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Sample records for exchangers xvi electrochromatographic

  1. A Capillary Electrochromatographic Microchip Packed with Self-Assembly Colloidal Carboxylic Silica Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Sun; Kim, Shin Seon; Park, Jong Man [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    An electrochromatographic microchip with carboxyl-group-derivatized mono-disperse silica packing was prepared from the corresponding colloidal silica solution by utilizing capillary action and self-assembly behavior. The silica beads in water were primed by the capillary action toward the ends of cross-patterned microchannel on a cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) substrate. Slow evaporation of water at the front of packing promoted the self-assembled packing of the beads. After thermally binding a cover plate on the chip substrate, reservoirs for sample solutions were fabricated at the ends of the microchannel. The packing at the entrances of the microchannel was silver coated to fix utilizing an electroless silver-plating technique to prevent the erosion of the packed structure caused by the sudden switching of a high voltage DC power source. The electrochromatographic behavior of the microchip was explored and compared to that of the microchip with bare silica packing in basic borate buffer. Electrophoretic migration of Rhodamine B was dominant in the microchip with the carboxyl-derivatized silica packing that resulted in a migration approximated twice as fast, while the reversible adsorption was dominant in the bare silica-packed microchip. Not only the faster migration rates of the negatively charged FITC-derivatives of amino acids but also the different migration due to the charge interaction at the packing surface were observed. The electrochromatographic characteristics were studied in detail and compared with those of the bare silica packed microchip in terms of the packing material, the separation potential, pH of the running buffer, and also the separation channel length

  2. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

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    Lucia D'Ulivo

    Full Text Available The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3. The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants.

  3. Fabrication of high performance microlenses for an integrated capillary channel electrochromatograph with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, J. R.; Warren, M. E.; Sweatt, W. C.; Bailey, C. G.; Matzke, C. M.; Arnold, D. W.; Allerman, A. A.; Carter, T. R.; Asbill, R. E.; Samora, S.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary channel electrochromatograph with fluorescence detection. The optical system consists of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), two high performance microlenses, and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. The design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design has a 6 mm optical length and is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own substrate module and the optical path length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The first generation design has been tested using direct fluorescence detection with a 750 nm VCSEL pumping a 10 -4 M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and is adequate for system sensitivity requirements. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  4. Electrochromatographic performance of graphene and graphene oxide modified silica particles packed capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Wang, Yizhou; Zhang, Danyu; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao

    2018-04-01

    Graphene oxide functionalized silica microspheres (GO@SiO 2 ) were synthesized based on condensation reaction between amino from aminosilica particles and carboxyl groups from GO. Reduction of GO@SiO 2 with hydrazinium hydroxide generated graphene modified silica particles (G@SiO 2 ). GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 packed capillary columns for capillary electrochromatography were thereafter fabricated by pressure slurry packing with single-particle frits. GO of 0.3 mg/mL in dispersion solution for GO@SiO 2 synthesis was considered as a compromise between retaining and column efficiency whereas GO@SiO 2 of 20 mg/mL in slurries for column packing was chosen for a homogenous and tight bed. Optimum mobile phases were acquired considering both electroosmotic flow and resolution at an applied voltage of -6 kV as the following: acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.0), 75:25 (v/v) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 50:50 (v/v) for aromatic compounds. A comparison was made between electrochromatographic performances for three PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene) and three aromatic compounds of various polarities (toluene, aniline and phenol) on bare aminosilica, GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 packed columns, which proved the contribution of alone or combinational actions of solvophobic effect and π-π electron stacking as well as hydrogen bonds to retaining behaviors by GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 . Well over-run, over-day and over-column precisions (retention time: 0.3-1.4, 1.1-3.8 and 2.8-5.2%, respectively; peak area: 2.6-6.5, 4.8-8.3 and 6.5-12.6%, respectively) of GO@SiO 2 packed columns were a powerful proof for good reproducibility. Analytical characteristics of GO@SiO 2 packed capillary columns in CEC analysis of fresh water were evaluated with respect to linearity (R 2 = 0.9961-0.9989) over the range 0.1 to 100 mg/L and detection limits of 9.5 for naphthalene, 12.6 for fluorene and 16.2 μg/L for phenanthrene. Further application to fresh water increased the

  5. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster

  6. Onium ions. XVI. Hydrogen--deuterium exchange accompanying the cleavage of ammonium (tetradeuterioammonium) trifluoroacetate by lithium deuteride (hydride) indicating Sn2 like nucleophilic displacement at quaternary nitrogen through pentacoordinated NH5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Donovan, D.J.; Shen, J.; Klopman, G.

