WorldWideScience

Sample records for excising analogous etheno

  1. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of etheno-DNA adducts in human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Cui, S; Wang, S; Jiang, X; Zhang, S; Zhang, R; Fu, P P; Sun, X

    2015-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated by interaction of cellular DNA with exogenous environmental carcinogens and end products of lipid peroxidation. It has been determined that 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdC) adducts formed in human white blood cells can be used to serve as biomarkers of genetic damage mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method used to detect and quantify εdA and dC adducts in human white blood cells. The percent recoveries of εdA and dC adducts were found to be 88.9% ± 2.8 and 95.7% ± 3.7, respectively. The detection limits were ∼ 1.45 fmol for εdA and ∼ 1.27 fmol for εdC in 20 μg of human white blood cell DNA samples, both εdA and εdC adducts could be detected using only ∼ 5 μg of DNA per sample. For validation of the method, 34 human blood cell DNA samples were assayed and the results revealed a significant difference (P blood cell DNA samples; background levels of εdA and εdC could be reproducibly detected. The ultrasensitive and simple detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  2. [Association of etheno-DNA adduct and DNA methylation level among workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M L; He, Z N; Zhang, X; Duan, H W; Niu, Y; Bin, P; Ye, M; Meng, T; Dai, Y F; Yu, S F; Chen, W; Zheng, Y X

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the association between etheno-DNA adduct and the promoter of DNA methylation levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16), Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in workers with occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: We recruited 124 diesel engine testing workers as DEE exposure group and 112 water pump operator in the same area as control group in Henan province in 2012 using cluster sampling. The demographic data were obtained by questionnaire survey; urine after work and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. The urinary etheno-DNA adducts were detected using UPLC-MS/MS, including 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine(εdC). The DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT were evaluated using bisulfite-pyrosequencing assay. The percentage of methylation was expressed as the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) over the sum of cytosines (%5mC). Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were applied to analyze the association between etheno-DNA adducts and DNA methylation of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT. Results: The median (P(25)-P(75)) of urinary εdA level was 230.00 (98.04-470.91) pmol/g creatinine in DEE exposure group, and 102.10 (49.95-194.48) creatinine in control group. The level of εdA was higher in DEE exposure group than control group (P0.05) . Multiple linear regression confirmed the negative correlation between εdA and DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95%CI) was -0.068 (-0.132--0.003), -0.082 (-0.159--0.004) and -0.048 (-0.090--0.007), P values were 0.039, 0.039 and 0.024, respectively). Moreover, εdC was negative associated with DNA methylation level of MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95%CI) was -0.094 (-0.179--0.008), P=0.032). Conclusion: DEE exposure could induce the increased of εdA and decreased of DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A and MGMT.

  3. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Linhart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1. In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1.

  4. DNA Damage in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Age-Dependent Increase in the Lipid Peroxidation-Derived DNA Adduct, Heptanone-Etheno-2′-Deoxycytidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Ogawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate what types of DNA damages are detected in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. The DNA adducts such as 8-oxo-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, 1,N6-etheno-2′-deoxyadenosine (εdA, and heptanone-etheno-2′-deoxycytidine (HεdC in genomic DNAs, derived from whole blood cells from 46 RA patients and 31 healthy controls, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and their levels in RA patients and controls were compared. In addition, correlation between DNA adducts and clinical parameters of RA was analyzed. Results. Compared with controls, the levels of HεdC in RA were significantly higher (P<0.0001 and age dependent (r = 0.43, P < 0.01, while there was no significant difference in 8-oxo-dG and εdA accumulation between RA patients and controls. HεdC levels correlated well with the number of swollen joints (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001 and weakly with the number of tender joints (r = 0.26, P = 0.08 of RA patients, while they did not show a significant association with serological markers such as C-reactive protein and matrix metalloproteinase 3. Conclusion. These findings indicate that HεdC may have some influence on the development of RA and/or its complications.

  5. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...... reliably detectable and about two times lower in child cord blood, the difference being significant at P ... arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother...

  6. Tax Avoidance in Excise Tax

    OpenAIRE

    VARGOVÁ, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The taxes from consumption are an excise taxes and value adds tax. I will focus on an excise tax. The excise tax is one of the most important income to state budget. The excise taxes belong between indirect taxes and is divided into five selected products, such as cigarettes, bear, vine, alcohol and mineral oils.

  7. A novel role for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair for the in vivo repair of 3,N4-ethenocytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Isaac A; Gardner, Alycia; Wu, Jie; Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M; Samson, Leona D

    2017-04-07

    Etheno (ε) DNA base adducts are highly mutagenic lesions produced endogenously via reactions with lipid peroxidation (LPO) products. Cancer-promoting conditions, such as inflammation, can induce persistent oxidative stress and increased LPO, resulting in the accumulation of ε-adducts in different tissues. Using a recently described fluorescence multiplexed host cell reactivation assay, we show that a plasmid reporter bearing a site-specific 3,N4-ethenocytosine (εC) causes transcriptional blockage. Notably, this blockage is exacerbated in Cockayne Syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum patient-derived lymphoblastoid and fibroblast cells. Parallel RNA-Seq expression analysis of the plasmid reporter identifies novel transcriptional mutagenesis properties of εC. Our studies reveal that beyond the known pathways, such as base excision repair, the process of transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair plays a role in the removal of εC from the genome, and thus in the protection of cells and tissues from collateral damage induced by inflammatory responses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  9. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  10. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  11. Femoral Head and Neck Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Tisha A M

    2017-07-01

    Femoral head and neck excision is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed in small animal patients. It is a salvage procedure that is done to relieve pain in the coxofemoral joint and restore acceptable function of the limb. Femoral head and neck excision is most commonly used to treat severe osteoarthritis in the coxofemoral joint and can be done in dogs and cats of any size or age. The procedure should not be overused and ideally should not be done when the integrity of the coxofemoral joint can be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  13. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  14. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur....... Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA...

  15. Dry Arthroscopic Excision of Dorsal Wrist Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jason; Zuhlke, Todd; Eizember, Shane; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Ganglions are common soft tissue masses of the hand. High recurrence rates are associated with nonsurgical treatment; thus, excision is often indicated. Arthroscopic excision and open excision have similar recurrence rates; however, the latter is associated with prolonged healing time and increased scarring. Recently, dry wrist arthroscopic techniques have been used. This technique allows easier confirmation of complete ganglion removal, easier conversion to open surgery, earlier return of mo...

  16. Transoral Mucosal Excision Sutured Gastroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legner, Andras; Altorjay, Aron; Juhasz, Arpad; Stadlhuber, Rudolph; Reich, Viktor; Hunt, Brandon; Rothstein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An outpatient transoral endoscopic procedure for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity would be appealing if safe, effective, and durable. We present the first in human experience with a new system. Methods. Eight patients with GERD (3) and obesity (5) were selected according to a preapproved study protocol. All GERD patients had preprocedure manometry and pH monitoring to document GERD as well as quality of life and symptom questionnaires. Obese patients (body mass index >35) underwent a psychological evaluation and tests for comorbidities. Under general anesthesia, a procedure was performed at the gastroesophageal junction including mucosal excision, suturing of the excision beds for apposition, and suture knotting. Results. One patient with micrognathia could not undergo the required preprocedural passage of a 60 F dilator and was excluded. The first 2 GERD patients had incomplete procedures due to instrument malfunction. The subsequent 5 subjects had a successfully completed procedure. Four patients were treated for obesity and had an average excess weight loss of 30.3% at 2-year follow-up. Of these patients, one had an 8-mm outlet at the end of the procedure recognized on video review—a correctable error—and another vomited multiple times postoperatively and loosened the gastroplasty sutures. The treated GERD patient had resolution of reflux-related symptoms and is off all antisecretory medications at 2-year follow-up. Her DeMeester score was 8.9 at 24 months. Conclusion. The initial human clinical experience showed promising results for effective and safe GERD and obesity therapy. PMID:24623807

  17. Surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, Michael J; Balch, Charles; Barzilai, David A; Berg, Daniel; Freiman, Anatoli; Handiside, Teenah; Hollis, Sally; Lens, Marko B; Thompson, John F

    2009-10-07

    Cutaneous melanoma accounts for 75% of skin cancer deaths. Standard treatment is surgical excision with a safety margin some distance from the borders of the primary tumour. The purpose of the safety margin is to remove both the complete primary tumour and any melanoma cells that might have spread into the surrounding skin.Excision margins are important because there could be trade-off between a better cosmetic result but poorer long-term survival if margins become too narrow. The optimal width of excision margins remains unclear. This uncertainty warrants systematic review. To assess the effects of different excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma. In August 2009 we searched for relevant randomised trials in the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and other databases including Ongoing Trials Registers. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of surgical excision of melanoma comparing different width excision margins. We assessed trial quality, and extracted and analysed data on survival and recurrence. We collected adverse effects information from included trials. We identified five trials. There were 1633 participants in the narrow excision margin group and 1664 in the wide excision margin group. Narrow margin definition ranged from 1 to 2 cm; wide margins ranged from 3 to 5 cm. Median follow-up ranged from 5 to 16 years. This systematic review summarises the evidence regarding width of excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma. None of the five published trials, nor our meta-analysis, showed a statistically significant difference in overall survival between narrow or wide excision.The summary estimate for overall survival favoured wide excision by a small degree [Hazard Ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.15; P = 0.40], but the result was not significantly different. This result is compatible

  18. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  19. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  20. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  1. The Role of Nucleotide Excision by Reverse Transcriptase in HIV Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitors of HIV block viral replication through the ability of HIV RT to incorporate chain-terminating nucleotide analogs during viral DNA synthesis. Once incorporated, the chain-terminating residue must be removed before DNA synthesis can continue. Removal can be accomplished by the excision activity of HIV RT, which catalyzes the transfer of the 3'-terminal residue on the blocked DNA chain to an acceptor substrate, probably ATP in most infected cells. Mutations of RT that enhance excision activity are the most common cause of resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT and exhibit low-level cross-resistance to most other nucleoside RT inhibitors. The resistance to AZT is suppressed by a number of additional mutations in RT, most of which were identified because they conferred resistance to other RT inhibitors. Here we review current understanding of the biochemical mechanisms responsible for increased or decreased excision activity due to these mutations.

  2. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  3. Effects of chalazion excision on ocular aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermoghaddam, Ali A; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to compare higher-order aberrations before and after upper lid chalazion excision. Fourteen eyes from 12 patients (8 females, mean age: 28.7 ± 2.7 years) with upper lid chalazion were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Chalazia were excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Ocular aberrations were evaluated by aberrometry (ZyWave) before and 2 months after chalazion excision. Root mean square of total higher-order aberrations decreased from 0.67 ± 0.12 to 0.43 ± 0.15 μm (P = 0.012) after excision. The root mean square of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil and horizontal coma were decreased after excision. Orbscan IIz tomography showed a statistically significant decrease in 5 mm zone irregularity (P = 0.027) and an increase in minimum simulated keratometry after surgery (P = 0.046). Chalazion increases higher-order aberrations, as measured by the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, which could affect the preoperative evaluation and results of refractive surgery, especially wavefront-guided approaches. Chalazion excision could reduce ocular aberrations and is recommended before refractive surgeries.

  4. Comparative study between radiofrequency sinus excision and open excision in sacro-coccygeal pilonidal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of outcome of pilonidal sinus excision using a radiofrequency device and comparing its results with excision and open granulation procedure. Patients with sacro-coccygeal pilonidal sinus disease (n=44) were randomly assigned to undergo either a wide excision and healing by open granulation procedure [WEG] (n=23) or a radiofrequency sinus excision [RSE] (n=21). An Ellman radiofrequency generator was used for RSE. Intra- and postoperative events and outcome data were evaluated and analyzed by Student's unpaired t test and chi(2) test. The significant differences in the two groups WEG and RSE were as follows: mean hospital stay (47 vs. 10 h, p< 0.05), period off work (29 vs. 8 days, p< 0.05), mean analgesic requirement (39 vs. 15 tablets, p< 0.05), time for complete wound healing (84 vs. 49 days, p< 0.05). At the mean follow-up of 30 months, 2 patients from the wide excision and open granulation group and one patient from the radiofrequency sinus excision group developed recurrence. These findings suggest that sinus excision with radiofrequency is a simple and swift procedure. It needs a short hospital stay and is associated with less postoperative pain and early resumption to work. As compared to excision and healing by granulation technique, the radiofrequency sinus excision procedure achieves faster wound healing and a better outcome. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  6. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  7. An arteriovenous fistula following chalazion excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Amborcar Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An arteriovenous fistula secondary to a chalazion is a rare occurrence. It may follow spontaneous necrosis or surgical trauma. Digital subtraction angiography and identification of the arterial feeders combined with direct puncture of the nidus and embolization is recommended, as surgical excision becomes much easier and results in a complete excision of the lesion. Conchal cartilage graft is a useful lining material for reconstruction of the tarsal plate due to its natural curvature. It restores lid integrity and ensures a stable and functional eyelid.

  8. COMPLEATE MESOCOLIC EXCISION AND RIGHT HEMICOLECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stanojević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the term complete mesocolic excision, the knowledge of anatomy is crucial. In the classical literature, mesenteric organ is described as fragmented and discontinuous. Total mesorectal excision (TME has become the “gold standard” for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In describing it, Heald provided an anatomical basis for surgery. Similar description was needed for colon cancer surgery. According to the modern anatomical studies, fibers of Toldt’s fascia form a plane between the apposed portions of the mesocolon and the underlying retroperitoneum. The demonstration of mesocolic continuity, combined with the presence of Toldt’s fascia, interposed between the apposed portions of the mesocolon and the retroperitoneum, rationalize planar dissection in colonic resection. By addressing these anatomical features, the mobilization of the entire colon and mesocolon (which remain intact can be performed. Hohenberger et al. used the concept of TME for colon cancer surgery and in 2009 introduced the term complete mesocolic excision (CME. The concept for CME is the consequent surgical separation by sharp dissection of the visceral fascia layer from the parietal one resulting in complete mobilization of the entire mesocolon covered by an intact visceral fascial layer, ensuring safe exposure and tie of the supplying arteries at their origin. With this technique, survival rate increased. In comparison to open CME, laparoscopic CME has comparable results. Complete mesocolic excision seems to offer a survival benefit and better local control, but none of this is proved by randomized controlled trials.

  9. gynaecomastia: management with liposuction and glandular excision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... has been used for certain types of gynaecomastia (3). In this study, a combination of ultrasound assisted liposuction and excision of glandular breast tissue through a periareolar incision was applied. The tissue is pulled through the wound and is removed with scissors or electric cautery. The pull through ...

  10. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  11. Nucleotide excision repair and human syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Boer (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDNA damage is implicated in cancer and aging, and several DNA repair mechanisms exist that safeguard the genome from these deleterious consequences. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a wide diversity of lesions, the main of which include UV-induced lesions, bulky chemical adducts

  12. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2001-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  13. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  14. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-03-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding.2,3 According to Iding,4 analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning theories, which claim that learners should be actively involved and new concepts should be based on learners' previous experiences. When analogies are used during the teaching-learning process, they may promote students' understanding of abstract science concepts.5 This paper suggests a capacitor analogy that aims to foster students' conceptual understanding of capacitors in a slightly different way than Greenslade's analogy.6

  15. Brown recluse spider bites. A comparison of early surgical excision versus dapsone and delayed surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R S; Altenbern, D P; Lynch, J B; King, L E

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study, 31 patients with brown recluse spider bites were treated by either immediate surgical excision or with the leukocyte inhibitor, dapsone, followed by delayed surgical excision. Patients were matched for age, gender, and lesion size and were excluded if the typical history and physical findings were not present. In patients treated with immediate surgical excision (N = 14), delayed wound healing (N = 5) and objectional scarring (N = 7) were common complications. However, pretreatment treatment with dapsone reduced the incidence of wound complications (N = 1) and objectional scarring (N = 1) (p less than 0.05), while reducing the need for surgical excision (N = 1). There were no severe drug reactions due to dapsone, although one patient had persistent G.I. upset. Pretreatment with dapsone not only reduced surgical complications but also improved the outcome of patients bitten by the brown recluse spider. PMID:4051613

  16. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  17. Tax Expenditures in the Federal Excise Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Davie, Bruce F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of the current role of excise taxation in the federal tax system. Breaks down excise taxes into nine distinct types, and identifies problems related to determining tax expenditures and revenue losses.

  18. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  19. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  20. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  1. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most...... inexpensive technologies available. Here, we describe four different protocols for uracil excision-based DNA editing: one for simple manipulations such as site-directed mutagenesis, one for plasmid-based multigene assembly in Escherichia coli, one for one-step assembly and integration of single or multiple...... genes into the genome, and a standardized assembly pipeline using benchmarked oligonucleotides for pathway assembly and multigene expression optimization....

  2. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  3. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  4. Variation in Base Excision Repair Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David M.; Kim, Daemyung; Berquist, Brian R.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    The major DNA repair pathway for coping with spontaneous forms of DNA damage, such as natural hydrolytic products or oxidative lesions, is base excision repair (BER). In particular, BER processes mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as non-bulky base modifications, abasic sites, and a range of chemically distinct single-strand breaks. Defects in BER have been linked to cancer predisposition, neurodegenerative disorders, and immunodeficiency. Recent data indicate a large degree of sequence...

  5. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Objective: Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. Patients and Methods: The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Results: Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%; nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm. An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion. Conclusion: Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  6. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Chander; Khurana, Ananta; Jain, Rajat; Rathi, Vinita

    2013-10-01

    Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%); nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm). An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months) was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion). Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  7. Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Il Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions,such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to nodog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scarswhich are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results ofelliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique.Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectivelystudied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked onthe skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining wasperformed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated alongseveral vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity.Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by ellipticalexcision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortionof critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based ontheir Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores.Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogeardeformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered analternative method for excision of facial nevi.

  8. Analog Frame Store Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    enhancement when coupled with the video acquisition performed by the Frame Store Memory in mode 2. 3 -11 It cr (A 3 coJ 0( kLL P.- FAIRCHILO IMAGING ...AD-AOSI 979 FAIRCHILD IMAGING SYSTEMS SYOSSET N Y F/0 17/2 ANALOG FRAME STORE MEMORY . CU) JAN 80 OAAK77-C-0165 UNCLASSIFIED ED-CX-141-5 M 1 .0 H " 1...DESCRIPTION 1-2 1.1.1 Analog Frame Store Memory 1-2 1.1.2 Analog Field Storage Device 1-4 1.1.3 Image Analyzer Digital Display (IADD) 1-4 1.2 PROGRAM’S

  9. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  10. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  11. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  12. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  13. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  14. How Analogy Drives Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadter, Doug (Indiana University)

    2004-05-05

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  15. Thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal cysts in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Prashant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracoscopy offers great advantages when compared with open surgery in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary complications. Considering the benign nature of most of the mediastinal cysts, thoracoscopy is safe and feasible with minimal morbidity. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with four cases of mediastinal cysts resected successfully within a period of one year by thoracoscopy. Materials and Methods:The cases of mediastinal cysts operated by thoracoscopic excision in K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai from November 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed. The age varied from six months to 10 years. The patients presented with respiratory distress or recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. All patients underwent Chest X-ray and CT scan thorax to delineate the location of the cyst and its relationship with adjacent vital structures. Two patients had anterior and two had posterior mediastinal cyst. The ports were placed depending on the location of the cyst on the CT scan, following the principles of triangularization. The cysts were excised mainly by blunt dissection. Results: All the patients were successfully managed by thoracoscopic surgery. None of them had intraoperative complications. Dissection in patient with history of recurrent respiratory tract infection was difficult because of adhesions. Intercostal drain was removed within 48hrs and the patients were discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy in mediastinal cysts is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity and a shorter hospital stay.

  16. Transanal total mesorectal excision - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for mid and low rectal cancer. The procedure is performed by open, laparoscopic or robotic approaches. Transanal TME (TaTME) is a new procedure that potentially solves some difficulties in the pelvic part of the diss......INTRODUCTION: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for mid and low rectal cancer. The procedure is performed by open, laparoscopic or robotic approaches. Transanal TME (TaTME) is a new procedure that potentially solves some difficulties in the pelvic part...... of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... patients) were included. Only low-quality evidence is available, and the literature consists of case reports and case series. Studies represent the initial experience of surgeons/centres. No precise indication for TaTME is yet specified other than the presence of mid and low rectal tumours, although...

  17. The Features of Development of the Excise Taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyana Oksana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main tendencies of the excise taxation in Ukraine. The features of the excise taxation of alcoholic beverages have been determined. A comparing of rates of the excise tax on certain types of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine and the EU Member States has been done, an analysis of the dynamics of rates of the excise duty on the ethyl alcohol in Ukraine has been carried out. The dynamics of the volumes of consumption of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine have been analyzed. The relationship between the volumes of consumption and the size of the rates of excise duty on alcohol has been defined. The fiscal importance of the excise taxation in Ukraine during the period of 1998-2016 has been analyzed. It has been determined that for Ukrainian economy is characteristic an increase of the fiscal significance of excise tax in the periods of crisis developments. The article considers the directions for further development of the excise taxation in Ukraine, analyzes the prospects of implementing an automated system for monitoring the turnover of alcoholic beverages, as well as use of the electronic excise stamps.

  18. A randomized study between excision and marsupialization and radiofrequency sinus excision in sacro-coccygeal pilonidal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2004-01-01

    The surgical approach to pilonidal sinus disease is open to debate. This prospective, randomized study was aimed to compare the outcome of the excision and marsupialization and the sinus excision technique by radiofrequency. Thirty patients of chronic pilonidal sinus disease were randomly assigned to radiofrequency sinus excision (n = 15) and excision and marsupialization (n = 15). The parameters measured included intraoperative and postoperative data, wound-related complications, and recurrence. Patient satisfaction score was assessed at 1-year follow-up. The operation time, postoperative pain, hospital stay, and off work periods were significantly less (p < 0.05) in the technique employing radiofrequency surgery. At 1-year follow-up, there was 1 case of recurrence in each group. The patients from radiofrequency group expressed better satisfaction than the patients operated by marsupialization. Radiofrequency sinus excision technique needs a shorter hospital stay with reduced postoperative pain and early resumption to work in comparison with the sinus excision and marsupialization technique.

  19. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  20. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  1. Mammalian Transcription-Coupled Excision Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Wim; Fousteri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional arrest caused by DNA damage is detrimental for cells and organisms as it impinges on gene expression and thereby on cell growth and survival. To alleviate transcriptional arrest, cells trigger a transcription-dependent genome surveillance pathway, termed transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) that ensures rapid removal of such transcription-impeding DNA lesions and prevents persistent stalling of transcription. Defective TC-NER is causatively linked to Cockayne syndrome, a rare severe genetic disorder with multisystem abnormalities that results in patients’ death in early adulthood. Here we review recent data on how damage-arrested transcription is actively coupled to TC-NER in mammals and discuss new emerging models concerning the role of TC-NER-specific factors in this process. PMID:23906714

  2. Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Rates of survival after thermal injury have improved in the past two decades, and rates of wound infections and sepsis have decreased during the same period. Early excision has been advocated as one of the major factors, but its safety and efficacy and the exact timing of burn excision are still

  3. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  4. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  5. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  6. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  8. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  9. Nucleotide Excision Repair in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER plays an essential role in many organisms across life domains to preserve and faithfully transmit DNA to the next generation. In humans, NER is essential to prevent DNA damage-induced mutation accumulation and cell death leading to cancer and aging. NER is a versatile DNA repair pathway that repairs many types of DNA damage which distort the DNA helix, such as those induced by solar UV light. A detailed molecular model of the NER pathway has emerged from in vitro and live cell experiments, particularly using model systems such as bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell cultures. In recent years, the versatility of the nematode C. elegans to study DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms including NER has become increasingly clear. In particular, C. elegans seems to be a convenient tool to study NER during the UV response in vivo, to analyze this process in the context of a developing and multicellular organism, and to perform genetic screening. Here, we will discuss current knowledge gained from the use of C. elegans to study NER and the response to UV-induced DNA damage.

  10. The Strategy of Excise Taxation of Tobacco Products in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyi Mykola D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing and improving approaches to the development of a strategy of excise tax policy in Ukraine, taking into account the foreign experience of harmonizing tax legislation in this sphere. An analysis of the implementation of the EU directives on the regulation of the minimum excise tax liability for the payment of excise taxes on tobacco products in the countries with transformational economies has been carried out. It has been found that, in cases of excessive tax pressure, the equilibrium of the market is disrupted, its shadow component is growing, and the overall economic efficiency level decreases. It has been determined that for the period of 2007-2016 the availability index for cigarettes in Ukraine decreased 2,3 times, which in some way demotivated their consumption. However, the change in the approach of calculation of ad valorem rate for the excise tax and introduction of the excise tax on the sub-excise goods sold by the retailers led to manipulative actions by the major actors in the market concerning the price of cigarettes, which impacted both the increase in the availability of cigarettes in 2016 and the decline in budget revenues. Regulation of the minimum excise duty is the most effective instrument of fiscal policy to achieve goals in the area of limitation of smoking.

  11. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  12. Wrist flexion strength after excision of the pisiform bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, M; Hagberg, L

    1984-01-01

    Diseases of the pisiform triquetral (P-T) joint and the pisiform itself are often treated with excision of the pisiform bone. The flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendon inserts on the volar aspect of the pisiform, suggesting a loss of strength in wrist flexion following excision of the bone. Isometric and dynamic, isokinetical measurements were made using a strain-gauge dynamometer (Cybex II). Slight postoperative reduction of wrist flexion strength, compared with the contralateral wrist, was noted but not of clinical significance. It is concluded that one should not refrain from excision of the pisiform bone for fear of considerable strength loss in wrist joint flexion.

  13. Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Soyer, Vural; Ersan, Veysel; Aydın, Cemalettin; Karagül, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cysts are rare in adults. Due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, the current standard of care is complete excision of the cyst and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. So far, more than 200 laparoscopic resections have been reported in adults, the majority being from Far Eastern countries over the last five years. Herein, the technique of laparoscopic type I choledochal cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy is presented in a 37-year-old male with an accompanying video. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery are applicable for choledochal cyst excision as well. We believe that teamwork, expertise on intracorporeal suturing and hepatobiliary surgery are central issues for this operation.

  14. Laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Valeria; Mullassery, Dhanya; Lansdale, Nick; Jesudason, Edwin C

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal lymphatic malformations may be challenging to eradicate. Retroperitoneal lesions may more difficult to resect than mesenteric ones; however, the latter may predispose to intestinal volvulus, leading to calls for their prompt excision. Such lesions identified perinatally may pose particular challenges: in one case, respiratory failure caused by abdominal distension required emergency drainage followed by later laparoscopic excision; laparoscopy has also been used promptly to diagnose and resect neonatal mesenteric lymphatic malformations with their inherent volvulus risk. We illustrate that even if neonatal laparoscopy identifies a retroperitoneal rather than mesenteric lymphatic malformation, curative endosurgical excision remains feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Should pyogenic granulomas following burns be excised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    Patients with pygenic granuloma following burns (PGB) presents dramatic clinical features which are different from those with classic pyogenic granuloma. This review aims to discuss whether pyogenic granuloma following burns (PGB) need excision or not. Using the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and web of science databases. All articles which discussed diagnosis and treatment of pyogenic granuloma following burns with histological results were included from 1978 to 2013. Reports from meetings were not included. Only articles published in English were included. Twenty one articles excluded from a total of 32 studies. One study was excluded from the 11 descriptive studies because of typical histological results. The rest, 10 studies were case reports. Only one article was published in French, whose abstract was published in French and English. Patients with PGB presented six distinctive clinical features. First, all the patients had burns initially. The second, PGB acutely erupted between 1 and 4 weeks in patients' burned area, which may be infected by bacteria, fungus and virus. The fourth, PGB can be classified into proliferative and shrivelling stages. The fifth, three hisiological characteristics including hyperkeratosis or acanthosis, numerous newly formed proliferative vascular, edematous stroma with infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Finally, recurrence, 6 out of 16 patients with PGB involuted spontaneously with no recurrence. Three out of 16 patients were conservatively managed with no recurrence, neither patients (5) who had surgery and 2 patients treated with electro coagulation had recurrence. PGB lesions are benign based on clinical features and histological examinations. The clinical process of PGB could be divided into proliferative and shrivelling stages. Conservative treatment including wound management and antibiotic could be chosen firstly, especially when large PGBs are on the face or other important area of one's body. When conservative

  16. Local excision for more advanced rectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschitz, Thomas; Kneist, Werner; Gockel, Ines; Junginger, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, local excision (LE) of T1 rectal cancer was increasingly established and represents an oncologically established technique. In contrast, the situation for T2 tumors is less clear and has only been investigated in small patient collectives. LE for T2 tumors is thus discussed controversially. In addition to our own patients with T2 rectal cancer treated locally (n=40), we have analysed the local recurrence (LR) rates after LE alone (n=124), after immediate conventional radical reoperation (n=29), after adjuvant (chemo)-radiotherapy (n=294) and those after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) (n=269) using a PubMed search. LR rates of low-grade T2 tumors after R0 resection by LE alone was 19%. If additional prognostically unfavorable findings were present, the LR rate rose to 52%. By immediate radical reoperation the LR rate was decreased to 7%, whereas that after adjuvant therapy was 16%. In contrast, LE of more advanced tumors after nCRT resulted in LR rates of 9%. LE alone of T2 rectal cancer should not be performed, and after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy the risk of developing LR was also high. In cases with unexpected T2 finding after LE, immediate conventional reoperation can represent an adequate oncological therapy, because it reveals comparable results to those obtained by primary radical resection. First results after nCRT followed by LE showed favorable results with low LR rates. If the indication for LE of T2 cancers can be extended to patients after nCRT in the future will have to be determined in prospective mutlticentre studies.

  17. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  18. Plantaris Excision Reduces Pain in Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy Even in the Absence of Plantaris Tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, James D F; Stephen, Joanna M; van Dijk, C Niek

    2016-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the plantaris can contribute to symptoms in at least a subset of patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. However, the nature of its involvement remains unclear. To determine whether excised plantaris tendons from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy display tendinopathic changes and whether the presence of such changes affect clinical outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixteen plantaris tendons in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy recalcitrant to conservative management underwent histological examination for the presence of tendinopathic changes. All patients had imaging to confirm the presence of the plantaris tendon adherent to or invaginated into the focal area of Achilles tendinosis. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) results were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Sixteen patients (mean age, 26.2 years; range, 18-47 years) underwent surgery, with a mean follow-up of 14 months (range, 6-20 months). The plantaris tendon was histologically normal in 13 of 16 cases (81%). Inflammatory changes in the loose peritendinous connective tissue surrounding the plantaris tendon were evident in all cases. There was significant improvement in mean VAS scores (P < .05) and all domains of the FAOS postoperatively (P < .05). The absence of any tendinopathic changes in the excised plantaris of 13 patients who clinically improved suggests plantaris involvement with Achilles tendinopathy may not yet be fully understood and supports the concept that this may be a compressive or a frictional phenomenon rather than purely tendinopathic.

