammalian Cortex as a Self-Organizing Complex System: Multi-Scale Homeostatic Approaches to Criticality via Dynamical Balance of Inhibition against Excitation (United States)

    Ng, Tony T.

    The mammalian cortex is a highly structured network of densely packed neurons that interact strongly with each other in very specific ways. Loosely speaking, neurons are cells that fire clicks at each other as a means of communication. Common sites of communication, known as synapses, are enabled by transmitter molecules released from presynaptic sender cells, which bind to receptors on postsynaptic receiver cells. There are two major classes of neurons - excitatory ones that prompt their downstream neighbors to fire spikes through depolarization, and inhibitory ones that suppress spike activity of their postsynaptic partners via hyperpolarization. Depolarization and hyperpolarization make membrane potential of a cell more positive and more negative, respectively. A sufficiently depolarized neuron fires a spike, which technically is called an action potential. In this thesis, we focus on the interplay between three of the cortex's most ubiquitous features and examine some of the consequences that their interactions have on cortical dynamics. One of the features, widespread projections between clusters of excitatory neurons, is topological. The two remaining features, homeostasis and balance between the amount of excitatory and inhibitory activity are dynamical. Here, homeostasis refers to the regulatory mechanism of individual cells or collections of cells that maintains constant levels of spike activity over time. Simply by varying the average homeostatic firing rate in clusters of excitatory neurons or by tuning the common homoeostatic rate of individual inhibitory neurons, we show via simulation that cluster-based activity bursts can exhibit critical dynamics and display power-law distributions with exponents that are consistent with those found in in vivo experiments of awake animals. Criticality is an idea that originated in statistical physics. At the critical point, activity levels of sites across an entire system, such as those of different cortical regions

  20. On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adamatzky

    Full Text Available Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.

  1. Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar


    We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.

  2. Parametric excitation of a linear oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The phenomenon of parametric resonance is explained and investigated both analytically and with the help of a computer simulation. Parametric excitation is studied for the example of the rotary oscillations of a simple linear system-mechanical torsion spring pendulum excited by periodic variations of its moment of inertia. Conditions and characteristics of parametric resonance and regeneration are found and discussed in detail. Ranges of frequencies within which parametric excitation is possible are determined. Stationary oscillations at the boundaries of these ranges are investigated. The simulation experiments aid greatly an understanding of basic principles and peculiarities of parametric excitation and complement the analytical study of the subject in a manner that is mutually reinforcing.

  3. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)


    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  4. Exotic nuclear excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pancholi, S C


    By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...

  5. Simultaneous excitation of selective multiple Raman Stokes wavelengths (green-yellow-red) using shaped multi-step pulses from an all-fiber MOPA system (United States)

    Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-ul; Teh, Peh Siong; Chen, Kang Kang; Richardson, David J.


    We report the simultaneous excitation of multiple Raman Stokes lines in a 250 m long fiber using multi-step pump pulses. The frequency doubled output of a single polarization all-fiber Yb-doped MOPA operating at 1060 nm was used as the pump source. By adjusting the pump power and the pulse profiles we achieved the simultaneous excitation of green (1st Stokes), yellow (4th Stokes) and red light (6th Stokes) using 3-step pulses or the combination of any two using 2-step pulses. Through the use of pulse shaping we generate sequences of colored pulses with the flexibility of providing dynamic, agile frequency tuning between well-defined wavelengths.

  6. Time-resolved resonance Raman study of proton transferring systems in the excited triplet state: 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, F.W.; Mordzinski, A.; Wilbrandt, R.


    Time-resolved resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the excited triplet state T1 of 2,2'-bipyridine (BP), 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol BP(OH)2, and 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol Me2BP(OH)2 are obtained. and interpreted by comparison with their ground-state Raman spectra and the T1 spectrum...

  7. Raman excitation profiles of hybrid systems constituted by single-layer graphene and free base phthalocyanine: Manifestations of two mechanisms of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, T.; Mojzeš, P.; Melníková Komínková, Zuzana; Kalbáč, Martin; Sutrová, Veronika; Šloufová, I.; Vlčková, B.


    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2017), s. 1270-1281 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : graphene-enhanced Raman scattering * single-layer graphene * free base phthalocyanine * Raman excitation profiles * photoinduced charge transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016

  8. Excitation Dynamics and Relaxation in a Molecular Heterodimer

    CERN Document Server

    Balevicius, V; Abramavicius, D; Mancal, T; Valkunas, L


    The exciton dynamics in a molecular heterodimer is studied as a function of differences in excitation and reorganization energies, asymmetry in transition dipole moments and excited state lifetimes. The heterodimer is composed of two molecules modeled as two-level systems coupled by the resonance interaction. The system-bath coupling is taken into account as a modulating factor of the energy gap of the molecular excitation, while the relaxation to the ground state is treated phenomenologically. Comparison of the description of the excitation dynamics modeled using either the Redfield equations (secular and full forms) or the Hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) is demonstrated and discussed. Possible role of the dimer as an excitation quenching center in photosynthesis self-regulation is discussed. It is concluded that the system-bath interaction rather than the excitonic effect determines the excitation quenching ability of such a dimer.

  9. Three-photon Gaussian–Gaussian–Laguerre–Gaussian excitation of a localized atom to a highly excited Rydberg state (United States)

    Mashhadi, L.


    Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in light–matter interaction. In this work, a three-step axial Doppler- and recoil-free Gaussian–Gaussian-Laguerre–Gaussian (GGLG) excitation of a localized atom to the highly excited Rydberg state is presented. By assuming a large detuning for intermediate states, an effective quadrupole excitation related to the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) excitation to the highly excited Rydberg state is obtained. This special excitation system radially confines the single highly excited Rydberg atom independently of the trapping system into a sharp potential landscape into the so-called ‘far-off-resonance optical dipole-quadrupole trap’ (FORDQT). The key parameters of the Rydberg excitation to the highly excited state, namely the effective Rabi frequency and the effective detuning including a position-dependent AC Stark shift, are calculated in terms of the basic parameters of the LG beam and of the polarization of the excitation lasers. It is shown that the obtained parameters can be tuned to have a precise excitation of a single atom to the desired Rydberg state as well. The features of transferring the optical orbital and spin angular momentum of the polarized LG beam to the atom via quadrupole Rydberg excitation offer a long-lived and controllable qudit quantum memory. In addition, in contrast to the Gaussian laser beam, the doughnut-shaped LG beam makes it possible to use a high intensity laser beam to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quadrupole excitation with minimized perturbations coming from stray light broadening in the last Rydberg excitation process.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L


    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  11. Computational studies on the excited states of luminescent platinum(II) alkynyl systems of tridentate pincer ligands in radiative and nonradiative processes. (United States)

    Lam, Wai Han; Lam, Elizabeth Suk-Hang; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    Platinum(II) alkynyl complexes of various tridentate pincer ligands, [Pt(trpy)(C≡CR)](+) (trpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine), [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+) (R'-bzimpy = 2,6-bis(N-alkylbenzimidazol-2'-yl)pyridine and R' = alkyl), [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] (R'-bzimb = 1,3-bis(N-alkylbenzimidazol-2'-yl)benzene and R' = C4H9), have been found to possess rich photophysical properties. The emission in dilute solutions of [Pt(trpy)(C≡CR)](+) originated from a triplet alkynyl-to-tridentate pincer ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) excited state, with mixing of a platinum-to-tridentate pincer ligand metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, while that of [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] originated from a triplet excited state of intraligand (IL) character of the tridentate ligand mixed with a platinum-to-tridentate ligand MLCT character. Interestingly, both emissions were observed in [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+) in some cases. In addition, [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CR)] displayed a photoluminescence quantum yield higher than that of [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CR)](+). Computational studies have been performed on the representative complexes [Pt(trpy)(C≡CPh)](+) (1), [Pt(R'-bzimpy)(C≡CPh)](+) (2), and [Pt(R'-bzimb)(C≡CPh)] (3), where R' = CH3 and Ph = C6H5, to provide an in-depth understanding of the nature of their emissive origin as well as the radiative and nonradiative processes. In particular, the factors governing the ordering of the triplet excited states and radiative decay rate constants of the emissive state ((3)ES) have been examined. The potential energy profiles for the deactivation process from the (3)ES via triplet metal-centered ((3)MC) states have also been explored. This work reveals for the first time the potential energy profiles for the thermal deactivation pathway of square planar platinum(II) complexes.

  12. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)


    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  13. Synergy effects of electric and magnetic fields on locally excited-state fluorescence of photoinduced electron transfer systems in a polymer film. (United States)

    Awasthi, Kamlesh; Iimori, Toshifumi; Ohta, Nobuhiro


    Photoluminescence of electron donor-acceptor pairs that show photoinduced electron transfer (PIET) has been measured in a polymer film under simultaneous application of electric field and magnetic field. Fluorescence emitted from the locally excited state (LE fluorescence) of 9-methylanthracene (MAnt) and pyrene (Py) is quenched by an electric field in a mixture of 1,3-dicyanobenzene (DCB) with MAnt or Py, indicating that PIET from the excited state of MAnt or Py to DCB is enhanced by an electric field. Simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields enhances the reverse process from the radical-ion pair produced by PIET to the LE fluorescent state of MAnt or Py. As a result, the electric-field-induced quenching of the LE fluorescence is reduced by application of the magnetic fields. Thus, the synergy effect of electric and magnetic fields is observed on the LE fluorescence of MAnt or Py. Exciplex fluorescence spectra resulting from PIET can be obtained by analyzing the field effects on photoluminescence spectra, even when the exciplex fluorescence is too weak to be determined from the steady-state or time-resolved photoluminescence spectra at zero field.

  14. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs) and showed that synchronization was characterized by boundary crisis of the chaotic attractors. In our previous work [23,25], only numerical results were presented. In this paper, we extend our results to parametrically excited systems and in particular obtain sufficient crite-.

  15. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.


    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  16. Clinical Comparison of Pulse and Chirp Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Misaridis, T.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Coded excitation (CE) using frequency modulated signals (chirps) combined with modified matched filtering has earlier been presented showing promising results in simulations and in-vitro. In this study an experimental ultrasound system is evaluated in a clinical setting, where image sequences are...

  17. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations.

  18. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.


    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  19. Coherent two-photon excitation of quantum dots (United States)

    Ostermann, L.; Huber, T.; Prilmüller, M.; Solomon, G. S.; Ritsch, H.; Weihs, G.; Predojević, A.


    Single semiconductor quantum dots, due to their discrete energy structure, form single photon and twin photon sources that are characterized by a well-defined frequency of the emitted photons and inherently sub-Poissonian statistics. The single photons are generated through a recombination of an electron-hole pair formed by an electron from the conduction band and a hole from the valence band. When excited to the biexciton state quantum dots can provide pairs of photons emitted in a cascade. It has been shown that this biexciton-exciton cascade can deliver entangled pairs of photons. To achieve a deterministic generation of photon pairs from a quantum dot system one requires exciting it using a two-photon resonant excitation of the biexciton. Particularly, an efficient and coherent excitation of the biexciton requires the elimination of the single exciton probability amplitude in the excitation pulse and reaching the lowest possible degree of dephasing caused by the laser excitation. These two conditions impose contradictory demands on the excitation pulse-length and its intensity. We addressed this problem from a point of view that does not include interaction of the quantum dot with the semiconductor environment. We found an optimized operation regime for the system under consideration and provide guidelines on how to extend this study to other similar systems. In particular, our study shows that an optimal excitation process requires a trade-off between the biexciton binding energy and the excitation laser pulse length.

  20. Laser Excited Fluorescence For Forensic Diagnostics (United States)

    McKinney, Robert E.


    The application of laser excited fluorescence to the detection and identification of latent fingerprints was first accomplished ten years ago. The development of the technology has progressed rapidly with the introduction of commercial equipment by several manufacturers. Systems based on Argon-ion, Copper-vapor, and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are compared. The theoretical basis of detection by fluorescence is discussed along with the more useful techniques of dye staining. Other applications of the laser excited fluorescence in forensic investigation include gunshot residue analysis, serology, collection of trace evidence, and document examination.

  1. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.


    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  2. Probabilistic solutions of nonlinear oscillators excited by combined colored and white noise excitations (United States)

    Siu-Siu, Guo; Qingxuan, Shi


    In this paper, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems combined to Gaussian white noise and Gaussian/non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are investigated. By expressing colored noise excitation as a second-order filtered white noise process and introducing colored noise as an additional state variable, the equation of motion for SDOF system under colored noise is then transferred artificially to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system under white noise excitations with four-coupled first-order differential equations. As a consequence, corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation governing the joint probabilistic density function (PDF) of state variables increases to 4-dimension (4-D). Solution procedure and computer programme become much more sophisticated. The exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method, widely applied for cases of SDOF systems under white noise excitations, is developed and improved for cases of systems under colored noise excitations and for solving the complex 4-D FPK equation. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is performed to test the approximate EPC solutions. Two examples associated with Gaussian and non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are considered. Corresponding band-limited power spectral densities (PSDs) for colored noise excitations are separately given. Numerical studies show that the developed EPC method provides relatively accurate estimates of the stationary probabilistic solutions, especially the ones in the tail regions of the PDFs. Moreover, statistical parameter of mean-up crossing rate (MCR) is taken into account, which is important for reliability and failure analysis. Hopefully, our present work could provide insights into the investigation of structures under random loadings.

  3. Theory of elementary excitations in quasiperiodic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, E.L.; Cottam, M.G


    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the main physical properties (such as energy profiles, localization, scale laws, multifractal analysis, transmission spectra, transmission fingerprints, electronic structures, magnetization curves and thermodynamic properties) of the elementary excitations that can propagate in multilayered structures with constituents arranged in a quasiperiodic fashion. These excitations include plasmon-polaritons, spin waves, light waves and electrons, among others. A complex fractal or multifractal profile of the energy spectra is the common feature among these excitations. The quasiperiodic property is formed by the incommensurate arrangement of periodic unit cells and can be of the type referred to as deterministic (or controlled) disorder. The resulting excitations are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (as for the Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (as for the Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). These sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey particular recursion relations, and they can be considered as intermediate systems between a periodic crystal and the random amorphous solids, thus defining a novel description of disorder. A discussion is also included of some spectroscopic techniques used to probe the excitations, emphasizing Raman and Brillouin light scattering.

  4. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena


    Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... designs the hull natural frequency may get low enough that the corresponding level of excitation energy becomes large. Springing vibration negatively influences the fatigue life of the ship but, paradoxically, it still doesn't get much attention of the technical society. Usually, non-linear hydroelastic...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  5. Testing the excitability of human motoneurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Mcneil


    Full Text Available The responsiveness of the human central nervous system can change profoundly with exercise, injury, disuse or disease. Changes occur at both cortical and spinal levels but in most cases excitability of the motoneurone pool must be assessed to localize accurately the site of adaptation. Hence, it is critical to understand, and employ correctly, the methods to test motoneurone excitability in humans. Several techniques exist and each has its advantages and disadvantages. This review examines the most common techniques that use evoked compound muscle action potentials to test the excitability of the motoneurone pool and describes the merits and limitations of each. The techniques discussed are the H-reflex, F-wave, tendon jerk, V-wave, cervicomedullary motor evoked potential, and motor evoked potential. A number of limitations with these techniques are presented.

  6. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser; Sistema de muestreo para senales pulsadas. Estudio de vidas medias de niveles 3{sup 2} P1/2 y 3{sup 2}P3/2 excitados por un laser de colorantes pulsado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.


    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Phospholipase A2 - nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Maria Hermann


    Full Text Available TThe aging brain can undergo a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (peroxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the Biology of cognitive aging we (1 portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and (2 recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain.

  8. Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren


    A combination of steady-state and dynamic spectral measurements are used to provide new insights into the nature of the excited-state processes of all-trans-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and several analogs: 1,4-diphenyl- 1,3-cyclopentadiene, 1,1,4,4-tetraphenylbutadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-cyc...... indicate that phenyl torsional motion is not important to the excited-state dynamics and reveal alternative excited-state reaction pathways. The results demonstrate how molecular systems that are structually similar can exhibit different electronic properties and excited-state dynamics....

  9. Subsurface excitations in a metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Sosolik, C. E.


    We investigate internal hot carrier excitations in a Au thin film bombarded by hyperthermal and low energy alkali and noble gas ions. Excitations within the thin film of a metal-oxide-semiconductor device are measured revealing that ions whose velocities fall below the classical threshold given...... by the free-electron model of a metal still excite hot carriers. Excellent agreement between these results and a nonadiabatic model that accounts for the time-varying ion-surface interaction indicates that the measured excitations are due to semilocalized electrons near the metal surface....

  10. Effective Micro Grid Stability Under Excitation Limiters in Islanded and Connected Modes


    Tashakori, Sajad; Tavakoli, Amir; Mirzaei, Farzad


    International audience; In this paper the authors tried to design a under excitation limiter and a power system stabilizer which can operate without any kind of interaction. The under excitation limiter (UEL) is intended to prevent reduction of generator excitation to a level where the steady state stability limit or the stator core end-region heating limit is exceeded. The power system stabilizer (PSS) uses auxiliary stabilizing signals to control the excitation system so as to improve power...