    1975-01-01

    The reactions of ammonium trifluoroacetate and lithium hydride, of ammonium trifluoroacetate and lithium deuteride, and of tetradeuteroammonium trifluoroacetate and lithium hydride were studied in an attempt to prove experimentally nucleophilic displacement through the formation of pentacoordinated NH 5 . Significant isotopic scramblings were observed in the reaction products. An analysis of possible side reactions indicated that the most reasonable explanation for the reaction products obtained is the attack of D - on the quarternary hydrogen of NH 4 + in an SN2-like fashion causing exchange to occur via pentacoordinated NH 4 D. The possibility of a real pentacoordinated intermediate was also considered. CNDO/2 calculations show that a nucleophilic attack on hydrogen is favored, but the alternative attack on nitrogen can not be dismissed because of the experimental data. The reaction of NF 4 + SbF 6 - and LiF could indicate the possibility of nucleophilic attack on nitrogen. (U.S.)

  7. Esclavitud en la Extremadura del siglo XVI

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    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de esclavos durante el siglo XVI era un hecho tan generalizado en Extremadura como en el resto de Castilla. El conocimiento de este grupo social está diluido entre los marginados o los de ilegítimos, por lo que se hace una aproximación para establecer en distintos lugares de la región algunos datos cuantitativos que permitan medir su participación en el conjunto de la sociedad.The presence of slaves during the Sixteenth Century was a general fact both in Extremadura and in the rest of Castilla. The knowledge of this social group was diluted between the dropouts or the descendents of the illegitimate, therefore we are going to make an approach to establish in different places of the region some quantitative data which allow to measure their participation in the whole of the society.

  8. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  9. La idea de usura en la España del siglo XVI: consideración especial de los cambios, juros y asientos = The idea of usury in the Spain of the 16th century: special consideration of exchanges, juros and asientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María González Ferrando

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de usura, coincidente en la práctica con el significado actual de interés del dinero, apenas ha variado con el transcurso del tiempo hasta el siglo XVIII, en que al ser sustituido por la nueva denominación de interés, pasó a ser considerado sólo como el interés excesivo o abusivo; pero desde el principio su aplicación a las operaciones comerciales y financieras en el mundo occidental fue en general rechazada por parte de las autoridades eclesiásticas, cierto que con alguna vacilación derivada de una progresiva admisión del lucro cesante, en tanto que las autoridades civiles solieron ser más permisivas, aunque impusieran límites a los tipos de usura=interés.Con objeto de llegar a conocer la idea que se tenía acerca de la usura en la España del siglo XVI, se pasa revista sucesivamente: al criterio de los autores coetáneos de obras de aritmética que se ocuparon del cálculo comercial; a la resolución de las consultas formuladas por los mercaderes a renombrados teólogos de la época en relación con operaciones mercantiles de dudosa licitud, y a la doctrina que los doctores moralistas han ido elaborando en sus tratados a lo largo del siglo en materia de usura, justo precio, daño emergente, lucro cesante y otros conceptos económicos, sobre la base del rechazo en principio de la usura en toda operación que, más o menos solapadamente, pudiera suponer la existencia de un préstamo retribuido.Se analizan a continuación tres de las operaciones comerciales y financieras típicas de la época en que ‒no siempre claramente‒ interviene la usura=interés: los cambios, los juros y los asientos. En cuanto a los cambios, se estudian sus distintas clases, con especial atención al cambio por letras y dentro de éste al cambio exterior, que en principio era aceptado como lícito siempre que se mantuviera dentro de plazos cortos ‒sin saltarse ferias‒ y se respetasen la distancia loci y el justo precio. Los juros, en su

  10. Esclavitud y ética comercial en el siglo XVI

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    Jörg Alejandro Tellkamp

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En varios tratados españoles del siglo XVI, la esclavitud como fenómeno social y comercial adquirió una importancia teórica cada vez mayor con respecto al estatus legal y moral de los seres humanos. El presente trabajo trata de esbozar algunos de los argumentos con respecto al comercio de esclavos y sus implicaciones morales y legales de acuerdo los autores Tomás de Mercado (1530-1576 y Bartolomé Frías de Albornoz (s. XVI, mostrando cómo la discusión se encaminó hacia la expresión de derechos individuales, sin, no obstante, superar el tradicional apego al concepto de esclavitud legal.

  11. Crosstalk XVI, basic data communication and RS-232C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hui Yung

    1988-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which deals with compatible software of data communication with IBM PC XT/AT. The first part consists of an introduction to crosstalk XVI, getting start for user, crosstalk practice, call with crosstalk, terminal feature, switch of communication parameter, terminal emulation, capturing data, transmission of text file answer mode, file transfer, command file and script file, command summary and examples. The second part deals with basic personal computer communication, RS-232C and explanation of communication control : RS-232C interface, transmission device and interrupt controller 8259.

  12. El Papa Benedicto XVI y el ámbito internacional

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    Santiago Petschen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Benedicto XVI, en el conjunto de los papas de los dos últimos siglos, es un papa eminentemente pastoral, poco diplomático. En algunas ocasiones le faltó tacto para manejar sus relaciones con los musulmanes y con los judíos. No le gustaba la política. Como gran pensador de carácter teórico la preocupaba más bien la profundidad de la filosofía que imperaba en Europa, 'la dictadura del relativismo'. Y también los problemas económicos (el egoísmo del capitalismo financiero y el medio ambiente que no son política internacional aunque sean contenidos que interesen por sí mismos.