  19. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  20. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  1. The excise duty of imported cars – legal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents legal problems of secondhand car excise duty imposedin Poland. Additionally, the current results of statistical investigations referring to the number of cars imported from abroad were presented in this article.

  2. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PDF Slides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found...

  3. 27 CFR 24.323 - Excise Tax Return form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise Tax Return form. 24.323 Section 24.323 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.323 Excise Tax Return form. A proprietor who removes wine subject to tax shall...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2512-7 - Effect of excise tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of excise tax. 25.2512-7 Section 25.2512-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-7 Effect of excise tax. If jewelry, furs or other property, the purchase of...

  5. Excision of Mucocele Using Diode Laser in Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are nonneoplastic cystic lesions of major and minor salivary glands which result from the accumulation of mucus. These lesions are most commonly seen in children. Though usually these lesions can be treated by local surgical excision, in our case, to avoid intraoperative surgical complications like bleeding and edema and to enable better healing, excision was done using a diode laser in the wavelength of 940 nm.

  6. Modulation of DNA base excision repair during neuronal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, Peter; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are terminally differentiated cells with a high rate of metabolism and multiple biological properties distinct from their undifferentiated precursors. Previous studies showed that nucleotide excision DNA repair is downregulated in postmitotic muscle cells and neurons. Here, we characterize...... DNA damage susceptibility and base excision DNA repair (BER) capacity in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural cells. The results show that undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are less sensitive to oxidative damage than their differentiated counterparts, in part because...

  7. Base excision repair: a critical player in many games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Susan S

    2014-07-01

    This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person's view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  9. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  10. Excised Embryo Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Dan Kepekaannya Terhadap Pengeringan*[desiccation Sensitivity of Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Excised Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Soetisna, Usep; Zebua, Lisye Iriana

    2005-01-01

    A study on desiccation sensitivity of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)excised embryo has been conducted.Excised embryos were desiccated into target moisture content of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15% and 10% respectively.Results shown that the critical level for moisture content was 20% with 60% viability and 7.431% per etmal growth rate and 929ms electric conduction Further study is needed as to investigate on how long the embryo will withstand subsequent storage treatments.

  11. Providers issue brief: tobacco: excise taxes: year end report-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government impose excise taxes on cigarettes and have done so for many years. State tobacco taxes range from a high of $2.05 per pack of cigarettes in New Jersey to a low of $0.03 in Virginia per pack. The federal government levies an excise tax that increased by $0.05 on Jan. 1, 2002, to $0.39 per package. Cigarette taxes are directed at the consumer, while taxes on other tobacco products focus on the wholesaler. In the 2002 legislative sessions, 33 states proposed increases in cigarette excise taxes as a means of addressing budget shortfalls; 20 states enacted increases. Increasing tobacco excise taxes may decrease tobacco usage and increase state revenue. Increasing cigarette taxes is a means of generating revenue that generally is supported by public opinion. For instance, a 2003 poll in Ohio found that 63 percent of the public favored increasing cigarette excise taxes as long as the revenue is used for health care purposes. Cigarette excise taxes was again an area of substantial legislative interest and activity due to continued state budget deficits. A February 2003 NCSL study of state budget shortfalls indicated that the current cumulative budget gap is approximately $25.7 billion for fiscal year (FY) 2003. State revenues were sluggish and generally most failed to meet budgeted levels. At least 30 states noted that general fund collections were below budgeted estimates, and 12 states reported that collections failed to meet revised levels. Although the additional tax revenue generated by raising excise taxes may not eliminate state budget shortfalls, the revenue may provide funds for specific state programs.This issue brief provides an overview of the policy issue, a brief history of tobacco taxation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, an overview of legislative activity in 2003, and a state-by-state map of state tobacco taxes.

  12. 26 CFR 40.6302(a)-1 - Voluntary payments of excise taxes by electronic funds transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary payments of excise taxes by electronic funds transfer. 40.6302(a)-1 Section 40.6302(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(a)-1 Voluntary payments of excise taxes by...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4974-1 - Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities. 54.4974-1 Section 54.4974-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-1 Excise tax on accumulations in...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4974-2 - Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans. 54.4974-2 Section 54.4974-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-2 Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4975-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions. 54.4975-1 Section 54.4975-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-1 General rules relating to excise tax on prohibite...

  16. 26 CFR 156.5881-1 - Imposition of excise tax on greenmail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of excise tax on greenmail. 156.5881-1 Section 156.5881-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON GREENMAIL Tax on Greenmail § 156.5881-1 Imposition of excise tax on greenmail. (a) In genera...

  17. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  19. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  20. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  1. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  2. Emerging roles for histone modifications in DNA excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peng; Wyrick, John J

    2016-11-01

    DNA repair is critical to maintain genome stability. In eukaryotic cells, DNA repair is complicated by the packaging of the DNA 'substrate' into chromatin. DNA repair pathways utilize different mechanisms to overcome the barrier presented by chromatin to efficiently locate and remove DNA lesions in the genome. DNA excision repair pathways are responsible for repairing a majority of DNA lesions arising in the genome. Excision repair pathways include nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER), which repair bulky and non-bulky DNA lesions, respectively. Numerous studies have suggested that chromatin inhibits both NER and BER in vitro and in vivo Growing evidence demonstrates that histone modifications have important roles in regulating the activity of NER and BER enzymes in chromatin. Here, we will discuss the roles of different histone modifications and the corresponding modifying enzymes in DNA excision repair, highlighting the role of yeast as a model organism for many of these studies. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  4. Analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewyn, L. L. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    An analog to digital converter circuit arrangement is reported that is suitable for use in ultra fast pulse height analysis. The circuit uses series connected tunnel diodes to quantize a voltage signal into discrete levels.

  5. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  6. Excision of oral mucocele by different wavelength lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of oral soft tissues and the most common after fibroma. It generally occurs in the lower lip and its treatment includes excision of cyst and the responsible salivary gland, in order to prevent recurrences. Aims: To evaluate the capability of three different lasers in performing the excision of labial mucocele with two different techniques. Materials and Methods: In the presented cases, excision was performed using two different techniques (circumferential incision technique and mucosal preservation technique and three different laser wavelengths (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm, diode 808 nm, and KTP 532 nm. Results: All the tested lasers, regardless of wavelength, showed many advantages (bloodless surgical field, no postoperative pain, relative speed, and easy execution. The most useful surgical technique depends on clinical features of the lesion. Conclusion: Tested lasers, with both techniques, are helpful in the management of labial mucocele.

  7. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  8. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D; Williams, David L; DePond, Robert T; Gantt, Pickens A

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  9. The effects of chalazion excision on corneal surface aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Jong Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study is the first to consider the effects of chalazion on corneal surface aberrations taking into account of corneal zones, and to establish the size standard for the excision of chalazion. Twenty three eyes from 23 patients with central upper eyelid chalazion larger than 3mm were recruited in this prospective study. The participants were classified into two groups, depending on size of the lesion: Group 1 with lesion size 3-5mm and Group 2 with lesion size >5mm Chalazion was excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Corneal surface aberrations were measured using a Galilei™ analyzer and an auto-refractometer before and 2 months after the excision. Corneal astigmatism in all patients decreased significantly in both auto refractometer (P=0.012) and Galilei™ (P=0.020) measurements after chalazion excision. RMS of total HOAs decreased significantly in 6mm (P=0.043) and 3mm zone (P=0.051). The RMS of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil decreased significantly in 6mm (P=0.035) and 3mm (P=0.041) zone. Group 2 showed a significant decrease in corneal astigmatism in both auto refractometer (P=0.040) and Galilei™ (P=0.017) parameters after chalazion excision. Group 1 showed an insignificant decrease in corneal astigmatism. Unlike Group 1, the RMS of total HOAs and vertical and horizontal trefoil in 6mm zone decreased significantly in Group 2 (Pchalazion increases astigmatism and HOAs, especially at the peripheral cornea. Significantly induced astigmatism and HOAs are caused by chalazion >5mm in size. Thus, we recommend the surgical excision of chalazion >5mm in size to reduce corneal surface aberrations. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Robotic Excision of a Papillary Fibroelastoma of the Mitral Chordae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Mani; Smith, Robert L; Squiers, John J; Wang, Alex; DiMaio, J Michael; Mack, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Papillary fibroelastomas of the mitral chordae tendineae are rare, primary benign tumors. They are either incidentally diagnosed during echocardiography or discovered after transient ischemic attack, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Removal of papillary fibroelastomas should be considered, given the increased risk for embolization causing cerebrovascular accident or mortality in patients with echocardiographic evidence of papillary fibroelastoma not undergoing surgical procedures. Although fibroelastoma removal can be performed in most cases without disrupting mitral valve competency, sternotomy and minithoracotomy are the typical approaches for excision. Herein, we report the first robotic excision of a mitral chord papillary fibroelastoma. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wide local excision of acanthomatous epulides in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; Gorman, N T

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five dogs bearing acanthomatous epulides of the oral cavity underwent tumor resection by wide local excision. The surgical procedures included rostral mandibulectomy, removal of the mandibular body, premaxillectomy, and partial maxillectomy. Postoperative complications were rare, and local recurrence was not encountered in any dogs over periods of 1 to 6 1/2 years (median, 22 months). The authors conclude from the high incidence of local recurrence after simple excision through the tumor margins and the potential for malignant transformation after irradiation that wide surgical resection is the technique of choice for the management of acanthomatous epulis.

  12. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H R

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At long term follow up (1-9 years, mean 5.5 years) no complications attributable to the Teflon felt have been identified. Images PMID:3324378

  13. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of

  14. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of tobacco use, should not allow

  15. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  16. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision. Keywords: Breast, fibroadenoma, quadrant, subdermal, ...

  17. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One breast had wound infection and dehiscence. There were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision.

  18. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Other measures proposed as part of the new tax law include indexing the excise tax to inflation, adopting a unitary tax system, and earmarking taxes for the Universal Health Care program. Researchers will collect data from a survey of consumer demand for tobacco products and analyze the reasons why people consume ...

  19. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  20. Circumareolar Incision‑subdermal Tunneling Dissection for Excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... and functional reasons with successful excision. Fibroadenomas are the most common indication for breast biopsy,[1,2] and most patients with fibroadenomas are young females below 30 years and up to 25% of. Department of Surgery,. Division of General Surgery,. University of Ilorin Teaching. Hospital ...

  1. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  2. Excise Taxes and the Price Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ralph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that, although the analysis of the imposition of an excise tax is widely used in economics courses, the consequences of a change in the tax rate are different and ignored. This article presents an effective way to teach about such a change. (GG)

  3. of lung metastases carcinoma of the cervix Surgical excision from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tant points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; and (ii).in selected cases surgical excision of a secondary deposit in the lung is the treatment of choice and may even result -in cure. S Atr ueaJ 1983; 13:.25-26. Department of Radiation Therapy and ...

  4. Laser excision of peripheral ossifying fibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Chugh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF is a non-neoplastic enlargement seen more often in females, in the interdental papilla and the anterior part of the maxilla, accounts for about 9% of all gingival growths. Of unknown etiology, unpredictable clinical course and pronicity for recurrence, POF is a clinician′s cause for concern. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but with a reported recurrence rate of 7-45%, the management is often frustrating. With increasing acceptance of lasers in the repertoire of clinician′s armory, laser excision of such lesions has become a possible, feasible, and patient-preferred approach. The purpose of this article is to report successful management and 1 year follow-up of two cases of POF using neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG laser. The absence of operative bleeding, relative ease of the procedure and patient acceptance lends the laser excision as an alternate therapeutic modality for excision of gingival enlargements of suspicious and vexatious nature.

  5. Elbow joint kinematics after excision of the radial head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    or internal rotation. The results were independent of the rotation of the forearm. This study indicates that the radial head acts as stabilizer to the elbow joint in forced varus and in forced external rotation. The results suggest that fractures of the radial head cannot be treated by simple excision without...

  6. Surgical amniotic membrane transplantation after conjunctival and limbal tumor excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniz Engur Goktas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of patients treated by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT following excision of conjunctival and limbal tumors. Methods: A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients who underwent AMT after total lesion-free tumor excision and perilesional cryotherapy were evaluated. Results: The excised tumors comprised 7 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 conjunctival nevus, 1 primary acquired melanosis, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Limbus was involved in 10 cases, whereas cornea was involved in 6 cases. The average measurement of the tumor base was 14.8 mm (range 6-20 mm, SD 16 mm. The mean follow-up time period was 17.5 months (range 6 -60 months, SD 20 months. Complete healing occurred in eight eyes, but limbal cell deficiency developed in two eyes. Four cases had recurrence and were treated with the same surgical and medical procedures; during follow-up after recurrence, superficial peripheral vascularization and corneal scar were noted to have developed. Conclusions: AMT was effective for reconstruction of tissue defect after excision and cryotherapy of limbal and conjunctival tumors. In most of these cases, complete healing was achieved with a smooth, stable, and translucent surface.

  7. Long-term outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substantial improvements have been made in the treatment of rectal cancer in the past two decades because of earlier diagnosis, improved efficacy and delivery of chemotherapy, and the adoption of advanced surgical techniques such as laparoscopic total meso- rectal excision (TME). Laparoscopic TME has several ...

  8. Toe component excision in postaxial polydactyly of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Heon; Jung, Sung Taek; Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Hyeong Won; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Polydactyly of the fifth toe is the most common congenital malformation of the forefoot, and no consensus has been reached as to which toe component should be excised or by which surgical technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of the operative treatment of postaxial polydactyly and to offer treatment guidelines. We retrospectively reviewed the details of 27 patients with postaxial polydactyly (36 feet) treated from September 2004 to March 2010. To select the dominant toe of postaxial polydactyly, we evaluated the morphological and radiological configurations. To excise the medial toe, we treated the polydactyly by dorsal rectangular flap and a full-thickness inguinal skin graft. To excise the lateral toe, we treated the polydactyly by racket-shape incision. Patient satisfaction indices were evaluated on the basis of responses to the PSQ-10 patient satisfaction questionnaire and clinical outcomes. Overall surgical outcomes were satisfactory with the exception of 2 cases of skin graft problems. Eighteen of the 36 reconstructed toes were smaller than the normal toes, but valgus deformity was observed in only 3 cases. The described medial toe excision technique and the devised toe selection algorithm were able to satisfy functional and cosmetic requirements.

  9. Peri-operative management for excision of plexiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 28-year-old female weighing 78 kilograms presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) with a huge left thigh mass, nodules and brownish skin patches (café-au-lait spots) all over her body. Plexiform neurofibromatosis was diagnosed. The mass was subsequently excised under ...

  10. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  11. Sacrococcygeal teratoma excision: a vertical rather than transverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-07

    Apr 7, 2017 ... (a) Pelvic MRI (axial T2WI) showing the mass displacing the anorectum. (black arrow). (b) The patient placed in the prone (face down) position. (c) Dissection of the mass off the rectum. (d) After excision of the mass, the pelvic floor muscles are closed vertically in the midline from below upwards. (e) Vertical ...

  12. Molecular cloning of the human excision repair gene ERCC-6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); H. Odijk (Hanny); J. de Wit (Jan); A. Westerveld (Andries); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe UV-sensitive, nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line UV61 was used to identify and clone a correcting human gene, ERCC-6. UV61, belonging to rodent complementation group 6, is only moderately UV sensitive in comparison with mutant lines in groups 1 to

  13. Reconstruction Techniques for Tissue Defects Formed after Preauricular Sinus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Joon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Preauricular sinuses are congenital abnormalities caused by a failure of fusion of the primitive tubercles from which the pinna is formed. When persistent or recurring inflammation occurs, surgical excision of the infected tissue should be considered. Preauricular defects inevitably occur as a result of excisions and are often difficult to resolve with a simple suture; a more effective reconstruction technique is required for treating these defects. Methods After total excision of a preauricular sinus, the defect was closed by a plastic surgeon. Based on the depth of the defect and the degree of tension when apposing the wound margins, the surgeon determined whether to use primary closure or a posterior auricular flap. Results A total of 28 cases were examined. In 5 cases, including 2 reoperations for dehiscence after primary repair, reconstruction was performed using posterior auricular transposition flaps. In 16 cases of primary closure, the defects were closed using simple sutures, and in 7 cases, closure was performed after wide undermining. Conclusions If a preauricular defect is limited to the subcutaneous layer and the margins can be easily approximated, primary closure by only simple suturing may be used to perform the repair. If the defect is deep enough to expose the perichondrium or if there is tension when apposing the wound margins, wide undermining should be performed before primary closure. If the extent of the excision exposes cartilage, the procedure follows dehiscence of the primary repair, or the tissue is not sufficiently healthy, the surgeon should use a posterior auricular flap.

  14. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on...

  15. Recurrent contact granuloma: experience with excision and botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Taner; Süslü, Nilda; Atay, Gamze; Özer, Serdar; Günaydin, Riza Önder; Bajin, Münir Demir

    2013-06-01

    Contact granuloma is a difficult-to-treat laryngeal disorder associated with vocal abuse, habitual throat clearing, and laryngopharyngeal reflux. It has a high propensity for persistence and recurrence despite many treatment alternatives. To present our experience with recurrent contact granuloma treated with microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin injection. Case series. The follow-up period had a mean (range) of 41 (11-88) months. Tertiary referral university clinic. Twenty patients with recurrent, grade 3 and grade 4 contact granuloma whose lesion was excised at least once after failure of conservative treatments. Microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin type A injection into the region of the bilateral thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. Disappearance of contact granuloma. Seventeen patients were cured of their contact granuloma. Three patients experienced recurrences: 2 received botulinum toxin injection only as outpatients and recovered. The other patient required reexcision and reinjection under general anesthesia. These 3 patients were free of granuloma at their last follow-up. After failed conservative treatment, microlaryngoscopic excision and botulinum toxin type A injection is successful in the treatment of recurrent contact granuloma. Removing recurrent granulomas can result in a low recurrence rate if botulinum toxin type A is added at the time of removal.

  16. Surgical excision of lung metastases from squamous carcinoma of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These 2 case reports serveto emphasizetwo important points concerning carcinoma of the cervix: (i) blood-borne metastases are now frequently encountered in this disease; and (ii). in selected cases surgical excision of a secondary deposit in the lung is the treatment of choice and may even result -in cure.

  17. Clinical trial comparing excision and primary closure with modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walid Galal Elshazly

    2011-12-03

    Dec 3, 2011 ... Abstract The aim of this study was to compare modified Limberg flap procedure with excision and primary closure in the treatment of uncomplicated pilonidal disease. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 patients with uncomplicated sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease that were randomly allocated into ...

  18. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, SO; Pierie, JPEN; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, WJHJ

    With the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for treatment of rectal cancer, the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer is improved. With this better prognosis, there is a growing awareness about the quality of life of patients after rectal carcinoma. Laparoscopic total mesorectal

  19. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse; Levy, Larry B; Malpica, Anais; Follen, Michele

    2002-10-01

    OBJECTIVE.: Our objective was to compare by response rate the therapeutic options of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), laser therapy, and wide local excision in managing high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Between 1995 and 1999, 109 patients presenting with vulvar lesions were registered at a comprehensive cancer center and 2 associated colposcopy clinics. From these 109, we identified 74 patients with lesions histologically proven to be vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent treatment with CO2 laser, wide local excision, or LEEP. Clinical and pathological features were reviewed retrospectively. Wilcoxon rank sum test and life table analyses were used to compare groups. Response rates for this retrospective study will be used to calculate the sample size for a prospective clinical trial. RESULTS.: Our population was similar to others reported in the literature in age, range of diagnoses, and follow-up. Only 1 of 74 patients (1%) had invasive cancer. In a subset of 62 patients treated for the first time, LEEP and wide local excision were equal in their ability to achieve complete response. Laser ablation was the least successful of all methods (10/20 with laser, 3/20 with LEEP, and 2/22 with wide local excision experienced recurrences [p = .04]). No statistically significant differences among the 3 were noted in time to recurrence (p = .24). Age, age at first intercourse, and number of sexual partners were not correlated with recurrence and did not confound the results. Using a chi approximation, an alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.80, researchers should enroll 25 patients per arm if improvement over standard therapy is expected to be 40%, 45 if expected to be 30%, and 95 if expected to be 20%. CONCLUSIONS.: Because of differences in recurrence rate and length of hospital stay and indications of potential differences in cost found in this pilot, LEEP merits

  20. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  1. Analogies in Science and Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon; Salter, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are often used in science, but students may not appreciate their significance, and so the analogies can be misunderstood or discounted. For this reason, educationalists often express concern about the use of analogies in teaching. Given the important place of analogies in the discourse of science, it is necessary that students are…

  2. Preliminary results of comparative study for subsequent photodynamic therapy versus secondary excision after primary excision for treating basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenbo; Zhang, Mengli; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Chunyu; Chen, Xu; Fang, Fang

    2017-03-01

    Some basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are indistinguishable from nevi based on clinical manifestations. Therefore, it is often difficult for the excision margins of the initial surgical treatment to achieve radical removal of the malignancy. This study was a comparative analysis of the clinical results of aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) or secondary surgery after the primary excision. In total, 20 patients with preoperative clinical diagnoses of nevi underwent in situ resection. The postoperative pathological diagnoses confirmed all cases were BCC. Ten patients received PDT twice after the primary excision, and 10 cases received extended resection after the primary excision. Patients were followed up for 8 months at least, and the 2 groups did not show statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate, while the PDT group had better results in terms of economic burden, healing period, and cosmetic satisfaction than the group with secondary surgery. Our study demonstrates that ALA-PDT can sever as a considerable remedial treatment for the BCC patients who have not accepted radical resection due to primary clinical misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome organization of the Chelonus inanitus polydnavirus: excision sites, spacers and abundance of proviral and excised segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaheim, Marc; Lanzrein, Beatrice

    2007-02-01

    Polydnaviruses are only found in symbiotic association with parasitic wasps within the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (ichnoviruses and bracoviruses). They have a segmented genome consisting of circular double-stranded DNA. In the proviral linear form they are integrated in the wasp's genome; in two bracoviruses, segments were found to be clustered. Proviral segments have direct terminal repeats. Segment excision has been proposed to occur through juxtaposition of these repeats by formation of a loop and recombination; one copy of the repeat then ends up in the circular segment and one in the rejoined DNA. Here we analysed the excision/circularization site of four segments of the Chelonus inanitus bracovirus (CiV) and found that they are similar to the two already known sites; on the basis of the combined data an extended excision site motif was found. Analyses of segment flanking sequences led to the first identification of one complete and several partial spacers between proviral segments in a polydnavirus. The spacer between the proviral segments CiV14 and CiV22.5 has a length of 2065 bp; the terminal repeats of CiV14 and CiV22.5 were seen to have an opposite orientation and from this a model on the spacial organization of the loops of the proviral cluster is proposed. Through various approaches it was shown that spacers are not excised or injected into the host. Measurement of relative abundances of various segments in proviral and excised form indicates for the first time that abundant segments are present in multiple copies in the proviral form.

  4. Robotic transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: experience with a first case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, P.M.; Consten, E.C.J.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: A transanal approach for total mesorectal excision (TME) using a single incision port is feasible. The disadvantages are technical difficulties associated with limited manoeuvrability. Methods: We present our first experience with robotic-assisted transanal total mesorectal excision. A

  5. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  6. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  7. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  8. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  9. Drawing Analogies to Deepen Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article offers examples of how drawing can facilitate thinking skills that promote analogical reasoning to enable deeper learning. The instructional design applies cognitive principles, briefly described here. The workshops were developed iteratively, through feedback from student and teacher participants. Elements of the UK National…

  10. Designing analog circuits in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram; van Langevelde, Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in CMOS technology dictated by Moore's Law is clearly beneficial for designers of digital circuits, but it presents difficult challenges, such as lowered nominal supply voltages, for their peers in the analog world who want to keep pace with this rapid progression. This article

  11. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  12. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-05-01

    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Wound Complications and Perineal Pain After Extralevator Versus Standard Abdominoperineal Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extralevator abdominoperineal excision was introduced as an alternative to conventional abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancers. The perineal dissection is more extensive with extralevator abdominoperineal excision and leaves a greater defect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to evaluate, on a national basis, the risk of perineal wound complications, pain, and hernia after conventional and extralevator abdominoperineal excision performed for low rectal cancer. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study collecting data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database and from...

  15. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of ...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are includible in gross investment income. Therefore, for example, interest received on a student loan... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on net investment income. 53.4940-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Investment Income § 53.4940...

  17. First observation of excision and integration in Class 1 integron in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So in this study, we tested in S. aureus, the class 1 integron mediated excision and integration. We first asked 8 plasmids from previous studies, then established some transformants and perform the excision and integration reaction. As the results revealed, we observed positive excision assay, which had been confirmed by ...

  18. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking, published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2009, that proposed amendments to title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations to: preclude the filing of a substitution drawback claim for internal revenue excise tax paid on imported merchandise in situations where no excise tax was paid upon the substituted merchandise or where the substituted merchandise is the subject of a different claim for refund or drawback of tax under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code; and add a basic importation and entry bond condition to foster compliance with the amended drawback provision. The notice is being withdrawn to permit further consideration of the relevant issues involved in the proposed rulemaking.

  20. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  1. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (Enzinger, 1988. The malignant granular cell tumor is an extremely rare, aggressive variant, which provides a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma, especially with early presentation when it may be mistaken for other entities. There is also controversy regarding surgical management and follow-up of both benign and malignant granular cell tumors.

  2. Quality of life after robotically assisted atrial myxoma excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesävuori, Risto; Raivio, Peter; Jokinen, Janne J; Sahlman, Antero; Vento, Antti

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after robotically assisted myxoma surgery performed at our institution. Altogether nine patients underwent robotically assisted atrial myxoma excision. A control group was selected from 18 consecutive patients who underwent an isolated atrial myxoma excision via conventional sternotomy. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar between the two study groups. Postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. All robotic operations were completed successfully using the da Vinci™ telesurgical system. There was no mortality in either of the two study groups. Procedure, cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic occlusion, and ventilation times were shorter in the sternotomy group when compared to the robotic group. Length of stay was statistically significantly shorter in the robotically assisted group. Postoperative quality of life did not differ between the two study groups. We conclude that robotically assisted surgery is a feasible method for treating atrial myxomas.

  3. Isolated myocardial hydatid cyst: Managed with total curative excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still prevalent in developing countries, and isolated cardiac hydatid cysts are the rarest presentation. We report a 40-year-old nondiabetic, nonhypertensive female who presented with low-grade fever for 2 months shortness of breath and orthopnea for 2 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large, round cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts without any obvious intraluminal detached membranes with mass effect on the left ventricular outflow tract. After total excision, residual tissue was closed with Teflon patch. Germinative membrane and hundreds of daughter cysts were seen. Following total excision of the cyst from myocardium, myocardial cavity was washed thoroughly with 10% Betadine solution. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Preoperatively started albendazole was continued for 4 weeks even after the operation. On follow-up after 4 weeks, the patient is doing well and cardiac imaging showed normal contours of the heart.

  4. Conservation and Divergence in Nucleotide Excision Repair Lesion Recognition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Nicolas; Gross, Jonas; Roth, Heide M.; Buechner, Claudia N.; Kisker, Caroline; Tessmer, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair is an important and highly conserved DNA repair mechanism with an exceptionally large range of chemically and structurally unrelated targets. Lesion verification is believed to be achieved by the helicases UvrB and XPD in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic processes, respectively. Using single molecule atomic force microscopy analyses, we demonstrate that UvrB and XPD are able to load onto DNA and pursue lesion verification in the absence of the initial lesion detection proteins. Interestingly, our studies show different lesion recognition strategies for the two functionally homologous helicases, as apparent from their distinct DNA strand preferences, which can be rationalized from the different structural features and interactions with other nucleotide excision repair protein factors of the two enzymes. PMID:27405761

  5. Transanal vs laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf; Al Khefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LaTME) has improved short-term outcomes of rectal cancer surgery with comparable oncological results to open approach. LaTME can be difficult in the lower most part of the rectum, leading potentially to higher rates of complications, conversion...... to open surgery and probably suboptimal oncological quality. Transanal TME (TaTME) can potentially solve these problems. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term results after TaTME with those after LaTME. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients who underwent Ta......TME was maintained. Results were compared with those underwent LaTME in the preceding period. Patients who underwent low anterior resection or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision (APE) were included. Primary end-points were radical resection and specimen quality. Secondary end-points were complications, rates...

  6. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Consecutive Mean Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8268 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Consecutive Mean Excision...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8268 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm...2018 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2016–30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Automated Energy

  7. Open Wound Drainage Versus Wound Excision on the Modern Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    penicillin coverage to eliminate the threat of invasive bacteremia by hemolytic streptococcus , presumably produced conditions that insured unimpeded...pyemia, septicemia and erysipelas remained major causes of death in the war wounded (10). Friedrich originated the idea of excising the bacteria...hemolytic streptococcus in 10 to 15% of cases, but after a week in the hospital over 90% of w-unds were infected with this bacteria (12,13), and

  8. Principles of Periocular Reconstruction following Excision of Cutaneous Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Hayano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of periocular defects following excision of cutaneous malignancy can present difficulties for oculofacial and reconstructive surgeons. The intricate anatomy of the eyelids and face requires precise restoration in order to avoid postoperative functional anesthetic concerns. Various reconstructive procedures based on common principles, location and size of the defect, can be applied to achieve restoration with the best possible functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  9. Pregnancy outcome after loop electrosurgical excision procedure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan M G

    2003-11-01

    To examine the association of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. A computerized search of MEDLINE and PubMed was conducted using the keys words "pregnancy" and "loop electrosurgical excision procedure," "LEEP," "LETZ," "LLETZ," or "loop excision." References from identified publications were manually searched and cross referenced to identify additional relevant articles. Studies were included that compared women who had had LEEP to women who had not had the procedure and that reported on subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Studies were excluded if there was no control group, if the LEEP was performed during the pregnancy, or if only an abstract was available. Five of 36 articles identified met the criteria for systematic review. Women who had had LEEP were more likely to have preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 2.76; P = .006) and low birth weight infants (precipitous labor, labor induction, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. A subgroup analysis including only studies matching for smoking status revealed that preterm birth was still more common in women who had had LEEP (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.42, 4.49; P = .001), but birth weight under 2500 g was no longer significantly different. LEEP appears to be associated with subsequent preterm birth, even when smoking status is matched. Studies with adequate sample size are needed to further evaluate the relationship of LEEP and preterm birth, controlling for potential confounders, including depth of the tissue sample.

  10. Effect of chalazion excision on refractive error and corneal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Hasani, Hamid R; Karimian, Farid; Abrishami, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate refractive and corneal topographic changes following excision of chalazia. This prospective noncomparative quasi-experimental clinical trial includes consecutive patients older than 7 years with chalazia of minimum duration of 1 month who underwent excision of the lesions by an internal or external approach. Overall, 253 lids from 228 eyes of 195 patients including 110 female subjects with mean age of 31-/+14 years (range 7-71) were studied. Mean duration of presenting symptoms was 4-/+2.8 months (range 1-24). Lesions were equally distributed in medial, central, and lateral areas of the eyelids. The chalazia were single in 172 (88.2%) and multiple in 23 (11.8%) patients. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent refractive error, and difference of keratometry (corneal astigmatism) were 0.0004-/+0.007 logMAR (p=0.3), -0.06-/+0.6 D (p=0.1), and 0.34-/+0.35 (pChalazion excision can decrease corneal astigmatism and irregularity, which is more prominent in single, firm, and central upper lid lesions. These findings may have implications in pediatric patients at risk for amblyopia.