  11. Axonal Excitability in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Axonal Excitability in ALS. (United States)

    Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve


    Axonal excitability testing provides in vivo assessment of axonal ion channel function and membrane potential. Excitability techniques have provided insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of neurodegeneration and clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related neuromuscular disorders. Specifically, abnormalities of Na+ and K+ conductances contribute to development of membrane hyperexcitability in ALS, thereby leading to symptom generation of muscle cramps and fasciculations, in addition to promoting a neurodegenerative cascade via Ca2+-mediated processes. Modulation of axonal ion channel function in ALS has resulted in significant symptomatic improvement that has been accompanied by stabilization of axonal excitability parameters. Separately, axonal ion channel dysfunction evolves with disease progression and correlates with survival, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic biomarker in ALS. The present review provides an overview of axonal excitability techniques and the physiological mechanisms underlying membrane excitability, with a focus on the role of axonal ion channel dysfunction in motor neuron disease and related neuromuscular diseases.

  12. Quantum Phase Transition of Polaritonic Excitations in a Multi-Excitation Coupled Array (United States)

    Shen, Lituo; Chen, Rongxin; Wu, Huaizhi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Irish, E. K.; Zheng, Shibiao


    We analyze the quantum phase transition-like behavior in the lowest energy state of a two-site coupled atom-cavity system, where each cavity contains one atom but the total excitation number is not limited to two. Under the large-detuning condition, we identify an interesting coexisting phase involving characteristics of both photonic superfluid and atomic insulator, which has not been previously revealed. For small hopping, we find that the signature of the photonic superfluid state becomes more pronounced with the increase in total excitation number, and that the boundaries of the various phases shift with respect to the case of two excitations. In the limit of small atom-field interaction, the polaritonic superfluid region becomes broader as the total excitation number increases. We use alternative order parameters to characterize the nonclassical property in the lowest-energy state, and find that the entanglement of photons in the photonic superfluid state has an approximately quadratic-like dependence on the total excitation number within the large-detuning limits. The second-order cross-correlation function is demonstrated to become inversely proportional to the total excitation number in the large detuning limits.

  13. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Condensate of excitations in moving superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E


    A possibility of the condensation of excitations with a non-zero momentum in rectilinearly moving and rotating superfluid bosonic and fermionic (with Cooper pairing) media is considered in terms of a phenomenological order-parameter functional at zero and non-zero temperature. The results might be applicable to the description of bosonic systems like superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, charged pion and kaon condensates in rotating neutron stars, and various superconducting fermionic systems with pairing, like proton and color-superconducting components in compact stars, metallic superconductors, and neutral fermionic systems with pairing, like the neutron component in compact stars and ultracold atomic Fermi gases. Order parameters of the "mother" condensate in the superfluid and the new condensate of excitations, corresponding energy gains, critical temperatures and critical velocities are found.

  15. The Tongue as an Excitable Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Seiden, Gabriel


    Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics and chemically-driven reaction-diffusion systems. Here we explore the dynamics associated with GT from a dynamical systems perspective, utilizing cellular automata simulations. We emphasize similarities with other excitable systems as well as unique features observed in GT. Our results shed light on the evolution of the inflammation and contribute to the classification of the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  16. Systems approach to excitation-energy and electron transfer reaction networks in photosystem II complex: model studies for chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Ebina, Kuniyoshi


    Photosystem II (PS II) is a protein complex which evolves oxygen and drives charge separation for photosynthesis employing electron and excitation-energy transfer processes over a wide timescale range from picoseconds to milliseconds. While the fluorescence emitted by the antenna pigments of this complex is known as an important indicator of the activity of photosynthesis, its interpretation was difficult because of the complexity of PS II. In this study, an extensive kinetic model which describes the complex and multi-timescale characteristics of PS II is analyzed through the use of the hierarchical coarse-graining method proposed in the authors׳ earlier work. In this coarse-grained analysis, the reaction center (RC) is described by two states, open and closed RCs, both of which consist of oxidized and neutral special pairs being in quasi-equilibrium states. Besides, the PS II model at millisecond scale with three-state RC, which was studied previously, could be derived by suitably adjusting the kinetic parameters of electron transfer between tyrosine and RC. Our novel coarse-grained model of PS II can appropriately explain the light-intensity dependent change of the characteristic patterns of fluorescence induction kinetics from O-J-I-P, which shows two inflection points, J and I, between initial point O and peak point P, to O-J-D-I-P, which shows a dip D between J and I inflection points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of the mechanical excitation applied to the olive paste: possible improving of the oil yield, in malaxation phase, by vibration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Gallina Toschi


    Full Text Available The mechanical vibrations characterized by a frequency lower than 200 Hz could promote the cells breakage and improve the oil extraction process by avoiding, at the same time, the negative effects on the commercial qualitative parameters due to the use of the heating during malaxation. Vibration tests were conducted by means of an electrodynamic shaker in order to find the optimal frequency levels of excitation, able to put in a resonant condition the olive paste. Sinusoidal accelerations at constant acceleration (120 m/s2, in a range between 5 and 200 Hz were explored. The 50 Hz and 80 Hz frequencies were able to put in resonant condition the olive paste. In the vibrated samples at 50 Hz (15 min of treatment, the maximum increment of the extraction efficiency (about 53% in comparison with the control, was observed. Further studies could be conducted in order to assess the synergic effect of the mechanical vibrations and the malaxation on the oil extraction efficiency, with the aim of reducing the time of the whole phase and avoiding changes in the oil quality traits.

  18. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability? (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu


    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Emergence of Asynchronous Local Clocks in Excitable Media. (United States)

    Gerum, Richard Carl; Fabry, Ben; Metzner, Claus


    Excitable media such as the myocardium or the brain consist of arrays of coupled excitable elements, in which the local excitation of a single element can propagate to its neighbors in the form of a non-linear autowave. Since each element has to pass through a refractory period immediately after excitation, the frequency of autowaves is self-limiting. In this work, we consider the case where each element is spontaneously excited at a fixed average rate and thereby initiates a new autowave. Although these spontaneous self-excitation events are modelled as independent Poisson point processes with exponentially distributed waiting times, the travelling autowaves lead collectively to a non-exponential, unimodal waiting time distribution for the individual elements. With increasing system size, a global 'clock' period T emerges as the most probable waiting time for each element, which fluctuates around T with an increasingly small but non-zero variance. This apparent synchronization between asynchronous, temporally uncorrelated point processes differs from synchronization effects between perfect oscillators interacting in a phase-aligning manner. Finally, we demonstrate that asynchronous local clocks also emerge in non-homogeneous systems in which the rates of self-excitation are different for all individuals, suggesting that this novel mechanism can occur in a wide range of excitable media.

  20. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup


    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  1. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt


    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  2. Controlling nonlinear waves in excitable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puebla, Hector [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco 02200, DF, Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail:; Martin, Roland [Laboratoire de Modelisation et d' Imagerie en Geosciences, CNRS UMR and INRIA Futurs Magique-3D, Universite de Pau (France); Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico); Aguilar-Lopez, Ricardo [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico)


    A new feedback control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media. Applying suitable external forcing to the system's slow variable, successful suppression and control of propagating pulses as well as spiral waves can be obtained. The proposed controller is composed by an observer to infer uncertain terms such as diffusive transport and kinetic rates, and an inverse-dynamics feedback function. Numerical simulations shown the effectiveness of the proposed feedback control approach.

  3. Chirp Excitation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves (Preprint) (United States)


    more significant for full wavefield capture using, for example, laser vibrometers or air-coupled transducers because of the unavoidably large...Lamb wave excitation and detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors for structural health monitoring,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems...G. Hentges and W. Mueller, “Improvement of ultrasonic testing of concrete by combining signal conditioning methods, scanning laser vibrometer and

  4. Excited-state Wigner crystals (United States)

    Rogers, Fergus J. M.; Loos, Pierre-François


    Wigner crystals (WCs) are electronic phases peculiar to low-density systems, particularly in the uniform electron gas. Since its introduction in the early twentieth century, this model has remained essential to many aspects of electronic structure theory and condensed-matter physics. Although the (lowest-energy) ground-state WC (GSWC) has been thoroughly studied, the properties of excited-state WCs (ESWCs) are basically unknown. To bridge this gap, we present a well-defined procedure to obtain an entire family of ESWCs in a one-dimensional electron gas using a symmetry-broken mean-field approach. While the GSWC is a commensurate crystal (i.e., the number of density maxima equals the number of electrons), these ESWCs are incommensurate crystals exhibiting more or less maxima. Interestingly, they are lower in energy than the (uniform) Fermi fluid state. For some of these ESWCs, we have found asymmetrical band gaps, which would lead to anisotropic conductivity. These properties are associated with unusual characteristics in their electronic structure.

  5. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vodungbo, B; Tudu, B; Perron, J; Delaunay, R; Müller, L; Berntsen, M.H; Grübel, G; Malinowski, G; Weier, C; Gautier, J; Lambert, G; Zeitoun, P; Gutt, C; Jal, E; Reid, A.H; Granitzka, P.W; Jaouen, N; Dakovski, G.L; Moeller, S; Minitti, M.P; Mitra, A; Carron, S; Pfau, B; von Korff Schmising, C; Schneider, M; Eisebitt, S; Lüning, J


    .... Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer...

  6. Transport waves as crystal excitations (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola


    We introduce the concept of transport waves by showing that the linearized Boltzmann transport equation admits excitations in the form of waves that have well-defined dispersion relations and decay times. Crucially, these waves do not represent single-particle excitations, but are collective excitations of the equilibrium distribution functions. We study in detail the case of thermal transport, where relaxons are found in the long-wavelength limit, and second sound is reinterpreted as the excitation of one or several temperature waves at finite frequencies. Graphene is studied numerically, finding decay times of the order of microseconds. The derivation, obtained by a spectral representation of the Boltzmann equation, holds in principle for any crystal or semiclassical transport theory and is particularly relevant when transport takes place in the hydrodynamic regime.

  7. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  8. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization


    Boris Vodungbo; Bahrati Tudu; Jonathan Perron; Renaud Delaunay; Leonard Müller; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Gerhard Grübel; Grégory Malinowski; Christian Weier; Julien Gautier; Guillaume Lambert; Philippe Zeitoun; Christian Gutt; Emmanuelle Jal; Reid, Alexander H.


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a ne...

  9. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  10. Have Gluonic Excitations Been Found?


    Page, Philip R.


    New experimental information on the non-exotic J^PC = 0^-+ isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux-tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  11. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Optimal excitation design for identifying inertia parameters of spacecraft (United States)

    Zhai, Kun; Wang, Tianshu; Meng, Dongbo


    Excitation design is one of the important contents in the identification of inertia parameters and the form of excitation has a great influence on the identification result. This paper presents a new method to design and calculate the optimal excitation. Firstly for a spacecraft equipped with momentum wheels, the identification problem is established based on conversation of angular momentum and an inverse operating. A performance index which is similar to but not the condition number is first defined as the benchmark for designing the optimal excitation. Because the performance index only depends on performances of the actuator, such as the angular momentum of the wheel, a simple direct-search method is applied to calculate the optimal excitation for the case without terminal angular velocity constraints and a two-step direct-search method for the case with terminal angular velocity constraints. While the initial angular momentum of spacecraft system is considered, the optimal excitation is obtained based on the difference of two successive measurements. Finally, the optimal excitation for a spacecraft using thrusters is designed according to the same design process. Simulation results show that the calculated optimal excitation has the good performance index and can produce accurate identification results even when some perturbations are considered.

  13. Do granular systems obey statistical mechanics? A review of recent work assessing the applicability of equilibrium theory to vibrationally excited granular media (United States)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.


    Driven granular media — assemblies of discrete, macroscopic elements exposed to a source of mechanical energy — represent inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. Although granular media are ubiquitous in both nature and industry, due to their dissipative nature and resultant complex behaviors they remain startlingly poorly understood as compared to classical, thermodynamic systems. Nonetheless, in recent years it has been observed that the behaviors of granular media can, under certain circumstances, closely resemble those of equilibrium systems. One of the most important contemporary questions in the field of granular physics is whether these similarities are merely superficial, or whether the parallels run deep enough that the behaviors of these nonequilibrium systems can in fact be successfully captured using analogs to existing theoretical models developed for classical systems. In this review, we draw together the findings of a variety of recent studies where this question has been addressed, comparing and contrasting the results and conclusions presented. We focus our attention on vibrated and vibrofluidized granular beds, which provide a canonical system representative of various equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems, and whose simple dynamics offer a valuable testing ground for exploring the fundamental physics of the granular state.

  14. Complete and incomplete fusion measurement and analysis of excitation functions in sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te system at energies near and above the coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, M K; Prasad, R; Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Sinha, A K


    In order to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions the experiment has been carried out for measuring excitation functions (EF's) for several reactions in the system sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te, in the energy range approx = 42 - 82 MeV, using activation technique. To the best of our knowledge EF's for presently measured reactions are being reported for the first time. The measured EF's have been compared with those calculated theoretically using codes CASCADE and ALICE-91. Effect of variation of parameters, of the codes, on calculated EF's has also been studied. The analysis of the present data indicates presence of contributions from incomplete fusion in some cases. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data.

  15. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    form a new species leading to a single electronegativity or chemical potential (the same way as in ordinary thermodynamics). The hardness η of an electronic system is ..... Technological Innovation Foundation and the Minis- try of Science and Technology. This work was also supported by the grant OTKA No. T042505.

  16. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)


    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors) 304 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. System and method for controlling depth of imaging in tissues using fluorescence microscopy under ultraviolet excitation following staining with fluorescing agents (United States)

    Demos, Stavros; Levenson, Richard


    The present disclosure relates to a method for analyzing tissue specimens. In one implementation the method involves obtaining a tissue sample and exposing the sample to one or more fluorophores as contrast agents to enhance contrast of subcellular compartments of the tissue sample. The tissue sample is illuminated by an ultraviolet (UV) light having a wavelength between about 200 nm to about 400 nm, with the wavelength being selected to result in penetration to only a specified depth below a surface of the tissue sample. Inter-image operations between images acquired under different imaging parameters allow for improvement of the image quality via removal of unwanted image components. A microscope may be used to image the tissue sample and provide the image to an image acquisition system that makes use of a camera. The image acquisition system may create a corresponding image that is transmitted to a display system for processing and display.

  18. Effect of excitation methods on electrical characteristics of fully superconducting generator model (United States)

    Muta, Itsuya; Tsukiji, H.; Handa, N.; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Mukai, E.


    We have fabricated a fully superconducting generator of 20 kW class, in which both of armature and field coils are made of superconductors. Two different types of excitation system were selected and tested: a brushless excitation method consisted of 'magnetic flux pump' and a conventional excitation method equipped with collector ring and brushes. The paper describes the experimental machine model and the comparison of test results between the two different types of excitation methods.

  19. Accurate calculations of the ground state and low-lying excited states of the (RbBa)+ molecular ion: a proposed system for ultracold reactive collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard


    Collisions of ultracold Ba+ ions on a Rb Bose–Einstein condensate have been suggested as a possible benchmark system for ultracold ion-neutral collision experiments. However, a priori knowledge of the possible processes is desirable. For this purpose, we here present high-level four-component cou...

  20. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion. (United States)

    Kernberg, O F


    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  1. Coulomb excitation of (31)Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Cederkall, J; Clement, E; Davinson, T; van Duppen, P; Ekstrom, A; Finke, F; Fraile, L M; Geibel, K; Gernhauser, R; Hess, H; Holler, A; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jolie, J; Kalkuhler, M; Kotthaus, T; Krucken, R; Lutter, R; Piselli, E; Scheit, H; Stefanescu, I; van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A


    The ground state properties of ^3^1Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N=19 with a deformed J^@p=1/2^+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that ^3^1Mg is part of the ''island of inversion''. The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive ^3^1Mg beam. De-excitation @c-rays were detected by the MINIBALL @c-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of ^3^1Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5/2^+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of ^3^0^,^3^1^,^3^2Mg establishes that for th e N=19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

  2. UV Excited Photoacoustic Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. Chance [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chambers, David H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, Paul T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haugen, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heller, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    To summarize, our efforts and findings are as follows: we analyzed the theoretical system performance using known PARS theory coupled with an acoustic detector model to estimate the expected signal-­to-noise ratio (SNR). The system model comprised a mathematical model of the Raman process leading to a prediction of the temperature change in the active region; a thermoacoustic gas prediction of the radiated pressure field (amplitude and pulse shape); and the receiver response for an acoustic microphone, including a simple model of the receiver circuitry (filters, integrators, etc.). Based on the PARS experimental parameters in Appendix B, the model predicted a PARS signal with pressure peak of 7 Pa and duration slightly longer than 2 ms at a distance of 7 mm from the focal spot when acoustic dissipation is not included. An analytical model of a PARS signal with acoustic dissipation was constructed but the numerical calculation is limited to gains of <1% of the experimental value. For these lower gains, the model predicts spreading of the signal.

  3. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph


    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of these collective motions is a very good to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article was to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. In particular we have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. The understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actually in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure if nuclei close to their ground states. (author) 270 refs.

  4. A new treatment for predicting the self-excited vibrations of nonlinear systems with frictional interfaces: The Constrained Harmonic Balance Method, with application to disc brake squeal (United States)

    Coudeyras, N.; Sinou, J.-J.; Nacivet, S.


    Brake squeal noise is still an issue since it generates high warranty costs for the automotive industry and irritation for customers. Key parameters must be known in order to reduce it. Stability analysis is a common method of studying nonlinear phenomena and has been widely used by the scientific and the engineering communities for solving disc brake squeal problems. This type of analysis provides areas of stability versus instability for driven parameters, thereby making it possible to define design criteria. Nevertheless, this technique does not permit obtaining the vibrating state of the brake system and nonlinear methods have to be employed. Temporal integration is a well-known method for computing the dynamic solution but as it is time consuming, nonlinear methods such as the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) are preferred. This paper presents a novel nonlinear method called the Constrained Harmonic Balance Method (CHBM) that works for nonlinear systems subject to flutter instability. An additional constraint-based condition is proposed that omits the static equilibrium point (i.e. the trivial static solution of the nonlinear problem that would be obtained by applying the classical HBM) and therefore focuses on predicting both the Fourier coefficients and the fundamental frequency of the stationary nonlinear system. The effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear approach is illustrated by an analysis of disc brake squeal. The brake system under consideration is a reduced finite element model of a pad and a disc. Both stability and nonlinear analyses are performed and the results are compared with a classical variable order solver integration algorithm. Therefore, the objectives of the following paper are to present not only an extension of the HBM (CHBM) but also to demonstrate an application to the specific problem of disc brake squeal with extensively parametric studies that investigate the effects of the friction coefficient, piston pressure, nonlinear stiffness

  5. The excitement of discovery. (United States)

    Rich, Alexander


    I had the good luck to start research at the dawn of molecular biology when it was possible to ask fundamental questions about the nature of the nucleic acids and how information is transferred in living systems. The search for answers led me into many different areas, often with the question of how molecular structure leads to biological function. Early work in this period provided some of the roots supporting the current explosive developments in life sciences. Here I give a brief account of my development, describe some contributions, and provide a hint of the exhilaration in discovering new things. Most of all, I had the good fortune to have inspiring teachers, stimulating colleagues, and excellent students.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of soft fermion excitations in hot QCD plasma I: soft-quark - soft-gluon scattering


    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.


    Within the framework of the hard thermal loop effective theory we derive a system of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations taking into account the simplest processes of nonlinear interaction of soft fermionic and bosonic QCD plasma excitations: elastic scattering of soft-(anti)quark excitations off soft-gluon and soft-quark excitations, pair production of soft quark-antiquark excitations, annihilation into two soft-gluon excitations. The matrix elements of these processes to leading order in the c...

  7. Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction on adsorbate systems on silicon surfaces. Vibrational excitation in monllayers and dynamics of phase transitions; Ultraschnelle zeitaufgeloeste Elektronenbeugung an Adsorbatsystemen auf Siliziumoberflaechen. Vibrationsanregung in Monolagen und Dynamik von Phasenuebergaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellenbeck, Simone


    In the present work ultra fast time resolved electron diffraction (TR-RHEED) at various adsorbate systems on silicon (Si) substrates was performed. Using the Debye-Waller-effect, the vibrational amplitude of the excited adsorbate atoms can be directly observed in the experiments as a function of time. For a coverage of 4/3 monolayers Lead (Pb) on Si(1 1 1) forms a ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction. The transient intensity evolution of the diffraction spots is recorded in a TR-RHEED-experiment. After excitation with a fs-laser pulse the intensity decreases due to the Debye-Waller-effect. The temporal behavior of the de-excitation process can be described with two exponential functions: a short time constant of 100 ps and a long one of 2800 ps. The two time constants can be assigned to two different phonon modes of the Pb-adsorbate. The huge difference between the two time constants and thus difference in the coupling to the substrate is explained by the bonding geometry in the structural model. To confirm this possible explanation, further TR-RHEED-experiments for the ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction of Pb on Si(1 1 1) were performed. The ({radical}(7) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction with a coverage of 1.2 monolayers shows comparable structural elements. The transient intensity evolution can be described with the identical two time constants. In addition, first experiments on the {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-phase of Pb/Si(1 1 1) are presented. This {beta} ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))-reconstruction, with a coverage of 1/3 monolayers of Pb, shows a phase transition to a (3 x 3)-reconstruction, which was observed in the experiments. Further investigated adsorbate systems are: ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Ag/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))In/Si(1 1 1), ({radical}(31) x {radical}(31))In/Si(1 1 1), and ({radical}(3) x {radical}(3))Bi/Si(1 1 1). In the second part of the present work the structural dynamics of strongly driven

  8. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  9. Magnetic excitations in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Cross sections for inelastic electron scattering and energy distributions of M1 and E2 strengths of K{sup {pi}} - 1{sup +} excitations in titanium, rare-earth, and actinide nuclei are studied microscopically within QRPA. The spin M1 strength has two peaks, isoscalar and isovector, residing between the low-and high-energy orbital M1 strength. The latter is strongly fragmented and lies in the region of the IVGQR, where the (e,e`) cross sections are almost one order of magnitude larger for E2 than for M1 excitations. Comparison with the quantized isovector rotor allows the interpretation of all the orbital M1 excitations at both low and high energies as manifestation of the collective scissors mode. (author).

  10. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization. (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for the Cable Excited with Parametric and Forced Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Qian


    Full Text Available Considering the deck vibration effect on the cable in cable-stayed bridge, using nonlinear structure dynamics theory, the nonlinear dynamical equation for the stayed cable excited with deck vibration is proposed. Research shows that the vertical vibration of the deck has a combined parametric and forced excitation effect on the cable when the angle of the cable is taken into consideration. Using multiscale method, the 1/2 principle parametric resonance is studied and the bifurcation equation is obtained. Despite the parameters analysis, the bifurcation characters of the dynamical system are studied. At last, by means of numerical method and software MATHMATIC, the effect rules of system parameters to the dynamical behavior of the system are studied, and some useful conclusions are obtained.

  12. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, Franco, E-mail:; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)


    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  13. Very narrow excited Ωc baryons (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.


    Recently, LHCb reported the discovery of five extremely narrow excited Ωc baryons decaying into Ξc+K-. We interpret these baryons as bound states of a c quark and a P -wave s s diquark. For such a system, there are exactly five possible combinations of spin and orbital angular momentum. The narrowness of the states could be a signal that it is hard to pull apart the two s quarks in a diquark. We predict two of spin 1 /2 , two of spin 3 /2 , and one of spin 5 /2 , all with negative parity. Of the five states, two can decay in S -wave, and three can decay in D -wave. Some of the D -wave states might be narrower than the S -wave states. We discuss the relations among the five masses expected in the quark model and the likely spin assignments, and we compare them with the data. A similar pattern is expected for negative-parity excited Ωb states. An alternative interpretation is noted in which the heaviest two states are 2 S excitations with JP=1 /2+ and 3 /2+, while the lightest three are those with JP=3 /2- , 3 /2- , 5 /2- , expected to decay via D -waves. In this case, we expect JP=1 /2- Ωc states around 2904 and 2978 MeV.

  14. Quantum dissipation and decoherence of collective excitations in metallic nanoparticles


    Weick, Guillaume


    The excitation of a nanoparticle by a laser pulse creates a collective mode of the electrons, the so-called surface plasmon. It decays because of surface effects and electron-electron interactions, creating particle-hole excitations (Landau damping). The thermal equilibrium of the electronic system is reached after about hundred femtoseconds, and only on a much larger time scale, the electron-phonon interactions permit the relaxation of the electronic energy to the ionic lattice. Throughout t...

  15. Priming Neural Circuits to Modulate Spinal Reflex Excitability


    Estes, Stephen P.; Iddings, Jennifer A.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.


    While priming is most often thought of as a strategy for modulating neural excitability to facilitate voluntary motor control, priming stimulation can also be utilized to target spinal reflex excitability. In this application, priming can be used to modulate the involuntary motor output that often follows central nervous system injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience spasticity, for which antispasmodic medications are the most common treatment. Physical therapeutic/...

  16. Efficient Symmetrized DMRG Algorithm for Low-lying Excited States of Conjugated Carbon Systems: Application to Coronene, Ovalene and 1,12-Benzoperylene

    CERN Document Server

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S


    Symmetry adapted density matrix renormalization group (SDMRG) technique has been an efficient method for studying low-lying eigenstates in one- and quasi-one dimensional electronic systems. However, SDMRG method had bottlenecks involving construction of linearly independent symmetry adapted basis states as the symmetry matrices in the DMRG basis were not sparse. We have developed a modified algorithm to overcome this bottleneck. The new method incorporates end-to-end interchange symmetry ($C_2$), electron- hole symmetry (J) and parity symmetry (P ) in these calculations. The one-to-one correspondence between direct-product basis states in the DMRG Hilbert space for these symmetry operations renders the symmetry matrices in the new basis with maximum sparseness, just one non-zero matrix element per row. Using methods similar to those employed in exact diagonalization technique for Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models, developed in the eighties, it is possible to construct orthogonal SDMRG basis states while bypassi...

  17. Magnetic equivalent circuit model for unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupiec Emil


    Full Text Available Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation systems with perpendicular magnetic axis is a motivation to formulate various mathematical models of these machines. The presented paper discusses the construction of a unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine. The magnetic equivalent circuit model including nonlinear magnetization curves is presented. Based on this model, it is possible to determine the multi-parameter relationships between the induced voltage and magnetomotive force in the excitation winding. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the impact of additional stator and rotor yokes on above relationship. Induced voltage determines the remaining operating parameters of the machine, both in the motor and generator mode of operation. The analysis of chosen correlations results in an identification of the effective control range of electromotive force of the machine.

  18. Quantum marginals from pure doubly excited states (United States)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Tsanov, Valdemar


    The possible spectra of one-particle reduced density matrices that are compatible with a pure multipartite quantum system of finite dimension form a convex polytope. We introduce a new construction of inner- and outer-bounding polytopes that constrain the polytope for the entire quantum system. The outer bound is sharp. The inner polytope stems only from doubly excited states. We find all quantum systems, where the bounds coincide giving the entire polytope. We show, that those systems are: (i) any system of two particles (ii) L qubits, (iii) three fermions on N≤slant 7 levels, (iv) any number of bosons on any number of levels and (v) fermionic Fock space on N≤slant 5 levels. The methods we use come from symplectic geometry and representation theory of compact Lie groups. In particular, we study the images of proper momentum maps, where our method describes momentum images for all representations that are spherical.

  19. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations (United States)

    Chen, J.


    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  20. Excitation of a biconical line (United States)

    Goshin, G. G.


    The Kontorovich-Lebedev integral transformation is used to obtain in an analytic form a rigorous solution to the quasi-three-dimensional problem involving the excitation of a biconical surface with ideally conducting boundaries by slotted ring sources that are phased according to the traveling-wave law. The results can be used in the design of elliptical-polarization biconical antennas.

  1. Performance of thermally excited resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van Ouwerkerk, R.H.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, S.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A study of electrothermal excitation of micro-machined silicon beams is reported. The temperature distribution is calculated as a function of the position of the transducer, resulting in stress in the structure which reduces the resonance frequency. Test samples are realized and measurements or

  2. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodungbo, B.; Tudu, B.; Perron, J.; Delaunay, R.; Müller, L.; Berntsen, M.H.; Grübel, G.; Malinowski, G.; Weier, C.; Gautier, J.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, P.; Gutt, C.; Jal, E.; Reid, A.H.; Granitzka, P.W.; Jaouen, N,; Dakovski, G.L.; Moeller, S.; Minitti, M.P.; Mitra, A.; Carron, S.; Pfau, B.; von Korff Schmising, C.; Schneider, M.; Eisebitt, S.; Lüning, J.


    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium

  3. Predictions for Excited Strange Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Ishara P.; Goity, Jose L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    An assessment is made of predictions for excited hyperon masses which follow from flavor symmetry and consistency with a 1/N c expansion of QCD. Such predictions are based on presently established baryonic resonances. Low lying hyperon resonances which do not seem to fit into the proposed scheme are discussed.

  4. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi


    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  5. Coherent acoustic excitation of cavity polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; de Lima, M. M.; Hey, R.

    . In the strong-coupling regime the cavityand quantum-well excitonic resonance display new cavity-polariton eigenstates that arejoint electronic and photonic excitations of the system2. These new eigenstates havestrongly modified in-plane dispersion and due to their composite light-matter nature theyhave a fast......, modulates the refractive index and displaces the material causing a harmonicmodulation of the PBG structure1. This periodic modulation of the cavity-exciton systemleads to in-plane mini-Brillouin zone (MBZ) formation. The very high vacuum-Rabisplitting of our sample enables us to clearly resolve...

  6. Statistics of Fractionalized Excitations through Threshold Spectroscopy (United States)

    Morampudi, Siddhardh C.; Turner, Ari M.; Pollmann, Frank; Wilczek, Frank


    We show that neutral anyonic excitations have a signature in spectroscopic measurements of materials: The low-energy onset of spectral functions near the threshold follows universal power laws with an exponent that depends only on the statistics of the anyons. This provides a route, using experimental techniques such as neutron scattering and tunneling spectroscopy, for detecting anyonic statistics in topologically ordered states such as gapped quantum spin liquids and hypothesized fractional Chern insulators. Our calculations also explain some recent theoretical results in spin systems.

  7. Excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with `ab initio` calculations. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl{sub 3} in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs.

  8. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens


    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...... with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state...... contributing to the mean excitation energy....

  9. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  10. Electron impact study of the 100 eV emission cross section and lifetime of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system of N2: Direct excitation and cascade (United States)

    Ajello, J. M.; Malone, C. P.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Hoskins, A. C.; Eastes, R. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Johnson, P. V.


    We have measured the 100 eV emission cross section of the optically forbidden Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band system (a1Πg → X1Σ+g) of N2 by electron-impact-induced fluorescence. Using a large (1.5 m diameter) vacuum chamber housing an electron gun system and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph optical engineering model, we have obtained calibrated spectral measurements of the LBH band system from 115 to 175 nm over a range of lines of sight to capture all of the optical emissions. These measurements represent the first experiment to directly isolate in the laboratory single-scattering electron-impact-induced fluorescence from both direct excitation of the a1Πg state and cascading contributions to the a1Πg state (a'1Σ-u and w1Δu → a1Πg → X1Σ+g). The determination of the total LBH emission cross section is accomplished by measuring the entire cylindrical glow pattern of the metastable emission from electron impact by imaging lines of sight that measure the glow intensity from zero to 400 mm radial distance and calculating the ratio of the integrated intensity from the LBH glow pattern to that of a simultaneously observed optically allowed transition with a well-established cross section: NI 120.0 nm. The "direct" emission cross section of the a1Πg state at 100 eV was determined to be σemdir = (6.41 ± 1.3) × 10-18 cm2. An important observation from the glow pattern behavior is that the total (direct + cascading) emission cross section is pressure dependent due to collision-induced cascade transitions between close-lying electronic states.

  11. Excited B states at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kluit, Peter M


    The first orbitally excited B states were discovered at LEP in 1995. In subsequent years evidence was put forward for the existence of several excited B hadron states. Now, ten years later it is time to review the situation. New analyses have been performed in DELPHI using the full LEP data set with improved and high performance analysis tools. Measurements for the production rate and masses of narrow and broad B/sub u, d//sup **/ mesons will be presented as well as results for the search for B/sub s//sup **/ mesons and Sigma /sub b//sup (*)/ baryons. The results will be compared to earlier measurements, predictions from HQET and measurements in the charm sector.

  12. International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis


    Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...

  13. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl


    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  14. Concepts of highly excited electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berakdar, Jamal


    Jamal Berakdar is an outstanding young researcher who has accomplished in less than ten years remarkable contributions to the field. He is well acknowledged by the scientific community. PhD-thesis at University of Freiburg (Prof. Klar, 1994), Humboldt- and Research fellow at Atomic & Molecular Physics Laboratories, Australian National University; since 1998 researcher at Max-Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany.

  15. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability (United States)

    Cannon, Stephen C.


    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  16. Optimal Excitation Controller Design for Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Boglou


    Full Text Available An optimal excitation controller design based on multirate-output controllers (MROCs having a multirate sampling mechanismwith different sampling period in each measured output of the system is presented. The proposed H∞ -control techniqueis applied to the discrete linear open-loop system model which represents a wind turbine generator supplying an infinite busthrough a transmission line.