  11. Major urinary dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W; Heintz, A; Junginger, T

    2005-02-01

    Urinary dysfunction may occur after mesorectal excision and pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) in patients with rectal carcinoma. The aim of this prospective study was to identify factors predictive of long-term urinary catheterization. Two hundred and ten patients without significant urological problems underwent resection of rectal cancer with mesorectal excision. The number of patients with complete, partial or no identification of the nerves was documented and correlated with possible predictive factors for postoperative major urinary dysfunction. Eight patients (3.8 per cent) required long-term urinary catheterization: two after complete PANP (two of 168) and six in whom PANP was incomplete (six of 42) (P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis identified incomplete PANP (odds ratio 13.8 (95 per cent confidence interval 2.7 to 71.3); P = 0.002) as a predictive factor for major urinary dysfunction. Major urinary dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal cancer is associated with an incomplete nerve-sparing technique.

  12. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  13. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  14. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  15. Substrate mimicry: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase recognizes 6-modified-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphates as adenosine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Brian D; Schinazi, Raymond F; Zhang, Hong-wang; Nettles, James H; Stanton, Richard; Detorio, Mervi; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Pradère, Ugo; Coats, Steven J; Mellors, John W; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    β-D-3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (3'-azido-ddG) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication with a superior resistance profile to zidovudine. Recently, we identified five novel 6-modified-3'-azido-ddG analogs that exhibit similar or superior anti-HIV-1 activity compared to 3'-azido-ddG in primary cells. To gain insight into their structure-activity-resistance relationships, we synthesized their triphosphate (TP) forms and assessed their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments show that the 6-modified-3'-azido-ddGTP analogs act as adenosine rather than guanosine mimetics in DNA synthesis reactions. The order of potency of the TP analogs against wild-type RT was: 3'-azido-2,6-diaminopurine >3'-azido-6-chloropurine; 3'-azido-6-N-allylaminopurine > 2-amino-6-N,N-dimethylaminopurine; 2-amino-6-methoxypurine. Molecular modeling studies reveal unique hydrogen-bonding interactions between the nucleotide analogs and the template thymine base in the active site of RT. Surprisingly, the structure-activity relationship of the analogs differed in HIV-1 RT ATP-mediated excision assays of their monophosphate forms, suggesting that it may be possible to rationally design a modified base analog that is efficiently incorporated by RT but serves as a poor substrate for ATP-mediated excision reactions. Overall, these studies identify a promising strategy to design novel nucleoside analogs that exert profound antiviral activity against both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1.

  16. A digital to analog converter

    OpenAIRE

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching algorithm. To improve the mismatch-noise shaping of these algorithms, excess conversion elements may be additionally selected.

  17. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  18. Third order digital-to-analog converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    System, consisting of sample and hold digital-to-analog converter, clock circuit, sample delay circuit, initial condition circuit and interpolator circuit, improves accuracy of reconstructed analog signal without increasing sample rates.

  19. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  20. Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A highly...2008/12/12/31e83bac-500f-4182- acca -4d360295fd9c.pdf, Analog Devices, Analog Dialogue 39-06, June 2005. [15] D. A. Johns, K. Martin "Analog Integrated

  1. Analogies and the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Mary Kay; Thomas, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Science classes are full of abstract or challenging concepts that are easier to understand if an analogy is used to illustrate the points. Effective analogies motivate students, clarify students' thinking, help students overcome misconceptions, and give students ways to visualize abstract concepts. When they are used appropriately, analogies can…

  2. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  3. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chadrabose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Materials Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years. Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. Results The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months. The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS preoperatively was 48 (35-70. The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95. With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°. The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500, 116°of flexion (1100-1300, and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000. One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. Conclusion We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  4. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Chadrabose; Periyasamy, Rameshkumar; Balaji, Subbachandra; Premanand, C; Alva, Shreyas; Reddy, Shiva

    2011-12-05

    Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females) with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years). Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months). The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS) preoperatively was 48 (35-70). The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95). With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°). The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500), 116°of flexion (1100-1300), and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000). One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  5. Per-anal excision of large, rectal, villous adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, J M; Grabham, J A; Fozard, J B

    2004-01-01

    Considering the malignant potential of villous adenoma of the rectum, complete resection at the first intervention is desirable and yet many series suggest that a high recurrence rate must be expected. The experience of one colorectal surgeon in the management of this condition is described. Between 1993 and 2000, 50 patients underwent per-anal resection of villous adenoma. The procedure was conducted in the prone jackknife position unless contraindicated, with dissection performed using a diathermy blade, with particular attention to circumferential and deep margins of excision. The mean distance of the proximal margin of the tumor from the dentate line was 5.6 (range, 0.5-11) cm. The mean length of the tumor was 5.2 (range, 0.5-9) cm. Mean anesthetic time was 27 (range, 10-110) minutes, and median hospital stay was two (range, 1-14) days. There was no significant perioperative morbidity and no mortality. On histology of ten patients, there were foci of adenocarcinoma. Excision was complete histologically in 49 patients. The median follow-up was 30 (range, 6-91) months. The patient with incomplete excision developed a probable recurrence after six months, which was ablated with diathermy (residual tumor rate, 2.1 percent). Two patients have subsequently developed villous adenoma at different sites within the rectum (metachronous tumor rate, 4.3 percent). Many series of this procedure report recurrence in up to 36 percent and significant complication in up to 19 percent of patients. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery has achieved recurrence rates of 2.8 percent and low complication rates but for economic reasons has failed to find a widespread role. This article demonstrates that large, villous tumors of the low and mid rectum can be simply and effectively treated by per-anal resection with recurrence rates equivalent to transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

  6. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  7. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  8. The quest for precision in transanal total mesorectal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini Melani, A G; Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2016-01-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) is an emerging minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer, with encouraging preliminary results. However, the new surgical anatomy of the bottom-up approach complicates surgical understanding and increases the risks of inadvertent injuries to crucial anatomical structures, including nerves. Key elements to improve the safety and stimulate interest in such a complex technique might be robotics and image guidance, to enhance the level of precision. In this editorial, some of the technologies that could be used for precision TME are outlined, in light of the experience of our Institute for Image-Guided Surgery.

  9. Successful surgical excision of primary right atrial angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Lexis, Chris P H; Willems, Tineke P; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Ebels, Tjark; Mariani, Massimo A

    2011-04-09

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a high incidence of metastatic spread (up to 89%) at the time of diagnosis, which restricts the indication for surgical resection to a small number of patients. We report the case of a 50-year old Caucasian woman with non-metastatic primary right atrial angiosarcoma, who underwent successful surgical excision of the tumor (with curative intent) and reconstruction of the right atrium with a porcine pericardial patch. However, after a symptom-free survival of five months the patient presented with bone and liver metastases without evidence of local tumor recurrence.

  10. Successful surgical excision of primary right atrial angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Iwan CC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a high incidence of metastatic spread (up to 89% at the time of diagnosis, which restricts the indication for surgical resection to a small number of patients. We report the case of a 50-year old Caucasian woman with non-metastatic primary right atrial angiosarcoma, who underwent successful surgical excision of the tumor (with curative intent and reconstruction of the right atrium with a porcine pericardial patch. However, after a symptom-free survival of five months the patient presented with bone and liver metastases without evidence of local tumor recurrence.

  11. Excision arthroplasty for management of coxofemoral luxation in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, D M

    1989-01-01

    Coxofemoral luxation, although not a common injury, can cause considerable pelvic limb dysfunction in pet birds. Luxation usually is craniodorsal, as it is in dogs. Previously recommended treatments have not always been effective in managing the injury. Sequelae can include dorsolateral deviation of the pelvic limb, with loss of function and bumblefoot in the nonluxated limb, owing to abnormal weight-bearing. Excision arthroplasty combined with a muscular sling constructed from a segment of the iliofibularis muscle was used to treat coxofemoral luxation in a hyacinth macaw, a moluccan cockatoo, and an African gray parrot. The outcome was excellent in 2 of the 3 birds.

  12. Excised Abdominoplasty Material as a Systematic Plastic Surgical Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erol Demirseren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.

  13. Use of Preputial Skin as Cutaneous Graft after Nevus Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a four-year-old boy with a nevus covering all the plantar side of his second finger on the left foot. He was also affected by congenital phimosis. Surgical excision of the nevus was indicated, but the skin defect would have been too large to be directly closed. The foreskin was taken as a full-thickness skin graft to cover the cutaneous defect of the finger. The graft intake was favourable and provided a functional repair with good aesthetic characteristic.

  14. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  15. 26 CFR 55.4981-2 - Imposition of excise tax with respect to certain undistributed income of real estate investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain undistributed income of real estate investment trusts; calendar years beginning after December 31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-2 Imposition of excise tax with...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4979-0 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents. 54.4979-0 Section 54.4979-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-0 Excise tax on...

  17. 26 CFR 54.4975-14 - Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions. 54.4975-14 Section 54.4975-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-14 Election to pay an excise tax for...

  18. 26 CFR 55.4981-1 - Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Real Estate Investment Trusts § 55.4981-1 Imposition of excise tax on certain real estate investment trust taxable income not distributed during the taxable year...

  19. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  20. Reliability of analog quantum simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories, Digital and Quantum Information Systems, Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Lishan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Joint Institute of UMich-SJTU, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing (MOE), Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Analog quantum simulators (AQS) will likely be the first nontrivial application of quantum technology for predictive simulation. However, there remain questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the results of AQS since they do not naturally incorporate error correction. Specifically, how do we know whether an analog simulation of a quantum model will produce predictions that agree with the ideal model in the presence of inevitable imperfections? At the same time there is a widely held expectation that certain quantum simulation questions will be robust to errors and perturbations in the underlying hardware. Resolving these two points of view is a critical step in making the most of this promising technology. In this work we formalize the notion of AQS reliability by determining sensitivity of AQS outputs to underlying parameters, and formulate conditions for robust simulation. Our approach naturally reveals the importance of model symmetries in dictating the robust properties. To demonstrate the approach, we characterize the robust features of a variety of quantum many-body models. (orig.)

  1. A review of wide surgical excision of hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharbi Ziyad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder that involves the infundibular terminal follicles in areas rich of apocrine glands. It can be associated with fistulating sinus, scarring and abscesses formation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a challenging aspect and requires a proper treatment plan which may involve different specialties. We present herein the option of surgical treatment involving wide surgical excision and methods of reconstruction as well as the rate of recurrence. Furthermore, review of the literature regarding surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa is provided. Methods A retrospective analysis reviewed 50 operative procedures for 32 patients in 5 anatomical sites. These anatomical sites have been divided to 23 sites involving the axilla, 17 sites involving the inguinal region and 8 sites involving the perianal/perineal area, 1 site involving the gluteal region and 1 site involving the trunk region. Results Twenty six patients (81, 25 % showed no recurrence after surgery and the average time of hospital stay period was 5 days. Recurrence was observed only in 6 patients (18, 75 %. Conclusion Elimination of the acute inflammatory process should occur in advance, including the use of antibiotics and minor surgeries such as abscess drainage with proper irrigations. After stabilizing the acute phase, wide surgical excision is recommended. Herein, planning of surgical reconstruction should be initiated to achieve the best outcome and consequently decreasing the risk of recurrence and complications after surgery.

  2. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, David M L; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129)Xe. Straightforward hp (129)Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV) data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129)Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129)Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  3. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M L Lilburn

    Full Text Available Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp (129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129Xe. Straightforward hp (129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  4. Osteoid osteoma: fluoroscopic guided percutaneous excision technique - our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Dušan; Djan, Igor; Petković, Lazar; Vidosavljević, Marko; Sopta, Jelena; Marić, Dušica; Madić, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a small benign bone lesion. It generally affects children and young adults. Traditional treatment of osteoid osteoma includes excision either by wide resection, or by the removal of the nidus using curettes and burrs after opening the overlying cortex. Newly developed techniques involve percutaneous ablation of the tumor by computed tomography-guided core-drill excision and destruction of the nidus by thermocoagulation. Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous extirpation and drilling resection procedures have been performed at the Institute for Health Care of Children and Youth, Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad, Serbia. Some modifications in the methods were made and implemented, which resulted in an excellent cost-benefit ratio, shorter period of hospitalization, and faster recovery. The aim of this paper is to present the experience gained in the treatment of osteoid osteomas in the last 5 years at the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad and to describe the modifications to the percutaneous biopsy technique of osteoid osteoma that have been implemented.

  5. The relationship of analogical distance to analogical function and preinventive structure: the case of engineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bo T; Schunn, Christian D

    2007-01-01

    Analogy was studied in real-world engineering design, using the in vivo method. Analogizing was found to occur frequently, entailing a roughly equal amount of within- and between-domain analogies. In partial support for theories of unconscious plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1996) and Ward's (1994) path-of-least-resistance model, it was found that the reference to exemplars (in the form of prototypes) significantly reduced the number of between-domain analogies between source and target, as compared with using sketches or no external representational systems. Analogy served three functions in relation to novel design concepts: identifying problems, solving problems, and explaining concepts. Problem identifying analogies were mainly within domain, explanatory analogies were mainly between domain, and problem-solving analogies were a mixture of within- and between-domain analogies.

  6. 27 CFR 25.298 - Excise tax return, Form 5000.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax return, Form 5000.24. 25.298 Section 25.298 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.298 Excise tax return, Form 5000.24. All entries on the excise tax return,...

  7. Phyllodes tumor diagnosed after ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision: should it be followed by surgical excision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of ultrasound (US)-guided vacuum-assisted excision (US-VAE) of phyllodes tumors (PTs). A total of 41 PTs diagnosed at US-VAE followed by surgery (n = 27) or at least 2 y of US monitoring (n = 14) were included. By comparison of US-VAE pathology with surgical histology or follow-up US results, cases were divided into upgraded (malignant) and non-upgraded (benign) groups. These two groups were compared with respect to clinical, procedural and US features. Among 27 surgical cases, 2 (8.7%) of 23 benign PTs were upgraded to malignant PTs. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category was retrospectively assigned as 4a (50%) or 4b (50%) in the upgraded group (n = 2) and 3 (64%) or 4a (36%) in the non-upgraded group (n = 39) (p = 0.018). Residual tumor was observed at the site of US-VAE in 15 of 27 surgical cases and 0 of 14 US follow-up cases (36.6%, 15/41). Given the rates of upgrade to malignancy (8.7%) and residual tumor (36.6%), PTs diagnosed after US-VAE should be surgically excised. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Advantage of extralevator abdominoperineal excision comparing to the conventional abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer: a Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Chengwen; Wang, Jiajia; Ren, Quan; Cao, Jiaqing

    2017-03-28

    Whether extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) improves survival and safety remains controversial. Systematic review of all comparative studies to define the superiority of ELAPE to conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE).
 Methods: Corresponding data, with case-control studies or cohorts regarding intraoperative perforation rate, the local recurrence rate and postoperative complications in the ELAPE group and the APE group, were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CMB), VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. Meta-analysis was performed by using RenMan 5.2.
 Results: A total of 10 articles were included. Intraperative perforation rate (MD=0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.39, P=0.03), local recurrence rate (MD=0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.42, Padvantages in treating lower rectal cancer comparing to APE, but it should pay attention to individualized treatment. More studies through large sample multi-center, medium and long term randomized design are necessary to determine the effect of surgery on tumor.

  9. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Seeds, M. F.; Morrison, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO -- Appalachian State University) 32-inch telescope and the G/M spectrograph. These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in our 5th year of obtaining Ca II K & H chromospheric flux measurements, and are beginning to see signs of long-term activity cycles in a number of our stars. In addition, rotational modulation of the chromospheric fluxes is detectable in our data, and we have determined rotational periods for many of our stars. Short timescale increases in the K & H fluxes have been observed in a number of our stars; these events may be related to stellar flares. VATTSpec, a new moderate-resolution spectrograph on the 1.8-m Vatican Telescope in Arizona, has recently become involved with the project. This spectrograph will increase our ability to detect short-term changes in stellar activity on timescales of hours to minutes. We have been monitoring the program stars for one year in a multi-band photometric system consisting of Stromgren-v, and Johnson B, V, and R filters. We will soon add a narrow-band H-alpha filter to the system. Photometry is being carried out with a small piggy-back telescope on the 32-inch, but a robotic photometric telescope is currently being installed at DSO for this purpose. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  10. Federal and state cigarette excise taxes - United States, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    On April 1, 2009, the largest federal cigarette excise tax increase in history went into effect, bringing the combined federal and average state excise tax for cigarettes to $2.21 per pack and achieving the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective (27-21a) to increase the combined federal and average state cigarette excise tax to at least $2 per pack. This report summarizes changes in the federal excise tax, as well as state excise taxes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) from December 31, 1995 to April 1, 2009. The findings indicate that the federal excise tax increased from 24 cents per pack in 1995 to $1.01 per pack in 2009, and the average state excise tax increased from 32.7 cents per pack to $1.20 per pack during the same period. These increases represent a 321% increase in the federal excise tax and a 267% increase in the average state excise tax since 1995. Price increases should be combined with other evidence-based policy and clinical interventions to meet HP2010 objectives to decrease smoking prevalence and reduce the burden from smoking-attributable death and disease.

  11. Excision repair in mammalian cells. [uv radiation, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F.E.; Setlow, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Excision repair after combined treatments of uv and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) was studied by three different techniques in cells proficient in uv excision repair and in cells deficient in uv repair. Two patterns of repair were observed: in repair proficient cells total repair was additive, and in repair deficient cells total repair was much less than additive--usually less than observed for separate treatments--and AAAF inhibited dimer excision. We conclude that in the 1st class of cells pathways for repair of uv and AAAF lesions are not identical, and in the 2nd class the residual excision enzymes are different from those in repair proficient cells.

  12. Fiscal and regulatory capacity of excise tax in the case of the taxation of tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Петрівна Карпенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to assessing the fiscal and regulatory effects of excise tax in the context of its impact on the production and consumption of tobacco products. The assessments of the volume of tobacco production, consumption, excise tax on their needs, the volume of smuggling were given. The foreign experience in excise taxation of tobacco products was analyzed. The prospects for implementation of the fiscal and regulatory capacities of excise tax in the context of the taxation of tobacco products were proved

  13. Neural correlates of creativity in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kraemer, David J M; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Gray, Jeremy R; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2012-03-01

    Brain-based evidence has implicated the frontal pole of the brain as important for analogical mapping. Separately, cognitive research has identified semantic distance as a key determinant of the creativity of analogical mapping (i.e., more distant analogies are generally more creative). Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during an analogy generation task in which we varied the semantic distance of analogical mapping (as derived quantitatively from a latent semantic analysis). Data indicated that activity within an a priori region of interest in left frontopolar cortex covaried parametrically with increasing semantic distance, even after removing effects of task difficulty. Results implicate increased recruitment of frontopolar cortex as a mechanism for integrating semantically distant information to generate solutions in creative analogical reasoning. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Extralevator versus standard abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdawood, S K; Lund, T

    2015-03-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) probably improves the oncological quality of low rectal cancer surgery, as compared to standard abdominoperineal excision (SAPE), possibly due to lower rates of accidental perioperative bowel perforations and lower rates of circumferential resection margin (CRM) positivity. The procedure may however, increase post-operative morbidity. The aim of this paper was to compare outcomes of SAPE and ELAPE for carcinoma of the lower rectum. This is a retrospective study of patients operated on at a single colorectal unit, in a provincial hospital in Denmark. Consecutive patients undergoing abdominoperineal excision (APE) between 2006 and 2012 were included. During this period, a gradual paradigm shift occurred towards adopting ELAPE, although both procedures were performed without a clear selection strategy. We reviewed medical records, including the pathological and radiological data. Patients were divided into two groups, SAPE and ELAPE. Main endpoints were rates of positive CRM, intraoperative bowel perforations, local recurrence rate, length of hospital stay, operative time, and perineal wound-related complications. One hundred and seven patients were included (median age 68 years, range 42-88 years; men = 72). The SAPE group included 39 patients and the ELAPE group 68 patients. Intraoperative bowel perforation was significantly lower in the ELAPE group (20.5% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.045). The rate of positive CRM was not significantly different (2.6% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.413). The local recurrence rate was not statistically significant (17.9% SAPE vs 13.2% ELAPE, p = 0.513). In the ELAPE group, operative time and hospital stay were significantly longer than the SAPE group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). We found low rates of positive CRM after APE compared with the literature. ELAPE did not reduce these rates, and although the local recurrence rate was lower, this did not reach statistical significance

  15. Analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorian, R.; Temes, G. C.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of analog MOS integrated circuits are discussed. The basic properties of these circuits are described, providing necessary background material in mathematics and semiconductor device physics and technology. The operation and design of such important circuits as switched-capacitor filters, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, amplifiers, modulators, and oscillators. Practical problems encountered in design are discussed, solutions are provided, and some examples of actual system applications are given.

  16. Application of bandage contact lens in pterygium excision combined with conjunctival transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hua Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the application and effect of bandage contact lens in pterygium excision combined with conjunctival transplantation(CAT.METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study, 110 patients(110 eyesdiagnosed with primary pterygium were collected in PLA NO.474 Hospital from January 2015 to January 2016. The 110 patients enrolled in the study in turn, and divided into two groups by the odd and even number. The odd number divided into bandage contact lens group(CAT + bandage contact lens, n=55, while the even number divided into control group(CAT, n=55. Visual analog scale(VASand corneal irritation were evaluated on 1, 3 and 7d after operation. Cornea fluorescent staining testing was carried out on 3d after operation. Following-up all the patients with 1a at least observed the recurrence of pterygium. RESULTS:The score of VAS in bandage contact lens group less than that in control group on 1d(4.13±2.06 vs 5.80±1.93, t=4.391, Pvs 3.65±1.65, t=5.422, Pt=1.295, P=0.198after operation. The corneal irritation in bandage contact lens group less than that in control group on 1d and 3d after operation(PP=0.052. Cornea fluorescent staining testing area in bandage contact lens group was less than that in control group on 7d after operation(0.33±0.37mm2 vs 2.73±2.21mm2, t=7.921, PP=1.000. CONCLUSION:Bandage contact lens could significantly release pain and corneal irritation, promote the healing of the corneal epitheliums in the defected area, and increase the postoperative comfort level in patients after operation.

  17. Effects of Music Listening During Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure on Pain and Anxiety: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawong, Nopwaree; Charoenkwan, Kittipat

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare pain, anxiety, and satisfaction between women, who listened to music, and those who did not during loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. In group 1 (music), the participants listened to relaxing instrumental music through the stereo headset from the time of arrival at the preoperative waiting room until the procedure completed. For group 2 (control), the participants underwent LEEP without music listening. The women rated pain, anxiety, and satisfaction according to 10-cm visual analog scales. Pain was assessed at the time of speculum insertion (baseline pain) and immediately after the LEEP completed (procedural pain). Anxiety and satisfaction were examined just before starting the LEEP and 10 minutes after the procedure completed. One hundred fifty patients (74 in music group and 76 in control group) participated. Mean baseline pain scores after speculum insertion were comparable between the groups (3.7 in the music group vs. 3.5 in the control group, p = .55). Mean procedural pain scores were not different between the groups (4.7 in the music group vs. 5.2 in the control group, p = .32). The differences of the procedural pain scores from baseline were statistically comparable between the study groups (0.9 in the music group vs. 1.7 in the control group, p = .15). There were no significant differences in anxiety and satisfaction scores at any time points assessed between the groups. The effects of music listening on reducing pain and anxiety during LEEP could not be demonstrated in this study.

  18. Successful Robotic Excision and Early Chemotherapy for Primary Cardiac Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Emmanuel; Goldstein, Daniel A; Bradley, Kyle T; Flowers, Christopher R; Murphy, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    We present a 67-year-old patient who underwent robotic excision of a mobile left ventricular mass found incidentally on echocardiography. Intraoperative findings revealed a pedunculated mass infiltrating the interventricular septum, and the results of pathologic examination of the frozen section were consistent with malignancy. The final pathologic examination showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and early chemotherapy was initiated. Follow-up cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed completely normal myocardium without evidence of malignancy. The lateral endoscopic robotic approach across the mitral valve permitted optimal tumor visualization and early chemotherapy initiation without concern for cardiac rupture or related adverse events. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromatin Dynamics during Nucleotide Excision Repair: Histones on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Polo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a long-standing question how DNA damage repair proceeds in a nuclear environment where DNA is packaged into chromatin. Several decades of analysis combining in vitro and in vivo studies in various model organisms ranging from yeast to human have markedly increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chromatin disorganization upon damage detection and re-assembly after repair. Here, we review the methods that have been developed over the years to delineate chromatin alterations in response to DNA damage by focusing on the well-characterized Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER pathway. We also highlight how these methods have provided key mechanistic insight into histone dynamics coupled to repair in mammals, raising new issues about the maintenance of chromatin integrity. In particular, we discuss how NER factors and central players in chromatin dynamics such as histone modifiers, nucleosome remodeling factors, and histone chaperones function to mobilize histones during repair.

  20. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  1. Laser excision of a mucocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucous cyst (mucocele, mucous retention cyst, ranula, and epulis is usually a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. It is painless but can be bothersome. The cyst is thought to be caused due to sucking of the lip membranes between the teeth. A mucous cyst is common and harmless. However, if left untreated, it can organize and form a permanent bump on the inner surface of the lip. A mucous cyst is called ranula when it occurs on the floor of the mouth and epulis when it occurs on the gums. The sac may also be formed around the jewellery (piercings that has been inserted into the lips or the tongue. This article highlights the use of lasers in the treatment of the excision of mucocele.

  2. Chromatin Dynamics during Nucleotide Excision Repair: Histones on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Polo, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long-standing question how DNA damage repair proceeds in a nuclear environment where DNA is packaged into chromatin. Several decades of analysis combining in vitro and in vivo studies in various model organisms ranging from yeast to human have markedly increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chromatin disorganization upon damage detection and re-assembly after repair. Here, we review the methods that have been developed over the years to delineate chromatin alterations in response to DNA damage by focusing on the well-characterized Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway. We also highlight how these methods have provided key mechanistic insight into histone dynamics coupled to repair in mammals, raising new issues about the maintenance of chromatin integrity. In particular, we discuss how NER factors and central players in chromatin dynamics such as histone modifiers, nucleosome remodeling factors, and histone chaperones function to mobilize histones during repair. PMID:23109890

  3. Quantifying Long-term Retention of Excised Fat Grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    bxg165, bxg165; Ørholt, Mathias; Glovinski, Peter V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Predicting the degree of fat graft retention is essential whenplanning reconstruction or augmentation with free fat grafting. Most surgeonsobserve volume loss over time after fat grafting; however, the portion lost toresorption after surgery is still poorly defined, and the time...... to reach steadystate is unknown. Methods: The authors compiled a retrospective, longitudinal cohort of patientswith vestibular schwannoma who had undergone ablative surgery and reconstructionwith excised fat between the years 2006 and 2015. Fat volume retentionwas quantified by computed tomography....... The average baseline graft volumewas 18.1 ± 4.8 ml. The average time to reach steady state was 806 days aftertransplantation. By this time, the average fat graft retention was 50.6 percent(95 percent CI, 46.4 to 54.7 percent). No statistically significant association wasfound between baseline graft volume...

  4. Effect of transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf Karim; Thinggaard, Benjamin Sejr; Bjoern, Maya Xania

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term results of total mesorectal excision (TME) for mid and low rectal cancer, achieved by transanal (TaTME), laparoscopic (LaTME), and open (OpTME) approaches. BACKGROUND: The impact of TaTME on the surgical treatment of mid and low rectal cancer has yet to be clarified...... LaTME and one OpTME based on sex, BMI, tumor status, and the height of the tumor from the anal verge. Primary end-points were rates of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM), distal resection margin, and the macroscopic quality of the surgical specimen. Composite of these outcomes...... benefits over other approaches. The pathological results were not significantly superior to LaTME and OpTME. The procedure is however feasible and safe. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term oncological and quality of life outcomes....

  5. Laparoscopic Excision of a Scar Pregnancy and Isthmocele Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, Huseyin; Wetherilt, Lale Susan; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Polat, Ibrahim; Kadirogullari, Pınar; Karacan, Tolga

    2017-10-13

    Laparoscopic excision of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair with a barbed suture. A step-by-step explanation of the laparoscopic excision technique of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair. Cesarean scar pregnancy occurs as a result of attachment of the products of conception to the uterine scar [1-3]. In the present case, a 34-year-old, gravida 4, para 1 patient with a history of 1 miscarriage and 1 ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed with type 2 cesarean scar pregnancy at 7 weeks of gestation. Dilation and curretage was performed at the 8th week of gestation to terminate the pregnancy. On ultrasonography performed 1 month later, placental material underlying the isthmocele was observed. Her beta human chorionic gonadotropin level was 13 836 mIU/mL. She was followed up for 1.5 months until the beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels were negative. However, the mass underneath the scar had grown larger, measuring up to 5 × 6 cm. Laparoscopy was performed because the patient reported vaginal spotting and pelvic pain. The incision was sutured with a synthetic absorbable unidirectional barbed suture (Stratafix Knotless Tissue Control Device; Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ). No residual scar defect was visible on follow-up ultrasonography 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Barbed sutures ease the repair of uterine scar defects and can provide ideal reapproximation of thick myometrial tissue. Laparoscopic treatment of a scar pregnancy and isthmocele repair are effective and safe modes of treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robotic assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal Ganglioneuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burttet, Lucas Medeiros; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; Varaschin, Gabrielle Aguiar; Silva, Brasil; Berger, Milton

    2017-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are rare benign neoplasms of the sympathetic nervous system. We describe the case of an incidentally found ganglioneuroma in a woman. To our knowledge this is the first described case of robotic excision of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma. A 41-year-old female had an incidental retroperitoneal mass found during a routine US. CT scan and MRI showed an 8.3cm homogeneous mass, adjacent to left kidney upper pole, with peripheral contrast enhancement. Metabolic tests were normal. Patient was positioned in a left flank position and five ports were introduced transperitoneally. A 4-arm Da Vinci SI was docked at a 45º angle to the table. Lesion was dissected along with left adrenal gland, beginning at the left renal hilum and proceeding cephalad. Operating time was 325min and blood loss was 50ml. Patient was discharged after 72hours. There were no post-operative complications. Pathology showed ganglionic cells with neural tissue, and normal adrenal. Ganglioneuromas rare benign tumors originating from neural crest and typically affect young adults. Most frequent locations are posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum and adrenal gland. As in this case, ganglioneuromas are usually silent, slow growing tumors discovered incidentally or by mass effect. US and CT imaging may suggest the diagnosis while MRI findings can be specific for ganglioneuroma. Percutaneous biopsy is an option. Although benign, usually requires surgical excision for treatment. Our case shows that a robotic approach is feasible and allows for meticulous and safe dissection of vascular structures, facilitating adequate hemostasis while maintaining oncological principles. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  7. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal paracaval tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chun Wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, robotic surgical systems have been rapidly developed. The progress and advantages of these systems include three-dimensional vision and enhanced ergonomics. These advantages have helped a new generation of minimally invasive surgery to evolve. The da Vinci Surgical System seems to greatly resolve problems (e.g., wide exposure and retraction of peritoneal organs that are confronted by traditional laparoscopic surgeries for retroperitoneal tumors that are near great vessels. There have been few reported cases concerning laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal tumors situated between the inferior vena cava, the right renal vessel, and the kidney. We report the use of a robotic surgical system for this type of treatment. A 54-year-old female patient had a hypoechoic lesion near the inferior vena cava and superior to the right renal vessels. It was incidentally found by ultrasound during a health check-up examination. The computed tomography (CT scan revealed a heterogeneous contrast-enhanced retroperitoneal mass approximately 4.4 cm medial to the right kidney with the inferior vena cava slightly deviated to the left. Robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of the retroperitoneal tumor was performed on October 15, 2010 with an operation time of 135 minutes and an estimated blood loss of less than 30 mL. The J-Vac drainage tube was removed on postoperative Day 3, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition the following day. The pathology of the tumor was retroperitoneal schwannoma. A re-evaluation was arranged postoperatively for the 15-month ambulatory visit. No local recurrence or distal metastasis was present.