  17. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad


    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  18. Force Sensor Characterization Under Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Medina


    Full Text Available The aim in the current work is the development of a method to characterize force sensors under sinusoidal excitations using a primary standard as the source of traceability. During this work the influence factors have been studied and a method to minimise their contributions, as well as the corrections to be performed under dynamic conditions have been established. These results will allow the realization of an adequate characterization of force sensors under sinusoidal excitations, which will be essential for its further proper use under dynamic conditions. The traceability of the sensor characterization is based in the direct definition of force as mass multiplied by acceleration. To do so, the sensor is loaded with different calibrated loads and is maintained under different sinusoidal accelerations by means of a vibration shaker system that is able to generate accelerations up to 100 m/s2 with frequencies from 5 Hz up to 2400 Hz. The acceleration is measured by means of a laser vibrometer with traceability to the units of time and length. A multiple channel data acquisition system is also required to simultaneously acquire the electrical output signals of the involved instrument in real time.

  19. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds. (United States)

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong


    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang


    Full Text Available Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1 the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2 Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3 Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase.

  1. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Sun, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Ning


    Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA) method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1) the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2) Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3) Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. PMID:25140333

  2. Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters (United States)

    Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.


    In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation. PMID:27917867

  3. Tuneable, non-degenerated, nonlinear, parametrically-excited amplifier (United States)

    Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak


    The proposed parametric amplifier scheme can be tuned to amplify a wide range of input frequencies by altering the parametric excitation with no need to physically modify the oscillator. Parametric amplifiers had been studied extensively, although most of the work focused on amplifiers that are parametrically excited at a frequency twice the amplifier's natural frequency. These amplifiers are confined to amplifying predetermined frequencies. The proposed parametric amplifier's bandwidth is indeed tuneable to nearly any input frequency, not bound to be an integer multiple of a natural frequency. In order to tune the stiffness and induce a variable frequency parametric excitation, a digitally controlled electromechanical element must be incorporated in the realization. We introduce a novel parametric amplifier with nonlinearity, Duffing type hardening, that bounds the otherwise unlimited amplitude. Moreover, we present a multi degree of freedom system in which a utilization of the proposed method enables the projection of low frequency vector forces on any eigenvector and corresponding natural frequency of the system, and thus to transform external excitations to a frequency band where signal levels are considerably higher. Using the method of multiple scales, analytical expressions for the responses have been retrieved and verified numerically. Parametric studies of the amplifiers' gain, sensitivities and spatial projection of the excitation on the system eigenvectors were carried out analytically. The results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach over existing schemes. Practical applications envisaged for the proposed method will be outlined.

  4. Higher Order Parametric Excitation Modes for Spaceborne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.


    This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system.When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

  5. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Balling, Peter; Frislev, Martin Thomas


    We report an approach to modeling the interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and dielectric materials. The model includes the excitation of carriers by the laser through strongfield excitation, collisional excitation, and absorption in the plasma consisting of conduction-band electrons formed...

  6. Turbulent swirling jets with excitation (United States)

    Taghavi, Rahmat; Farokhi, Saeed


    An existing cold-jet facility at NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Two extreme swirl profiles, i.e., one with solid-body rotation and the other predominated by a free-vortex distribution, were produced at identical swirl number of 0.48. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid-body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S - 0.48 reported in the literature. However, the predominantly free-vortex distribution case was on the verge of vortex breakdown, a phenomenon associated with the rotating flows of significantly higher swirl numbers, i.e., S sub crit greater than or equal to 0.06. This remarkable result leads to the conclusion that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field. The relative size (i.e., diameter) of the vortex core emerging from the nozzle and the corresponding tangential velocity distribution are also controlling factors. Excitability of swirling jets is also investigated by exciting a flow with a swirl number of 0.35 by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak r.m.s. amplitude and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4.

  7. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.


    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  8. Efficient two-step Positronium laser excitation to Rydberg levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialdi, S.; Boscolo, I.; Castelli, F. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Villa, F., E-mail: [Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ferrari, G. [INO-CNR BEC Center, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); LENS-Universita di Firenze, via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Giammarchi, M.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Antihydrogen production by charge exchange reaction between Positronium atoms and antiprotons requires efficient excitation of Positronium atoms up to high-n levels (Rydberg levels). A two-step optical excitation, the first from ground to n=3 and the second from this level to a Rydberg level, is proposed and a suitable laser system is discussed. The requirements on the energy and bandwidth of the excitation laser suggest the use of optical parametric generation technology for both wavelengths. The laser system is composed by two subsystems: one for the generation of 205 nm radiation and the other for the generation of 1670 nm radiation. We have separately developed and tested the laser sources and results are here presented.

  9. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  10. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on water. (United States)

    Singh, A K; Goben, C A; Davarpanah, M; Boone, J L


    Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) on water was studied using optical coupling techniques at microwave frequencies. Excitation of SEW was also achieved using direct horn antenna coupling. The transmitted SEW power was increased by adding acid and salt to water. The horn antenna gave the maximum excitation efficiency 70%. It was increased to 75% by collimating the electromagnetic beam in the vertical direction. Excitation efficiency for the prism (0 degrees pitch angle) and grating couplers were 15.2% and 10.5% respectively. By changing the prism coupler pitch angle to +36 degrees , its excitation efficiency was increased to 82%.

  11. Semiclassical quantization of highly excited scar states (United States)

    Vergini, Eduardo G.


    The semiclassical quantization of Hamiltonian systems with classically chaotic dynamics is restricted to low excited states, close to the ground state, because the number of required periodic orbits grows exponentially with energy. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that it is possible to find eigenenergies of highly excited states scarred by a short periodic orbit. Specifically, by using 18146 homoclinic orbits (HO)s of the shortest periodic orbit of the hyperbola billiard, we find eigenenergies of the strongest scars over a range which includes 630 even eigenfunctions. The analysis of data reveals that the used semiclassical formula presents two regimes. First, when all HOs with excursion time smaller than the Heisenberg time t H are included, the error is around 3.3% of the mean level spacing. Second, in the energy region defined by \\tilde{t}/ tH > 0.13 , where \\tilde{t} is the maximum excursion time included in the calculation, the error is around 15% of the mean level spacing.

  12. Orbital-only models: ordering and excitations (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen


    We consider orbital-only models in Mott insulators, where the orbital orbital interactions are either due to Jahn Teller distortions or due to the Kugel Khomskii superexchange. This leads to highly anisotropic and frustrated orbital Hamiltonians. For two-fold degenerate eg systems, both types of orbital interactions lead to the same form of the Hamiltonian—the 120° model. In both cases, the predicted symmetry of the orbital ordering is the same, although different from the one observed experimentally. The orbital operators that appear in the two kinds of orbital-only Hamiltonians are different. In the case of superexchange, the orbital degrees of freedom are represented by quantum pseudo-spin 1/2 operators. But when the interactions are Jahn Teller mediated and the coupling with the lattice is strong, the orbital operators are essentially classical pseudospins. Thus as a function of the relative coupling strengths, a quantum-to-classical crossover is expected. For three-fold degenerate t2g orbitals, the Jahn Teller coupling gives rise to a particular type of orbital compass models. We point out that fluctuations—whether due to quantum effects or finite temperature—are of prime importance for ordering in the 120° and orbital compass models. The fluctuations generally generate a gap in the orbital excitation spectrum. These orbital excitations—orbitons—are hybrid excitations that carry both a lattice Jahn Teller and a magnetic Kugel Khomskii character.

  13. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery (United States)


    follow-up observations, and Thompson joined online. "Observing with the students is very exciting. It gives the students a chance to learn about radio telescopes and pulsar observing in a very hands-on way, and it is extra fun when we find a pulsar," said Rosen. Snider, on the other hand, said, "I got very, very nervous. I expected when I went there that I would just be watching other people do things, and then I actually go to sit down at the controls. I definitely didn't want to mess something up." Everything went well, and the observations confirmed that the students had found an exotic pulsar. "I learned more in the two hours in the control room than I would have in school the whole day," Mabry said. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling lighthouse beams of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its normal life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name neutron star. One tablespoon of material from a pulsar would weigh 10 million tons -- as much as a supertanker. The object that the students discovered is in a special class of pulsar that spins very fast - in this case, about 30 times per second, comparable to the speed of a kitchen blender. "The big question we need to answer first is whether this is a young pulsar or a recycled pulsar," said Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at WVU. "A pulsar spinning that fast is very interesting as it could be newly born or it could be a very old, recycled pulsar." A recycled pulsar is one that was once in a binary system. Material from the companion star is deposited onto the pulsar, causing it to speed up, or be recycled. Mystery remains, however, about whether this pulsar has ever had a companion star. If it did, "it may be that this pulsar had a massive

  14. Proposal for voltage regulation in an induction generator with self-excited rotor coupled to a system of wind power energy capitation; Proposta de regulacao de tensao para um gerador de inducao com rotor em gaiola de esquilo acoplada a um sistema de captacao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Marcus V.; Bezerra, Ubiratan H. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica


    It is proposed in this paper the use of a series capacitor bank to regulate the terminal voltage of an induction generator which may be coupled to a wind turbine of the type variable - speed - and variable - frequency to generate electric power. The proposed system may be an attractive alternative to the thyristor controlled systems. The system proposed here consists of a shunt capacitor bank which is responsible to self-excite the induction machine and a series capacitor bank to regulate the machine terminal voltage. The Newton - Raphson iterative method was used to analyze the performance of the self-excited induction machine with series capacitive compensation proposed in this paper, demonstrating good convergence characteristics in all cases simulated. (author) 8 refs., 9 figs.; e-mail: marcus at

  15. Calculating constants of the rates of the reactions of excitation, ionization, and atomic exchange: A model of a shock oscillator with a change of the Hamiltonian of the system (United States)

    Tsyganov, D. L.


    A new model for calculating the rates of reactions of excitation, ionization, and atomic exchange is proposed. Diatomic molecule AB is an unstructured particle M upon the exchange of elastic-vibrational (VT) energy, i.e., a model of a shock forceful oscillator with a change in Hamiltonian (SFOH). The SFOH model is based on the quantum theory of strong perturbations. The SFOH model allows generalization in simulating the rates of the reactions of excitation, ionization, and atomic exchange in the vibrational-vibrational (VV) energy exchange of diatomic molecules, and the exchange of VV- and VT-energy of polyatomic molecules. The rate constants of the excitation of metastables A 3Σ u +, B 3Π g , W 3Δ u , B'3Σ u -, a'3Σ u -, and the ionization of a nitrogen molecules from ground state X2Σ g + upon a collision with a heavy structureless particle (a nitrogen molecule), are found as examples.

  16. Noise-sustained oscillation and synchronization of excitable media with stirring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, Z. (Zoltan); Zhou, C. (Changsong); Kurths, J. (Jürgen),; Kiss, I. Z.


    Constructive effects of noise have been well studied in spatially extended systems. In most of these studies, the media are static, reaction-diffusion type, and the constructive effects are a consequence of the interplay between local excitation due to noise perturbation and propagation of excitation due to diffusion. Many chemical or biological processes occur in a fluid environment with mixing. In this paper, we investigate the interplay among noise, excitability, diffusion and mixing in excitable media advected by a chaotic flow, in a 2-d Fitz Hugh-Nagumo model described by the reaction-advection-diffusion equations. Without stirring, noise can only generate non-coherent excited patches of the static media. In the presence of stirring, we can observe three dynamical and pattern formation regimes: (i) Non-coherent excitation, when mixing is not strong enough to achieve synchronization of independent excitations developed at different locations; (ii) Coherent global excitation, when noise-perturbation survives the mixing to generate a synchronized excitation of the whole domain; and (iii) Homogenization, when strong enough stirring dilutes quickly those noise-induced local excitations. In the presence of an external sub-threshold periodic forcing, the period of-the noise-sustained oscillations can be locked by the forcing period with different ratios. Our results may be verified in experiments and find applications in population dynamics of oceanic ecological systems.

  17. Coulomb excitation of 73Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Diriken, J; Balabanski, D; Blasi, N; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Cederkäll, J; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fraille, L M; Franchoo, S; Georgiev, G; Gladnishki, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O V; Ivanov, V S; Iwanicki, V; Jolie, J; Konstantinopoulos, T; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Köster, U; Lagoyannis, A; Bianco, G Lo; Maierbeck, P; March, B A; Napiarkowski, P; Patronis, N; Pauwels, D; Reiter, P; Seliverstov, M; Sletten, G; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Walters, W B; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K


    The B(E2; Ii ! If ) values for transitions in 71Ga and 73Ga were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of 71,73Ga at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted gamma rays were detected by the MINIBALL-detector array and B(E2; Ii->If ) values were obtained from the yields normalized to the known strength of the 2+ -> 0+ transition in the 120Sn target. The comparison of these new results with the data of less neutron-rich gallium isotopes shows a shift of the E2 collectivity towards lower excitation energy when adding neutrons beyond N = 40. This supports conclusions from previous studies of the gallium isotopes which indicated a structural change in this isotopical chain between N = 40 and N = 42. Combined with recent measurements from collinear laser spectroscopy showing a 1/2- spin and parity for the ground state, the extracted results revealed evidence for a 1/2-; 3/2- doublet near the ground state in 73 31Ga...

  18. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car


    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.


    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  19. Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah


    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license

  20. Renovating the excitation circuit of a conventional welding converter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents two different new excitation current supplies based on power electronics for an existing conventional welding converter. The proposed circuits are simulated using Lab-VIEW 1200 AI and a PC based system. In the expressions for winding currents the dynamic inductances are used to take into account ...

  1. How many atoms get excited when they decay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blocher, Philip Daniel; Mølmer, Klaus


    We analyse the time evolution of a two-level system prepared in a superposition of its ground state and radiatively unstable excited state. We show that by choosing appropriate means of detection of the radiated field, we can steer the evolution of the emitter and herald its preparation in the fu...

  2. Excitation-energy influence at the scission configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos D.


    Full Text Available Transfer- and fusion-induced fission in inverse kinematics was proven to be a powerful tool to investigate nuclear fission, widening the information of the fission fragments and the access to unstable fissioning systems with respect to other experimental approaches. An experimental campaign for fission investigation has being carried out at GANIL with this technique since 2008. In these experiments, a beam of 238U, accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u, impinges on a 12C target. Fissioning systems from U to Cf are populated through transfer and fusion reactions, with excitation energies that range from few MeV up to 46 MeV. The use of inverse kinematics, the SPIDER telescope, and the VAMOS spectrometer permitted the characterization of the fissioning system in terms of mass, nuclear charge, and excitation energy, and the isotopic identification of the full fragment distribution. The neutron excess, the total neutron multiplicity, and the even-odd staggering in the nuclear charge of fission fragments are presented as a function of the excitation energy of the fissioning system. Structure effects are observed at Z∼50 and Z∼55, where their impact evolves with the excitation energy.

  3. Excitation-energy influence at the scission configuration (United States)

    Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Audouin, L.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Clement, E.; Cortina, D.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Doré, D.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; de France, G.; Heinz, A.; Jacquot, B.; Navin, A.; Paradela, C.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Salsac, M.-D.; Schmitt, C.


    Transfer- and fusion-induced fission in inverse kinematics was proven to be a powerful tool to investigate nuclear fission, widening the information of the fission fragments and the access to unstable fissioning systems with respect to other experimental approaches. An experimental campaign for fission investigation has being carried out at GANIL with this technique since 2008. In these experiments, a beam of 238U, accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u, impinges on a 12C target. Fissioning systems from U to Cf are populated through transfer and fusion reactions, with excitation energies that range from few MeV up to 46 MeV. The use of inverse kinematics, the SPIDER telescope, and the VAMOS spectrometer permitted the characterization of the fissioning system in terms of mass, nuclear charge, and excitation energy, and the isotopic identification of the full fragment distribution. The neutron excess, the total neutron multiplicity, and the even-odd staggering in the nuclear charge of fission fragments are presented as a function of the excitation energy of the fissioning system. Structure effects are observed at Z˜50 and Z˜55, where their impact evolves with the excitation energy.

  4. Investigation of excitation control for wind-turbine generator stability (United States)

    Gebben, V. D.


    High speed horizontal axis wind turbine generators with blades on the downwind side of the support tower require special design considerations to handle disturbances introduced by the flow wake behind the tower. Experiments and analytical analyses were made to determine benefits that might be obtained by using the generator exciter to provide system damping for reducing power fluctuations.

  5. Power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The wind turbine is to be tied mechanically to the rotor of a squirrel cage induction which is fed with grid powerthat the generator supplies. ... Keywords: Wind Power systems, Self-excited squirrel cage induction generator, squirrel cage induction motor, backto- back converter, simulation ...

  6. The role of many-body effects in describing low-lying excited states of pi-conjugated chromophores: high-level equation-of-motion coupled-cluster studies of fused porphyrin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Olson, Ryan M [Cray, Inc.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL; Apra, Edoardo [ORNL


    The unusual photophysical properties of the {pi}-conjugated chromophores make them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results for free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for anthracene fused zinc-porphyrin. The impact of various types of correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models, where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120000 cores.

  7. Role of Many-Body Effects in Describing Low-Lying Excited States of pi-Conjugated Chromophores: High-Level Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Studies of Fused Porphyrin Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol; Olson, Ryan M.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo


    The unusual photophysical properties of the pi-conjugated chrompohores makes them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocabrons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results of free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for the anthracene fused zinc porphyrin. The impact of various-type correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with the experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120,000 cores.

  8. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.


    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.


    Full Text Available The paper sets out the methodology of designing an asynchronous generator with capacitive self-excitation. It is known that its design is possible on the basis of serial synchronous motor with squirrel cage rotor. With this approach, the design reworked only the stator winding of electrical machines, making it cost-effectively implement the creation of the generator. Therefore, the methodology for the design, optimization calculations, the development scheme and the stator winding excitation system gain, not only of practical interest, and may also be useful for specialists in the field of electrical machines in the design of asynchronous generators.

  10. Minimal Excitations in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime (United States)

    Rech, J.; Ferraro, D.; Jonckheere, T.; Vannucci, L.; Sassetti, M.; Martin, T.


    We study the minimal excitations of fractional quantum Hall edges, extending the notion of levitons to interacting systems. Using both perturbative and exact calculations, we show that they arise in response to a Lorentzian potential with quantized flux. They carry an integer charge, thus involving several Laughlin quasiparticles, and leave a Poissonian signature in a Hanbury Brown-Twiss partition noise measurement at low transparency. This makes them readily accessible experimentally, ultimately offering the opportunity to study real-time transport of Abelian and non-Abelian excitations.

  11. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.


    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  12. Motor Skill Learning and Corticospinal Excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse

    stimulation protocol did not predict those associated with one session of motor skill learning. The latter showed no significant relation to changes in performance. Conclusions and perspectives The findings from study 1 and 2 emphasize the importance of individually adjusting the task difficulty to maximize......Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... Stimulation. Prior work has demonstrated such a change to very different extents with and without causally linking it to the improvements in motor performance. Objectives The aim of this PhD project has been to explore the relation between changes in CSE and motor performance over the time course of learning...

  13. Parametric excitation and squeezing in a many-body spinor condensate (United States)

    Hoang, T. M.; Anquez, M.; Robbins, B. A.; Yang, X. Y.; Land, B. J.; Hamley, C. D.; Chapman, M. S.


    Atomic spins are usually manipulated using radio frequency or microwave fields to excite Rabi oscillations between different spin states. These are single-particle quantum control techniques that perform ideally with individual particles or non-interacting ensembles. In many-body systems, inter-particle interactions are unavoidable; however, interactions can be used to realize new control schemes unique to interacting systems. Here we demonstrate a many-body control scheme to coherently excite and control the quantum spin states of an atomic Bose gas that realizes parametric excitation of many-body collective spin states by time varying the relative strength of the Zeeman and spin-dependent collisional interaction energies at multiples of the natural frequency of the system. Although parametric excitation of a classical system is ineffective from the ground state, we show that in our experiment, parametric excitation from the quantum ground state leads to the generation of quantum squeezed states. PMID:27044675

  14. Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Funk, G D; Bayliss, D A


    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore...... important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization...... current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca(2+) channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior....

  15. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika, E-mail: [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)


    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  16. Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation. (United States)

    Hoyng, P


    We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .

  17. Mixed frequency excitation of an electrostatically actuated resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah


    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  18. Dynamic Coherence in Excitonic Molecular Complexes under Various Excitation Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Chenu, Aurélia; Mancal, Tomáš


    In this paper, we investigate the relevance of dynamic electronic coherence under conditions natural to light-harvesting systems. We formulate the results of a quantum mechanical treatment of a weak light-matter interaction in terms of experimental observable, such as the incident light spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the material, and we derive the description of the incoherent F\\"orster type energy transfer fully from the wave function formalism. We demonstrate that excitation of a coherent superposition of electronic eigenstates of natural light-harvesting complexes by sunlight or by excitation transfer from a neighboring antenna is unlikely and that dynamical coherence therefore cannot play any significant role in natural photosynthesis, regardless of their life time. Dynamical coherence as a transient phenomenon must be strictly distinguished from the effect of excited state delocalization (also termed quantum coherence in the literature) which is established by interaction between the pigments a...

  19. Fractional excitations in the square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piazza, B. Dalla; Mourigal, M.; Christensen, Niels Bech


    characterize the magnetic fluctuations in the metal-organic compound Cu(DCOO)(2)center dot 4D(2)O, a known realization of the quantum square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet model. Our experiments reveal an isotropic excitation continuum at the anomaly, which we analyse theoretically using Gutzwiller......Quantum magnets have occupied the fertile ground between many-body theory and low-temperature experiments on real materials since the early days of quantum mechanics. However, our understanding of even deceptively simple systems of interacting spin-1/2 particles is far from complete. The quantum...... square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for example, exhibits a striking anomaly of hitherto unknown origin in its magnetic excitation spectrum. This quantum effect manifests itself for excitations propagating with the specific wavevector (pi,0). We use polarized neutron spectroscopy to fully...

  20. Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators. (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng


    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.

  1. Self-excited and subharmonic vibrations in a pilot rotor (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuzminykh, N. Yu.; Timin, A. V.


    The paper reviews the publications on low-frequency vibration in power plants. It is noted that the regulatory literature poorly defines the issues of rating and diagnosing self-excited and subharmonic vibrations. Analysis of the literature and ISO standards shows that despite the considerable experience gained by specialists in low-frequency vibration control, a number of issues, such as subharmonic resonances and nonlinear properties of complicated multi-seated rotor systems supported by journal bearings, are still understudied and require further calculations and experiments. The paper presents some results obtained in experiments of low-frequency vibrations for a rotor supported by journal bearings and having a residual deflection. The experimental results confirmed the classical hysteresis of self-excited vibrations - the difference in the boundaries of self-excited vibrations during ascent and descent is about 4 Hz. The arears of appearance and disappearance of subharmonic vibrations are shown using the spectral characteristics of vibrations and cascade spectra.

  2. Sub-50 fs excited state dynamics of 6-chloroguanine upon deep ultraviolet excitation. (United States)

    Mondal, Sayan; Puranik, Mrinalini


    The photophysical properties of natural nucleobases and their respective nucleotides are ascribed to the sub-picosecond lifetime of their first singlet states in the UV-B region (260-350 nm). Electronic transitions of the ππ* type, which are stronger than those in the UV-B region, lie at the red edge of the UV-C range (100-260 nm) in all isolated nucleobases. The lowest energetic excited states in the UV-B region of nucleobases have been investigated using a plethora of experimental and theoretical methods in gas and solution phases. The sub-picosecond lifetime of these molecules is not a general attribute of all nucleobases but specific to the five primary nucleobases and a few xanthine and methylated derivatives. To determine the overall UV photostability, we aim to understand the effect of more energetic photons lying in the UV-C region on nucleobases. To determine the UV-C initiated photophysics of a nucleobase system, we chose a halogen substituted purine, 6-chloroguanine (6-ClG), that we had investigated previously using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have performed quantitative measurements of the resonance Raman cross-section across the Bb absorption band (210-230 nm) and constructed the Raman excitation profiles. We modeled the excitation profiles using Lee and Heller's time-dependent theory of resonance Raman intensities to extract the initial excited state dynamics of 6-ClG within 30-50 fs after photoexcitation. We found that imidazole and pyrimidine rings of 6-ClG undergo expansion and contraction, respectively, following photoexcitation to the Bb state. The amount of distortions of the excited state structure from that of the ground state structure is reflected by the total internal reorganization energy that is determined at 112 cm(-1). The contribution of the inertial component of the solvent response towards the total reorganization energy was obtained at 1220 cm(-1). In addition, our simulation also yields an instantaneous response of the first

  3. Horizontal dual-point excitation and fatigue test of full-scale wind turbine blade (United States)

    Pan, Zujin; Wu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Xinhua; Xie, Yan


    In order to meet the requirements of large-blade fatigue testing, a horizontal dual-point linear exciter loading program is developed. In this paper, Lagrange’s equation and FEM method are used to simulate the dual-point excitation theory model. The horizontal dual-point excitation characteristics of the blade are validated by the experimental method. The relationship among the dual-point exciting force, cycle time and bending moment during blade fatigue test in flap wise direction is studied. The advantages of horizontal dual-point excitation in blade fatigue test are analysed. Compared with vertical single-point excitation when the equal bending moment is reached, the exciting force and energy consumption required for dual-point excitation are reduced by 60.0% and 96.8%. Resonant frequency of the test system is improved by reducing the dead weight because of dual-point horizontal excitation. The entire blade fatigue test time is shortened by 7.4%. The use of horizontal dual-point excitation could save energy and shorten the entire fatigue test time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julián Saavedra-Montes


    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of the art on system identification applied to excitation systems. First, general overviews about system identification and excitation systems for synchronous generators are presented, highlighting the unique characteristics imposed by the excitation systems in an identification process. Then, a bibliographic classification method based on the excitation system characteristics was designed, which provides a results matrix condensing the topics addressed by more than 40 reviewed publications. From the results analysis the state of the art in excitation system identification was established, and open research areas in the topic were recognized.Este artículo presenta el estado del tema en identificación de sistemas aplicada a sistemas de excitación. Primero se presenta una visión general de identificación de sistemas y de los sistemas de excitación de generadores sincrónicos, resaltando las características impuestas por los sistemas de excitación en un proceso de identificación. Luego se presenta el diseño de un método de clasificación basado en las características de los sistemas de excitación. El resultado del método es una matriz que condensa los asuntos discutidos en más de 40 publicaciones. El estado se establece desde el análisis de los resultados y adicionalmente se reconocen áreas abiertas de investigación en la identificación de sistemas de excitación.Este artigo apresenta o estado do tema em identificação de sistemas aplicada a sistemas de excitação. Primeiro apresenta-se uma visão geral de identificação de sistemas e dos sistemas de excitação de geradores sincrónicos, realçando as características impostas pelos sistemas de excitação em um processo de identificação. Depois se apresenta o desenho de um método de classificação baseado nas características dos sistemas de excitação. O resultado do método é uma matriz que condensa os assuntos discutidos em mais de 40

  5. Analysis of Synchronization Phenomena in Broadband Signals with Nonlinear Excitable Media (United States)

    Chernihovskyi, Anton; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus


    We apply the method of frequency-selective excitation waves in excitable media to characterize synchronization phenomena in interacting complex dynamical systems by measuring coincidence rates of induced excitations. We relax the frequency-selectivity of excitable media and demonstrate two applications of the method to signals with broadband spectra. Findings obtained from analyzing time series of coupled chaotic oscillators as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from an epilepsy patient indicate that this method can provide an alternative and complementary way to estimate the degree of phase synchronization in noisy signals.

  6. Analysis of Synchronization Phenomena in Broadband Signals with Nonlinear Excitable Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lehnertz


    Full Text Available We apply the method of frequency-selective excitation waves in excitable media to characterize synchronization phenomena in interacting complex dynamical systems by measuring coincidence rates of induced excitations. We relax the frequency-selectivity of excitable media and demonstrate two applications of the method to signals with broadband spectra. Findings obtained from analyzing time series of coupled chaotic oscillators as well as electroencephalographic (EEG recordings from an epilepsy patient indicate that this method can provide an alternative and complementary way to estimate the degree of phase synchronization in noisy signals.

  7. A large electrically excited synchronous generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This invention relates to a large electrically excited synchronous generator (100), comprising a stator (101), and a rotor or rotor coreback (102) comprising an excitation coil (103) generating a magnetic field during use, wherein the rotor or rotor coreback (102) further comprises a plurality...... adjacent neighbouring poles. In this way, a large electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) is provided that readily enables a relatively large number of poles, compared to a traditional EESG, since the excitation coil in this design provides MMF for all the poles, whereas in a traditional EESG...

  8. The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik


    Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....

  9. Elementary excitations of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles (United States)

    Cehovin, A.; Canali, C.; MacDonald, A.


    We present a theory of the elementary spin excitations in transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles which achieves a unified and consistent quantum description of both collective and quasiparticle physics. The theory starts by recognizing the essential role played by spin-orbit interactions in determining the energies of ferromagnetic resonances in the collective excitation spectrum and the strength of their coupling to low-energy particle-hole excitations. We argue that a crossover between Landau-damped ferromagnetic resonance and pure-state collective magnetic excitations occurs as the number of atoms in typical transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles drops below approximately 104, about where the single-particle level spacing, δ, becomes larger than (α)Eres, where Eres is the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and α is the Gilbert damping parameter. We illustrate our ideas by studying the properties of semirealistic model Hamiltonians, which we solve numerically for nanoparticles containing several hundred atoms. For small nanoparticles, we find one isolated ferromagnetic resonance collective mode below the lowest particle-hole excitation energy, at Eres≈0.1 meV. The spectral weight of this pure excitation nearly exhausts the transverse dynamical susceptibility spectral weight. As δ approaches (α)Eres, the ferromagnetic collective excitation is more likely to couple strongly with discrete particle-hole excitations. In this regime the distinction between the two types of excitations blurs. We discuss the significance of this picture for the interpretation of recent single-electron tunneling experiments.

  10. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)


    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  11. The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S-5P-5D cascade excitation (United States)

    Raja, Waseem; Ali, Md. Sabir; Chakrabarti, Alok; Ray, Ayan


    The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump-probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon-atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits 420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.

  12. Two-photon excited fluorescence from a pseudoisocyanine-attached gold-coated tip via a thin tapered fiber under a weak continuous wave excitation. (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Takashima, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Hideki; Sasaki, Keiji


    A simple tapered fiber based photonic-plasmonic hybrid nanostructure composed of a thin tapered fiber and a pseudoisocyanine (PIC)-attached Au-coated tip was demonstrated. Using this simple hybrid nanostructure, we succeeded in observing two-photon excited fluorescence from the PIC dye molecules under a weak continuous wave excitation condition. From the results of the tip-fiber distance dependence and excitation polarization dependence, we found that using a thin tapered fiber and an Au-coated tip realized efficient coupling of the incident light (~95%) and LSP excitation at the Au-coated tip, suggesting the possibility of efficiently inducing two-photon excited fluorescence from the PIC dye molecules attached on the Au-coated tip. This simple photonic-plasmonic hybrid system is one of the promising tools for single photon sources, highly efficient plasmonic sensors, and integrated nonlinear plasmonic devices.

  13. Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have indigenously developed a compact 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 laser with moderate beam quality. In this paper the key design features of the laser and the associated high power capacitively coupled RF excitation technique are discussed in detail. Operational characteristics of this system are described ...

  14. A density matrix renormalization group study of low-lying excitations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Symmetrized density-matrix-renormalization-group calculations have been carried out, within. Pariser–Parr–Pople Hamiltonian, to explore the nature of the ground and low-lying excited states of long polythiophene oligomers. We have exploited C2 symmetry and spin parity of the system to obtain excited states of ...

  15. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes


    Johansson, Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.


    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively s...

  16. LS1: exciting times ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    As the first and last proton-lead run of 2013 draws to a close, the extensive upgrade and maintenance programme of the LHC's first long shutdown (LS1) is about to get under way.   The LHC has provided physicists with a huge quantity of data to analyse since the first physics run in 2009. Now it's time for the machine, along with CERN's other accelerators, to get a facelift. LS1 will start on 13 February 2013, but this doesn’t mean that life at the Laboratory will be any less rich and exciting. Although there will be no collisions for a period of almost two years, the whole CERN site will be a hive of activity, with large-scale work under way to modernise the infrastructure and prepare the LHC for operation at higher energy. "A whole series of renovation work will be carried out around the LHC during LS1,” explains Simon Baird, deputy head of the EN Department. "The key driver is of course the consolidation of the 10,170 high-curren...

  17. Counterfactual thinking affects the excitability of the motor cortex. (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rafal, Robert D; Avenanti, Alessio


    Evidence suggests that monetary reward and affective experiences induce activity in the cortical motor system. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether counterfactual thinking related to wrong choices that lead to monetary loss and regret affects motor excitability. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex, we measured corticospinal excitability of 2 groups of healthy humans asked to actively guess the winning key among two possible alternatives (choice group); or passively assist to monetary outcomes randomly selected by the computer program (follow group). Results document a selective increment of the corticospinal excitability when a monetary loss outcome followed the key selection (i.e., in the choice group). On the other hand, no change in corticospinal excitability was found when participants passively assisted to a monetary loss randomly selected by the computer program (i.e., follow group). These findings suggest that counterfactual thinking and the negative emotional experiences arising from choices causing monetary loss--i.e., "I would have won instead of lost money if I'd made a different choice"--are mapped in the motor system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solving real time evolution problems by constructing excitation operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the time evolution of an observable in the interacting fermion systems driven out of equilibrium. We present a method for solving the Heisenberg equations of motion by constructing excitation operators which are defined as the operators  satisfying [Ĥ,Â]=λÂ. It is demonstrated how an excitation operator and its excitation energy λ can be calculated. By an appropriate supposition of the form of  we turn the problem into the one of diagonalizing a series of matrices whose dimension depends linearly on the size of the system. We perform this method to calculate the evolution of the creation operator in a toy model Hamiltonian which is inspired by the Hubbard model and the nonequilibrium current through the single impurity Anderson model. This method is beyond the traditional perturbation theory in Keldysh-Green's function formalism, because the excitation energy λ is modified by the interaction and it will appear in the exponent in the function of time.