  9. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  10. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  11. Analogies in biology textbooks in zoology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Cézar Seiffert Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biologic structures of living creatures are of difficult understanding for students, because they are usually unknown by those, in needs of strategic didactics in order to facilitate the student understanding. There are several strategies and methods for teaching, such as, analogies, metaphors, descriptions, among others. In this article we aim to identify, assess and classify the analogies used in the Higher School Biology textbooks, commonly used in Public State Schools of Manaus – AM, related to the zoology theme. The methodological procedure includes: a analysis of the whole zoological content of the most used textbooks in the public state network of Amazonas throughout the year; b three didactic textbooks have been specifically analyzed in order to specify the class taxon of “Fish” for the comparison of possible variations of types and quantities of analogies. The adopted classification of analogies was of Curtis & Reigeluth (1984 and the model of enriching analysis was according to the TWA Glynn model (Harrison & Treagust, 1993. It has been concluded that the use of analogies is greater in the content of invertebrates than that of vertebrates. Most Analogies are presented in a simple and direct manner, comparing structures, concrete to concrete, and of verbal mediation, almost nothing is presented in a diverse and heuristic manner of Zoology content on the LD. The development of limits of comparison and reflexion about the analogies was rare, only the presentation of the analogue and the target of analogy occurred.

  12. The Use of Analogies in Written Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ruth V.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that explored and inductively classified analogies in 26 science textbooks, ranging from elementary to postsecondary level, to provide a systematic description of the phenomenon and generate prescriptive principles for their use in instruction. Classification categories include analogical relationship, presentation format,…

  13. The Pennies-as-Electrons Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Everyday experiences familiarize students with the ways in which electricity is used, but often the underlying concepts remain a mystery. Teachers often use analogies to help students relate the flow of electrons to other common systems, but many times these analogies are incomplete and lead to more student misconceptions. However, the "pass the…

  14. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  15. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  16. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  17. Children's Use of Analogy during Collaborative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jung; Anderson, Richard C.; Hummel, John E.; Jadallah, May; Miller, Brian W.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Morris, Joshua A.; Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Il-Hee; Wu, Xiaoying; Dong, Ting

    2012-01-01

    This microgenetic study examined social influences on children's development of analogical reasoning during peer-led small-group discussions of stories about controversial issues. A total of 277 analogies were identified among 7,215 child turns for speaking during 54 discussions from 18 discussion groups in 6 fourth-grade classrooms (N = 120; age…

  18. HISTORIANS AND MIRACLES : THE PRINCIPLE OF ANALOGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-27

    Nov 27, 2008 ... can still establish scientifically that dinosaurs once existed, since their fossils remain. However, this is in spite of the principle of analogy and we may likewise be able to establish miracles historically if we have credible testimony that remains. The principle of analogy also appears to assume metaphysical.

  19. PEMETAAN ANALOGI PADA KONSEP ABSTRAK FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoto Suseno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of any where founded majority students have common difficulties in abstract physics concept. The result of observation, lecturers have problem  in teaching implementation of abstract concepts on physics learning. The objective of this research is to find out the ways how to overcome this problem. The research place of  physics education programs and senior high school. The data are colected by quetionere, observation and interview. The lecturer behavior to making out this case is use of analogy to make concrete a abstract concept. This action is true, because the analogies are dynamic tools that facilitate understanding, rather than representations of the correct and static explanations. Using analogies not only promoted profound understanding of abstract concept, but also helped students overcome their misconceptions. However used analogy in teaching not yet planed with seriousness, analogy used spontanously with the result that less optimal. By planing and selecting right analogy, the role of analogy can be achieved the optimal result. Therefore, it is important to maping analogies of abstract consepts on physics learning.

  20. 48 CFR 552.229-71 - Federal Excise Tax-DC Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Excise Tax-DC Government. 552.229-71 Section 552.229-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.229-71 Federal Excise Tax—DC Government. A...

  1. Does increasing cigarette excise tax improve people's health? The cases of heart attacks and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Echu; Rivers, Patrick A; Sarvela, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    Recently, public health advocates have fervently supported an increase in the cigarette excise tax as a means of reducing smoking. Likewise, political leaders have heavily relied on the cigarette excise tax as a means of encouraging a reduction in the overall rates of cigarette use. However, little is known about whether the cigarette excise tax is a valid tool for reducing the negative effects of smoking on public health. Our objective is to examine whether increasing the cigarette excise tax will reduce the morbidity rates of heart attack and stroke, which have consistently been among the major causes of death and disability in the United States. We used the static and dynamic panel-data model to explore the impact of the US regional cigarette excise tax on morbidity rates of heart attack and stroke. These rates of heart attack and stroke are estimated based on the 1970-2000 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). Study results show that the causal relationship between cigarette excise tax and morbidity rates of heart attack and stroke is unclear. However, the morbidity rates of non-smoking-related hypertension and high cholesterol-related diseases are positively correlated with the morbidity rates of heart attack and stroke. We did not find clear empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that raising the cigarette excise tax effects a reduction the morbidities of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, use of the cigarette excise tax may not be an effective means to improve the health of the US population.

  2. 48 CFR 652.229-70 - Excise Tax Exemption Statement for Contractors Within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excise Tax Exemption Statement for Contractors Within the United States. 652.229-70 Section 652.229-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.229-70 Excise...

  3. Oesophageal pseudodiverticulum after foregut duplication cyst excision: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana D Bobanga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oesophageal pseudodiverticula rarely occur after excision of benign oesophageal neoplasms. While management and outcomes have been reported in the adult leiomyoma literature, sparse data exist on the occurrence and management of pseudodiverticula after foregut duplication cyst excision. We discuss our experience with a paediatric patient and review relevant literature regarding operative techniques and surgical outcomes.

  4. Tax Competition under Minimum Rates: The Case of European Diesel Excises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evers (Michiel); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); H.R.J. Vollebergh (Herman)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates Nash-type fiscal reaction functions for European governments competing for revenue from diesel excises. It appears that European governments strategically set their excise levels by responding to their neighbors’ tax rates. This provides evidence for the presence of

  5. Cost comparison between stereotactic large-core-needle biopsy versus surgical excision biopsy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs-van der Woude, T.; Verkooijen, H. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Klinkenbijl, J. H.; Borel Rinkes, I. H.; Peeters, P. H.; Buskens, E.

    2001-01-01

    Yearly, approximately 7200 Dutch women with non-palpable breast lesions are referred for a diagnostic surgical excision biopsy. Recently, less invasive alternatives such as stereotactic large-core-needle biopsy have emerged. The aim of this study was to compare the costs of surgical excision biopsy

  6. Excision biopsy of breast lesions changes the pattern of lymphatic drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estourgie, S. H.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to validate the sentinel node biopsy procedure in women who had previous breast excision biopsy by means of determining the reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy after surgery. METHODS: Twenty-five women scheduled for excision biopsy of a breast lesion were investigated. The

  7. Posterior Endoscopic Excision of Os Trigonum in Professional National Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Roche, Andy; Brodrick, Anna; Williams, R Lloyd; Calder, James D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the outcomes after open and endoscopic excision of an os trigonum in patients of mixed professions. No studies have compared the differences in outcomes between the 2 procedures in elite ballet dancers. From October 2005 to February 2010, 35 professional ballet dancers underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum of the ankle after a failed period of nonoperative treatment. Of the 35 patients, 13 (37.1%) underwent endoscopic excision and 22 (62.9%) open excision. We compared the outcomes, complications, and time to return to dancing. The open excision group experienced a significantly greater incidence of flexor hallucis longus tendon decompression compared with the endoscopic group. The endoscopic release group returned to full dance earlier at a mean of 9.8 (range 6.5 to 16.1) weeks and those undergoing open excision returned to full dance at a mean of 14.9 (range 9 to 20) weeks (p = .001). No major complications developed in either group, such as deep infection or nerve or vessel injury. We have concluded that both techniques are safe and effective in the treatment of symptomatic os trigonum in professional ballet dancers. Endoscopic excision of the os trigonum offers a more rapid return to full dance compared with open excision. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration from excised adventitious roots of the rootstock Rosa hybrida L. 'Moneyway'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der T.P.M.; Toorn, van der C.J.G.; Hänisch ten Cate, C.H.; Dons, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Plants were regenerated from excised adventitious roots of the rose rootstock 'Moneyway' via a three step procedure: callus induction, induction of somatic embryos and shoot development. Callus was induced on excised roots after incubation for 4 weeks in the dark on SH-medium (Schenk and

  9. Excision repair of bulky lesions in the DNA of mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R B; Grist, E

    1980-01-01

    The report examines the process of excision repair of pyrimidine dimers from uv-irradiated and chemically challenged human cells. It is shown by means of a sensitive endonuclease assay that the amount of excision observed depends upon the isotope used to label cells, and that XP heterozygotes are between normals and XPs. (ACR)

  10. Accurate DNA assembly and genome engineering with optimized uracil excision cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Seppala, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    that produces β-carotene to optimize assembly junctions and the uracil excision protocol. By combining uracil excision cloning with a genomic integration technology, we demonstrate that up to six DNA fragments can be assembled in a one-tube reaction for direct genome integration with high accuracy, greatly...... facilitating the advanced engineering of robust cell factories....

  11. Periodontal plastic procedure for the management of the residual gingival defect after excision of an epulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinal hypersensitivity and unesthetic appearance are common findings after excision of an epulis due to exposure of root and underlying bone. The simultaneous placement of subepithelial connective tissue grafting after excision of the lesion seems to be viable surgical option in such cases. Furthermore, this will avoid second surgical procedure for the management of the residual gingival defect.

  12. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  13. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators.

  14. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  15. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  16. Substrate mimicry: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase recognizes 6-modified-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphates as adenosine analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Brian D.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Zhang, Hong-wang; Nettles, James H.; Stanton, Richard; Detorio, Mervi; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Pradère, Ugo; Coats, Steven J.; Mellors, John W.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    β-D-3′-Azido-2′,3′-dideoxyguanosine (3′-azido-ddG) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication with a superior resistance profile to zidovudine. Recently, we identified five novel 6-modified-3′-azido-ddG analogs that exhibit similar or superior anti-HIV-1 activity compared to 3′-azido-ddG in primary cells. To gain insight into their structure–activity–resistance relationships, we synthesized their triphosphate (TP) forms and assessed their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments show that the 6-modified-3′-azido-ddGTP analogs act as adenosine rather than guanosine mimetics in DNA synthesis reactions. The order of potency of the TP analogs against wild-type RT was: 3′-azido-2,6-diaminopurine >3′-azido-6-chloropurine; 3′-azido-6-N-allylaminopurine > 2-amino-6-N,N-dimethylaminopurine; 2-amino-6-methoxypurine. Molecular modeling studies reveal unique hydrogen-bonding interactions between the nucleotide analogs and the template thymine base in the active site of RT. Surprisingly, the structure–activity relationship of the analogs differed in HIV-1 RT ATP-mediated excision assays of their monophosphate forms, suggesting that it may be possible to rationally design a modified base analog that is efficiently incorporated by RT but serves as a poor substrate for ATP-mediated excision reactions. Overall, these studies identify a promising strategy to design novel nucleoside analogs that exert profound antiviral activity against both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1. PMID:21914723

  17. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  18. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  19. Base Sequence Context Effects on Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuqin; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the genome when damaged by bulky DNA lesions, since inefficient repair can cause mutations and human diseases notably cancer. The structural properties of DNA lesions that determine their relative susceptibilities to NER are therefore of great interest. As a model system, we have investigated the major mutagenic lesion derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10S (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N2-dG in six different sequence contexts that differ in how the lesion is positioned in relation to nearby guanine amino groups. We have obtained molecular structural data by NMR and MD simulations, bending properties from gel electrophoresis studies, and NER data obtained from human HeLa cell extracts for our six investigated sequence contexts. This model system suggests that disturbed Watson-Crick base pairing is a better recognition signal than a flexible bend, and that these can act in concert to provide an enhanced signal. Steric hinderance between the minor groove-aligned lesion and nearby guanine amino groups determines the exact nature of the disturbances. Both nearest neighbor and more distant neighbor sequence contexts have an impact. Regardless of the exact distortions, we hypothesize that they provide a local thermodynamic destabilization signal for repair. PMID:20871811

  20. Quantitative imaging of excised osteoarthritic cartilage using spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Kishore; Bateman, Christopher J.; Younis, Raja Aamir; De Ruiter, Niels J.A.; Ramyar, Mohsen; Anderson, Nigel G. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Loebker, Caroline [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Twente, Department of Developmental BioEngineering, Enschede (Netherlands); Schon, Benjamin S.; Hooper, Gary J.; Woodfield, Tim B.F. [University of Otago, Christchurch Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Chernoglazov, Alex I. [University of Canterbury, Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, Anthony P.H. [University of Otago - Christchurch, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); MARS Bioimaging, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    To quantify iodine uptake in articular cartilage as a marker of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content using multi-energy spectral CT. We incubated a 25-mm strip of excised osteoarthritic human tibial plateau in 50 % ionic iodine contrast and imaged it using a small-animal spectral scanner with a cadmium telluride photon-processing detector to quantify the iodine through the thickness of the articular cartilage. We imaged both spectroscopic phantoms and osteoarthritic tibial plateau samples. The iodine distribution as an inverse marker of GAG content was presented in the form of 2D and 3D images after applying a basis material decomposition technique to separate iodine in cartilage from bone. We compared this result with a histological section stained for GAG. The iodine in cartilage could be distinguished from subchondral bone and quantified using multi-energy CT. The articular cartilage showed variation in iodine concentration throughout its thickness which appeared to be inversely related to GAG distribution observed in histological sections. Multi-energy CT can quantify ionic iodine contrast (as a marker of GAG content) within articular cartilage and distinguish it from bone by exploiting the energy-specific attenuation profiles of the associated materials. (orig.)

  1. Retropharyngeal Schwannoma Excised Through a Transoral Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Hsieh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of the retropharyngeal space are limited to fat and retropharyngeal nodes. Primary tumors originating from the retropharyngeal space are rare. More than 25% of schwannomas are found in the head and neck region, and they are rarely found in the retropharyngeal space. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old woman with a schwannoma confined to the left retropharyngeal space, who presented with snoring and a mild lump in the throat sensation. Physical examination revealed anterior bulging of the left oropharyngeal wall, with intact mucosa. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, encapsulated tumor in the left retropharyngeal space with bright signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which was strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration. The tumor was removed through a transoral approach, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time without complications. The pathologic diagnosis was schwannoma. The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 2 years. From anatomic and physiologic viewpoints, excision through a transoral approach is a good choice for a confined retropharyngeal schwannoma.

  2. Human tissue thickness measurements from excised sleeve gastrectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Logan; Rawlins, Melissa P; Teel, Donovan

    2014-03-01

    Little basic science data exists regarding the thickness of transected stomach as the limits of smaller gastric sleeves are created closer to the lesser curvature in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We sought to determine the tissue thickness trends along the staple line and examine what factors might predispose to thicker tissue. This was a single-center, single-surgeon nonrandomized prospective study of patients undergoing SG. Excised SG specimens, with patient consent, underwent tissue measurement at multiple predetermined locations and at the midpoint of each fired staple cartridge. After 9 months, ending in July 2012, we met our goal enrollment of 50 gastric sleeve specimens. Most of the patients were female (80 %) and white (92.5 %). Average age was 42 years (range, 19-60 years), and average body mass index (BMI) was 49 kg/m(2) (range, 34-82 kg/m(2)). Tissue thickness was significantly different (p 50 kg/m(2)) and gender (male) are associated with increased tissue thickness, but only in the antrum. Surgeons should consider using a thicker staple load, such as black, when these factors are present. Also, significant changes in tissue thickness at the fourth and fifth staple fires suggest stepwise alteration in staple cartridge color selection.

  3. Unusual case of orbital apex syndrome after chalazion excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Maria; Lefatzis, Nikolaos; Papakosta, Veroniki; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis; Papathanassiou, Miltiadis

    2013-05-01

    Orbital apex syndrome represents a heterogeneous group of disorders. It involves damage to the third, fourth and sixth nerves and the ophthalmic division of the fifth cranial nerve, and results in optic neuropathy. An 80-year-old man presented to our emergency clinic with left acute visual loss and three-day history of ocular pain. His medical and ophthalmic history involved diagnosis of lung cancer and chalazion excision two weeks prior to presentation. There was total left ophthalmoplegia, vision was 'no light perception' and he had a relative afferent pupillary defect. An urgent computed tomography scan of the orbits showed sub-periosteal abscess on the lateral wall of the orbit extending to the optic canal. The muscle cone was unaffected. The diagnosis was orbital apex syndrome. He underwent urgent drainage of the abscess and Staphylococcus aureus was identified with Gram stain. He was systemically administered intravenous antibiotics and steroids. His visual acuity and ophthalmoplegia improved rapidly 12 hours after surgery. Prompt diagnosis and treatment in cases of orbital apex syndrome, especially in immunocompromised patients, is important to prevent visual and life-threatening complications. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  4. Misdiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and recurrence after surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mark S; Langman, G

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in British troops deployed to Belize, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere. From 1998 to 2009, 156 (45%) of 343 confirmed cases seen in the UK were in military personnel. CL is a rare disease and requires specialist clinical management because numerous pitfalls exist during diagnosis and treatment. A 19-year-old soldier developed CL on his neck 6 weeks after taking part in jungle warfare training in Belize. However, this was not suspected and the diagnosis was not made from either a skin biopsy or following surgical excision. The travel history and the patient's own photograph prompted retrospective investigations that confirmed this was CL due to Leishmania mexicana. Three months after surgery, the disease recurred locally and was treated appropriately with a good outcome. British military personnel with suspected CL should be referred to the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Implication of Posttranslational Histone Modifications in Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histones are highly alkaline proteins that package and order the DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a conserved multistep reaction that removes a wide range of generally bulky and/or helix-distorting DNA lesions. Although the core biochemical mechanism of NER is relatively well known, how cells detect and repair lesions in diverse chromatin environments is still under intensive research. As with all DNA-related processes, the NER machinery must deal with the presence of organized chromatin and the physical obstacles it presents. A huge catalogue of posttranslational histone modifications has been documented. Although a comprehensive understanding of most of these modifications is still lacking, they are believed to be important regulatory elements for many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and cell cycle control. Some of these modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 or the histone H2A variant H2AX, have been found to be implicated in different stages of the NER process. This review will summarize our recent understanding in this area.

  6. Implications of raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rozada, Martin; Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 - 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 - 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups' elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Demand price elasticity was -0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.

  7. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair by nuclear lamin b1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Butin-Israeli

    Full Text Available The nuclear lamins play important roles in the structural organization and function of the metazoan cell nucleus. Recent studies on B-type lamins identified a requirement for lamin B1 (LB1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in normal diploid cells. In order to further investigate the function of LB1 in proliferation, we disrupted its normal expression in U-2 OS human osteosarcoma and other tumor cell lines. Silencing LB1 expression induced G1 cell cycle arrest without significant apoptosis. The arrested cells are unable to mount a timely and effective response to DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. Several proteins involved in the detection and repair of UV damage by the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway are down-regulated in LB1 silenced cells including DDB1, CSB and PCNA. We propose that LB1 regulates the DNA damage response to UV irradiation by modulating the expression of specific genes and activating persistent DNA damage signaling. Our findings are relevant to understanding the relationship between the loss of LB1 expression, DNA damage signaling, and replicative senescence.

  8. Programmable Analog-To-Digital Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Edward H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed analog-to-digital converter with programmable voltage steps that can be changed during operation. Allows concentration of converter resolution over specific portion of waveform. Particularly useful in digitizing wind-shear radar and lidar return signals, in digital oscilloscopes, and other applications in which desirable to increase digital resolution over specific area of waveform while accepting lower resolution over rest of waveform. Effective increase in dynamic range achieved without increase in number of analog-to-digital converter bits. Enabling faster analog-to-digital conversion.

  9. Margin comments in dermatopathology reports on dysplastic nevi influence re-excision rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfere, Nneka I; Chakraborty, Rima; Peters, Margot S

    2013-11-01

    Dermatopathology reports influence clinical management, but it is not clear to what extent comments on margin involvement of histopathologically dysplastic nevi (HDN) influence decisions about re-excision or complete excision. We sought to determine if standardized margin comments (MCs) on HDN influence re-excision rates. By reviewing medical records, we compared re-excision rates of HDN reported with (May 2011 to December 2012) and without (January 2007 to December 2010) standardized MCs, and surveyed clinicians to assess perceptions of the impact of MCs on their management of HDN. Of 584 HDN, 302 had MCs and 282 did not. Re-excision was recommended or performed at a significantly higher rate for patients in the group without MCs (51.8%, 146 of 282) than in the MC group (39.4%, 119 of 302); P = .003 regardless of margin status. This difference was observed among HDN diagnosed as mildly and moderately dysplastic but not for severely dysplastic nevi. In all, 40% (16 of 40) of clinicians responded that they are more likely to biopsy pigmented lesions with a clinical margin of normal-appearing skin than they were before MCs were routinely included in dermatopathology reports. This was a retrospective study. Re-excision rates were significantly lower in patients who had HDN reported with standardized MCs. MCs may help reduce re-excision rates, with associated reduction in health care use, cost, and morbidity. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette price minimization strategies in the United States: price reductions and responsiveness to excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Licht, Andrea S; Kruger, Judy M

    2013-11-01

    Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Regression analysis used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in "some other way," including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64-94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%-22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise.

  11. Serial full-thickness excision of dysplastic vocal fold leukoplakia: Diagnostic or therapeutic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Annie; Wang, Li; Slaughter, James C; Nguyen, Amy M; Ossoff, Robert H; Francis, David O

    2016-04-01

    A previous study proposed that serial full-thickness excisional biopsies of vocal fold leukoplakia therapeutically decreased dysplasia grade. The current investigation aimed to 1) analyze the pathological evolution and natural history of these lesions and 2) re-examine the role of serial excisions in dysplasia grade regression in long-term follow-up. Retrospective case series. Patients treated for vocal fold dysplasia (1994-2013) with serial full-thickness microflap-type excisions were identified and followed longitudinally. Excluded were those with one excision, invasive cancer at initial excision, or history of laryngeal cancer or radiation. Data from surgical procedures, associated pathology, and patient characteristics were recorded. Weighted repeated measures ordinal logistic regression measured associations with pathology findings. Of 55 patients (median age = 65 years, interquartile range = 54-73 years, 89% male, 63% ever smokers, 27% alcohol users), 31 met inclusion criteria. During the study period, patients had two to 44 excisions, with a median time between excisions of 4.0 months. Each additional excision increased odds of higher-grade pathology by 4% (odds ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06; P = .007). A transition model demonstrated that patients with moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, or carcinoma in situ on a prior biopsy had 2.64-, 5.64-, and 8.73-times increased odds of the same or higher pathology grade at the next excision, respectively. Data do not support the hypothesis that serial full-thickness excisions decrease dysplasia grade. Progression of dysplasia appears to be nonlinear, but higher-grade dysplasia is more likely to progress to malignancy. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. 26 CFR 54.4971-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on failure to meet minimum funding standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on failure to meet minimum funding standards. 54.4971-1 Section 54.4971-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4971-1 General rules relating to excis...

  13. 26 CFR 55.4982-1 - Imposition of excise tax on undistributed income of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income of regulated investment companies. 55.4982-1 Section 55.4982-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Excise Tax on Regulated Investment Companies...

  14. Sustainable effect of skin stretching for burn scar excision: Long-term results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Bloemen, M.C.T.; Dokter, J.; Melis, P.; Middelkoop, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Primary wound closure of large defects after burn scar excision may be facilitated by intraoperative stretching of the adjacent skin. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the effect of skin stretching for wound closure after scar excision (SS) was compared to scar excision without

  15. Identifying Solar Analogs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andrew; Preston, Heather L.

    2014-06-01

    Since human beings live on a planet orbiting a G2 V star, to us perhaps the most intrinsically interesting category of stars about which planets have been discovered is solar analogs. While Kepler has observed more than 26000 targets which have effective temperatures within 100K of the Sun, many of these are not true solar analogs due to activity, surface gravity, metallicity, or other considerations. Here we combine ground-based measurements of effective temperature and metallicity with data on rotational periods and surface gravities derived from 16 quarters of Kepler observations to produce a near-complete sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field. We then compare the statistical distribution of stellar physical parameters, including activity level, for subsets of solar analogs consisting of KOIs and those with no detected exoplanets. Finally, we produce a list of potential solar twins in the Kepler field.

  16. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, W; Lu, L; Yap, D; Bridges, W; Mokhtari, M

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the work undertaken by HRL Laboratories, LLC and its subcontractors, California Institute of Technology and Raytheon Electronics Systems, on the development of multi-GHz photonic analog-to-digital (A/D...

  17. Cervical osteomyelitis after carbon dioxide laser excision of recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, A Jacqueline; Brandsma, Dieta; Smeele, Ludi E; Rosingh, Andert W; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2013-04-01

    Two patients with recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall, previously treated with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excision and (chemo)radiotherapy, presented with neck pain due to cervical osteomyelitis. In one patient this led to cervical spine instability, for which a haloframe was applied. Our working hypothesis was that cervical osteomyelitis was caused by an infected wound bed induced by CO2 laser excision of the tumor in the already vascular-compromised area of the irradiated posterior pharyngeal wall. We discuss the risks of leaving a wound for secondary granulation after CO2 laser excision of the posterior pharyngeal wall and prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  18. High-Resolution Mapping of Modified DNA Nucleobases Using Excision Repair Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Monica; Bryan, D Suzi; Hesselberth, Jay R

    2018-01-01

    Modification of DNA nucleobases has a profound effect on genome function. We developed a method that maps the positions of the modified DNA nucleobases throughout genomic DNA. This method couples in vitro nucleobase excision with massively parallel DNA sequencing to determine the location of modified DNA nucleobases with single base precision. This protocol was used to map uracil incorporation and UV photodimers in DNA, and a modification of the protocol has been used to map sparse modification events in cells. The Excision-seq protocol is broadly applicable to a variety of base modifications for which an excision enzyme is available.

  19. Periprosthetic soft tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma after attempted en bloc excision from the proximal humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.W.; Tehranzadeh, J.; Hoang, B.H. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orange (United States); Gu, M. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Pathology, Orange (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A case of soft tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma after attempted en bloc excision and endoprosthetic replacement is described. This tumor in the proximal humerus recurred after initial curettage and was subsequently treated by attempted en bloc excision with positive microscopic margins. The patient then presented with a large soft tissue recurrence surrounding the endoprosthesis. This periprosthetic recurrence necessitated re-excision and revision of the endoprosthesis. Recurrence is not uncommon following curettage of chondroblastoma. However, less is known about soft tissue recurrence after en bloc resection of this tumor with positive margins. A subset of chondroblastoma may exist with more locally aggressive behavior. (orig.)

  20. Accurate DNA Assembly and Genome Engineering with Optimized Uracil Excision Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Ana Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Seppälä, Susanna; Nielsen, Morten T; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2015-09-18

    Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway that produces β-carotene to optimize assembly junctions and the uracil excision protocol. By combining uracil excision cloning with a genomic integration technology, we demonstrate that up to six DNA fragments can be assembled in a one-tube reaction for direct genome integration with high accuracy, greatly facilitating the advanced engineering of robust cell factories.

  1. Induction of the Tn10 Precise Excision in E. coli Cells after Accelerated Heavy Ions Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravel, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the irradiation of different kinds on the indication of the structural mutations in the bacteria Escherichia coli is considered. The regularities of the Tn10 precise excision after accelerated ^{4}He and ^{12}C ions irradiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) were investigated. Dose dependences of the survival and relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision were obtained. It was shown, that the relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision is the exponential function from the irradiation dose. Relative biological efficiency (RBE), and relative genetic efficiency (RGE) were calculated, and were treated as the function of the LET.

  2. Defective thymine dimer excision by cell-free extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, K; Friedberg, E C; Slor, H; Thomas, G; Cleaver, J E

    1976-01-01

    Crude extracts of normal human diploid fibroblasts and of human peripheral blood lymphocytes excise thymine dimers from purified ultraviolet-irradiated DNA, or from the DNA presumably present as chromatin in unfractionated cell-free preparations of cells that had been labeled with [3H]thymidine. Extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, and D also excise thymine dimers from purified DNA, but extracts of group A cells do not excise dimers from the DNA of radioactively labeled unfractionated cell-free preparations. PMID:1066689

  3. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL DATA CONVERTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G.W.; Althouse, J.E.; Anderson, D.P.; Bussey, G.R.; Minnear, L.H.

    1960-09-01

    Electrical apparatus is described, particularly useful in telemetry work, for converting analog signals into electrical pulses and recording them. An electronic editor commands the taking of signal readings at a frequency which varies according to linearity of the analog signal being converted. Readings of information signals are recorded, along with time base readings and serial numbering, if desired, on magnetic tape and the latter may be used to operate a computer or the like. Magnetic tape data may be transferred to punched cards.

  4. High-frequency analog integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    To learn more about designing analog integrated circuits (ICs) at microwave frequencies using GaAs materials, turn to this text and reference. It addresses GaAs MESFET-based IC processing. Describes the newfound ability to apply silicon analog design techniques to reliable GaAs materials and devices which, until now, was only available through technical papers scattered throughout hundred of articles in dozens of professional journals.