  19. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, H.


    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He{sup +}{sub 2}. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He{sup +}{sub 2}, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD{sup +} is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  20. Resonant coherent excitation of channeled ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Crawford, O.H.; Krause, H.F.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Miller, P.D.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.


    We have observed resonant excitation of swift channeled hydrogenlike ions (Z = 5 to Z = 9) and heliumlike F/sup 7 +/ which arises from a coherent periodic perturbation by the atoms in the bounding crystal rows. The resonance excitation was seen through the reduction in the transmission of fixed-charge-state ions through channels in thin crystals of Au and Ag.

  1. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.


    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  2. Electromagnetic excitation of ultrasound in electrolytes (United States)

    Tankovsky, N. S.


    An electromagnetic explanation is given in earlier experimental evidence for the possibility of exciting acoustic signals by a transient electric field in an electrolyte. The theory is in agreement with experimental observations of acoustic signals excited by some elementary electric signals. The described mechanism can be applied to the construction of ultrasonic transducers operating in liquids or in living tissues.

  3. Excitations of Neodymium Ions in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, M.; Jensen, J.; Mackintosh, A.R.


    The excitations of Nd ions dissolved in Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. A crystal-field level at about 1.2 meV interferes strongly with the host excitations. In the antiferromagnetic phase, another level is observed about 0.5 meV above the ground-state, which is split by the...

  4. New mode of magnetic excitation in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.N.; McEwen, K.A.; Jensen, J.


    A novel propagating mode of magnetic excitation has been observed in Pr. It takes the form of low-energy satellites to the crystal-field excitations on both the hexagonal and cubic sites which are very broad at long wavelengths, rise in energy and rapidly narrow with increasing q, and disappear b...

  5. Excited cosmic strings with superconducting currents (United States)

    Hartmann, Betti; Michel, Florent; Peter, Patrick


    We present a detailed analysis of excited cosmic string solutions that possess superconducting currents. These currents can be excited inside the string core, and—if the condensate is large enough—can lead to the excitations of the Higgs field. Next to the case with global unbroken symmetry, we discuss also the effects of the gauging of this symmetry and show that excited condensates persist when coupled to an electromagnetic field. The space-time of such strings is also constructed by solving the Einstein equations numerically and we show how the local scalar curvature is modified by the excitation. We consider the relevance of our results on the cosmic string network evolution as well as observations of primordial gravitational waves and cosmic rays.

  6. Modal Parameter Extraction Using Natural Excitation Response Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, P.; Carne, T.


    The use of natural excitation response data for the extraction of modal parameters has been an alluring idea for many years, The primary reason is that it offers the real world inputs (both spatial and temporal) and the associated responses of the system without the cost of a complex excitation system. The use of NExT allows for a linear representation of the system at operating levels, which is ideal for predictive linear simulation. The NExT parameter estimation methods have relied on using standard modal parameter extraction routines that do not exploit the special model form of NExT data. A parameter estimation method is developed here that is consistent with the form, thereby providing a more robust estimator in the presence of noise. This paper presents the basic methods used in NExT as well as some of the critical issues when using NExT.

  7. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai


    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability....... Studies of different metabolic neuropathies have assessed the influence of uremia, diabetes and ischemia, and the use of these methods in toxic neuropathies has allowed pinpointing damaging factors. Various mutations in ion channels associated with central nervous system disorders have been shown to have......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...

  8. Development and Implementation of Biological Circuits Using Excitable and Non-Excitable Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasnovas-Orus, V.; Gomez-Cid, L.; Hernandez-Romero, I.; Fuentes, L.; Guillem, M.S.; Atienza, F.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Climent, A.M.


    Compared to conventional computation systems, living beings require reduced power and raw materials consumption, inviting to explore the concept of biological circuits. In this project, a proof-of-concept of logical biocircuits using cell patterns has been developed. These were based upon differential ionic communication between cells, being the cells types used excitable and non-excitable, modeled by cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts correspondingly. To begin, patterns for the basic logic computation blocks were designed, including the OR gate, AND gate and logic memory. The designs were evaluated with mathematical models and in vitro experiments. Results of mathematical modeling indicated that theoretical approval of the biocircuit function. Regarding in vitro biocircuit implementation, three different selective cell localization techniques proved useful for the pattern creation. Evaluation with optical mapping confirmed the operation of the OR gate and logic memory. More resolution in the cell placement strategy will be needed to observe the proper AND gate operation. Thus, fine-tuning of the implementation process will enable the construction of more complex biocircuits that will take on clinical applications relating to electric stimulation of tissues and programmed drug delivery. (Author)

  9. Application of 'direct' beta particle excitation for the determination of noble metals in catalysts by radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Quiero, A. (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas)


    A new technique was applied for exciting X-rays for X-ray fluorescence analysis by 'direct' beta excitation for the determination of noble metals in catalytic materials. A series of five synthetic standards were prepared each for platinum and palladium in the range of 0.5-10% for both carbon and alumina supports. The X-ray spectrometer system employed was a modified TN-11 and /sup 147/Pm inserted directly in the sample itself acts as the excitation source. The detector was a high resolution Si(Li) semiconductor with better than 160 eV resolution.

  10. Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons. (United States)

    Dubois, J; Jullien, T; Portier, F; Roche, P; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Wegscheider, W; Roulleau, P; Glattli, D C


    The on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the

  11. Dynamic coherence in excitonic molecular complexes under various excitation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenu, Aurélia; Malý, Pavel; Mančal, Tomáš, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Dynamic coherence does not improve energy transfer efficiency in natural conditions. • Photo-induced quantum jumps are discussed in classical context. • Natural time scale of a light excitation event is identified. • Coherence in FMO complex averages out under excitation by neighboring antenna. • This result is valid even in absence of dissipation. - Abstract: We investigate the relevance of dynamic quantum coherence in the energy transfer efficiency of molecular aggregates. We derive the time evolution of the density matrix for an open quantum system excited by light or by a neighboring antenna. Unlike in the classical case, the quantum description does not allow for a formal decomposition of the dynamics into sudden jumps in an observable quantity – an expectation value. Rather, there is a natural finite time-scale associated with the excitation process. We propose a simple experiment to test the influence of this time scale on the yield of photosynthesis. We demonstrate, using typical parameters of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex and a typical energy transfer rate from the chlorosome baseplate, that dynamic coherences are averaged out in the complex even when the FMO model is completely free of all dissipation and dephasing.

  12. Electronically Excited C2 from Laser Photodissociated C60 (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Scott, Carl D.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.


    Spectral and transient emission measurements are made of radiation from products of laser excitation of buckminsterfullerene (C60) vapor diluted in argon at 973 K. The principal radiation is from the Swan band system of C2 and, at early times, also from a black body continuum. The C2 radiation is observed only when C60 is excited by green (532 nm) and not with IR (1064 nm) laser radiation at energy densities of about 1.5 J/square cm. Transient measurements indicate that there are two characteristic periods of decay of radiation. The first period, lasting about 2 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 0.3 micro seconds. The second period, lasting at least 50 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 5 micro seconds. These characteristic times are thought to be associated with cooling of C60 molecules or nanosized carbon particles during the early period; and with electronically excited C2 that is a decomposition product of laser excited C60, C58, ... molecules during the later period.

  13. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation. (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping


    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  14. Microwave-excited ultrasound and thermoacoustic dual imaging (United States)

    Ding, Wenzheng; Ji, Zhong; Xing, Da


    We designed a microwave-excited ultrasound (MUI) and thermoacoustic dual imaging system. Under the pulsed microwave excitation, the piezoelectric transducer used for thermoacoustic signal detection will also emit a highly directional ultrasonic beam based on the inverse piezoelectric effect. With this beam, the ultrasonic transmitter circuitry of the traditional ultrasound imaging (TUI) system can be replaced by a microwave source. In other words, TUI can be fully integrated into the thermoacoustic imaging system by sharing the microwave excitation source and the transducer. Moreover, the signals of the two imaging modalities do not interfere with each other due to the existence of the sound path difference, so that MUI can be performed simultaneously with microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging. In the study, the performance characteristics and imaging capabilities of this hybrid system are demonstrated. The results indicate that our design provides one easy method for low-cost platform integration and has the potential to offer a clinically useful dual-modality tool for the detection of accurate diseases.

  15. Relativistic dynamical spin excitations of magnetic adatoms (United States)

    dos Santos Dias, M.; Schweflinghaus, B.; Blügel, S.; Lounis, S.


    We present a first-principles theory of dynamical spin excitations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The broken global spin rotational invariance leads to a new sum rule. We explore the competition between the magnetic anisotropy energy and the external magnetic field, as well as the role of electron-hole excitations, through calculations for 3 d -metal adatoms on the Cu(111) surface. The spin excitation resonance energy and lifetime display nontrivial behavior, establishing the strong impact of relativistic effects. We legitimate the use of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation down to the atomic limit, but with parameters that differ from a stationary theory.

  16. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer


    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  17. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)


    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  18. On rotational normal modes of the Earth: Resonance, excitation, convolution, deconvolution and all that

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fong Chao


    Full Text Available Earth's Coriolis force profoundly alters the eigen frequencies, eigen functions, and excitation of rotational normal modes. Some rotational modes of the solid mantle-fluid outer core-solid inner core Earth system are confirmed observationally and some remain elusive. Here we bring together from literature assertions about an excited resonance system in terms of the Green's function and temporal convolution. We raise caveats against taking the face values of the oscillational motion which have been “masqueraded” by the convolution, necessitating deconvolution for retrieving the excitation function which reflects the true variability. Lastly we exemplify successful applications of the deconvolution in estimating resonance complex frequencies.

  19. Non-orthogonal configuration interaction for the calculation of multielectron excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstrom, Eric J., E-mail:; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    We apply Non-orthogonal Configuration Interaction (NOCI) to molecular systems where multielectron excitations, in this case double excitations, play a substantial role: the linear polyenes and β-carotene. We demonstrate that NOCI when applied to systems with extended conjugation, provides a qualitatively correct wavefunction at a fraction of the cost of many other multireference treatments. We also present a new extension to this method allowing for purification of higher-order spin states by utilizing Generalized Hartree-Fock Slater determinants and the details for computing 〈S{sup 2}〉 for the ground and excited states.


    Title: Lanthanide Enhance Luminescence (LEL) with one and two photon excitation of Quantum Dyes? Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles Principal Author:Robert C. Leif, Newport InstrumentsSecondary Authors:Margie C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems Al Bromm, Virginia Commonw...

  1. Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voityuk, Alexander A., E-mail: [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona, Spain and Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC), Universitat de Girona 17071 Girona (Spain)


    A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA π-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

  2. Square-wave excitation of a linear oscillator (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    The forced oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum excited by an external square-wave external torque are discussed. Two different ways of determining the steady-state response of the oscillator are described and compared. The behavior of this familiar mechanical system can help a student better understand why and how a LCR-circuit transfers a square-wave voltage from input to output with a distortion of its shape.

  3. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Colin S


    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  4. Plasmon excitations in the dimers formed by atom chains (United States)

    Xue, Hong-jie; Hao, Da-peng; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xiao-mei


    Based on the linear response theory in the random-phase approximation and the free-electron gas model, we study the plasmon excitations in the dimers formed by atom chains. With the help of energy absorption spectrum and charge distribution, the evolutions of longitudinal and transverse plasmon, and the effect of the system parameters such as size, atomic separation and electron filling on plasmon are obtained. In addition, the dipole, quadrupole, end and central plasmon are observed.

  5. A coupled cluster theory with iterative inclusion of triple excitations and associated equation of motion formulation for excitation energy and ionization potential. (United States)

    Maitra, Rahul; Akinaga, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Takahito


    A single reference coupled cluster theory that is capable of including the effect of connected triple excitations has been developed and implemented. This is achieved by regrouping the terms appearing in perturbation theory and parametrizing through two different sets of exponential operators: while one of the exponentials, involving general substitution operators, annihilates the ground state but has a non-vanishing effect when it acts on the excited determinant, the other is the regular single and double excitation operator in the sense of conventional coupled cluster theory, which acts on the Hartree-Fock ground state. The two sets of operators are solved as coupled non-linear equations in an iterative manner without significant increase in computational cost than the conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles excitations. A number of physically motivated and computationally advantageous sufficiency conditions are invoked to arrive at the working equations and have been applied to determine the ground state energies of a number of small prototypical systems having weak multi-reference character. With the knowledge of the correlated ground state, we have reconstructed the triple excitation operator and have performed equation of motion with coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples to obtain the ionization potential and excitation energies of these molecules as well. Our results suggest that this is quite a reasonable scheme to capture the effect of connected triple excitations as long as the ground state remains weakly multi-reference.

  6. Corticospinal excitability modulation during action observation. (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto


    This study used the transcranial magnetic stimulation/motor evoked potential (TMS/MEP) technique to pinpoint when the automatic tendency to mirror someone else's action becomes anticipatory simulation of a complementary act. TMS was delivered to the left primary motor cortex corresponding to the hand to induce the highest level of MEP activity from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM; the muscle serving little finger abduction) as well as the first dorsal interosseus (FDI; the muscle serving index finger flexion/extension) muscles. A neuronavigation system was used to maintain the position of the TMS coil, and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the right ADM and FDI muscles. Producing original data with regard to motor resonance, the combined TMS/MEP technique has taken research on the perception-action coupling mechanism a step further. Specifically, it has answered the questions of how and when observing another person's actions produces motor facilitation in an onlooker's corresponding muscles and in what way corticospinal excitability is modulated in social contexts.

  7. Search for excited $B_c^{+}$ states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; 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Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; 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Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano


    A search is performed in the invariant mass spectrum of the $B_c^{+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ system for the excited $B_c^{+}$ states $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ using a data sample of $pp$ collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at the centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8 \\,{\\mathrm{TeV}}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2 \\,{\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}}$. No evidence is seen for either state. Upper limits on the ratios of the production cross-sections of the $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ states times the branching fractions of ${B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+} \\to {B_c^{+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}}$ and ${B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+} \\to {B_c^{*+}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}}$ over the production cross-section of the $B_c^{+}$ state are given as a function of their masses. They are found to be between 0.02 and 0.14 at $95\\%$ confidence level for $B_c(2^{1}S_{0})^+$ and $B_c(2^{3}S_{1})^+$ in the mass ranges $[6830, 6890] \\,{\\mathrm{MeV}}/c^{2}$ and $[6795,6890] \\,{\\mathrm{MeV}}/c^{2}$, respectively.

  8. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS models (United States)

    Winska, Malgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David


    Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes including evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt and soil moisture, on polar motion excitations at annual and short-term timescales. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion are determined using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. Furthermore, we use time-variable gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine the hydrological mass effects on polar motion excitation. We first conduct an intercomparison of the maps of variations of regional hydrological excitation functions, timing and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs. Next, we estimate the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the contributions of atmospheric angular momentum and oceanic angular momentum. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared with those hydrological signals determined from residuals of the observed polar motion excitation series. The results will help us understand the relative importance of polar motion excitation within the individual hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method will allow us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges can be closed.

  9. "Safe" Coulomb Excitation of $^{30}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermaier, O; Bildstein, V; Boie, H; Fitting, J; Von Hahn, R; Köck, F; Lauer, M; Pal, U K; Podlech, H; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Alvarez, C; Ames, F; Bollen, G; Emhofer, S; Habs, D; Kester, O; Lutter, R; Rudolph, K; Pasini, M; Thirolf, P G; Wolf, B H; Eberth, J; Gersch, G; Hess, H; Reiter, P; Thelen, O; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Aksouh, F; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Mayet, P; Van de Walle, J; Äystö, J; Butler, P A; Cederkäll, J; Delahaye, P; Fynbo, H O U; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Forstner, O; Franchoo, S; Köster, U; Nilsson, T; Oinonen, M; Sieber, T; Wenander, F; Pantea, M; Richter, A; Schrieder, G; Simon, H; Behrens, T; Gernhäuser, R; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Münch, M M; Davinson, T; Gerl, J; Huber, G; Hurst, A; Iwanicki, J; Jonson, B; Lieb, P; Liljeby, L; Schempp, A; Scherillo, A; Schmidt, P; Walter, G


    We report on the first radioactive beam experiment performed at the recently commissioned REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN in conjunction with the highly efficient $\\gamma$ -spectrometer MINIBALL. Using $^{30}$Mg ions accelerated to an energy of 2.25MeV/u together with a thin $^{nat}$Ni target, Coulomb excitation of the first excited 2+ states of the projectile and target nuclei well below the Coulomb barrier was observed. From the measured relative de-excitation $\\gamma$ -ray yields the B(E2; 0$^{+}_{gs} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1}$) value of $^{30}$Mg was determined to be 241(31)$e^{2}$fm$^{4}$. Our result is lower than values obtained at projectile fragmenttion facilities using the intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation method and confirms that the theoretical conjecture that the neutron-rich magnesium isotope $^{30}$Mg lies still outside the "island of inversion".