  5. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  6. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  7. Radiation induced base excision repair (BER): a mechanistic mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Shirin; Taleei, Reza; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a mechanistic model of base excision repair (BER) pathway for the repair of single-stand breaks (SSBs) and oxidized base lesions produced by ionizing radiation (IR). The model is based on law of mass action kinetics to translate the biochemical processes involved, step-by-step, in the BER pathway to translate into mathematical equations. The BER is divided into two subpathways, short-patch repair (SPR) and long-patch repair (LPR). SPR involves in replacement of single nucleotide via Pol β and ligation of the ends via XRCC1 and Ligase III, while LPR involves in replacement of multiple nucleotides via PCNA, Pol δ/ɛ and FEN 1, and ligation via Ligase I. A hallmark of IR is the production of closely spaced lesions within a turn of DNA helix (named complex lesions), which have been attributed to a slower repair process. The model presented considers fast and slow component of BER kinetics by assigning SPR for simple lesions and LPR for complex lesions. In the absence of in vivo reaction rate constants for the BER proteins, we have deduced a set of rate constants based on different published experimental measurements including accumulation kinetics obtained from UVA irradiation, overall SSB repair kinetic experiments, and overall BER kinetics from live-cell imaging experiments. The model was further used to calculate the repair kinetics of complex base lesions via the LPR subpathway and compared to foci kinetic experiments for cells irradiated with γ rays, Si, and Fe ions. The model calculation show good agreement with experimental measurements for both overall repair and repair of complex lesions. Furthermore, using the model we explored different mechanisms responsible for inhibition of repair when higher LET and HZE particles are used and concluded that increasing the damage complexity can inhibit initiation of LPR after the AP site removal step in BER. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early experience of laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Hyop; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Choi, Young Hoon; Jung, Sung-Eun; Park, Kwi-Won

    2013-11-01

    Laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (LCE) in children is being attempted more frequently around the world, and although it has been performed in Korea, no publication has been published on it. However, cholangitis and/or pancreatitis are limitations that make open conversion more likely. The aims of this study, through a retrospective clinical analysis, were to prove the efficacy of LCE in children and to validate that preoperative management expands its indications. From May 2011 to November 2012, 13 pediatric LCEs were performed. Demo graphics, preoperative findings, management, operative and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. The mean age at operation was 48.5 months and mean bodyweight 19.0 kg. Ultrasonography was conducted in all patients followed by either magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (8 cases) or computed tomography (5 cases). The mean diameter of the cysts was 30.2 mm. Eight patients with cholangitis and/or pancreatitis were given antibiotics preoperatively. Four had their condition resolved by administration of antibiotics, 3 underwent additional endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and one, due to aggravating tenderness, underwent surgery after 4 days of administrating antibiotics without improvement of the inflammation. Two faced open conversions, one because of a very narrow bile duct, and the other because of remnant inflammation after inadequate preoperative management already mentioned above. Patients were discharged on the eighth postoperative day. There were no complications. Pediatric LCE is a feasible option for choledochal cyst. Proper preoperative management such as antibiotics and drainage procedures enhances its efficacy by broadening its indications, even with concomitant cholangitis and/or pancreatitis.

  9. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Wojcik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER. Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1 nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease.

  10. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  11. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial due to the lack of definitive long-term results. Thus, the expected short-term benefits can only be of interest when oncological results are at least equal. To evaluate the differences in short- and long-term results after elective laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for the resection of rectal cancer compared with open total mesorectal excision (OTME). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1990 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (February 2013). We handsearched the reference lists of the included articles for missed studies. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LTME and OTME, reporting at least one of our outcome measures, was considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality according to the CONSORT statement, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We rated the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We identified 45 references out of 953 search results, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 3528 rectal cancer patients. We did not consider the risk of bias of the included studies to have impacted on the quality of the evidence. Data were analysed according to an intention-to-treat principle with a mean conversion rate of 14.5% (range 0% to 35%) in the laparoscopic group.There was moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic and open TME had similar

  12. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  13. Digital Analog Design: A Highly-Efficient Method to Design Analog Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Digital Analog Design: A Highly-Efficient Method to Design Analog Circuits* Mark Horowitz and Byong Lim Department of Electrical Engineering...Stanford University Stanford, CA, 940305 Abstract: The past 30 years have seen an enormous growth in the power and sophistication of digital ...design tools, while progress in analog tools has been much more modest. Digital tools use many abstractions to allow them to validate

  14. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  15. [Role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing robotic atrial myxoma excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Gao, Changqing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiali; Shen, Yansong

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during robotic atrial myxoma excision. Thirty-eight consecutive patients undergoing robotic atrial myxoma excision from September 2007 to August 2012 were enrolled in the study. During the procedure, TEE was performed to document the myxoma position, its attachment, and hemodynamic information before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During establishment of peripheral CPB, TEE was used to guide placement of the cannulae in the inferior vena cava (IVC), superior vena cava (SVC), and ascending aorta (AAO). After weaning from CPB, TEE was performed to evaluate the effect of the procedure. The accuracy of TEE for the position or its attachment of the myxoma was 100%. All the cannulae in the SVC, IVC and AAO were located in correct position. In all patients, TEE confirmed successful excision. Intraoperative TEE is a valuable adjunct in patients undergoing robotic atrial myxoma excision.

  16. Loop electrosurgical excision of the cervix and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noehr, Bugge; Jensen, Allan; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between three cervical procedures (biopsy with no treatment, ablation, and loop electrosurgical excision procedure [LEEP]) and subsequent spontaneous preterm delivery in twin pregnancies using population-based data from various nationwide registries. METH...

  17. 77 FR 43157 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...This document contains corrections to temporary regulations (TD 9596), which were published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2012 (77 FR 37806) relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax.

  18. Excised radicle tips as a source of genomic DNA for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -tip-excised seedlings retain viability because of the formation of adventitious roots. We demonstrate the utility of this method in distinguishing homozygotes from heterozygotes in a cotton breeding population and in hybrid seed purity testing.

  19. Orange Peel Excision of Gland: A Novel Surgical Technique for Treatment of Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S S, Shirol

    2016-12-01

    Gynecomastia is a common aesthetic problem faced by men with reported incidence as high as 65% with serious psychosocial impact. Although various techniques of liposculpture combined with glandular excision is the standard of treatment, many of the glandular excision techniques have inherent limitations and complications such as leaving a long scar, long operative time, contour abnormalities, and increased risk of hematoma. Here, we describe an innovative "the orange peel excision of gland (OPEG) technique" which overcomes these limitations with excellent cosmetic results. A total of 38 breasts were operated in 20 patients (18 bilateral and 2 unilateral). All the patients underwent suction-assisted liposuction and glandular excision under general anesthesia by our OPEG technique. The average operative time per breast was 60 minutes. One patient had a small hematoma which did not require evacuation. The patient satisfaction rate was 95%. The technique has reduced operative time and avoids residual gland and hematoma with excellent aesthetic outcome.

  20. Evaluation of endoscopic laser excision of polypropylene mesh/sutures following anti-incontinence procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-11-01

    We reviewed our experience with and outcome of the largest series to our knowledge of patients who underwent endoscopic laser excision of eroded polypropylene mesh or sutures as a complication of previous anti-incontinence procedures.

  1. SPT4 increases UV-induced mutagenesis in yeast through impaired nucleotide excision repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Yu, Sung-Lim; Kim, Ho-Yeol; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Sung-Keun

    2013-01-01

    .... As unrepaired DNA lesions inhibit transcription, UV-induced damage to transcribed DNA is repaired preferentially versus non-transcribed DNA through transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR...

  2. Surgical Excision of Non–Melanoma Skin Cancer in an Elderly Veteran’s Affairs Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Malcolm M. Stewart, BS

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Although reduction of residual tumor at reexcision is noted with both BCC and even more so with SCC, the rate at which this occurs is not sufficient that a general recommendation to forgo surgical excision can be made.

  3. Excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Urachal sinus excision using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy seems to surpass the previously reported methods in term of safety, cosmetics, and adequacy of surgical procedures.

  4. Surgical Excision of Benign Papillomas Diagnosed with Core Biopsy: A Community Hospital Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Rozentsvayg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to assess the value of surgical excision of benign papillomas of the breast diagnosed on percutaneous core biopsy by determining the frequency of upgrade to malignancies and high risk lesions on a final surgical pathology. We reviewed 67 patients who had biopsies yielding benign papilloma and underwent subsequent surgical excision. Surgical pathology of the excised lesions was compared with initial core biopsy pathology results. 54 patients had concordant benign core and excisional pathology. Cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in five (7% patients. Surgery revealed high-risk lesions in 8 (12% patients, including atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ. Cancer and high risk lesions accounted for 13 (19% upstaging events from benign papilloma diagnosis. Our data suggests that surgical excision is warranted with core pathology of benign papilloma.

  5. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PowerPoint Slides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current cigarette excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PDF version can be found...

  6. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...This document contains final and temporary regulations relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and owners of those disregarded entities. The text of these temporary regulations serves as the text of proposed regulations (REG-125570-11) published in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  7. 78 FR 6189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ...DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement certain requirements of section 301 of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, which imposes a 2 percent excise tax on certain Federal procurement payments to foreign persons. The rule disallows the cost associated with the 2 percent excise tax on certain foreign procurements.

  8. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...In the Rules and Regulations section of this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and owners of those disregarded entities. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of the proposed regulations.

  9. Control of excision frequency of maize transposable element Ds in Petunia protoplasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, D.; Lütticke, R; Li, M; Starlinger, P

    1992-01-01

    The complete coding region of maize transposable element Ac and truncated but active derivatives of it were placed under the control of promoters of different strength and tested for the ability to excise transposable element Ds from a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in a cotransfection assay in Petunia protoplasts. The highest excision values (5% of the protoplasts able to express the beta-glucuronidase gene in a control experiment) were observed with a truncated version of the Ac coding re...

  10. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Kurtosis-Histogram Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8269 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Kurtosis-Histogram Excision...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8269 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection...Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Kurtosis-Histogram Excision 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Bladder Neck Requiring Local Excision and Mitrofanoff Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour predominantly affecting the female pelvis and perineum but has also been described in males. This tumour can often present a diagnostic challenge and has a propensity for local recurrence after surgical excision. We present an unusual case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the bladder of a female patient which required local excision and Mitrofanoff formation.

  12. Complete mesocolic excision: Lessons from anatomy translating to better oncologic outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Min-Hua; Zhang, Sen; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colon cancer, the oncologic outcome of patients has been greatly improved, which has led to a longer survival and a lower recurrence, just like the total mesorectum excision for rectal cancer. Despite the fact that the exact anatomy of the organ is one of the most vital things for surgeons to conduct surgery, no team has really studied the exact structure of the mesocolon and related attachments for CME, until the mesocolonic ana...

  13. The Relationship between Tax Rate, Penalty Rate, Tax Fairness and Excise Duty Non-compliance.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnasamy Perabavathi; Bidin Zainol

    2017-01-01

    The rise of indirect tax non-compliance by taxpayers became the main concern of most of the tax authorities around the globe. In Malaysia, non complaince such as smuggling and illegal trade activities by importers involving cigarettes, liquor and imported vehicles bound under Excise Act 1976 have caused revenue losses in monetary and non-monetary aspects. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship of tax rate, penalty rate and tax fairness of excise duty non-complia...

  14. Genetic Effects of Uv Irradiation on Excision-Proficient and -Deficient Yeast during Meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Resnick, Michael A.; Game, John C.; Stasiewicz, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    The lethal and recombinational responses to ultraviolet light irradiation (UV) by excision-proficient (RAD+) and deficient strains (rad1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been examined in cells undergoing meiosis. Cells that exhibit high levels of meiotic synchrony were irradiated either at the beginning or at various times during meiosis and allowed to proceed through meiosis. Based on survival responses, the only excision repair mechanism for UV damage available during meiosis is that contro...

  15. The effect of alcoholic beverage excise tax on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chong Hwan; Topyan, Kudret

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the effect of state excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine, and beer) on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities--deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, and falls--in the United States between 1995 and 2004, using state-level panel data. There is evidence that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to changes in state excise taxes on alcohol-specific beverages. This study examines the direct relationship between injury deaths and excise taxes without testing the degree of the association between excise taxes and alcohol consumption. The study finds that beer taxes are negatively related to motor vehicle accident mortality, while wine taxes are negatively associated with suicides and falls. The positive coefficient of the spirit taxes on falls implies a substitution effect between spirits and wine, suggesting that an increase in spirit tax will cause spirit buyers to purchase more wine. This study finds no evidence of a relationship between homicides and state excise taxes on alcohol. Thus, the study concludes that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to the excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages.

  16. Re-excision rates after breast conserving surgery following the 2014 SSO-ASTRO guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan Gladden, Alicia A; Sams, Sharon; Gleisner, Ana; Finlayson, Christina; Kounalakis, Nicole; Hosokawa, Patrick; Brown, Regina; Chong, Tae; Mathes, David; Murphy, Colleen

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, SSO-ASTRO published guidelines which recommended "no ink on tumor" as adequate margins for patients undergoing breast conservation for invasive breast cancer. In 2016, new SSO-ASTRO-ASCO guidelines recommended 2 mm margins for DCIS. We evaluated whether these guidelines affected re-excision rates at our institution. Patients treated with breast conservation surgery from January 1, 2010-March 1, 2016 were identified. Re-excision rates, tumor characteristics, and presence of residual disease were recorded. The 2016 guidelines were retrospectively applied to the same cohort and expected re-excision rates calculated. Re-excision rates did not significantly decline before and after 2014 guideline adoption (11.9% before, 10.9% after; p = 0.65) or when the 2016 guidelines were retrospectively applied (8.4%; p = 0.10). The 2014 and 2016 guidelines had minimal impact on our re-excision rates, as most re-excisions were done for DCIS and 2016 guidelines supported our prior institutional practices of 2 mm margins for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  18. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  19. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  20. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  1. The Effect of Analogy-Based Teaching on Students' Achievement and Students' Views about Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the analogy-based teaching on students' achievement and students' views about analogies. In this research, Solomon group design which is one of the experimental designs, was implemented. The sample of the research consists of 108 students in four 6th grade classes in Turkey. The achievement…

  2. Xampling: Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishali, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed within the unified Xampling framework including a general filter-bank scheme for sparse shift-invariant spaces, periodic nonuniform sampling and modulated wideband conversion for multiband communications with unknown carrier frequencies, acquisition techniques for finite rate of innovation signals with applications to medical and radar imaging, and random demodulation of sparse harmonic tones. A hardware-oriented viewpoint is advocated throughout, addressing practical constraints and exemplifying hardware realizations where...

  3. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...... the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known...

  4. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  5. Deep shave excision of macular melanocytic nevi with the razor blade biopsy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, T; Senger, E; Rapp, S; Alamouti, D; Altmeyer, P; Hoffmann, K

    2000-07-01

    Shave excision is an established surgical method for removing benign skin lesions for cosmetic and functional reasons. Usually superficial shave excision is performed with a common scalpel blade for the removal of papular nevi. However, there is little known about deep shave excision of macular melanocytic nevi with the razor blade technique. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of deep shave excision of macular melanocytic nevi with the razor blade technique. Moreover, its potency for sufficient removal of these lesions was investigated. Within routine skin cancer screening 45 outpatients with a total of 77 macular melanocytic nevi were prospectively recruited. Deep shave excisions of these lesions were performed with a double-edged razor blade followed by chemical hemostasis. Histologically all specimens were processed and evaluated in a routine manner. After 6 months the physician and patients evaluated the shave sites for cosmetic outcome with a score graded from 1 to 4 (1 = excellent; 2 = good; 3 = moderate; 4 = poor). Histologically 88% (68 of 77) of the melanocytic lesions were described as completely excised and 60% (46 of 77) were diagnosed as atypical melanocytic nevi; 12% (9 of 77) of the nevi were incompletely excised on the depth. On average, the deep margin of the specimens (n = 77) was 0.5 mm (range 0-1.8 mm) and the lateral margin was 2 mm (range 0.3-8.2 mm). After 6 months 56 shave sites could be reassessed. We observed mild hypopigmentation in 52% (29 of 56), hyperpigmentation in 32% (18 of 56), and erythema in 23% (13 of 56). Recurrent nevi occurred in 13% (7 of 56). The evaluation of the cosmetic outcome by the patients (mean score 1.7) achieved better results than the evaluation by the physician (mean score 2.5). The cosmetic results showed no significant (P >.05) differences in various anatomic sites. Our data confirm that deep razor blade excision presents a highly useful and inexpensive method for the removal of

  6. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  7. Design of analog integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laker, Kenneth R

    1994-01-01

    This text is designed for senior or graduate level courses in analog integrated circuits or design of analog integrated circuits. This book combines consideration of CMOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment. Also included are CMOS-bipolar circuits made possible by BiCMOS technology. The text progresses from MOS and bipolar device modelling to simple one and two transistor building block circuits. The final two chapters present a unified coverage of sample-data and continuous-time signal processing systems.

  8. Analogy Mapping Development for Learning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, R. A.; Prabawa, H. W.; Kurniawati, S.

    2017-02-01

    Programming skill is an important skill for computer science students, whereas nowadays, there many computer science students are lack of skills and information technology knowledges in Indonesia. This is contrary with the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) since the end of 2015 which is the qualified worker needed. This study provided an effort for nailing programming skills by mapping program code to visual analogies as learning media. The developed media was based on state machine and compiler principle and was implemented in C programming language. The state of every basic condition in programming were successful determined as analogy visualization.

  9. ANALOG SIMULATION PROBLEMS NONSTATIONARY GAS DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using hydraulic analog simulation in the study of problems of unsteady gas dynamics is considered. The analysis of differential equations of unsteady motion of bodies in supersonic flow using the theory of similarity and dimensional analysis. Obtained similarity criteria that must be identical for both the real gas flow and the modeling of fluid flow. Using a hydraulic analog modeling for research in non-stationary gas dynamics provides valuable information necessary for understanding the physics of the processes and the construction of more sophisticated mathematical models.

  10. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  11. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  12. Pseudolog Digital-to-Analog Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivity decreases by 10 at beginning of each input decade. Method conceived to convert binary-coded data to suitable linear form for stripchart recording. Strip-chart recordings obtained from typical pressure readings in a vacuum system during pumpdown. In reading curve, BCD digital vacuum-gage output processed by analog-to-digital converter in such way that only reading digits (but not range) appear in output. In range and reading, range also converted to analog and placed as most significant digit.

  13. A quadratic analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. C.; Staples, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter with a square root transfer function has been developed for use with a pair of CCD imaging detectors in the White Light Coronagraph/X-ray XUV Telescope experiment to be flown as part of the Internal Solar Polar Mission. It is shown that in background-noise-limited instrumentation systems a quadratic analog-to-digital converter will allow a maximum dynamic range with a fixed number of data bits. Low power dissipation, moderately fast conversion time, and reliability are achieved in the proposed design using standard components and avoiding nonlinear elements.

  14. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  15. Analog graphic display method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-08-13

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for using an output device such as an LED to show the approximate analog level of a variable electrical signal wherein a modulating AC waveform is superimposed either on the signal or a reference voltage, both of which are then fed to a comparator which drives the output device. Said device flashes at a constant perceptible rate with a duty cycle which varies in response to variations in the level of the input signal. The human eye perceives these variations in duty cycle as analogous to variations in the level of the input signal. 21 figures.

  16. The effect of excise tax increases on cigarette prices in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linegar, Daniel J; van Walbeek, Corne

    2017-03-24

    The effectiveness of excise tax increases as a tool for reducing tobacco consumption depends largely on how the tax increases impact the retail price. We estimate this relationship in South Africa for 2001-2015. Statistics South Africa provided disaggregated cigarette price data, used in the calculation of the Consumers' Price Index. Data on the excise tax per cigarette were obtained from Budget Reviews prepared by the National Treasury of South Africa. Regression equations were estimated for each month. The month-on-month change in cigarette prices in February through April was regressed against March's excise tax change to estimate the pass-through coefficient. For the other 9 months, the month-on-month change in cigarette price was regressed against monthly dummy variables to determine the size of the non-tax-related price increase in each of these months. The analysis was performed in both nominal and real (inflation-adjusted) terms. Expressed in real terms, the excise tax was undershifted. A R1.00 (one rand) increase in the excise tax is associated with an increase in the retail price of cigarettes of R0.90 in the pre-2010 period, and R0.49 in the post-2010 period. In the pre-2010 period, the tobacco industry increased the retail price of cigarettes in July/August, independent of the excise tax increase. The discretionary July/August price increases largely disappeared after 2010, primarily because the market became more competitive. The degree of excise tax pass-through, and the magnitude of discretionary increases in cigarette prices, is significantly determined by the competitive environment in the cigarette market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Effects of extensor synovectomy and excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid arthritis on long-term function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhilash; Ball, Cathy; Freidin, Andrew J; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2010-09-01

    Objective outcomes data after excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid arthritis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional results of this surgery in the long term. We prospectively collected data on range of motion (22 wrists), visual analog pain scores (14 wrists), and grip strength measured using a Jamar dynamometer (20 hands) in a group of 23 patients (26 wrists) preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months, and a minimum of 5 years postoperatively (range, 5.3-10.4 y). The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test was administered to 9 patients at the same time points. A subgroup of patients also underwent extensor carpi radialis longus to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon transfer (11 wrists). At one year, there were improvements in wrist pronation and supination, which were maintained at final follow-up. Active radial deviation decreased significantly at 3 months (p = .01) and one year (p = .02); this remained reduced at final follow-up (not significant). Wrist extension and active ulnar deviation showed slight improvements by one year, but reduced to levels below that measured preoperatively by final follow-up. Wrist flexion was significantly reduced at all time points postoperatively. Grip strength showed improvement from 10.0 kg (standard deviation [SD] 4.1 kg) preoperatively to 12.5 kg (SD 4.6 kg) 1 year after surgery and returned to preoperative levels (9.5 kg, SD 5.6 kg) by final follow-up. Wrist pain was significantly reduced from a mean score of 5 (SD 4) preoperatively to 2 (SD 2) postoperatively (p = .01). The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test showed improvements in writing and card turning. In the long term, excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid patients results in an improvement in some aspects of hand function. There is a significant (p = .01) reduction in wrist pain but a reduction of wrist flexion. Therapeutic IV. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog

  19. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  20. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  1. Atwood and Poggendorff: an insightful analogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho, Ricardo; Borges, Paulo; Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    - librium provide us with the solution for a compound Atwood machine with the same bodies. This analogy is pedagogically useful because it illustrates a common strategy to transform a dynamic in a static situation improving stu- dents’ comprehension of Newton’s laws and equilibrium....

  2. An iconic, analogical approach to grammaticalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.; Conradie, C.J.; Johl, R.; Beukes, M.; Fischer, O.; Ljungberg, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of problems connected with the ‘apparatus’ used in grammaticalization theory. It will be argued that we get a better grip on what happens in processes of grammaticalization (and its ‘opposite’, lexicalization) if the process is viewed in terms of analogical processes,

  3. Analog voicing detector responds to pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, R. S.; Watkins, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Modified electronic voice encoder /Vocoder/ includes an independent analog mode of operation in addition to the conventional digital mode. The Vocoder is a bandwidth compression equipment that permits voice transmission over channels, having only a fraction of the bandwidth required for conventional telephone-quality speech transmission.

  4. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  5. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...

  6. Metaphor, Simile, Analogy and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Fox argues that the poetic function of language fulfils the human need to symbolise. Metaphor, simile and analogy provide examples of the ways in which symbolic language can be used creatively. The neural representations of these processes therefore provide a means to determine the neurological basis of creative language. Neuro-imaging has…

  7. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  8. SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, J.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2016-12-01

    SSERVI's goals include supporting planetary researchers within NASA, other government agencies; private sector and hardware developers; competitors in focused prize design competitions; and academic sector researchers. The SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed provides opportunities for research scientists and engineers to study the effects of regolith analog testbed research in the planetary exploration field. This capability is essential to help to understand the basic effects of continued long-term exposure to a simulated analog test environment. The current facility houses approximately eight tons of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant in a test bin consisting of a 4 meter by 4 meter area. SSERVI provides a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships. This testbed provides a means of consolidating the tasks of acquisition, storage and safety mitigation in handling large quantities of regolith simulant Facility hardware and environment testing scenarios include, but are not limited to the following; Lunar surface mobility, Dust exposure and mitigation, Regolith handling and excavation, Solar-like illumination, Lunar surface compaction profile, Lofted dust, Mechanical properties of lunar regolith, and Surface features (i.e. grades and rocks) Numerous benefits vary from easy access to a controlled analog regolith simulant testbed, and planetary exploration activities at NASA Research Park, to academia and expanded commercial opportunities in California's Silicon Valley, as well as public outreach and education opportunities.

  9. RF digital-to-analog converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  10. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  11. Analog Experiment for rootless cone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, R.; Hamada, A.; Suzuki, A.; Kurita, K.

    2017-09-01

    Rootless cone is a unique geomorphological landmark to specify igneous origin of investigated terrane, which is formed by magma-water interaction. To understand its formation mechanism we conducted analog experiment for heat-induced vesiculation by using hot syrup and sodium bicarbonate solution.

  12. Optical folding-flash analog-to-digital converter with analog encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, B; Xie, Y M

    1995-09-15

    We describe an optically assisted folding-flash analog-to-digital converter. The periodic transfer function of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to perform analog folding on the electronic signal to be quantized. A novel analog encoding scheme for efficient generation of gray code digital data is proposed. The new encoding scheme eliminates the requirement for interferometers with ultralow V(pi), which, so far, has hindered the development of such systems. The encoding concept is experimentally demonstrated through the use of LiNbO(3) modulators.

  13. Between Harmonization and Fiscalization: Rethinking the Role of the Energy Excise Taxes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakov Iaroslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation of stages of the gradual replacement of the fiscal function of energy excise taxes in Ukraine with the regulating function, in the process of harmonization of tax legislation with the EU standards. It has been found that in the developed countries, energy excise taxes as a tool for intervention gradually lose their fiscal imperative, but, as complementary to the financial instruments, they are applied to solve clearly defined problems (long-term environmental, social, and economic challenges for the least costs. It has been proven that setting (calibration of the individual elements of the mechanisms of energy excise taxes is based on an assessment of the regulatory impact (with script analysis of the expected impacts on the most relevant combinations of tools and on the extensive consultations with all interested parties (total duration of more than one year before making a political decision concerning the related legislative initiative. Obligations of Ukraine in the part of the excise tax harmonization with the EU standards makes possible a gradual transition from the fiscal to the regulatory imperative of the energy excise taxes

  14. Corneal wedge excision in the treatment of high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Daniel G; Hay-Smith, Graham; Mearza, Ali; Falcon, Mike G

    2007-08-01

    To report 5 cases of high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) treated with corneal wedge excisions. We report our experience of 5 patients treated with corneal wedge excisions for high astigmatism after PK. A thin sliver of cornea measuring between 0.1 and 0.2 mm in thickness was excised from just inside the graft-recipient interface. The length of the incision centered at the axis of the flatter meridian of the cornea and was extended over a range of 60-90 degrees. The wound was closed with interrupted 10-0 nylon sutures placed every 15 degrees. We also report, for the first time, both pre- and postoperative corneal topography in 3 of our patients who underwent wedge excisions. The mean preoperative astigmatism was 15.2 D (range, 8.5-29.1 D). Postoperatively, after wedge excision, the mean astigmatism was reduced to 2.3 D (range, 1.9-3.7 D). The mean reduction in astigmatism was 12.9 D (range, 6.3-25.4 D). Corneal wedge resection is an effective treatment for high astigmatism after PK. It may prove particularly useful in cases of high astigmatism or where other treatments are not appropriate. We believe that there is still a role for wedge resection as one of many tools to be used in the treatment of high post-PK astigmatism.

  15. The Relationship between Tax Rate, Penalty Rate, Tax Fairness and Excise Duty Non-compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnasamy Perabavathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of indirect tax non-compliance by taxpayers became the main concern of most of the tax authorities around the globe. In Malaysia, non complaince such as smuggling and illegal trade activities by importers involving cigarettes, liquor and imported vehicles bound under Excise Act 1976 have caused revenue losses in monetary and non-monetary aspects. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship of tax rate, penalty rate and tax fairness of excise duty non-compliance. This study uses the Deterrence Theory as a basis theory to investigate the phenomenon of excise duty non complaince. A total of 500 excise duty offenders throughout Malaysia responded to the survey. The model was empirically tested by using Partial Least Squares (PLS with disproportionate stratified random sampling technique. The results indicated that the perception of tax rate and penalty rate are positively related while tax fairness is negatively related to excise duty non-compliance among importers.

  16. Arthroscopic versus open excision of dorsal ganglion cysts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Catherine; Keswani, Aakash; Lovy, Andrew J; Levy, Isaiah; Lutz, Kristina; Kim, Jaehon; Hausman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review comparing recurrence and complication rate following open versus arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts. Sixteen full-text articles were included. The pooled recurrence rate of open excision was 20% (range: 5.6-40.7%) with Q value of 27 and I2 of 82%. The pooled recurrence rate of arthroscopic excision was 9% (range: 0-17%) with Q value of 10 and I2 of 2%. Eleven of 16 studies were low quality or had a high risk of bias; however, excluding low quality studies or those with high risk of bias produced similar recurrence rates in arthroscopic and open excision (7.9% versus 9.8%). For the subset of studies with complete reporting of complications, rates were similar in open and arthroscopic excision (6% versus 4%). Our review suggests that arthroscopic and open approaches have comparable outcome profiles. Nevertheless, standardized study methods with adequate powering are required to collect high quality data, allowing for greater confidence in conclusions regarding these two approaches for existing ganglion cysts. II.

  17. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  18. A simulation model to predict the fiscal and public health impact of a change in cigarette excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2010-02-01

    (1) To present a model that predicts changes in cigarette consumption and excise revenue in response to excise tax changes, and (2) to demonstrate that, if the industry has market power, increases in specific taxes have better tobacco control consequences than increases in ad valorem taxes. All model parameters are user-determined. The model calculates likely changes in cigarette consumption, smoking prevalence and excise tax revenues due to an excise tax change. The model is applicable to countries that levy excise tax as specific or ad valorem taxes. For a representative low-income or middle-income country a 20% excise tax increase decreases cigarette consumption and industry revenue by 5% and increases excise tax revenues by 14%, if there is no change in the net-of-tax price. If the excise tax is levied as a specific tax, the industry has an incentive to raise the net-of-tax price, enhancing the consumption-reducing impact of the tax increase. If the excise tax is levied as an ad valorem tax, the industry has no such incentive. The industry has an incentive to reduce the net-of-tax price in response to an ad valorem excise tax increase, undermining the public health and fiscal benefits of the tax increase. This paper presents a simple web-based tool that allows policy makers and tobacco control advocates to estimate the likely consumption, fiscal and mortality impacts of a change in the cigarette excise tax. If a country wishes to reduce cigarette consumption by increasing the excise tax, a specific tax structure is better than an ad valorem tax structure.

  19. Excision of the En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays requires two element-encoded proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, M.; Reinecke, J.; Grant, S; Saedler, H.; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    An excision assay system for En/Spm was developed in transgenic tobacco. The characteristics of excision and integration are similar to the natural system of Zea mays. In this transgenic model system two En/Spm encoded trans-acting functions, TNPA and TNPD, are required for excision. A biochemical model for transposition is proposed that might also be applicable to other transposable elements.

  20. [Mechanisms of excising the P-element in a model system at the yellow locus of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen'kaia, T Iu; Biriukova, I V; Georgiev, P G

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of excision of a single P element were studied in a model system of the yellow locus. The data obtained were in good agreement with the generally accepted SDSA (synthesis-dependent strand annealing) model. Specific features of P element excision in the presence of two tandemly repeated copies are presented. The pattern of P element excision depended on the sequences surrounding the insertion site and on the number of its additional copies present in the genome.

  1. What makes an analogy difficult? The effects of order and causal structure on analogical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, M T

    1997-07-01

    In 4 experiments, the author tested 2 factors that affect the difficulty of analogies: order of presentation of information and causal structure. Experiments 1, 2, and 4 showed robust order effects for the positioning of sentences-sentence pairs in a variety of mapping problems. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 revealed the effects of causal structure in these analogies. Experiment 3 showed that the beneficial effects of causal structure are most marked in thematic, mapping problems presented in a casual question-answering context. Experiment 4 dealt with the interaction between order and causal structure and showed that order effects occur only in the presence of causal structure. Of all the analogy models in the literature, the incremental analogy machine is the best predictor of these results.

  2. A mutant Pfu DNA polymerase designed for advanced uracil-excision DNA engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nørholm Morten HH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combined use of restriction enzymes with PCR has revolutionized molecular cloning, but is inherently restricted by the content of the manipulated DNA sequences. Uracil-excision based cloning is ligase and sequence independent and allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA sequences in simple one-tube reactions, with higher accuracy than overlapping PCR. Results Here, the addition of a highly efficient DNA polymerase and a low-background-, large-insertion- compatible site-directed mutagenesis protocol is described, largely expanding the versatility of uracil-excision DNA engineering. Conclusions The different uracil-excision based molecular tools that have been developed in an open-source fashion, constitute a comprehensive, yet simple and inexpensive toolkit for any need in molecular cloning.

  3. Small margin (2 mm) excision of peri-ocular basal cell carcinoma with delayed repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D B.; Gimblett, M L.; Potts, M J.; Harrad, R A.

    1999-03-01

    Successful surgical treatment of peri-ocular basal cell carcinomas requires complete excision. Mohs' micrographic surgery achieves this, but is not readily available in all hospitals. The standard 3-4 mm margin does not guarantee complete excision and histology is often not available until after a repair has been undertaken. The 3-4 mm margin has evolved to deal with all forms of BCC. In our opinion, this margin is unnecessarily large for nodular/ulcerative BCC. We report our interim results of excision of localised BCCs using a 2 mm margin in conjunction with a delayed repair following confirmation of histological clearance. Thirty-one patients were treated in this manner; there have been no recurrences after an average follow-up period of 36 months (range 24-57 months).

  4. The Efficiency of Medial Plantar Skin Flap for Reconstructing Heel after Excision of Heel Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Abdolrazaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: This essay reports a case about tissue defect of heel due to melanoma excision. Patient history: The patient was a man 60 years old with a heel ulcer that had reported malignant melanoma in biopsy. Then the ulcer was done under wide local excision. Materials and Methods: We should use flap for tissue defect coverage that tendon and heel bone are exposed from it. It seems using skin graft is not useful, because skin graft in persistent contact with shoes will get chronic ulcer. Among different flaps (sural flap or medial plantar flap, we decided to use medial plantar flap. The advantage of this flap is its sensority and low volume. Conclusion: Conclusion with due attention the results, The meial planter flap, as an efficient method, is adviced to teconstruct heed specially after excision of melanoma.

  5. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  6. Breast biopsy with wire localization: factors influencing complete excision of nonpalpable carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besic, N.; Zgajnar, J.; Hocevar, M.; Snoj, N.; Lindtner, J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Zaloska 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rener, M. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Oncology, Zaloska 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Frkovic-Grazio, S. [Department of Pathology, Institute of Oncology, Zaloska 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-11-01

    Our aim was to find out the factors influencing the complete excision of nonpalpable carcinoma. During a 2-year period, 215 patients (median age 55 years) underwent biopsy after wire localization of 222 nonpalpable breast lesions. Mammographic, surgical and pathological factors were correlated with the outcome of surgery using contingence tables in SPSS statistical software. A total of 96 carcinomas were diagnosed: 38 in situ and 58 invasive carcinomas. Surgical margins were clear in 43, close in 20 and involved in 33 cases. Factors correlated with clear surgical margins are mammographically spicular lesion, cytologically proven carcinoma, excision of more than 50 g of tissue, carcinoma smaller than 10 mm, invasive carcinoma without in situ component, and unicentric ductal carcinoma in situ (p<0.05). Complete excision of multifocal in situ carcinoma or invasive carcinoma with extensive in situ component, which are diagnosed on mammogram as suspicious microcalcifications, remains a puzzling surgical task. (orig.)

  7. What Risk Factors Predict Recurrence of Heterotopic Ossification After Excision in Combat-related Amputations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Gabriel J; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Nappo, Kyle E; Tintle, Scott M; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is common after combat-related amputations and surgical excision remains the only definitive treatment for persistently symptomatic HO. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the timing of surgery, and recurrence frequency, reexcision, and complications have not been reported in large numbers of patients. (1) What are the rates of symptomatic recurrence resulting in reexcision and other complications resulting in reoperation in patients with HO? (2) Is either radiographic or symptomatic recurrence dependent on timing and type of initial surgery, the experience of the surgeon in performing the procedure, the severity of preexcision HO, the presence of concomitant neurologic injury, or the use of postoperative HO prophylaxis? Between March 2005 and March 2013 our institution treated 994 patients with 1377 combat-related major extremity amputations; of those, 172 amputations underwent subsequent excision of symptomatic HO. The mechanism of injury resulting in nearly all amputations (n = 168) was blast-related trauma. We reviewed medical records and radiographs to collect initial grade of HO, radiographic recurrence, complete compared with partial excision, concomitant neurologic injury, timing to initial surgery, surgeon experience, and use of postexcision prophylaxis with our primary study outcome being a return to the operating room (OR) for repeat excision of symptomatic HO. All 172 combat-related amputations were considered for this study irrespective of followup, which was noted to be robust, with 157 (91%) amputations having at least 6 months clinical followup by an orthopaedic surgeon or physiatrist (median, 20 months; range, 0-88 months). Eleven of 172 patients (6.5%) underwent reexcision of HO, and 67 complications resulting in return to the OR occurred in 53 patients (31%) of patients. Multivariate analysis of our primary outcome measure showed more frequent symptomatic recurrences requiring reexcision when initial

  8. Simultaneous excision of two transgene flanking sequences and resolution of complex integration loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Thompson, William F

    2009-01-01

    In planta excision techniques have proven useful both for basic biology and applied biotechnology. In this report, we describe a simple site-specific recombination (SSR) strategy that simultaneously removes pre-defined DNA sequences from both sides of a transgenic "gene of interest," leaving only the desired gene and short sequences from the recombinase recognition site. We have used the FLP/FRT SSR system to provide a proof of concept, though any of several other SSR systems could be used in the same way. The frequency of double excision ranged from 33% to 83% in different transgenic lines. We show that a single SSR reaction can simultaneously carry out double excisions and resolve complex transgene loci at high frequency. The method has direct biotechnological application and provides a useful tool for basic research.

  9. Changes in some enzymes of microbodies and plastid development in excised radish cotyledons: effect of narciclasine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yurong; Guo, Jinkui; Zhang, Lixin; Wong, Yumshing

    2003-09-01

    Narciclasine (NCS), isolated from mucilage of Narcissus bulb, showed inhibitory effects on growth and plastid development of excised radish cotyledons. NCS (0.1 mumol/L) started to show inhibitory effects on isocitrate lyase and hydroxypyruvate reductase activities after 24 h incubation in light. When NCS concentration was increased to 10 mumol/L, the activities of both enzymes are completely inhibited. From ultrastructural studies, NCS markedly prevented the degradation of protein bodies and lipid bodies, as well as chloroplast formation of excised radish cotyledons. There was only little degradation of protein and lipid bodies, and almost no chloroplast formation in the excised radish cotyledon treated with 1 mumol/L NCS. Therefore, our results provide clear evidence that NCS inhibited the transition of glyoxysomes and peroxisomes, and chloroplast development.

  10. Green and non-green callus induction from excised rice (Oryza sativa) embryos: effects of exogenous plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Calli were induced either from excised rice embryos or from whole seeds in the presence of 1 to 5 mg l-1 NAA. After 12 days of culture, calli were induced only from excised rice embryos. We found that excised embryos accumulated NAA up to 6 times higher concentration than did whole seeds. In the presence of 1 to 5 mg l-1 NAA and 2 to 10 mg l-1 kinetin, chlorophyllous calli were induced from excised rice embryos. Chlorophyll contents in the callus tissue increased with increasing kinetin concentration while percent callus induction decreased. The total chlorophyll content was linearly correlated with the ratio of kinetin to NAA in the medium.

  11. Excise duties and VAT in Europe: situation in december 2001; Accises et TVA: situation en decembre 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-12-01

    No changes occurred in the European Union at year end, regarding excise duties and VAT rates. For the year, the excise duties on automotive LPG were modified on January 1, in Germany and Netherlands. For its part, Luxembourg lowered its excise duty on auto-gas as per June, 1 from 54,54 Euros (LUF 2200) for 1000 litres to 54,04 Euros (LUF 2180). One could notice that Belgium and Finland still apply a zero excise duty on LPG autogas, while Luxembourg has the lowest VAT on autogas: 6%. (authors)

  12. Structures of Reverse Transcriptase Pre- and Post-Excision Complexes Shed New Light on HIV-1 AZT Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine results from mutations in reverse transcriptase that increase the ability of the enzyme to excise AZT-monophosphate after it has been incorporated. Crystal structures of complexes of wild type and mutant reverse transcriptase with double-stranded DNA with or without the excision product, AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA, have recently been reported [1]. The excision-enhancing mutations dramatically change the way the enzyme interacts with the excision product.

  13. 2-cm versus 4-cm surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm: a randomised, multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillgren, Peter; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Niin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin.......Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin....

  14. Management of periocular basal cell carcinoma with modified en face frozen section controlled excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent A; Marshall, Jodie A; Whitehead, Kevin J; Williamson, Richard M; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2002-11-01

    To determine the rate of recurrence of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) after modified en face frozen section-controlled excision in a high-risk population in Queensland, Australia. Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series. A review was conducted of all patients with periocular BCCs examined between 1992 to 2001 in a tertiary oculoplastics practice. Basal cell carcinomas were surgically excised, and the recurrence rates under modified en face frozen section control, Mohs micrographic surgery, and no frozen section control were documented. Epidemiologic aspects of periocular BCC in Queensland, Australia were also studied. In patients with primary BCCs, 0.71% (3 of 423 lesions) recurred when excised under frozen section control (mean follow-up, 2.6 years). At 5-year follow-up, the recurrence rate was 2.1% (2 of 97 lesions). Excision without frozen section control yielded a recurrence rate of 1.8% (2 of 113 lesions; mean follow-up, 2.6 years). There were 6 additional lesions, however, that were incompletely excised. At 5 years, the recurrence rate was 5%. Six patients had lesions removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. There were no recurrences after a mean follow-up of 1.7 years. Of 653 total lesions, 361 involved the right eye (55%). Most BCCs were on the lower eyelid (53%) and inner canthus (29%). Solid BCCs were the most common type (54%), followed by the infiltrative type (15%). The majority of complications were minor and caused no ocular damage. Carefully performed, modified en face frozen section controlled excision of periocular BCCs yields cure rates comparable to Mohs micrographic surgery at 5-year follow-up. Close communication with a skilled pathologist is essential to achieve these low recurrence rates. The fact that lesions involved the right periocular region more than the left may reflect greater sun exposure on that side from driving.

  15. Determination of strain field on the superior surface of excised larynx vocal folds using DIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Hani; Young, Jonathan; Yang, Justin C W; Mongeau, Luc; Miri, Amir K

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the mechanical strain and stress in excised porcine larynges during self-oscillation using digital image correlation (DIC) method. The use of DIC in the excised larynx setup may yield accurate measurements of the vocal fold displacement field. Ex vivo animal larynx. Measurements were performed using excised porcine larynges on a humidified flow bench, equipped with two high-speed cameras and a commercially available DIC software. Surface deformations were calculated from digital images recorded at 3000 frames per second during continuous self-oscillation for four excised porcine larynges. Larynx preparation consisted of removing the supraglottal wall and the false folds. DIC yielded the deformation field on the superior visible surface of the vocal folds. Measurement data for adducted and freely suspended vocal folds were also used to estimate the distribution of the initial prephonatory strain field. An isotropic constitutive law, the polymer eight-chain model, was used to estimate the surface distributions of planar stresses from the strain data. The Lagrangian normal strain values were between ∼16% and ∼29% along the anterior-posterior direction. The motion of material points on the vocal fold surface described an elliptical trajectory during oscillation. A phase difference was observed between the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral component of the displacement. The strain data and eight-chain model yielded a maximum stress of ∼4 kPa along the medial-lateral direction on the superior surface. DIC allowed the strain field over the superior surface of an excised porcine larynx to be quantified during self-oscillation. The approach allowed the determination of the trajectory of specific points on the vocal fold surface. The results for the excised larynx were found to be significantly different than previous results obtained using synthetic replicas. The present study provides suggestions for future

  16. Analogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Magali; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered.

  17. Myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers reinnervate tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal human skin analogs in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, T; Klar, A S; Böttcher-Haberzeth, S; Reichmann, E; Meuli, M

    2016-12-01

    The clinical application of autologous tissue-engineered skin analogs is an important strategy to cover large skin defects. Investigating biological dynamics, such as reinnervation after transplantation, is essential to improve the quality of such skin analogs. Previously, we have examined that our skin substitutes are reinnervated by host peripheral nerve fibers as early as 8 weeks after transplantation. Here, we wanted to investigate the presence and possible differences regarding myelinated and unmyelinated host nerve fibers 15 weeks after the transplantation of light and dark human tissue-engineered skin analogs. Human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes, and dermal fibroblasts were isolated from human light and dark skin biopsies. Keratinocytes and melanocytes were seeded on fibroblast-containing collagen type I hydrogels after expansion in culture. After additional culturing, the tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analogs were transplanted onto full-thickness skin wounds created on the back of immuno-incompetent rats. Skin substitutes were excised and analyzed 15 weeks after transplantation. Histological sections were examined with regard to the ingrowth pattern of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers into the skin analogs using markers, such as Substance P, NF200, and S100-Beta. We found myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral host nerve fibers 15 weeks after transplantation in the dermal part of our human skin substitutes. In particular, we identified large-diameter-myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-fibers, and small-diameter C-fibers. Furthermore, we observed myelinated nerves in close proximity to CD31-positive blood capillaries. In the long run, both types of ingrown host fibers showed an identical pattern in both light and dark skin analogs. Our data suggest that myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral nerves reinnervate human skin substitutes in a long-term in vivo transplantation assay. Our tissue-engineered skin analogs attract A- and C-fibers to

  18. Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with CO(2) laser vaporization and excision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufflen, Léa; Baermann, Pauline; Rauch, Philippe; Routiot, Thierry; Bezdetnava, Lina; Guillemin, Francois; Desandes, Emmanuel; Marchal, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate after a single treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with CO(2) laser vaporization. Fifty women with usual-type or differentiated VIN (grades 2 and 3) treated with CO(2) laser vaporization or surgery excision (cold knife or CO(2) laser) were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 50 patients, 41 (82.0%) had usual-type VIN and 9 (18.0%) had differentiated VIN. Moreover, 24 (48.0%) were treated with surgery excision and 26 (52.0%) underwent CO(2) laser vaporization. Laser-treated patients were significantly younger (p vaporization groups (p vaporization treatment (p vaporization requires regular, close, and extended monitoring.

  19. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulimani, Sridevi M; Talikoti, Dayanand G

    2013-10-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  20. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi M Mulimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  1. Transposase-Mediated Excision, Conjugative Transfer, and Diversity of ICE6013 Elements in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansevere, Emily A; Luo, Xiao; Park, Joo Youn; Yoon, Sunghyun; Seo, Keun Seok; Robinson, D Ashley

    2017-04-15

    ICE6013 represents one of two families of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) identified in the pan-genome of the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus Here we investigated the excision and conjugation functions of ICE6013 and further characterized the diversity of this element. ICE6013 excision was not significantly affected by growth, temperature, pH, or UV exposure and did not depend on recA The IS30-like DDE transposase (Tpase; encoded by orf1 and orf2) of ICE6013 must be uninterrupted for excision to occur, whereas disrupting three of the other open reading frames (ORFs) on the element significantly affects the level of excision. We demonstrate that ICE6013 conjugatively transfers to different S. aureus backgrounds at frequencies approaching that of the conjugative plasmid pGO1. We found that excision is required for conjugation, that not all S. aureus backgrounds are successful recipients, and that transconjugants acquire the ability to transfer ICE6013 Sequencing of chromosomal integration sites in serially passaged transconjugants revealed a significant integration site preference for a 15-bp AT-rich palindromic consensus sequence, which surrounds the 3-bp target site that is duplicated upon integration. A sequence analysis of ICE6013 from different host strains of S. aureus and from eight other species of staphylococci identified seven divergent subfamilies of ICE6013 that include sequences previously classified as a transposon, a plasmid, and various ICEs. In summary, these results indicate that the IS30-like Tpase functions as the ICE6013 recombinase and that ICE6013 represents a diverse family of mobile genetic elements that mediate conjugation in staphylococci.IMPORTANCE Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) encode the abilities to integrate into and excise from bacterial chromosomes and plasmids and mediate conjugation between bacteria. As agents of horizontal gene transfer, ICEs may affect bacterial evolution. ICE6013 represents one

  2. Iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells to the sentinel node after surgical excision in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tumor cells (ITC) are more common in the sentinel node (SN) after needle biopsy of a breast cancer, indicating iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells. We here investigate whether similar iatrogenic displacement occurs after surgical excision of a breast tumor. We compared the incidence...... of ITC in the SN of 414 breast cancer patients with recent surgical excision to a group of 16,960 patients without recent surgical procedure in a multivariate analysis by linking data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database and the Danish National Health Register. Moreover, the incidence...

  3. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  4. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. High-speed analog CMOS pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möschen, J.; Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Hosticka, B.; Kötz, U.; Sippach, B.

    1990-03-01

    We present a switched-capacitor readout system for high speed analog signals. It consists of a 10 MHz four-channel delay-line chip with 58 samples per channel and a 12 channel buffer chip with a sampling rate of 1 MHz and a depth of nine samples. In addition the buffer chip includes an analog multiplexer with 25 inputs for the buffer channels and for 13 additional unbuffered signals. Both chips have been fabricated in CMOS-technology and will be used for the readout of the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter. The circuit and chip concept will be presented and some design optimizations will be discussed. Measurements from integrated prototypes will be given including some experimental data from irradiated chips.

  6. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  7. N-Zero Integrated Analog Classifier (NINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    detected signals. For physical- asset detection and classification, passive piezoelectric MEMS resonant seismic sensors will be utilized to produce...computational circuits operating deep in the weak inversion regime and non-volatile analog memories to classify seismic signals at extremely low...frequencies to maximize the sensor output voltage with generator signal. Figure 3. Vibration signal spectrum measured from by a sensor located atop the

  8. Atomtronics: Ultracold Atom Analogs of Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-23

    to leave the base compared to entering the col- build a transistor . Bipolar junction transistors ( BJT ) lector. Because of this, most of the current...voltage curve exploits the existence of superfluid and insulating regimes in the phase diagram. "lie atomt.roinc analog of a bipolar junction transistor ...of a bipolar junction transistor exhibits large negative gain. Our results provide the building blocks for more advanced atomtronic devices and

  9. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  10. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  11. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One...... of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater...... anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose...

  13. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  14. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Altunbas, Hasan Ali; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by autoimmune, genetic and metabolic abnormalities. While insulin deficiency manifested as hyperglycemia is a common sequel of both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), it does not result from a single genetic defect—rather insulin deficiency results from the functional loss of pancreatic β cells due to multifactorial mechanisms. Since pancreatic β cells of patients with T1DM are destroyed by autoimmune reaction, these patients require daily insulin injections. Insulin resistance followed by β cell dysfunction and β cell loss is the characteristics of T2DM. Therefore, most patients with T2DM will require insulin treatment due to eventual loss of insulin secretion. Despite the evidence of early insulin treatment lowering macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) complications of T2DM, controversy exists among physicians on how to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. The slow acting nature of regular human insulin makes its use ineffective in counteracting postprandial hyperglycemia. Instead, recombinant insulin analogs have been generated with a variable degree of specificity and action. Due to the metabolic variability among individuals, optimum blood glucose management is a formidable task to accomplish despite the presence of novel insulin analogs. In this article, we present a recent update on insulin analog structure and function with an overview of the evidence on the various insulin regimens clinically used to treat diabetes. PMID:23584214

  15. Kukoamine A analogs with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Garnelis, Thomas; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Papaioannou, Dionissios

    2009-10-01

    Kukoamine A (KukA) is a spermine (SPM) conjugate with dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), with interesting biological activities. The four possible regioisomers of KukA, as well as a series of KukA analogs incorporating changes in either the SPM or the DHCA structural units, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation. The reducing properties of the compounds were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and found to be in the range 5-97.5%. KukA significantly inhibits LOX with IC(50) 9.5 microM. All tested analogs inhibited lipid peroxidation in the range of 11-100%. The most potent compounds KukA and its analog 3, in which the DHCA units had been replaced by O,O9-dimethylcaffeic acid units, were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and found to be of comparable activity to indomethacin. The results of the biological tests are discussed in terms of structural characteristics.

  16. Nonlinear feedback reduces analog-to-digital converter error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Nonlinear analog-to-digital converter measures the analog input level and continuously adjusts the digital readout scale sensitivity to effectively increase the accuracy. It is able to acquire more accurate low-level data.

  17. Unconscious violinists and the use of analogies in moral argument

    OpenAIRE

    Wiland, E.

    2000-01-01

    Analogies are the stuff out of which normative moral philosophy is made. Certainly one of the most famous analogies constructed by a philosopher in order to argue for a specific controversial moral conclusion is the one involving Judith Thomson's unconscious violinist. Reflection upon this analogy is meant to show us that abortion is generally not immoral even if the prenatal have the same moral status as the postnatal. This was and still is a controversial conclusion, and yet the analogy doe...

  18. Mechanism-Based Drug Combinations with the DNA Strand-Breaking Nucleoside Analog CNDAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Yingjun; Nowak, Billie; Hargis, Sarah; Plunkett, William

    2016-10-01

    CNDAC (2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-β-d-arabino-pentofuranosyl-cytosine, DFP10917) and its orally bioavailable prodrug, sapacitabine, are undergoing clinical trials for hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The unique action mechanism of inducing DNA strand breaks distinguishes CNDAC from other deoxycytidine analogs. To optimize the clinical potentials of CNDAC, we explored multiple strategies combining CNDAC with chemotherapeutic agents targeting distinct DNA damage repair pathways that are currently in clinical use. The ability of each agent to decrease proliferative potential, determined by clonogenic assays, was determined in paired cell lines proficient and deficient in certain DNA repair proteins. Subsequently, each agent was used in combination with CNDAC at fixed concentration ratios. The clonogenicity was quantitated by median effect analysis, and a combination index was calculated. The c-Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib had synergy with CNDAC in HCT116 cells, regardless of p53 status. Inhibitors of PARP1 that interfere with homologous recombination (HR) repair or base excision repair (BER) and agents such as temozolomide that cause DNA damage repaired by the BER pathway were also synergistic with CNDAC. The toxicity of the nitrogen mustards bendamustine and cytoxan, or of platinum compounds, which generate DNA adducts repaired by nucleotide excision repair and HR, was additive with CNDAC. An additive cell killing was also achieved by the combination of CNDAC with taxane mitotic inhibitors (paclitaxel and docetaxel). At concentrations that allow survival of the majority of wild-type cells, the synergistic or additive combination effects were selective in HR-deficient cells. This study provides mechanistic rationales for combining CNDAC with other active drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(10); 2302-13. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Long-term outcome of surgical excision of leukoplakia in a screening intervention trial, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There were four (5 7% cases of malignant transformation during the mean follow-up period of 8-1 years. The superiority of surgical excision over other modalities of management of leukoplakia could not be established in the present study.

  20. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA

  1. Modulation of base excision repair of 8-oxoguanine by the nucleotide sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, Julia; Kitsera, Nataliya; von der Lippen, Carina; Epe, Bernd; Khobta, Andriy

    2013-10-01

    8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a major product of oxidative DNA damage, which induces replication errors and interferes with transcription. By varying the position of single 8-oxoG in a functional gene and manipulating the nucleotide sequence surrounding the lesion, we found that the degree of transcriptional inhibition is independent of the distance from the transcription start or the localization within the transcribed or the non-transcribed DNA strand. However, it is strongly dependent on the sequence context and also proportional to cellular expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)-demonstrating that transcriptional arrest does not take place at unrepaired 8-oxoG and proving a causal connection between 8-oxoG excision and the inhibition of transcription. We identified the 5'-CAGGGC[8-oxoG]GACTG-3' motif as having only minimal transcription-inhibitory potential in cells, based on which we predicted that 8-oxoG excision is particularly inefficient in this sequence context. This anticipation was fully confirmed by direct biochemical assays. Furthermore, in DNA containing a bistranded Cp[8-oxoG]/Cp[8-oxoG] clustered lesion, the excision rates differed between the two strands at least by a factor of 9, clearly demonstrating that the excision preference is defined by the DNA strand asymmetry rather than the overall geometry of the double helix or local duplex stability.

  2. State cigarette excise tax, secondhand smoke exposure, and periodontitis in US nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne; Slade, Gary

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the relationship of state cigarette excise tax with cigarette sales, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and periodontitis among US lifetime nonsmokers. Cigarette excise tax and per capita sales data from 1983 to 1998 were obtained for 50 states and the District of Columbia. Periodontal data were analyzed for 3137 adults in 28 states from 3 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (1999-2004). Measures of periodontal pocket depth and attachment level were used to classify people with moderate or severe periodontitis. SHS exposure was classified according to gender- or race/ethnicity-specific thresholds of serum cotinine concentration. Statistical analysis adjusted for the complex survey design. For each additional $0.10 in excise tax, predicted sales decreased by 0.74 packs per person per month and adjusted odds of moderate or severe periodontitis decreased 22% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.97). For each pack sold per person per month, adjusted odds of SHS exposure increased 28% (95% CI = 1.17, 1.40) and adjusted odds of periodontitis increased 15% (95% CI = 1.03, 1.29). Odds of periodontitis for those exposed to SHS were elevated 2-fold relative to those who were unexposed (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.30, 3.20). Cigarette excise tax may protect nonsmokers against periodontitis.

  3. Blowing Smoke and Billowing Logic: Consulting on Cigarette Excise Tax Increase Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joy L.; Esrock, Stuart L.; Leichty, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a consulting project with an advocacy organization to raise cigarette excise taxes in Kentucky and to improve public health in the state. We describe the theoretical underpinnings of the project, the client, and our consultation process, objectives, products, and results.

  4. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  5. Teenage patients with ingrown toenails: Treatment with partial matrix excision or segmental phenolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korkmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingrown toenails (IT is a very common problem leading to significant associated morbidity. The articles related to phenolization for matrix removal in teenagers with IT are not enough in the foot surgery literature. Aims: To compare the postoperative recovery periods, complication rate, and tolerability of partial matrix excision and segmental phenolization in teenagers with IT. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (13-17 years with 48 IT were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with partial matrix excision (Group I and segmental phenolization (Group II. We assessed the recurrence rates, postoperative complications, duration of analgesic usage, and time to return to daily activities. Results: There was no significant difference between the demographic and clinical data of the two groups. Three patients in Group I and two patients in Group II experienced moderate pain postoperatively. These patients used analgesics for 3 days. The rates of postoperative complications and recurrences between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference ( P = 0.688. The time to return to normal daily activities was significantly shorter in Group II patients than in Group I patients ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Partial matrix excision is a very safe model of therapy in the surgical treatment of teenagers with IT. It has low recurrence rate and minimal postoperative morbidity. We concluded that segmental phenolization is also as safe as partial matrix excision in the treatment of IT and patients return to their daily activities in less time with this treatment modality.

  6. Robot-assisted excision of seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Scarcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle cysts (SVCs associated with other genitourologic abnormalities are rare. Often associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis in a symptomatic patient. In symptomatic patients open surgical excision is the treatment of choice. The laparoscopic approach is a less invasive option. Recently robot-assisted management has gained a primary role for the treatment of this condition.

  7. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy on nucleotide excision repair complexes using GFP fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Rademakers, Suzanne; Vermeulen, Wim; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Greve, Jan; Koenig, Karsten; Tanke, Hans J.; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2000-01-01

    Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy is used for single molecule studies on DNA-protein complexes that occur in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). During DNA-damage elimination by the NER-pathway, complex protein structures assemble over DNA. It is our aim to resolve the architecture of these

  8. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of  dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  9. Excision versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jihee; Kim, Seong Chul; Kim, Dae Yeon; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the outcomes of open surgical excision and endoscopic trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for the treatment of branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa (BSPF). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 27 patients (16 males and 11 females) who were treated for BSPF at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2013. The median age of the 27 patients was 4.5years (range, 0 to 15years). Before definitive surgery, 19 (70.3%) of the patients had histories of neck infection, and 16 (59.2%) patients had neck abscesses that were drained. The lesions were predominantly located on the left side (26 of 27; 96.2%). Excisions were performed for 14 (48.1%) patients. TCA chemocauterizations were performed for 13 patients. After a median follow-up period of 5.5years, 11 patients developed recurrence. The recurrence rates were not significantly different between the excision and chemocauterization groups (35.7% vs 46.1%, respectively, p=0.704). All of the recurred patients were successfully treated with repeated chemocauterization or reexcision. Analyses of the risk factors for recurrence revealed that a previous infection history tended to increase the rate of recurrence (90.9% vs 56.2%, p=0.090). Our experience suggests that the outcomes of excision and TCA chemocauterization are not significantly different. Additional studies are needed to reach a consensus regarding the best treatment strategy for BSPF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Skin Stretching for Burn Scar Excision: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; van Trier, A.J.M.; Jongen, S.J.M.; Vlig, M.; Nieuwenhuis, M.K.; Middelkoop, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Burn survivors are frequently faced with disfiguring scars. Various techniques exist to improve scar appearance, such as laser treatment and dermabrasion. Next to that, surgical reconstruction, such as scar excision is an option. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether a

  11. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Ghanta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters.