  10. Parametric excitation of a linear oscillator (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    The phenomenon of parametric resonance is explained and investigated both analytically and with the help of a computer simulation. Parametric excitation is studied for the example of the rotary oscillations of a simple linear system—mechanical torsion spring pendulum excited by periodic variations of its moment of inertia. Conditions and characteristics of parametric resonance and regeneration are found and discussed in detail. Ranges of frequencies within which parametric excitation is possible are determined. Stationary oscillations at the boundaries of these ranges are investigated. The simulation experiments aid greatly an understanding of basic principles and peculiarities of parametric excitation and complement the analytical study of the subject in a manner that is mutually reinforcing.

  11. Smn-Deficiency Increases the Intrinsic Excitability of Motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Arumugam


    Full Text Available During development, motoneurons experience significant changes in their size and in the number and strength of connections that they receive, which requires adaptive changes in their passive and active electrical properties. Even after reaching maturity, motoneurons continue to adjust their intrinsic excitability and synaptic activity for proper functioning of the sensorimotor circuit in accordance with physiological demands. Likewise, if some elements of the circuit become dysfunctional, the system tries to compensate for the alterations to maintain appropriate function. In Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA, a severe motor disease, spinal motoneurons receive less excitation from glutamatergic sensory fibers and interneurons and are electrically hyperexcitable. Currently, the origin and relationship among these alterations are not completely established. In this study, we investigated whether Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN, the ubiquitous protein defective in SMA, regulates the excitability of motoneurons before and after the establishment of the synaptic contacts. To this end, we performed patch-clamp recordings in embryonic spinal motoneurons forming complex synaptic networks in primary cultures, and in differentiated NSC-34 motoneuron-like cells in the absence of synaptic contacts. Our results show that in both conditions, Smn-deficient cells displayed lower action potential threshold, greater action potential amplitudes, and larger density of voltage-dependent sodium currents than cells with normal Smn-levels. These results indicate that Smn participates in the regulation of the cell-autonomous excitability of motoneurons at an early stage of development. This finding may contribute to a better understanding of motoneuron excitability in SMA during the development of the disease.

  12. A Simple Hubbard Model for the Excited States of $\\pi$ Conjugated -acene Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeq, Z S


    In this paper we present a model that elucidates in a simple way the electronic excited states of $\\pi$ conjugated -acene molecules such as tetracene, pentacene, and hexacene. We use a tight-binding and truncated Hubbard model written in the electron-hole basis to describe the low lying excitations with reasonable quantitative accuracy. We are able to produce semi-analytic wavefunctions for the electronic states of the system, which allows us to compute the density correlation functions for various states such as the ground state, the first two singly excited states, and the lowest lying doubly excited state. We show that in this lowest lying doubly excited state, a state which has been speculated as to being involved in the singlet fission process, the electrons and holes behave in a triplet like manner.

  13. Formation of collective excitations in quasi-one dimensional metallic nanostructures: size and density dependance


    Cassidy, Amy; Grigorenko, Ilya; Haas, Stephan


    We investigate theoretically the formation of collective excitations in atomic scale quasi-one dimensional metallic nanostructures. The response of the system is calculated within the linear response theory and random phase approximation. For uniform nanostructures a transition from quantum single particle excitations to classical plasmon scaling is observed, depending on the system length and electron density. We find crucial differences in the scaling behavior for quasi-one dimensional and ...

  14. Theoretical Vibration Analysis Regarding Excitation due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Sleeve Bearings of Electrical Motors


    Ulrich Werner


    This paper shows a theoretical vibration analysis regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors, based on a simplified rotordynamic model. It is shown that elliptical shaft journals lead to kinematic constraints regarding the movement of the shaft journals on the oil film of the sleeve bearings and therefore to an excitation of the rotordynamic system. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description ...

  15. Search for Excited Leptons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hansen, J.M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.


    A search for charged and neutral excited leptons is performed in 217 pb-1 of data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. The pair- and single-production mechanisms are investigated and no signals are detected. Combining with L3 results from searches at lower centre-of-mass energies, gives improved limits on the masses and couplings of excited leptons.

  16. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus


    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  17. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul


    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;

  18. Excited quark production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Zeppenfeld, D.


    Composite models generally predict the existence of excited quark and lepton states. We consider the production and experimental signatures of excited quarks Q* of spin and isospin 1/2 at hadron colliders and estimate the background for those channels which are most promising for Q* identification. Multi-TeV pp-colliders will give access to such particles with masses up to several TeV.

  19. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Stoyanova, Irina; Chiappalone, Michela


    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods

  20. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing


    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  1. Stick-Slip Analysis of a Drill String Subjected to Deterministic Excitation and Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Qiu


    Full Text Available Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise.

  2. Individual Differences in Resting Corticospinal Excitability Are Correlated with Reaction Time and GABA Content in Motor Cortex. (United States)

    Greenhouse, Ian; King, Maedbh; Noah, Sean; Maddock, Richard J; Ivry, Richard B


    Individuals differ in the intrinsic excitability of their corticospinal pathways and, perhaps more generally, their entire nervous system. At present, we have little understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences and how variation in intrinsic excitability relates to behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between individual differences in intrinsic corticospinal excitability, local cortical GABA levels, and reaction time (RT) in a group of 20 healthy human adults. We measured corticospinal excitability at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation, local concentrations of basal GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and RT with a behavioral task. All measurements were repeated in two separate sessions, and tests of reliability confirmed the presence of stable individual differences. There was a negative correlation between corticospinal excitability and RT, such that larger motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) measured at rest were associated with faster RTs. Interestingly, larger MEPs were associated with higher levels of GABA in M1, but not in three other cortical regions. Together, these results suggest that individuals with more excitable corticospinal pathways are faster to initiate planned responses and have higher levels of GABA within M1, possibly to compensate for a more excitable motor system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study brings together physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical evidence to examine variability in the excitability of the human motor system. Previous work has focused on state-based factors (e.g., preparedness, uncertainty), with little attention given to the influence of inherent stable characteristics. Here, we examined how the excitability of the motor system relates to reaction time and the regional content of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Importantly, motor pathway excitability and GABA concentrations were measured at rest, outside a task context, providing assays of intrinsic properties of the

  3. Resonant excitation of white dwarf oscillations in compact object binaries (United States)

    Rathore, Yasser


    As an eccentric white dwarf-compact object binary shrinks and circularizes because of gravitational radiation, it will pass through resonances when harmonics of the orbital frequency match one of the white dwarf's normal mode eigenfrequencies. A formalism for calculating the resonant energy transfer is presented, both when the when the perturbation of the orbit by the excited mode is neglected (resonances without back reaction), and when the perturbation is included (resonances with back reaction). It is found that back reaction changes the resonant energy transfer both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the energy transfer with back reaction is shown to be always positive, to lowest order in the rate of dissipation by gravitational radiation. Numerical simulations of resonant mode excitation and non-linear evolution of white dwarf oscillations are also considered. A hydrodynamics code for studying this is described. Results from several test problems and simulations of resonant tidal excitation are presented. If the amplitude of an excited mode is driven high enough, the mode may damp non-linearly and heat the white dwarf. If the temperature of the star can be raised to a critical value, then the star may undergo a thermonuclear detonation that results in a Type Ia supernova. The feasibility of such a detonation via excitation of quadrupolar [function of]-modes is studied. It is found that a system with a 1.4 [Special characters omitted.] companion is not viable, but, for companion masses of ~ 10--10 5 [Special characters omitted.] , there exist regions in the parameter space where the white dwarf can be detonated. The ejecta from such a detonation are expected to remain trapped in orbit around the companion in most cases. A preliminary evaluation of the importance of tidal resonances for gravitational wave observations of capture sources with central masses of ~ 10 6 [Special characters omitted.] is also presented. The excitation of [function of

  4. Signature of nonadiabatic coupling in excited-state vibrational modes. (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A; Nelson, Tammie; Roitberg, Adrian E; Tretiak, Sergei; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian


    Using analytical excited-state gradients, vibrational normal modes have been calculated at the minimum of the electronic excited-state potential energy surfaces for a set of extended conjugated molecules with different coupling between them. Molecular model systems composed of units of polyphenylene ethynylene (PPE), polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and naphthacene/pentacene (NP) have been considered. In all cases except the NP model, the influence of the nonadiabatic coupling on the excited-state equilibrium normal modes is revealed as a unique highest frequency adiabatic vibrational mode that overlaps with the coupling vector. This feature is removed by using a locally diabatic representation in which the effect of NA interaction is removed. Comparison of the original adiabatic modes with a set of vibrational modes computed in the locally diabatic representation demonstrates that the effect of nonadiabaticity is confined to only a few modes. This suggests that the nonadiabatic character of a molecular system may be detected spectroscopically by identifying these unique state-specific high frequency vibrational modes.

  5. Chemical modulation of electronic structure at the excited state (United States)

    Li, F.; Song, C.; Gu, Y. D.; Saleem, M. S.; Pan, F.


    Spin-polarized electronic structures are the cornerstone of spintronics, and have thus attracted a significant amount of interest; in particular, researchers are looking into how to modulate the electronic structure to enable multifunctional spintronics applications, especially in half-metallic systems. However, the control of the spin polarization has only been predicted in limited two-dimensional systems with spin-polarized Dirac structures and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here, we report the modulation of the electronic structure in the light-induced excited state in a typical half-metal, L a1 /2S r1 /2Mn O3 -δ . According to the spin-transport measurements, there appears a light-induced increase in magnetoresistance due to the enhanced spin scattering, which is closely associated with the excited spin polarization. Strikingly, the light-induced variation can be enhanced via alcohol processing and reduced by oxygen annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that in the chemical process, a redox reaction occurs with a change in the valence of Mn. Furthermore, first-principles calculations reveal that the change in the valence of Mn alters the electronic structure and consequently modulates the spin polarization in the excited state. Our findings thus report a chemically tunable electronic structure, demonstrating interesting physics and the potential for multifunctional applications and ultrafast spintronics.

  6. Heartbeat stars, tidally excited oscillations and resonance locking (United States)

    Fuller, Jim


    Heartbeat stars are eccentric binary stars in short-period orbits whose light curves are shaped by tidal distortion, reflection and Doppler beaming. Some heartbeat stars exhibit tidally excited oscillations and present new opportunities for understanding the physics of tidal dissipation within stars. We present detailed methods to compute the forced amplitudes, frequencies and phases of tidally excited oscillations in eccentric binary systems. Our methods (i) factor out the equilibrium tide for easier comparison with observations, (ii) account for rotation using the traditional approximation, (iii) incorporate non-adiabatic effects to reliably compute surface luminosity perturbations, (iv) allow for spin-orbit misalignment and (v) correctly sum over contributions from many oscillation modes. We also discuss why tidally excited oscillations (TEOs) are more visible in hot stars with surface temperatures T ≳ 6500 K, and we derive some basic probability theory that can be used to compare models with data in a statistical manner. Application of this theory to heartbeat systems can be used to determine whether observed TEOs can be explained by chance resonances with stellar oscillation modes, or whether a resonance locking process is operating.

  7. Quantum dynamics and topological excitations in interacting dipolar particles (United States)

    Rey, Ana


    Dipole-dipole interactions, long-range and anisotropic interactions that arise due to the virtual exchange of photons, are of fundamental importance in optical physics, and are enabling a range of new quantum technologies including quantum networks and optical lattice atomic clocks. In this talk I will first discuss how arrays of dipolar particles with a simple J = 0- J = 1 internal level structure can naturally host topological and chiral excitations including Weyl quasi-particles. Weyl fermions were first predicted to exist in the context of high energy physics but only recently have been observed in solid state systems. I will discuss a proposal of using Mott insulators of Sr atoms to observe and probe the Weyl excitation spectrum and its non-trivial chirality. Finally I will report on a recent experiment done at JILA which validates the underlying microscopic model that predicts the existence of these excitations. The experiment measured the collective emission from a coherently driven gas of ultracold 88 Sr atoms and observed a highly directional and anisotropic emission intensity and a substantial broadening of the atomic spectral lines. All of the measurements are well reproduced by the theoretical model. These investigations open the door for the exploration of novel quantum many-body systems involving strongly interacting atoms and photons, and are useful guides for further developments of optical atomic clocks and other applications involving dense atomic ensembles. AFOSR, MURI-AFOSR, ARO,NSF-PHY-1521080, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844.

  8. Electron Excitation of High Dipole Moment Molecules (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Kauffmann, Jens


    Emission from high-dipole moment molecules such as HCN allows determination of the density in molecular clouds, and is often considered to trace the “dense” gas available for star formation. We assess the importance of electron excitation in various environments. The ratio of the rate coefficients for electrons and H2 molecules, ~10^5 for HCN, yields the requirements for electron excitation to be of practical importance if n(H2) 10^{-5}, where the numerical factors reflect critical values n_c(H2) and X^*(e-). This indicates that in regions where a large fraction of carbon is ionized, X(e-) will be large enough to make electron excitation significant. The situation is in general similar for other “high density tracers”, including HCO+, CN, and CS. But there are significant differences in the critical electron fractional abundance, X^*(e-), defined by the value required for equal effect from collisions with H2 and e-. Electron excitation is, for example, unimportant for CO and C+. Electron excitation may be responsible for the surprisingly large spatial extent of the emission from dense gas tracers in some molecular clouds (Pety et al. 2017, Kauffmann, Goldsmith et al. 2017, A&A, submitted). The enhanced estimates for HCN abundances and HCN/CO and HCN/HCO+ ratios observed in the nuclear regions of luminous galaxies may be in part a result of electron excitation of high dipole moment tracers. The importance of electron excitation will depend on detailed models of the chemistry, which may well be non-steady state and non--static.

  9. Speech recognition using articulatory and excitation source features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    This book discusses the contribution of articulatory and excitation source information in discriminating sound units. The authors focus on excitation source component of speech -- and the dynamics of various articulators during speech production -- for enhancement of speech recognition (SR) performance. Speech recognition is analyzed for read, extempore, and conversation modes of speech. Five groups of articulatory features (AFs) are explored for speech recognition, in addition to conventional spectral features. Each chapter provides the motivation for exploring the specific feature for SR task, discusses the methods to extract those features, and finally suggests appropriate models to capture the sound unit specific knowledge from the proposed features. The authors close by discussing various combinations of spectral, articulatory and source features, and the desired models to enhance the performance of SR systems.

  10. Grid impedance detection via excitation of LCL-filter resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus


    Inverters adopted in distributed power generation, active filter and UPS are often connected to the grid through an LCL-fiIter. The impedance of the LCL-fiIter has a typical frequency spectrum with a resonance peak. Hence the LCL-fiIter has to be damped in order to avoid instability. However...... will address some possible limits, some solutions and some implementation issues (e.g. how to obtain a controlled resonance in the filter without damaging the system) in order to use the resonant peak for grid impedance detection. The analysis is validated both by simulations and experimental results....... the resonance of the LCL-fiIter can be also excited in a controlled way in order to individuate the resonance frequency in the spectrum (using for example the FFn. This paper proposes to use a controlled excitation to measure the grid impedance, since this one influences also the resonance frequency. This paper...

  11. Grid impedance estimation via excitation of LCL-filter resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus


    Inverters adopted in distributed power generation, active filter, and uninterruptible power supply are often connected to the grid through an inductance-capacitor-inductance (LCL) filter. The impedance of the LCL filter has a typical frequency characteristic with a resonance peak. Hence, the LCL...... in measuring the grid impedance, since this one influences also the resonance frequency. This paper will address some possible limits, some solutions, and some implementation issues (e.g., how to obtain a controlled resonance in the filter without damaging the system) in order to use the resonant peak for grid...... filter has to be damped in order to avoid instability. However, the resonance of the LCL filter can be also excited in a controlled way in order to individuate the resonance frequency in the spectrum (using for example the fast Fourier transform). This paper proposes to use a controlled excitation...

  12. Nonlinear analysis of magnetization dynamics excited by spin Hall effect (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro


    We investigate the possibility of exciting self-oscillation in a perpendicular ferromagnet by the spin Hall effect on the basis of a nonlinear analysis of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In the self-oscillation state, the energy supplied by the spin torque during a precession on a constant energy curve should equal the dissipation due to damping. Also, the current to balance the spin torque and the damping torque in the self-oscillation state should be larger than the critical current to destabilize the initial state. We find that these conditions in the spin Hall system are not satisfied by deriving analytical solutions of the energy supplied by the spin transfer effect and the dissipation due to the damping from the nonlinear LLG equation. This indicates that the self-oscillation of a perpendicular ferromagnet cannot be excited solely by the spin Hall torque.