  12. The utility of re-excising mildly and moderately dysplastic nevi: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzula, Lauren; Vedak, Priyanka; Hoang, Mai P; Sober, Arthur; Tsao, Hensin; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    The management of dysplastic nevi (DN) is a highly debated and controversial topic within the dermatology community. Clinicians agree that margin-positive severely DN should be removed with a surgical margin, however, there is disagreement surrounding the appropriate management of margin-positive mildly and moderately DN. We sought to evaluate the utility of re-excising margin-positive mildly and moderately DN. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all adult patients given the diagnosis of a biopsy-proven DN from 2010 through 2011. The primary outcomes were defined as the presence of melanocytic residuum in re-excisional specimens and a clinically significant change in diagnosis. A total of 1809 mildly and moderately DN were diagnosed from 2010 through 2011. In all, 765 (42.3%) of these lesions were found to have positive surgical margins during biopsy, and 495 (64.7) of the 765 lesions were subsequently re-excised. Melanocytic residuum was present in 18.2% of re-excisional specimens. Re-excision resulted in a clinically significant alteration of the diagnosis in only 1 case (0.2%). Limitations include retrospective design and inability to assess for malignant transformation given limited follow-up. Re-excising mildly and moderately DN results in a low histopathological yield and rarely results in a clinically significant change in diagnosis. As such, clinical monitoring of margin-positive lesions may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  14. Surgical-site infection following lymph node excision indicates susceptibility for lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer-related lymphedema is a common complication following lymph node excision. Prevention of lymphedema is essential, as treatment options are limited. Known risk factors are firmly anchored to the cancer treatment itself; however potentially preventable factors such...

  15. Determinants of Autobiographical Memory in Patients with Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy or Excisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent, Marie; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2009-01-01

    Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy from hippocampal origin and patients with unilateral surgical excision of an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe were compared to healthy controls on a version of the Autobiographical Interview (AI) adapted to assess memory for event-specific and generic personal episodes. For both…

  16. Scaphoid Excision and Four-Corner Fusion for Neglected Perilunate Dislocations: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    Perilunate dislocations are severe uncommon carpal injuries. They are sometimes missed with a reported incidence of up to 25%. Neglect for a period of time allows for soft tissue contractures, as well as bony changes that make reduction extremely difficult. For neglected cases, procedures such as staged open reduction, proximal row carpectomy, and wrist arthrodesis have been offered. The objective of this study was to examine whether scaphoid excision and four-corner fusion could be used to treat neglected perilunate dislocations. Ten patients with neglected perilunate dislocations were managed by scaphoid excision and four-corner fusion. The dominant hand was involved in eight cases. Graft material for the fusion was obtained from the excised scaphoid. Six patients had complete relief of pain both at rest and during stressful activities. Two patients had no pain at rest and mild pain on stressful activities. The remaining two patients had mild pain at rest and moderate pain on stressful activities. The arc of extension/flexion of the wrist and grip strength both improved as compared to their preoperative levels. The average postoperative Quick DASH score was 12.5. Scaphoid excision with four corner fusion could be used to treat neglected perilunate dislocations with good pain relief and good hand function.

  17. Clinical analysis of risk factors contributing to recurrence of pterygium after excision and graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Ha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To find the risk factors related to the reproliferation of the pterygial tissue after excision and graft surgery.METHODS:Charts of 130 eyes of 130 patients who had pterygial excision from March 2006 to April 2011 were reviewed. Preoperative pterygium morphology, surgical methods, and adjunctive treatments were statistically analyzed for their relationship with recurrence.RESULTS: During the follow-up period, recurrence was observed in 20 eyes (15.4%. None of the preoperative morphologic features were affected the rate of the recurrence. However, an age < 40y [P =0.085, odds ratio (OR 3.609, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.838-15.540] and amniotic membrane graft instead of conjunctival autograft (P =0.002, OR 9.093, 95% CI 2.316-35.698 were statistically significant risk factors for recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC (P=0.072, OR 0.298, 95% CI 0.080-1.115 decreased the rate of recurrence.CONCLUSION:Younger age is a risk factor for reproliferation of pterygial tissue after excision and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT are less effective in preventing recurrence of pterygium after excision based on the comparison between conjunctival autograft and AMT. Intraoperative MMC application and conjunctival autograft reduce recurrence.

  18. Cloning and characterization of the human DNA-excision repair gene ERCC-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Michel)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIt is the aim of the work described in this thesis to isolate and characterize human genes involved DNA excision repair. This will facilitate the understanding of the mechanism of this repair process whereas it also provides an important step to better understand the relationship

  19. Cervical osteomyelitis after carbon dioxide laser excision of recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A. Jacqueline; Brandsma, Dieta; Smeele, Ludi E.; Rosingh, Andert W.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two patients with recurrent carcinoma of the posterior pharyngeal wall, previously treated with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excision and (chemo)radiotherapy, presented with neck pain due to cervical osteomyelitis. In one patient this led to cervical spine instability, for which a haloframe was

  20. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  1. Prospective evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, S. O.; van der Zaag-Loonen, H. J.; Bouma, E. M. C.; Pierie, J. P. E. N.; Hoff, C.; Wiggers, T.; Meijerink, W. J. H. J.

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate how the quality of life of patients with rectal cancer changes with time after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision. METHODS: Patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of

  2. Elbow joint laxity after experimental radial head excision and lateral collateral ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Tyrdal, Stein

    2005-01-01

    rotation of the ulna were measured during passive flexion-extension and application of a 0.75-Nm torque in 6 intact cadaveric elbows and after (1) either excision of the radial head or division of the LCL, (2) removal of both constraints, (3) isolated radial head prosthetic replacement, (4) isolated LCL...

  3. The hobo transposable element excises and has related elements in tephritid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Function of the Drosophila melanogaster hobo transposon in tephritid species was tested in transient embryonic excision assays by scientists at the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. Wild-type and mutant strains of Ana...

  4. Mutational analysis of the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H. van den Berg (Jan); M. van Duin (Mark); A. Westerveld (Andries); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe human DNA repair protein ERCC1 resides in a complex together with the ERCC4, ERCC11 and XP-F correcting activities, thought to perform the 5' strand incision during nucleotide excision repair (NER). Its yeast counterpart, RAD1-RAD10, has an additional engagement in a mitotic

  5. Office-Based Post-Axial Polydactyly Excision in Neonates, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher L; Cuellar, Trajan A; Friel, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    In adult hand surgery literature, there are multiple publications highlighting the successful use of office-based hand surgery in the treatment of hand conditions. There are few instances of office-based hand surgery in the pediatric population present in the literature. Polydactyly of the hand is one of the most common congenital hand malformations. The authors present a case series of successfully performed in-office surgical excision of the type B postaxial polydactylous digit in infants and children. The added health care utilization improvements by performing this in the office, as well as lack of exposure to general anesthesia are reviewed. A retrospective review of the patients treated was completed and the technique of in-office excision documented. Over a 15 month period, a total of twenty-six children were treated in the office for postaxial polydactyly. The average age of the child at the time of excision was 3.3 months old, with a median of 1.4 months with a range of 9 days-4.2 years. There were no postprocedure complications in function or sensation. The authors report a case series of successful surgical excision of type B postaxial polydactyly in newborns, infants, and children in an office setting with the use of lidocaine with epinephrine. This technique is a cost-conscious approach to the condition without the need for general anesthesia. This demonstrates excellent results with improved safety without sacrificing quality. Therapeutic, IV.

  6. Case of scleromalacia presumably due to beta-irradiation after pterygium excision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Suda, T.; Manabe, R. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-03-01

    A 62-year-old female with scleromalacia resulting from localized beta-irradiation after pterygium excision is reported. It was treated by covering the lesion with preserved scleral homograft; favorable results were obtained. Clinically significant scleral damage may occur not only at high doses but at low doses as well, if the condition of the sclera is poor.

  7. Ocular complications due to therapeutic beta-irradiation after pterygum excision. 2 cases of scleromalacia perforans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumashiro, O.; Matsuo, N.; Ojima, M. (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Katayama, N.

    1981-09-01

    Two cases of scleromalacia perforans were seen. The disease occurred 15 years and 4 years after postoperative beta-irradiation, for pterygium excision. In the former, transplantation of the sclera which had been preserved after keratoplasty was performed, and the result was favourable. In the latter, case with mild symptoms, only drug instillation was made.

  8. Clinical research of tear film stability after pterygium excision with amniotic membrane transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ying Ming

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess changes of tear film function in patients after pterygium excision combined with amniotic membrane transplantation.METHODS:Totally 126 patients with pterygium excision with amniotic membrane transplantation from January 2011 to November 2013 were entered in the study. The tear breakup time(BUT, the Schirmer I test(SⅠtand tear ferning test(TFTwere elevated in the patients before and after pterygium excision combined with amniotic membrane transplantation. The examnation times were 1d before surgey, 1wk, 1, 2mo after surgery. Operation eyes were studied group, while opposite healthy eyes as control group.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, BUT and TFT were significantly different in the eyes with pterygium(PP>0.05. The results of BUT and TFT at 1mo after surgery in study group were significantly better than 1wk(PP>0.05; The tear film stability in the study group at 1wk after surgery was still inferior to the control group(PP all>0.05. SⅠt results did not differ between the different examination times(P>0.05.CONCLUSION:Tear film stability was broken in the eyes with pterygium. Pterygium excision combined with amniotic membrane transplantation can obviously restore the tear film function into normal state, and the tear film function could reach steady-state 1mo after surgery.

  9. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1 Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions. (a) In general. Section 5891 imposes...

  10. Risk factors for anastomotic failure after total mesorectal excision of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, KCMJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Marijnen, CAM; Kranenbarg, EK; Steup, WH; Wiggers, T; Rutten, HJ; van de Velde, CJH

    Background: Anastomotic leakage is a major complication of rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with symptomatic anastomotic leakage after total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods: Between 1996 and 1999, patients with operable rectal cancer were

  11. A technique to excise the descemet membrane from a recipient cornea (descemetorhexis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, Gerrit R. J.; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.

    2004-01-01

    To describe a technique for excision of the Descemet membrane (DM) from the recipient eye for preparation of a recipient stromal bed in posterior lamellar keratoplasty. In 10 human eye bank eyes and 3 patients, recipient eyes had a 5.0-mm scleral tunnel incision made extending 1.0 mm into the

  12. Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum: unresponsive to oral retinoid and successfully treated with wide local excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapildev Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-year-old male presenting with a large plaque with a rolled-out interrupted margin, atrophic center, and island of normal skin over the left arm. It grew peripherally with central healing, and there was a history of recurrence after inadequate excision. Investigations ruled out other clin­ical mimickers; namely, squamous cell carcinoma, lupus vulgaris, botryomycosis, and blastomycosis-like pyoderma. Histopathological sections showed irregularly shaped craters filled with keratin and epithelial pearl but no evidence of granuloma or cellular atypia. Clinico­pathological correlation proved the lesion to be keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM, a rare variant of keratoacanthoma, which spreads centrifugally, attains a huge size, and never involutes spontaneously. Treatment of KCM has been a problem always and, in our case, systemic retinoid (acitretin for three months proved ineffective. The patient also had a history of recurrence following surgical intervention previously, necessitating wide excision to achieve complete clearance of tumor cells. Hence, after failure of retinoid therapy, the decision of excision with a 1-centimeter margin was taken and the large defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. The graft uptake was satisfactory, and the patient is being followed-up presently and shows no signs of recurrence after six months, highlighting wide local excision as a useful treatment option.

  13. Using Analogies as an Experiential Learning Technique in Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthakaran, V.; Filsinger, Keri; White, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors specifically address the use of narratives in the form of analogies as an experiential learning activity. The use of analogies as an experiential learning tool in multicultural education can be helpful in a number of ways. Analogies provide an alternative tool for processing multicultural topics with students who have…

  14. Administration of Biosimilar Insulin Analogs: Role of Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Fritz, Ingo; Khatami, Hootan; Edelman, Steven V

    2017-02-01

    With the expiration of patent protection for several originator insulin analog molecules, the availability of insulin analog copies is set to increase. Many regulatory authorities have developed, and continue to refine, guidelines for the approval of biosimilar insulin analogs. Aspects such as the structure, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of biosimilar insulin analogs are extensively addressed in these guidelines, but how the biosimilar insulin analog is administered to people with diabetes is not usually a topic. The aim of this article is to highlight that the delivery device-drug combination is of particular importance. Regulatory, legal, and practical aspects of the delivery device, be it a syringe, pen, or pump, have to be considered in the context of biosimilar insulin analogs. Although the safety and efficacy of biosimilar insulin analogs per se are of primary importance for physicians and people with diabetes, functions and features of the devices used for administration also require attention from a practical point of view. Unfortunately, although there are several clinical studies investigating the technical aspects of and patient preference for the originator insulin analog pens, there are currently very little published data for nonoriginator or biosimilar insulin analog pens. In addition, it is not known if it is safe to assume that a biosimilar insulin analog cartridge is compatible with an existing originator insulin analog pen. We believe that there is a need for more discussion on the role of devices for administration of biosimilar insulin analogs.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-05

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circuit with a successive approximation analog to digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    During successive approximation analog to digital conversion a series of successive digital reference values is selected that converges towards a digital representation of an analog input signal. An analog reference signal is generated dependent on the successive digital reference values and

  17. Circuit with a successive approximation analog to digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    During successive approximation analog to digital conversion a series of successive digital reference values is selected that converges towards a digital representation of an analog input signal. An analog reference signal is generated dependent on the successive digital reference values and

  18. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  19. Localization of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC-6 to human chromosome 10q11-q21.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); R.M. Landsvater; J. Wiegant; M. van der Ploeg; G. Viel; C.H.C.M. Buys; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have cloned the human DNA excision repair gene ERCC6 by virtue of its ability to correct the uv sensitivity of Chinese hamster overy cell mutant UV61. This mutant is a member of complementation group 6 of the nucleotide excision repair-deficient rodent mutants. By means of in situ

  20. On pitch jumps between chest and falsetto registers in voice : Data from living and excised human larynges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    The paper offers a new concept of studying abrupt chest-falsetto register transitions Clumps) based on the theory of nonlinear dynamics. The jumps were studied in an excised human larynx and in three living subjects tone female and two male). Data from the excised larynx revealed that a small and

  1. The effect of partial excision of the A2 and A4 pulleys on the biomechanics of finger flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, M; Mitsionis, G; Basitidas, J; Grewal, R; Pfaeffle, J

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of partial excision of the A2 and A4 pulleys on digital angular rotation and the energy required to flex the finger. Partial excision of A2 resulted in a statistically significant decrease in angular rotation of 3 and 5% after 50 and 75% excision, respectively. Partial excision of A4 failed to produce any significant differences in angular rotation. Combined partial excision of A2 and A4 resulted in a significant decrease of 5 and 8% after 50 and 75% excision, respectively. Significant differences in work of flexion occurred only after excision of 75% of the A2 pulley. Although optimal finger function relies on the integrity of the A2 and A4 pulleys which maintain the efficiency of the digital flexor system, these data suggest that 25% of the A2 pulley, up to 75% of the A4 and 25% of the A2 and A4 together can be excised without significant effects on angular rotation.

  2. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  3. Cre/lox-mediated marker gene excision in transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Subbarao, S; Addae, P; Shen, A; Armstrong, C; Peschke, V; Gilbertson, L

    2003-11-01

    After the initial transformation and tissue culture process is complete, selectable marker genes, which are used in virtually all transformation approaches, are not required for the expression of the gene of interest in the transgenic plants. There are several advantages to removing the selectable marker gene after it is no longer needed, such as enabling the reuse of selectable markers and simplifying transgene arrays. We have tested the Cre/ lox system from bacteriophage P1 for its ability to precisely excise stably integrated marker genes from chromosomes in transgenic maize plants. Two strategies, crossing and autoexcision, have been tested and demonstrated. In the crossing strategy, plants expressing the Cre recombinase are crossed with plants bearing a transgene construct in which the selectable marker gene is flanked by directly repeated lox sites. Unlike previous reports in which incomplete somatic and germline excision were common, in our experiments complete somatic and germline marker gene excision occurred in the F(1) plants from most crosses with multiple independent Cre and lox lines. In the autoexcision strategy, the cre gene, under the control of a heat shock-inducible promoter, is excised along with the nptII marker gene. Our results show that a transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic callus is sufficient for inducing cre and excising the cre and nptII genes. Genetic segregation and molecular analysis confirmed that marker gene removal is precise, complete and stable. The autoexcision strategy provides a way of removing the selectable marker gene from callus or other tissues such as embryos and kernels.

  4. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettau Ludwig A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump' neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep

  5. An optimized analog to digital converter for WLAN analog front end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye; Yumei, Zhou; Bin, Wu; Jianhua, Jiang

    2012-04-01

    A 10 bit 80 MSPS analog to digital converter optimized for WLAN analog front end is presented. In contrast to conventional 1.5 bit pipeline architecture, four optimized multi-bit multiply digital to analog converter stages are implemented. An on-chip low-noise reference buffer is proposed for SoC integration purposes, and a wide-bandwidth wide swing sample and hold amplifier is also presented for achieving a good dynamic range. The converter was fabricated in 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology, and the core area occupies approximately 0.85 mm2. Measured results show that with an 11 MHz input signal, it provides a 9.4 bit effective number of bits and a 72 dBc spurious frequency dynamic range when sampled at 80 MHz.

  6. SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) at NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley was founded in 2013 to act as a virtual institute that provides interdisciplinary research centered on the goals of its supporting directorates: NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).Primary research goals of the Institute revolve around the integration of science and exploration to gain knowledge required for the future of human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI intends to leverage existing JSC1A regolith simulant resources into the creation of a regolith simulant testbed facility. The purpose of this testbed concept is to provide the planetary exploration community with a readily available capability to test hardware and conduct research in a large simulant environment.SSERVI's goals include supporting planetary researchers within NASA, other government agencies; private sector and hardware developers; competitors in focused prize design competitions; and academic sector researchers.SSERVI provides opportunities for research scientists and engineers to study the effects of regolith analog testbed research in the planetary exploration field. This capability is essential to help to understand the basic effects of continued long-term exposure to a simulated analog test environment.The current facility houses approximately eight tons of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant in a test bin consisting of a 4 meter by 4 meter area, including dust mitigation and safety oversight.Facility hardware and environment testing scenarios could include, Lunar surface mobility, Dust exposure and mitigation, Regolith handling and excavation, Solar-like illumination, Lunar surface compaction profile, Lofted dust, Mechanical properties of lunar regolith, Surface features (i.e. grades and rocks)Numerous benefits vary from easy access to a controlled analog regolith simulant testbed, and

  7. Digital to Analog Converter Dac 0800 with Pc-based

    OpenAIRE

    Dedy Erwan Kustianto; Ir. Irawan Nimara, MM

    2000-01-01

    Computer produces a digital signal output of logic "0" and "1". While electronicdevices typically use an analog signal as a voltage source that a certain amount.Electronic devices that require analog signals can be connected to a computer using adigital to analog converter circuit. Digital to analog converter is used to change thedigital signal into analogue signal.To be able to relate to the computer to analog converter circuit, an interface is needed.The interface is often used in design is...

  8. A unique case of a cutaneous lesion resembling mammary analog secretory carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Jennifer; Batanian, Jacqueline; Wenig, Bruce M; Vidal, Claudia I

    2015-04-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare type of salivary gland tumor named for its morphological and genetic similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. These tumors are most often found in the parotid gland but have been described in several other mucosal locations of the head and neck. In this case report, a cutaneous lesion most closely resembling MASC was found in a neck mass of a 64-year-old male patient without evidence of a primary salivary gland or oral tumor. The lesion was excised, and the patient remains disease free to date. This case depicts a rare tumor in the skin most closely mimicking MASC and brings additional awareness to dermatopathologists of this tumor.

  9. Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

    2013-12-01

    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

  10. Digital and analogical reality in proteomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Andrea; Castagnola, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro; Bini, Luca; Modesti, Alessandra; Timperio, Anna Maria; Roncada, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Are protein functions continuous or discretized? Proteomics investigations are starting to address this non-trivial awesome question focusing upon determining the nature of biological molecular relationships. In the following editorial we present a number of experimental studies published in this themed Proteomics Issue demonstrating the development of a new analogical vision for the interpretation of genotype-phenotype relationships. New metrics and languages are evolving, which may complement the insufficiency based on a binary digital interpretation of biological phenomena, providing new tools for the interpretation of large scale-experimental studies.

  11. Unconscious violinists and the use of analogies in moral argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiland, E

    2000-12-01

    Analogies are the stuff out of which normative moral philosophy is made. Certainly one of the most famous analogies constructed by a philosopher in order to argue for a specific controversial moral conclusion is the one involving Judith Thomson's unconscious violinist. Reflection upon this analogy is meant to show us that abortion is generally not immoral even if the prenatal have the same moral status as the postnatal. This was and still is a controversial conclusion, and yet the analogy does seem to reveal in a very vivid way what makes abortion a reasonable response to a terrible situation. But Thomson's example has frequently been attacked on all sides for not being truly analogous to abortion. Here I develop a brand new analogy that sheds light on the issue with which Thomson was concerned, while at the same time avoiding most of the more serious objections made to her analogy.

  12. Use of analogy in learning physics: The role of representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that analogies can promote student learning in physics and can be productively taught to students to support their learning, under certain conditions. We build on these studies to explore the use of analogy by students in a large introductory college physics course. In the first large-scale study of its kind, we demonstrate that different analogies can lead to varied student reasoning. When different analogies were used to teach electromagnetic (EM waves, we found that students explicitly mapped characteristics either of waves on strings or sound waves to EM waves, depending upon which analogy students were taught. We extend these results by investigating how students use analogies. Our findings suggest that representational format plays a key role in the use of analogy.

  13. Analog IC reliability in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Maricau, Elie

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modeling, simulation and analysis of analog circuit aging. First, all important nanometer CMOS physical effects resulting in circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor aging compact models for circuit simulation are discussed and several methods for efficient circuit reliability simulation are explained and compared. Ultimately, the impact of transistor aging on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are identified and the impact of technology scaling is discussed.   The models and simulation techniques described in the book are intended as an aid for device engineers, circuit designers and the EDA community to understand and to mitigate the impact of aging effects on nanometer CMOS ICs.   ·         Enables readers to understand long-term reliability of an integrated circuit; ·         Reviews CMOS unreliability effects, with focus on those that will emerge in future CMOS nodes; ·         Provides overview of models for...

  14. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  15. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  16. AFEII Analog Front End Board Design Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinov, Paul; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This document describes the design of the 2nd iteration of the Analog Front End Board (AFEII), which has the function of receiving charge signals from the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) and providing digital hit pattern and charge amplitude information from those charge signals. This second iteration is intended to address limitations of the current AFE (referred to as AFEI in this document). These limitations become increasingly deleterious to the performance of the Central Fiber Tracker as instantaneous luminosity increases. The limitations are inherent in the design of the key front end chips on the AFEI board (the SVXIIe and the SIFT) and the architecture of the board itself. The key limitations of the AFEI are: (1) SVX saturation; (2) Discriminator to analog readout cross talk; (3) Tick to tick pedestal variation; and (4) Channel to channel pedestal variation. The new version of the AFE board, AFEII, addresses these limitations by use of a new chip, the TriP-t and by architectural changes, while retaining the well understood and desirable features of the AFEI board.

  17. Merging Galaxy Clusters: Analysis of Simulated Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jayke; Wittman, David; Cornell, Hunter

    2018-01-01

    The nature of dark matter can be better constrained by observing merging galaxy clusters. However, uncertainty in the viewing angle leads to uncertainty in dynamical quantities such as 3-d velocities, 3-d separations, and time since pericenter. The classic timing argument links these quantities via equations of motion, but neglects effects of nonzero impact parameter (i.e. it assumes velocities are parallel to the separation vector), dynamical friction, substructure, and larger-scale environment. We present a new approach using n-body cosmological simulations that naturally incorporate these effects. By uniformly sampling viewing angles about simulated cluster analogs, we see projected merger parameters in the many possible configurations of a given cluster. We select comparable simulated analogs and evaluate the likelihood of particular merger parameters as a function of viewing angle. We present viewing angle constraints for a sample of observed mergers including the Bullet cluster and El Gordo, and show that the separation vectors are closer to the plane of the sky than previously reported.

  18. Photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuri, Bhushan Shanti

    The evolutionary progress in electronic Analog to Digital Converters is not sufficient to meet the needs of high- speed, digital, radar receivers. We present a wide variety of techniques to address the problem of ultra- fast A/D conversion using photonics. We propose architectures, which map an electrical signal into the optical wavelength domain. The wavelength-mapped signal can then be manipulated using dispersive optic devices. The basic architectures based on time-wavelength mapping are Time Stretch, Wavelength Division Sampling and Wavelength Sampling and Shuffle. TS and WSS allow us to process segments of the electrical signal. This segment- interleaving is a potential novel strength of photonic analog-to-digital conversion techniques. The important experimental achievements include demonstration of 130 Gsa/s 7ENOB TSADC, with filtering over 1 GHZ and 30 Gsa/s, 4ENOB TSADC system over 4GHz. In the case of WDS systems we have shown 12 Gsa/s continuous time WDS system and 100 Gsa/s WDS system. We have also performed preliminary experiments to show the viability of a 16 Gsa/s, 4 channel WSS system with time aperture of 500ns. The important analytical milestones include a link level analysis of dynamic range of TSADC. We have also analyzed the effect of fiber dispersion (β2 and β3) on TSADC and the effect of mismatch in sample interleaved systems.

  19. Amygdalin analogs for the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Juan J

    2013-05-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune-mediated illness worldwide. The disease can still only be managed rather than cured, so treatments are aimed at clearing skin lesions and preventing their recurrence. Several treatments are available depending on the extent of the psoriatic lesion. Among the topical treatments corticostereoids, vitamin D3 analogs and retinoids are commonly used. However, these treatments may have adverse effects in the long term. Conversely, systemic conventional treatments include immunosuppresors such as cyclosporin or methotrexate associated with high toxicity levels. Biologicals are alternative therapeutical agents introduced in the last 10 years. These include fusion proteins or monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit the action of specific cytokines or to prevent T-lymphocyte activation. However, due to recent knowledge on the etiology of the disease, diverse new small molecules have appeared as promising alternatives for the treatment of psoriasis. Among them, inhibitors of JAK3, inhibitors of PDE 4 and amygdalin analogs. The latter are promising small molecules presently in preclinical studies which are the object of the present report.

  20. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Shayna N; Frey, Heather A; Cahill, Alison G; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) increases the risk for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation and clarify whether the increased risk for preterm birth is attributable to the procedure itself or to risk factors associated with cervical dysplasia. Two authors performed a search of the relevant data through February 2013 using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included observational studies that compared rates of preterm birth in women with prior LEEP with women with no history of cervical excision. Nineteen of 559 identified studies met selection criteria. We compared women with a history of LEEP with two unexposed groups without a history of cervical excision: 1) women with an unknown or no history of cervical dysplasia; and 2) women with a history of cervical dysplasia but no cervical excision. The primary outcome was preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation, spontaneous preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and perinatal mortality. DerSimonian-Laird random effects models were used. We assessed heterogeneity between studies using the Q and I tests. Stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to assess confounding. Nineteen studies were included with a total of 6,589 patients with a history of LEEP and 1,415,015 without. Overall, LEEP was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation (pooled relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.92). However, no increased risk was found when women with a history of LEEP were compared with women with a history cervical dysplasia but no cervical excision (pooled relative risk 1.08, 95% CI 0.88-1.33). Women with a history of LEEP have similar risk of preterm birth when compared with women with prior dysplasia but no cervical excision. Common risk factors for both preterm birth and dysplasia likely explain findings of

  2. Interactions involving the human RNA polymerase II transcription/nucleotide excision repair complex TFIIH, the nucleotide excision repair protein XPG, and Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, N; Reagan, M S; Wu, K J; Canagarajah, B; Friedberg, E C

    1996-02-20

    The human basal transcription factor TFIIH plays a central role in two distinct processes. TFIIH is an obligatory component of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription initiation complex. Additionally, it is believed to be the core structure around which some if not all the components of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery assemble to constitute a nucleotide excision repairosome. At least two of the subunits of TFIIH (XPB and XPD proteins) are implicated in the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). We have exploited the availability of the cloned XPB, XPD, p62, p44, and p34 genes (all of which encode polypeptide subunits of TFIIH) to examine interactions between in vitro-translated polypeptides by co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally we have examined interactions between TFIIH components, the human NER protein XPG, and the CSB protein which is implicated in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Our analyses demonstrate that the XPB, XPD, p44, and p62 proteins interact with each other. XPG protein interacts with multiple subunits of TFIIH and with CSB protein.

  3. DNA base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair synergistically contribute to survival of stationary-phase cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Takanori; Kawano, Shinji; Ikeda, Shogo

    2017-03-01

    Defects of genome maintenance may causally contribute to aging. In general, base excision repair (BER) is involved in the repair of subtle base lesions and AP sites, and bulky helix-distorting lesions are restored by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we measured the chronological lifespan (CLS) of BER- and NER-deficient mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and observed the aging process of cells. The CLS of the nth1 (gene for DNA glycosylase/AP lyase) mutant and the rad16 (a homolog of human XPF) mutant were slightly shorter than that of the wild-type (WT) strain. However, survival of the nth1Δ rad16Δ double mutant was significantly reduced after entry into the stationary phase. Deletion of rad16 in an AP endonuclease mutant apn2Δ also accelerated chronological aging. These results indicate that BER and NER synergistically contribute to genome maintenance in non-dividing cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in cells during the stationary phase, and nth1Δ rad16Δ cells produced more ROS than WT cells. High mutation frequencies and nuclear DNA fragmentation were observed in nth1Δ rad16Δ stationary-phase cells concurrent with apoptotic-like cell death. Calorie restriction significantly reduced the level of ROS in the stationary phase and extended the CLS of nth1Δ rad16Δ cells. Therefore, ROS production critically affects the survival of the DNA repair mutant during chronological aging. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Comparison of short- and long-term outcomes after extralevator abdominoperineal excision and standard abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chuan; Peng, Hui; He, Xiao-Sheng; Zhao, Ri-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    Whether the introduction of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) improves survival and safety remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all comparative studies to define the efficacy and safety of ELAPE and standard abdominoperineal excision (APE). A search for all major databases and relevant journals from inception to July 2013 without restriction on languages or regions was performed. Outcome measures were the oncological parameters of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, intraoperative bowel perforation (IOP), and local recurrence, as well as other parameters of blood loss, operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative complication. The test of heterogeneity was performed with the Q statistic. A total of 949 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Oncological pooled estimates of intraoperative bowel perforation rate (RR 0.34; 95 % CI 0.21-0.54; P CRM involvement (RR 0.44; 95 % CI 0.34-0.56; P CRM rate, and local recurrence rate than APE. There is evidence that in selected low rectal cancer patients, ELAPE is a more efficient and equally safe option to replace APE. Due to the inherent limitations of the present study, future randomized controlled trials will be useful to confirm this conclusion.