  13. Dynamic coherence in excitonic molecular complexes under various excitation conditions (United States)

    Chenu, Aurélia; Malý, Pavel; Mančal, Tomáš


    We investigate the relevance of dynamic quantum coherence in the energy transfer efficiency of molecular aggregates. We derive the time evolution of the density matrix for an open quantum system excited by light or by a neighboring antenna. Unlike in the classical case, the quantum description does not allow for a formal decomposition of the dynamics into sudden jumps in an observable quantity - an expectation value. Rather, there is a natural finite time-scale associated with the excitation process. We propose a simple experiment to test the influence of this time scale on the yield of photosynthesis. We demonstrate, using typical parameters of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex and a typical energy transfer rate from the chlorosome baseplate, that dynamic coherences are averaged out in the complex even when the FMO model is completely free of all dissipation and dephasing.

  14. One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite Two or More Atoms. (United States)

    Garziano, Luigi; Macrì, Vincenzo; Stassi, Roberto; Di Stefano, Omar; Nori, Franco; Savasta, Salvatore


    We consider two separate atoms interacting with a single-mode optical or microwave resonator. When the frequency of the resonator field is twice the atomic transition frequency, we show that there exists a resonant coupling between one photon and two atoms, via intermediate virtual states connected by counterrotating processes. If the resonator is prepared in its one-photon state, the photon can be jointly absorbed by the two atoms in their ground state which will both reach their excited state with a probability close to one. Like ordinary quantum Rabi oscillations, this process is coherent and reversible, so that two atoms in their excited state will undergo a downward transition jointly emitting a single cavity photon. This joint absorption and emission process can also occur with three atoms. The parameters used to investigate this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems.

  15. The first quadrupole excitations in spherical nuclei and nuclear pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saperstein E. E.


    Full Text Available Excitation energies and transition probabilities of the first 2+ excitations in even lead, tin and nickel isotopes are calculated within the self-consistent Theory of Finite Fermi Systems based on the Energy Density Functional by Fayans et al. A reasonable agreement with available experimental data is obtained. The effect of the density dependence of the effective pairing interaction is analyzed in detail by comparing results obtained with volume and surface pairing. The effect is found to be noticeable, especially for the 2+-energies which are systematically higher at 200–300 keV for the volume paring as compared with the surface pairing case, the latterbeing in a better agreement with the data.

  16. Half-Collision Studies of Excited Metal Atom - Molecule Interactions (United States)

    Kleiber, P. D.; Chen, J.; Wong, T. H.


    We report on state-resolved studies of excited state molecular dynamics, including both reactive and nonreactive (energy transfer) processes using half-collision techniques. Scattering state spectroscopy is used to investigate electronic orbital alignment effects on the reactive quenching of excited p-state alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms in collisions with hydrogen and methane. These experiments give information about the shape of the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces for the collision complex, and about the nonadiabatic interactions that couple the surfaces. Experimental results indicate two distinct reaction mechanisms are operative in the alkali metal-hydrogen quenching system. In complementary experiments, the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of weakly bound metal ion-hydrocarbon bimolecular complexes are studied using photofragmentation spectroscopic techniques in a tandem time-of- flight mass spectrometer. Results suggest that the quenching mechanism involves metal ion activation of the hydrocarbon bonds througha bond- stretch insertion process.

  17. Electronic excited states at ultrathin dielectric-metal interfaces (United States)

    Sementa, L.; Marini, A.; Barcaro, G.; Negreiros, F. R.; Fortunelli, A.


    Electronic excited states at a bcc(110) lithium surface, both bare and covered by ionic ultrathin (1-2 monolayers) LiF epitaxial films, are investigated via many-body perturbation theory calculations achieving an atomistic level of detail. The full self-consistent solution of the GW equations is used to account for correlation effects and to properly describe the screened potential in the vacuum. In addition to the correct prediction of image-potential states, we find that the mixing between resonances and image states and the charge compression due to the dielectric ultrathin overlayer give rise to excitations with a hybrid localized but low-lying character whose accurate description cannot intrinsically be achieved via simple models or low-level calculations, but which are expected to play a crucial role in determining the electronic response and transport properties of these systems.

  18. Computer simulation of cluster impact induced electronic excitation of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidtmann, B.; Hanke, S.; Duvenbeck, A. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Wucher, A., E-mail: [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)


    We present a computational study of electronic excitation upon bombardment of a metal surface with cluster projectiles. Our model employs a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to calculate the particle dynamics following the projectile impact. Kinetic excitation is implemented via two mechanisms describing the electronic energy loss of moving particles: autoionization in close binary collisions and a velocity proportional friction force resulting from direct atom–electron collisions. Two different friction models are compared with respect to the predicted sputter yields after single atom and cluster bombardment. We find that a density dependent friction coefficient leads to a significant reduction of the total energy transferred to the electronic sub-system as compared to the Lindhard friction model, thereby strongly enhancing the predicted sputter yield under cluster bombardment conditions. In contrast, the yield predicted for monoatomic projectile bombardment remains practically unchanged.

  19. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang


    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  20. Some general effects of strong high-frequency excitation: stiffening, biasing, and smoothening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel


    that can be modeled by a finite number of second order ordinary differential equations, generally nonlinear, with periodically oscillating excitation terms of high frequency and small amplitude. The results should be useful for understanding the effects in question in a broader perspective than is possible......Mechanical high-frequency (HF) excitation provides a working principle behind many industrial and natural applications and phenomena. This paper concerns three particular effects of HF excitation, that may change the apparent characteristics of mechanical systems: 1) stiffening, by which...

  1. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.


    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  2. Disorder-induced localization of excitability in an array of coupled lasers (United States)

    Lamperti, M.; Perego, A. M.


    We report on the localization of excitability induced by disorder in an array of coupled semiconductor lasers with a saturable absorber. Through numerical simulations we show that the exponential localization of excitable waves occurs if a certain critical amount of randomness is present in the coupling coefficients among the lasers. The results presented in this Rapid Communication demonstrate that disorder can induce localization in lattices of excitable nonlinear oscillators, and can be of interest in the study of photonics-based random networks, neuromorphic systems, and, by analogy, in biology, in particular, in the investigation of the collective dynamics of neuronal cell populations.

  3. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes. (United States)

    Johansson, J Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E B


    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively simple, well-resolved structure in fs laser photoelectron spectra of fullerenes. We focus on the application of velocity map imaging combined with fs laser photoionisation to study angular-resolved photoelectron emission.

  4. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan


    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  5. Formation of non-excited and excited hydrogen in proton–lithium inelastic scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elkilany, S.A; Al-Dhawi, A.A

    The collisions of a proton with a lithium atom are treated for the first time as a three-channel problem under the assumption that the elastic and hydrogen formation in non-excited, H(1s), and excited, H(2s), channels are open...

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of a cantilevered piezoelectric rectangular plate with voltage excitation (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Zhang, W.; Yao, M. H.; Zhu, G.


    The nonlinear dynamics of a cantilevered piezoelectric rectangular plate are studied, which are simultaneously forced by the base excitation and the excitation loaded by piezoelectric layers. The nonlinear partial differential governing equations of motion for the system are established by using the Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin approach is used to discretize the partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations with four-degree-of-freedom. Numerical simulations are presented to investigate the effects of the voltage excitation on the steady-state responses of the cantilevered piezoelectric plate. The bifurcation diagram of the system for w 1, w 2, w 3, w 4, via the voltage excitation amplitude is obtained. The motions of the system can be shown as follows: the chaotic motion → the multiple periodic motion → the periodic motion → the chaotic motion. Based on the above bifurcation diagrams, the voltage excitation amplitude are changed to obtain the waveforms, two-dimensional phase portraits, three-dimensional phase portraits and Poincare maps. The results show that the amplitude of the system can reduce effectively and keep the stability by adjusting the voltage excitation.

  7. Dark excitations in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess unique optoelectronic properties, including strongly bound excitons and trions. To date, most studies have focused on optically active excitations, but recent experiments have highlighted the existence of dark states, which are equally...... important in many respects. Here, we use ab initio many-body calculations to unravel the nature of the dark excitations in monolayer MoSe2, MoS2, WSe2, andWS(2). Our results show that all these monolayer TMDCs host dark states as their lowest neutral and charged excitations. We further show that dark...... excitons possess larger binding energies than their bright counterparts while the opposite holds for trions....

  8. Nanoscale control of phonon excitations in graphene (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Wonhee; Ku, Jiyeon; Ryu, Seunghwa; Hwang, Sung Woo

    Phonons, which are collective excitations in a lattice of atoms or molecules, play a major role in determining various physical properties of condensed matter, such as thermal and electrical conductivities. In particular, phonons in graphene interact strongly with electrons; however, unlike in usual metals, these interactions between phonons and massless Dirac fermions appear to mirror the rather complicated physics of those between light and relativistic electrons. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics through systematic studies of phonon interactions and excitations in graphene is crucial for realizing graphene-based devices. In this study, we demonstrate that the local phonon properties of graphene can be controlled at the nanoscale by tuning the interaction strength between graphene and an underlying Pt substrate. Using scanning probe methods, we determine that the reduced interaction due to embedded Ar atoms facilitates electron-phonon excitations, further influencing phonon-assisted inelastic electron tunneling.

  9. Exciting dynamic anapoles with electromagnetic doughnut pulses (United States)

    Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.


    As was predicted in 1995 by Afanasiev and Stepanovsky, a superposition of electric and toroidal dipoles can lead to a non-trivial non-radiating charge current-configuration, the dynamic anapole. The dynamic anapoles were recently observed first in microwave metamaterials and then in dielectric nanodisks. However, spectroscopic studies of toroidal dipole and anapole excitations are challenging owing to their diminishing coupling to transverse electromagnetic waves. Here, we show that anapoles can be excited by electromagnetic Flying Doughnut (FD) pulses. First described by Helwarth and Nouchi in 1996, FD pulses (also known as "Flying Toroids") are space-time inseparable exact solutions to Maxwell's equations that have toroidal topology and propagate in free-space at the speed of light. We argue that FD pulses can be used as a diagnostic and spectroscopic tool for the dynamic anapole excitations in matter.

  10. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail:; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail:; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  11. Sigma-1 Receptor and Neuronal Excitability. (United States)

    Kourrich, Saïd


    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), via interaction with various proteins, including voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels (VGICs and LGICs), is involved in a plethora of neuronal functions. This capability to regulate a variety of ion channel targets endows the Sig-1R with a powerful capability to fine tune neuronal excitability, and thereby the transmission of information within brain circuits. This versatility may also explain why the Sig-1R is associated to numerous diseases at both peripheral and central levels. To date, how the Sig-1R chooses its targets and how the combinations of target modulations alter overall neuronal excitability is one of the challenges in the field of Sig-1R-dependent regulation of neuronal activity. Here, we will describe and discuss the latest findings on Sig-1R-dependent modulation of VGICs and LGICs, and provide hypotheses that may explain the diverse excitability outcomes that have been reported so far.

  12. The method of varying amplitudes for solving (non)linear problems involving strong parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...

  13. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma (United States)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Oketa, Takatsugu; Masuda, Shinichi; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa


    We investigate a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 1018 cm-3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results agree with the simulation results and linear theory. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D particle in cell simulation we obtain results of high quality intense electron beam generation.

  14. An effective coded excitation scheme based on a predistorted FM signal and an optimized digital filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly......-spta) well below the safety limits. In vivo images of the liver from two healthy volunteers show apparent increased depth of penetration of about 4 cm at 4 MHz, for codes of length 25 mu s. Images taken from a non-attenuating wire phantom show that the -20 dB axial resolution for the coded scheme is as good...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...

  15. Microscopic Observation of the Light-Cone-Like Thermal Correlations in Cracking Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O


    Many seemingly intractable systems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we introduce a system of artificial acoustic spins which are manipulated with ultrasound excitations associated with micro-cracking sources in thin sheets of crystals. Our spin-like system shows a peculiar relaxation mechanism after inducing an impulsive stress-ramp akin to splitting, or rupturing, of the system. Using real-time construction of correlations between spins states, we observe a clear emergence of the light cone effect. It has been proposed that equilibration horizon occurs on a local scale in systems where correlations between distant sites are established at a finite speed. The observed equilibration horizon in our observations defines a region where elements of the material are in elastic communication through excited elementary excitations. These results yield important insights into dynamic communication between failing elements in brittle materials during processes such as brittle fragmentation and dyn...

  16. Optimal multisine excitation design for broadband electrical impedance spectroscopy (United States)

    Sanchez, B.; Vandersteen, G.; Bragos, R.; Schoukens, J.


    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can be used to characterize biological materials in applications ranging from cell culture to body composition, including tissue and organ state. The emergence of cell therapy and tissue engineering opens up a new and promising field of application. While in most cases classical measurement techniques based on a frequency sweep can be used, EIS based on broadband excitations enables dynamic biological systems to be characterized when the measuring time and injected energy are a constraint. Myocardial regeneration, cell characterization in micro-fluidic systems and dynamic electrical impedance tomography are all examples of such applications. The weakness of such types of fast EIS measuring techniques resides in their intrinsic loss of accuracy. However, since most of the practical applications have no restriction over the excitation used, the input power spectrum can be appropriately designed to maximize the accuracy obtained from the measurements. This paper deals with the problem of designing the optimal multisine excitation for electrical bioimpedance measurements. The optimal multisine is obtained by the minimization of the Cramer-Rao lower bound, or what is the same, by maximizing the accuracy obtained from the measurements. Furthermore, because no analytical solution exists for global optimization involving time and frequency domains jointly, this paper presents the multisine optimization approach partially in both domains and then combines the results. As regards the frequency domain approach, a novel contribution is made for the multisine amplitude power spectrum. In the time domain, multisine is optimized by reducing its crest factor. Moreover, the impact on the information and accuracy of the impedance spectrum obtained from using different multisine amplitude power spectra is discussed, as well as the number of frequencies and frequency distributions. The theory is supported by a set of validation measurements when

  17. Search for excited states in 25O (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Fossez, K.; Baumann, T.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Kuchera, A. N.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rotureau, J.; Smith, J. K.; Stephenson, S. L.; Stiefel, K.; Thoennessen, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.


    Background: Theoretical calculations suggest the presence of low-lying excited states in 25O. Previous experimental searches by means of proton knockout on 26F produced no evidence for such excitations. Purpose: We search for excited states in 25O using the 24O(d ,p ) 25O reaction. The theoretical analysis of excited states in unbound O,2725 is based on the configuration interaction approach that accounts for couplings to the scattering continuum. Method: We use invariant-mass spectroscopy to measure neutron-unbound states in 25O. For the theoretical approach, we use the complex-energy Gamow Shell Model and Density Matrix Renormalization Group method with a finite-range two-body interaction optimized to the bound states and resonances of O-2623, assuming a core of 22O. We predict energies, decay widths, and asymptotic normalization coefficients. Results: Our calculations in a large s p d f space predict several low-lying excited states in 25O of positive and negative parity, and we obtain an experimental limit on the relative cross section of a possible Jπ=1/2 + state with respect to the ground state of 25O at σ1 /2 +/σg .s .=0 .25-0.25+1.0 . We also discuss how the observation of negative parity states in 25O could guide the search for the low-lying negative parity states in 27O. Conclusion: Previous experiments based on the proton knockout of 26F suffered from the low cross sections for the population of excited states in 25O because of low spectroscopic factors. In this respect, neutron transfer reactions carry more promise.

  18. Two-photon excitation STED microscopy. (United States)

    Moneron, Gael; Hell, Stefan W


    We report sub-diffraction resolution in two-photon excitation (TPE) fluorescence microscopy achieved by merging this technique with stimulated-emission depletion (STED). We demonstrate an easy-to-implement and promising laser combination based on a short-pulse laser source for two-photon excitation and a continuous-wave (CW) laser source for resolution enhancement. Images of fluorescent nanoparticles and the immunostained transcription regulator NF kappaB in mammalian cell nuclei exhibit resolutions of barrier. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  19. Gauge Fields as Composite Boundary Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Fronsdal, Christian


    We investigate representations of the conformal group that describe "massless" particles in the interior and at the boundary of anti-de Sitter space. It turns out that massless gauge excitations in anti-de Sitter are gauge "current" operators at the boundary. Conversely, massless excitations at the boundary are topological singletons in the interior. These representations lie at the threshold of two "unitary bounds" that apply to any conformally invariant field theory. Gravity and Yang-Mills gauge symmetry in anti-De Sitter is translated to global translational symmetry and continuous R-symmetry of the boundary superconformal field theory.

  20. Exciting Baryons: now and in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pennington


    This is the final talk of NSTAR2011 conference. It is not a summary talk, but rather a looking forward to what still needs to be done in excited baryon physics. In particular, we need to hone our tools connecting experimental inputs with QCD. At present we rely on models that often have doubtful connections with the underlying theory, and this needs to be dramatically improved, if we are to reach definitive conclusions about the relevant degrees of freedom of excited baryons. Conclusions that we want to have by NSTAR2021.