  5. Is initial excision of cutaneous melanoma by General Practitioners (GPs) dangerous? Comparing patient outcomes following excision of melanoma by GPs or in hospital using national datasets and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Peter; Amalraj Raja, Edwin; Brewster, David H; Iversen, Lisa; Lee, Amanda J

    2017-11-01

    Melanomas are initially excised in primary care, and rates vary internationally. Until now, there has been no strong evidence one way or the other that excising melanomas in primary care is safe or unsafe. European guidelines make no recommendations, and the United Kingdom (UK) melanoma guidelines require all suspicious skin lesions to be initially treated in secondary care based on an expert consensus, which lacks supporting evidence, that primary care excision represents substandard care. Despite this, studies have found that up to 20% of melanomas in the UK are excised by general practitioners (GPs). Patients receiving primary care melanoma excision may fear that their care is substandard and their long-term survival threatened, neither of which may be justified. Scottish cancer registry data from 9367 people diagnosed with melanoma in Scotland between 2005 and 2013 were linked to pathology records, hospital data and death records. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for key confounders, explored the association between morbidity and mortality and setting of primary melanoma excision (primary versus secondary care). A pooled estimate of the relative hazard of death of having a melanoma excised in primary versus secondary care including 7116 patients from a similar Irish study was also performed. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of death from melanoma for those having primary care excision was 0.82 (0.61-1.10). Those receiving primary care excision had a median (IQR) of 8 (3-14) out-patient attendances compared to 10 (4-17) for the secondary care group with an adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) of 0.98 (0.96-1.01). Both groups had a median of 1 (0-2) hospital admissions with an adjusted rate ratio of 1.05 (0.98-1.13). In the meta-analysis, with primary care as the reference, the pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% CI) was 1.26 (1.07-1.50) indicating a significantly higher all-cause mortality among those with excision in secondary care

  6. 26 CFR 54.6091-1 - Place for filing excise tax returns under section 4980B, 4980D, 4980E, or 4980G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Place for filing excise tax returns under section 4980B, 4980D, 4980E, or 4980G. 54.6091-1 Section 54.6091-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.6091-1 Place for filing excise tax...

  7. Dysplastic nevi with severe atypia: Long-term outcomes in patients with and without re-excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, Kathleen; Peters, Kaitlin; Ho, Jonhan; Jedrych, Jaroslaw; Winger, Daniel; Ferris, Laura Korb; Patton, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Dysplastic nevi with severe atypia (severely dysplastic nevi [SDN]) are frequently re-excised because of the concern that these lesions may in fact represent early melanoma. Data on long-term follow-up of these patients are limited. We sought to determine the rate of subsequent melanoma development in patients with SDN who underwent re-excision versus those who did not and to determine factors associated with decision to re-excise. A retrospective single institutional study was conducted with 451 adult patients (mean age 41.3 years) with SDN biopsied between November 1994 and November 2004, with clinical follow-up of at least 5 years. In 451 patients with SDN, re-excision was performed on 36.6%. Two melanomas were diagnosed in the re-excision specimens. Subsequent metastatic melanoma developed in 7 patients, all of whom had a history of melanoma. Margin comments influenced decision to re-excise. This was a retrospective study at a single institution. Re-excision of all SDN may not be necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PARP-1 enhances the mismatch-dependence of 5′-directed excision in human mismatch repair in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyong; Kadyrov, Farid A.; Modrich, Paul

    2011-01-01

    End-directed mismatch-provoked excision has been reconstituted in several purified systems. While 3′-directed excision displays a mismatch dependence similar to that observed in nuclear extracts (≈ 20-fold), the mismatch dependence of 5′-directed excision is only 3 to 4-fold, significantly less than that in extracts (8 to 10-fold). Utilizing a fractionation-based approach, we have isolated a single polypeptide that enhances mismatch dependence of reconstituted 5′-directed excision and have shown it to be identical to poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Titration of reconstituted excision reactions or PARP-1-depleted HeLa nuclear extract with purified PARP-1 showed that the protein specifically enhances mismatch dependence of 5′-directed excision. Analysis of a set of PARP-1 mutants revealed that the DNA binding domain and BRCT fold contribute to the regulation of excision specificity. Involvement of the catalytic domain is restricted to its ability to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate PARP-1 in the presence of NAD+, likely through interference with DNA binding. Analysis of protein-protein interactions demonstrated that PARP-1 interacts with mismatch repair proteins MutSα, exonuclease 1, replication protein A (RPA), and as previously shown by others, replication factor C (RFC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well. The BRCT fold plays an important role in the interaction of PARP-1 with the former three proteins. PMID:21945626

  9. Risk and outcome analysis of 1832 consecutively excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary referral plastic surgery unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas are the most prevalent of all skin cancers worldwide and form the majority of the surgical workload for most modern cutaneous malignancy centres. Primary surgical removal of basal cell carcinomas remains the gold standard of treatment but, despite almost two centuries of surgical experience, rates of incomplete surgical excision of up to 50% are still reported. The aim of this study was to assess, quantify and perform comparative analysis of the outcomes and predictive factors of consecutive primarily-excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary centre over a six-year period. METHODS: Retrospective audit was conducted on all patients who underwent surgical excision of basal cell carcinomas from January 2000 to December 2005. Assessment parameters included patient biographics, tumour management differences and detailed histopathological analysis of tumour margins and subtypes. RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred and thirty two basal cell carcinomas were excised from 1329 patients over the designated time period. Two hundred and fifty one (14%) lesions were incompletely excised with 135 (7.4%) involving the peripheral margin only, 48 (2.6%) the deep margin only and 41 (2.2%) involving both. Nasal location was the most common predictor of incomplete excision. CONCLUSIONS: Overall basal cell carcinomas excision rates compared favourably with international reported standards but attention to a variety of surgical and histological risk factors may improve this further.

  10. The Role of Hemosiderin Excision in Seizure Outcome in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Di; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Shrestha, Sudeep; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    Whether the excision of hemosiderin surrounding cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is necessary to achieve a seizure-free result has been the subject of debate. Here, we report a systematic review of related literature up to Jan 1, 2015 including 594 patients to assess the effect of hemosiderin excision on seizure outcome in patients with CCMs by meta-analysis. Ten studies comparing extended hemosiderin excision with only lesion resection were identified by searching the English-language literature. Meta-analyses, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were conducted to determine the association between hemosiderin excision and seizure outcome after surgery. Seizure outcome was significantly improved in the patients who underwent an extended excision of the surrounding hemosiderin (OR, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.91; P = 0.01). In subgroup analysis, studies from Asia (OR, 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25-0.71; P = 0.001), male-majority (female ratio 1 year) before surgery (OR, 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.84; P = 0.01), lesion diameter > 2 cm (OR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.19-0.87; P = 0.02) and short-term (hemosiderin excision could exhibit significantly improved seizure outcomes compared to patients without hemosiderin excision. However, further well-designed prospective multiple-center RCT studies are still needed.

  11. Sampling by sponge wipe or skin excision for recovery of inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Cox, Nelson A; Oakley, Brian B

    2014-05-01

    Broilers may carry Salmonella and Campylobacter on inner and outer surfaces upon arrival at the slaughter plant, and carcasses can be further contaminated during commercial processing. A sensitive, nondestructive, repeatable sampling method would be useful to test carcasses for levels of bacteria before and after specific processing steps to measure either contamination or efficacy of intervention techniques. Blending of excised skin is accepted as an effective sampling method but requires damage to the carcass; this makes repeated measurements on the same carcass difficult. Herein we compare sponge sampling to skin excision to recover inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from broiler carcasses. In each of three replications, broiler carcass breast skin was inoculated with approximately 6.0 log antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter, allowed to dry for 60 s, and sampled by either sponge, skin excision, or sponge followed by skin excision. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter were enumerated from all samples. Skin excision allowed recovery of 0.1 to 0.2 log more inoculated bacteria than did sponge sampling. When excision was used on the same skin previously sampled by sponging, the combination of both methods did not significantly improve recovery compared with sponging alone. Skin excision is slightly more sensitive than sponge sampling; however, for repeated nondestructive sampling of broiler carcasses during processing, sponge sampling may be preferable to recover Salmonella and Campylobacter within 60 s of a contamination event.

  12. A Systematic Evaluation of Analogs and Automated Read ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-across is a data gap filling technique widely used within category and analog approaches to predict a biological property for a data-poor (target) chemical using known information from similar (source analog) chemical(s). Potential source analogs are typically identified based on structural similarity. Although much guidance has been published for read-across, practical principles for the identification and evaluation of the scientific validity of source analogs remains lacking. This case study explores how well 3 structure descriptor sets (Pubchem, Chemotyper and MoSS) are able to identify analogs for read-across and predict Estrogen Receptor (ER) binding activity for a specific class of chemicals: hindered phenols. For each target chemical, analogs were selected using each descriptor set with two cut-offs: (1) Minimum Tanimoto similarity (range 0.1 - 0.9), and (2) Closest N analogs (range 1 - 10). Each target-analog pair was then evaluated for its agreement with measured ER binding and agonism. The analogs were subsequently filtered using: (1) physchem properties (LogKow & Molecular Volume), and (2) number of literature sources as a marker for the quality of the experimental data. A majority vote prediction was made for each target phenol by reading-across from the closest N analogs. The data set comprised 462 hindered phenols and 257 non-hindered phenols. The results demonstrate that: (1) The concordance in ER activity rises with increasing similarity,

  13. A Systematic Evaluation of Analogs for the Read-across ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-across is a data gap filling technique widely used within category and analog approaches to predict a biological property for a target data-poor chemical using known information from similar (source analog) chemical(s). Potential source analogs are typically identified based on structural similarity. Although much guidance has been published for read-across, practical guiding principles for the identification and evaluation of the scientific validity of source analogs, which is a critical step in deriving a robust read-across prediction, remains largely lacking.This case study explores the extent to which 3 structure descriptor sets (Pubchem, Chemotyper and MoSS) and their combinations are able to identify valid analogs for reading across Estrogen Receptor (ER) activity for a specific class of chemicals: hindered phenols. For each target chemical, two sets of analogs (hindered and non-hindered phenols) were selected using each descriptor set with two cut-offs: (1). Minimum Tanimoto similarity (range 0.1 - 0.9), and (2). Closest N analogs (range 1 - 10). Each target-analog pair was then evaluated for its agreement with measured ER binding and agonism. Subsequently, the analogs were filtered using physchem properties (LogKow & Molecular Volume) and the resultant agreement between each target-analog pair was evaluated. The data set comprised 462 hindered phenols and 296 non-hindered phenols. The results demonstrate that: (1). The concordance in ER activity r

  14. Smoking and health implications of a change in the federal cigarette excise tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1986-02-28

    Cigarette excise tax changes ultimately influence the health of smokers and potential smokers. An 8-cent decrease in the federal tax is estimated to induce up to 1 million young persons, ages 12 to 25 years, to smoke, when without the tax decrease they would not. Hundreds of thousands of Americans older than 25 years would also start or continue smoking as a result of the tax decrease. Conversely, an 8- to 16-cent tax increase would encourage from 1 to 2 million young persons and 800,000 to 1.5 million adults to quit smoking or not to start. Thus, a tax increase could prevent hundreds of thousands of premature smoking-related deaths, while a tax decrease would contribute to the disease burden of tobacco. Intentionally or inadvertently, the federal cigarette excise tax is a powerful tool of public health policy.

  15. Cigar use before and after a cigarette excise tax increase in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, C D; Hrywna, M; Foulds, J; Steinberg, M B

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether cigarette smokers in New Jersey substituted cigars following a cigarette excise tax increase. We examined data from New Jersey's 2001 and 2002 Adult Tobacco Survey (NJATS). Adjusted odds ratios were generated for ever and current cigar use, controlling for demographics and cigarette smoking status. Males, whites, ever cigarette smokers, and those with higher education reported greater ever and current cigar use in both years. The adjusted odds for cigar use among recent quitters were higher in 2002 than in 2001. When other tobacco products' excise taxes fail to keep pace with cigarettes, there is a real potential for product substitution. Cessation of all tobacco products is necessary for the best public health outcome.

  16. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised...... from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods...... isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed....

  17. POLB: A new role of DNA polymerase beta in mitochondrial base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brett A; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-12-01

    The mitochondrial genome is a matrilineally inherited DNA that encodes numerous essential subunits of the respiratory chain in all metazoans. As such mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence integrity is vital to organismal survival, but it has a limited cadre of DNA repair activities, primarily base excision repair (BER). We have known that the mtDNA is significantly oxidized by both endogenous and exogenous sources, but this does not lead to the expected preferential formation of transversion mutations, which suggest a robust base excision repair (BER) system. This year, two different groups reported compelling evidence that what was believed to be exclusively nuclear DNA repair polymerase, POLB, is located in the mitochondria and plays a significant role in mitochondrial BER, mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial function. In this commentary, we review the findings and highlight remaining questions for the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of attC structure on cassette excision by integron integrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larouche André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrons are genetic elements able to integrate and disseminate genes as cassettes by a site-specific recombination mechanism. These elements contain a gene coding for an integrase that carries out recombination by interacting with two different target sites; the attI site in cis with the integrase and the palindromic attC site of a gene cassette. Integron integrases (IntIs bind specifically to the bottom strand of attC sites. The extrahelical bases resulting from folding of attC bottom strands are important for the recognition by integrases. These enzymes are directly involved in the accumulation and formation of new cassette arrangements in the variable region of integrons. Thus, it is important to better understand interactions between IntIs and their substrates. Results We compared the ability of five IntIs to carry out excision of several cassettes flanked by different attC sites. The results showed that for most cassettes, IntI1 was the most active integrase. However, IntI2*179E and SonIntIA could easily excise cassettes containing the attCdfrA1 site located upstream, whereas IntI1 and IntI3 had only a weak excision activity for these cassettes. Analysis of the secondary structure adopted by the bottom strand of attCdfrA1 has shown that the identity of the extrahelical bases and the distance between them (A-N7-8-C differ from those of attCs contained in the cassettes most easily excisable by IntI1 (T-N6-G. We used the attCdfrA1 site upstream of the sat2 gene cassette as a template and varied the identity and spacing between the extrahelical bases in order to determine how these modifications influence the ability of IntI1, IntI2*179E, IntI3 and SonIntIA to excise cassettes. Our results show that IntI1 is more efficient in cassette excision using T-N6-G or T-N6-C attCs while IntI3 recognizes only a limited range of attCs. IntI2*179E and SonIntIA are more tolerant of changes to the identity and spacing of extrahelical

  19. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Outcomes and Rationale of Excision and Mucous Membrane Grafting in Palpebral Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Agarwal, Shweta; Srinivasan, Bhaskar

    2017-10-13

    To report outcomes of mucous membrane grafting (MMG) for refractory giant papillae in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Eleven eyes of 6 patients having giant papillae and recurrent shield ulcers refractory to topical medications, cryotherapy, and supratarsal steroid injections and shave excision of papillae underwent surgical resection of the giant papillae with MMG. Average occurrence of shield ulcers was twice per eye per year before the procedure with 50% of eyes having steroid-induced cataract and glaucoma. No recurrence of the shield ulcer in any eye was observed over a mean follow-up period of 38.2 (range 9-106) months. The papillae recurred beyond the graft junction in one eye. Surgical excision of refractory giant papillae followed by MMG does have its advantages in reducing their corneal complications, and it should be considered early in the management of exuberant refractory giant papillae.

  1. The hepatitis B virus x protein inhibits thymine DNA glycosylase initiated base excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A A van de Klundert

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV genome encodes the X protein (HBx, a ubiquitous transactivator that is required for HBV replication. Expression of the HBx protein has been associated with the development of HBV infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Previously, we generated a 3D structure of HBx by combined homology and ab initio in silico modelling. This structure showed a striking similarity to the human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG, a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway. To further explore this finding, we investigated whether both proteins interfere with or complement each other's functions. Here we show that TDG does not affect HBV replication, but that HBx strongly inhibits TDG-initiated base excision repair (BER, a major DNA repair pathway. Inhibition of the BER pathway may contribute substantially to the oncogenic effect of HBV infection.

  2. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor with a biological mesh after abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Pilsgaard, B.; Moller, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the results of reconstruction of the pelvic floor by using an absorbable biological mesh after having performed an abdomino-perineal resection with excision of whole of the pelvic floor for rectal cancer Eleven consecutive patients had reconstruction...... of the pelvic floor after abdominoperineal excision (APR) with a biological mesh. The peri- and postoperative courses were registered in a prospective database. Six patients received preoperative radiochemotherapy. One patient had the mesh removed due to infection and later developed local recurrence. The rest...... had an uneventful postoperative course despite more pain than is usually experienced in the perineal wound after traditional APR. The use of a biological mesh for pelvic floor reconstruction is feasible with satisfactory results. A randomised trial is warranted in order to evaluate this technique...

  3. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...... updated by the National Central Office of Civil Registration. FINDINGS: The CME group consisted of 364 patients and the non-CME group consisted of 1031 patients. For all patients, 4-year disease-free survival was 85.8% (95% CI 81.4-90.1) after CME and 75.9% (72.2-79.7) after non-CME surgery (log-rank p=0...

  4. Excision of an oral angiolipoma by KTP laser: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaia, Gaspare; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Giudice, Rossella Lo; Galanakis, Alexandros; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    A 66 year old woman was referred to our observation, since the presence of a painless swelling located on the right cheek mucosa. A surgical approach with KTP laser was performed with the mucosal preservation technique. Follow up after seven days, sixty days and four months did not showed any complication and the histological examination reported the diagnosis of AL. AL is a relatively rare tumor of the head and neck region, although it occurs more commonly in the extremities and the trunk. This tumor has been rarely reported in the oral cavity and when seen in this area, it involves in the lip, cheek, tongue, mandible, and palate. ALs are also intraosseous in the mandible and intramuscular in the pterygoid fossa. KTP laser excision showed to be resolutive and avoid of complications. AL of the cheek is a very rare patology, but when it appears, it requires a surgical excision.

  5. Surgical excision of Infantile Haemangiomas: a technical refinement to prevent bleeding complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Leone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to improve operative speed and precision of haemangiomas excision. Methods: Case-report: haemangioma is a common affection of the 8% of the population during the neonatal period. In complicated cases and involution sequelae surgical treatment is the first choice. The Authors propose a surgical refinement to prevent intraoperative bleeding. Methods: several suture stitches were placed around the hemangioma. The edges of the lesion became more defined, thus allowing accurate excision. Results and Conclusions: Haemangiomas are characterized by rich blood supply. Surgery is often hindered by massive bleeding and Temporary placement of full-thickness sutures, surrounding the hemangioma, allowed a noticeable improvement in hemostasis precision and greater definition of the margins of the hemangioma.

  6. Total excision and V-Y plasty technique in the anal area condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirel Arif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminatum is located in the perianal region, anal canal, vagina and the perineum. It is caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. A 18 year-old man was admitted to the clinic because of a perianal mass. On examination of the patient′s perianal area and inside the anal canal, a mass was found, which was nearly 8 x 8 cm in size. We could not obtain any information about venereal transmission. The mass was totally excised and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral V-Y advancement flap. This technique has been used for sacrococcygeal, ischial and other defects but rarely used for condyloma acuminatum. We think that total excision and the use of the V-Y advancement flap technique is safe and has low morbidity in the treatment of condyloma acuminatum.

  7. Osteoid osteoma (OO of the coracoid: a case report of arthroscopic excision and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Saumitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma (OO of the coracoid is a rare entity that may present with variable symptoms from shoulder leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We present the clinical and radiological findings and management of one such case along with a review of similar cases reported in the literature. There was a delay of 2 years in diagnosis, which was later confirmed by computed tomography in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The lesion was accessed arthroscopically and excised by unroofing and curettage. “OO” should be included in the differential diagnosis of shoulder pain in young patients not responding to long-term conservative treatment. Arthroscopic excision and curettage provide a good choice for management, with low morbidity and rapid recovery.

  8. A qualitative analysis of low income smokers' responses to tobacco excise tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Smith, Katie

    2016-11-01

    While increasing the excise tax applied to tobacco products reduces consumption and smoking prevalence, it may also cause hardship among smokers who do not quit. We explored how smokers living on a low income respond to increasing tobacco excise taxes. Using a social justice perspective, we explored the increasing costs of tobacco with a sample of 27 adult smokers who live below the poverty line (i.e., with an income less than 60% of the median New Zealand income). Face-to-face interviews were conducted in Dunedin, New Zealand, a city with marked income differences, and were undertaken shortly after a further tobacco excise tax increase. The interview guide explored participants' smoking practices, their perceptions of excise tax as a strategy to reduce smoking prevalence, and the strategies they used to manage their tobacco needs. We identified three key themes: depriving the poor; tobacco as a precious commodity, and desperation. While many participants described smoking as a pleasure or coping mechanism, they also saw it as a burden that they struggled to manage. Despite trying to quit, most had failed to become smokefree and felt victimised by a punitive policy system that coerced change without supporting it. They managed financial pressure by reducing their tobacco consumption but also used increasingly desperate measures, including recycling waste tobacco; participants reported feeling demeaned by measures they saw as their only option. Providing intensive cessation support for lower income smokers could avoid further alienating a group already experiencing considerable disadvantage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mulimani, Sridevi M.; Talikoti, Dayanand G.

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we...

  10. Bilateral ovarian metastasis from distal common bile duct carcinoma developing after choledochal cyst excision

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Yoo Shin; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Do, Jae Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian metastases represent about 3-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Most of these tumors originate in the digestive tract and cholangiocarcinoma rarely involves the ovary. A 60-year-old woman was admitted for the investigation of abdominal distension that had lasted 1 week. One and a half years prior, the patient had undergone choledochal cyst excision, Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy and cholecystectomy. Computed tomography scans of the abdomen revealed a papillary mass in the remnant distal ...

  11. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of −10 dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  12. Outcomes of hook of hamate fracture excision in high-level amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers, Brandon N; Douglas, Keith C; Naik, Rishi D; Lee, Donald H; Watson, Jeffry T; Weikert, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    To determine the overall long-term postoperative clinical and functional results of high-level amateur athletes after hook of hamate excision, based on complications; return to sport; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score; and a self-reported questionnaire. We evaluated 11 patients representing 12 cases of hook of hamate excision. All patients were high-level amateur athletes (rising collegiate or collegiate level). We performed a retrospective chart review to elicit information pertaining to the patient's injury. We assessed long-term postoperative outcomes with a self-reported questionnaire, the DASH form, and the DASH Sport/Performing Arts Module form. All patients successfully returned to full participation in their respective sports an average of 6 weeks after surgery. The average postoperative DASH score was less than 1, and all patients scored a 0 on the DASH Sports form. There was a significant improvement in preoperative pain after surgical intervention. There was no significant difference between preinjury and postoperative performance scores. Finally, every patient was very satisfied with the surgical outcome. There was only 1 postoperative complication in which a patient developed transient ulnar nerve paresthesias, which completely resolved by 6 weeks after surgery. Surgical excision of hook of hamate fractures in high-level amateur athletes allows for successful return to sports participation at preinjury performance levels, achievement of normal function as measured by validated objective outcome measures, significant reduction in pain, and high overall patient satisfaction. We consider surgical excision to be a safe and effective technique to restore normal function and hasten return to play for high-level amateur athletes. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Excision of an intrapericardial immature teratoma in a 26-week premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hawkins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 26-week premature newborn with an immature intrapericardial teratoma. The patient was transferred from an outside hospital for management of a large mediastinal mass causing respiratory insufficiency. The newborn was supported with the help of a large interdisciplinary team until day of life 22 when he underwent surgical excision. On follow up the infant is doing very well and is one of the youngest survivors to date.

  14. Loss of Nucleotide Excision Repair as a Source of Genomic Instability in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    sequence-specific mechanism of nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev., 13, 768-785. DNA binding by short single strands of DNA requires the p53 C... Arabidopsis thaliana . The advantage signal (27). CPD-3 cells were further subcloned by single cell dilution, of using XP-A cells completely deficient...developed and optimized a novel technique for the detection of localized DNA damage and damage binding proteins in individual cells, using targeted

  15. A comparison of vas occlusion techniques: cautery more effective than ligation and excision with fascial interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrecque Michel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus ligation and excision with fascial interposition. More specifically, we aimed to compare early failure rates, sperm concentrations, and time to success between the two techniques. Methods We compared semen analysis data from men following vasectomy using two occlusion techniques. Data on intraluminal cautery came from a prospective observational study conducted at four sites. Data on ligation and excision with fascial interposition came from a multicenter randomized controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of ligation and excision with versus without fascial interposition. The surgical techniques used in the fascial interposition study were standardized. The surgeons in the cautery study used their customary techniques, which varied among sites in terms of type of cautery, use of fascial interposition, excision of a short segment of the vas, and use of an open-ended technique. Men in both studies had semen analyses two weeks after vasectomy and then approximately every four weeks. The two outcome measures for the analyses presented here are (a time to success, defined as severe oligozoospermia, or 10 million sperm/mL at week 12 or later. Results Vasectomy with cautery was associated with a significantly more rapid progression to severe oligozoospermia and with significantly fewer early failures (1% versus 5%. Conclusion The use of cautery improves vasectomy outcomes. Limitations of this comparison include (a the variety of surgical techniques in the cautery study and differences in methods of fascial interposition between the two studies, (b the uncertain correlation between sperm concentrations after vasectomy and the risk of pregnancy, and (c the use of historical controls and different study sites.

  16. A comparison of vas occlusion techniques: cautery more effective than ligation and excision with fascial interposition

    OpenAIRE

    Labrecque Michel; Chen-Mok Mario; Irsula Belinda; Sokal David; Barone Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus ligation and excision with fascial interposition. More specifically, we aimed to compare early failure rates, sperm concentrations, and time to success between the two techniques. Methods We compared semen analysis data from men following vasectomy using two occlusion ...

  17. Surgical Apgar Score predicts an increased risk of major complications and death after renal mass excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Timothy; Abbosh, Philip H; Mehrazin, Reza; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Li, Tianyu; Ginzburg, Serge; Canter, Daniel J; Greenberg, Richard E; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y; Kutikov, Alexander; Smaldone, Marc C; Uzzo, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Tailoring perioperative management to minimize the postoperative complication rates depends on reliable prognostication of patients most at risk. The Surgical Apgar Score is an objective measure of the operative course validated to predict major complications and death after general/vascular surgery. We assessed the ability of the Surgical Apgar Score to identify patients most at risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality after renal mass excision. Data for 886 patients undergoing renal mass excision via radical or partial nephrectomy from 2010 to 2013 were extracted from a prospectively collected database. The Surgical Apgar Score was calculated using electronic anesthesia records. Major postoperative complications, readmission and reoperation within 30 days of surgery as well as 90-day mortality were examined. Overall 13.2% of patients experienced major postoperative complications at 30 days. Clavien grade I, II, III, IV and V complications were experienced by 1.7%, 2.9%, 5.8%, 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. The 90-day all cause mortality rate was 1.4%. The Surgical Apgar Score was significantly lower in patients experiencing major complications (mean 7.3 vs 7.8, p=0.004) and death (6.3 vs 7.7, p=0.03). Patients with a Surgical Apgar Score of 4 or less were 3.7 times more likely to experience a major complication (p=0.01) and 24 times more likely to die within 90 days of surgery (p=0.0007) compared to patients with a Surgical Apgar Score greater than 8. The Surgical Apgar Score is an easily collected metric that can identify patients at higher risk for major complications and death after renal mass excision. A prospective trial to help further delineate the optimal use of this tool in an adjusted perioperative management approach with patients undergoing renal mass excision is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and role of the breast lesion excision system (BLES) in small clusters of suspicious microcalcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Ferranti, Claudio; Capalbo, Emanuela; Paolini, Biagio; Marchesini, Monica; Suman, Laura; Folini, Cristina; Mariani, Luigi; Panizza, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of the BLES as a biopsy tool in patients with ≤ 1 cm clusters of BIRADS 4 microcalcifications, in order to possibly avoid surgical excision in selected patients. This is a retrospective study of 105 patients undergone to stereotactic breast biopsy with the BLES. It excises a single specimen containing the whole mammographic target, allowing better histological assessment due to preserved architecture. Our case series consists of 41 carcinomas (39%) and 64 benign lesions (61%). Cancer involved the specimen margins in 20/41 cases (48.8%) or was close to them (≤ 1 mm) in 14 cases (34.1%); margins were disease-free in only 7 DCIS (17.1%). At subsequent excision of 39/41 malignant cases, underestimation occurred for 5/32 DCIS (15.6%), residual disease was found in 15/39 cancers (38.5%) and no cancer in 19/39 cases (48.7%). For DCIS cases, no residual disease occurred for 66.7% G1-G2 cases and for 35.3% G3 cases (P=0.1556) as well as in 83.3%, 40.0% and 43.8% cases respectively for negative, close and positive BLES margins (P=0.2576). The BLES is a good option for removal of small clusters of breast microcalcifications, giving better histological interpretation, lower underestimation rates and possibly reducing the need of subsequent surgical excision in selected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical Excision With Bleomycin Irrigation: A Better Primary Treatment Choice for Pediatric Submandibular Lymphatic Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Chen, Jiarui; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of surgical excision combined with intralesional bleomycin irrigation with that of needle aspiration with intralesional bleomycin sclerotherapy (IBS) in pediatric submandibular lymphatic malformations (LMs). The medical records of 32 patients were analyzed. Clinical response was categorized by improvement in size as determined by imaging studies and calculations of lesion volume. An excellent response was defined as a decrease in volume greater than 90%, a satisfactory response was defined as a decrease greater than 50%, and a poor response was defined as a decrease less than 50%. In addition, the authors developed a new scale to quantify treatment outcome. This scoring system is composed of 6 parts: size decrease, esthetic problem, functional problem (eg, breathing, eating, and speech), postoperative complications, necessity for further intervention, and times of intervention. Pearson χ2 and t tests were used to compare treatment outcome between the 2 groups. The average age at first treatment was 2 years. Twenty-two patients underwent surgical excision with bleomycin irrigation as the primary treatment. Three of the 22 underwent 2 rounds of cyst aspiration with IBS during follow-up. IBS was performed as the primary treatment in 10 patients. All patients underwent a single surgery, and the number of IBS procedures per patient varied from 1 to 3 (mean, 1.8). In the surgical group, 72.7% of patients (16 of 22) showed an excellent response, 18.2% (4 of 22) showed a satisfactory response, and 9% (2 of 22) showed a poor response. The surgical excision group had a significantly higher excellent response rate than the sclerotherapy group (P irrigation showed better efficacy than IBS. Surgical excision with bleomycin irrigation is a better primary treatment for pediatric submandibular LMs. Cyst aspiration with IBS is a good method to treat localized recurrence. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  20. Local flap for reconstruction of nasal defect following excision of basal cell carcinoma of nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasib Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of soft tissue at the nose following excision of basal cell carcinoma is always challenging, because of both functional and aesthetic importance of nose. The local flap is always preferable to skin graft as this produces “like with like” replacement, pliable cover and vascularized tissue over the skeletal framework. In this paper, we discussed six cases of nasal reconstruction with bilobed flap, forehead flap, and nasolabial flap. All flaps survived and the patients had satisfactory outcome.