  13. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers

  14. An image quality comparison study between XVI and OBI CBCT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Srijit; Song, William; Chvetsov, Alexei; Ozawa, Shuichi; Lu, Haibin; Samant, Sanjiv; Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan G; Palta, Jatinder R

    2011-02-04

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare image quality characteristics for two commonly used and commercially available CBCT systems: the X-ray Volumetric Imager and the On-Board Imager. A commonly used CATPHAN image quality phantom was used to measure various image quality parameters, namely, pixel value stability and accuracy, noise, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), high-contrast resolution, low contrast resolution and image uniformity. For the XVI unit, we evaluated the image quality for four manufacturer-supplied protocols as a function of mAs. For the OBI unit, we did the same for the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes, which were respectively used with the full bow-tie and half bow-tie filters. For XVI, the mean pixel values of regions of interest were found to generally decrease with increasing mAs for all protocols, while they were relatively stable with mAs for OBI. Noise was slightly lower on XVI and was seen to decrease with increasing mAs, while CNR increased with mAs for both systems. For XVI and OBI, the high-contrast resolution was approximately limited by the pixel resolution of the reconstructed image. On OBI images, up to 6 and 5 discs of 1% and 0.5% contrast, respectively, were visible for a high mAs setting using the full-fan mode, while none of the discs were clearly visible on the XVI images for various mAs settings when the medium resolution reconstruction was used. In conclusion, image quality parameters for XVI and OBI have been quantified and compared for clinical protocols under various mAs settings. These results need to be viewed in the context of a recent study that reported the dose-mAs relationship for the two systems and found that OBI generally delivered higher imaging doses than XVI.

  15. Maestros canteros de Trasmiera en Galicia (siglo XVI

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    Diana Dúo Rámila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es conocido el desarrollo que experimenta la cantería en Cantabria en la Edad Moderna. Se trata de un fenómeno significativo en términos cualitativos y cuantitativos, por el elevado número de artífices y obras en las que intervienen, desplegando su actividad no sólo en la Península sino en otras zonas como Canarias y América. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo el estudio de los canteros cántabros, concretamente de la región de Trasmiera, que se desplazaron a Galicia en el siglo XVI desarrollando una intensa y valiosa labor. Participaron allí de la actividad constructiva en la región con frecuencia en colaboración con maestros de distintas procedencias, lo que originará una confluencia de influencias artísticas que determinarán las particularidades e idiosincrasia del arte gallego de este período.The stonemasonry of Cantabria experiences an important development between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. This development is determined by a great number of artists and works in what they take part, working in the Peninsula, and other regions like Canaries and America. The objective of this study is to evaluate the activities that performed the master builders of Cantabria (in concrete of trasmiera’s region which displaced to Galicia in sixteenth century developing an intense and valuable activity.

  16. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  17. Cacao y encomienda en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, siglo XVI

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    Tous, Meritxell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of cocoa in the Alcaldía Mayor of Sonsonate, particularly in the Izalco region, during the last pre-Columbian period and also its exploitation during the XVIth century. It is demonstrated that, during the first half of these century, despite of the development of the encomienda system, the natives significantly controlled the production and exchange of cocoa, and also the property of the land. Nevertheless, during the second half of this century, the increase of cocoa production induced serious perturbations in the Indian communities because of the demographic collapse, the usurpation of the lands and the ladinoization processes.

    Este estudio analiza la importancia del cacao en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, especialmente en la región de los Izalcos, durante el último periodo prehispánico así como su explotación en el XVI. Se demuestra que, durante la primera mitad de este siglo, a pesar del desarrollo de la encomienda, la población indígena controló, en buena medida, la producción y el intercambio del cacao, así como la propiedad de la tierra. También se pone de manifiesto que, a partir de la segunda mitad de este mismo siglo, el incremento de la producción cacaotera provocó daños irreversibles en las comunidades indígenas debido al más que notable descenso demográfico, a la usurpación de sus tierras y a los procesos de ladinización.

  18. Inaptos de oro: figuraciones del otro en el teatro portugués del siglo XVI

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    José Camões

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Las figuraciones de etnias minoritarias marginalizadas han sido una presencia constante en el teatro portugués del siglo XVI. Se analizan casos concretos que muestran como el teatro estrecha las márgenes, integrando en el universo ficcional la realidad cotidiana.

  19. Un caso d’amor fou nella società aristocratica genovese del secolo XVI

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    Gianfranco Bettin Lattes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perché nel cuore del centro storico di Genova esiste una “piazza dell’amor perfetto”? Sullo sfondo delle tumultuose vicende politiche del secolo XVI la passione, altrettanto tumultuosa, di Tommasina Spinola, nobile genovese, per Luigi XII, Re di Francia, trasforma l’amore in tragedia.

  20. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  1. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, Joel M., E-mail: jweisber@carleton.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Paglen, Trevor, E-mail: trevor@paglen.com

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  2. [Could phimosis have been the cause of sexual difficulties and delayed fertility of Louis XVI (1754-1793)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, Georges

    2002-02-01

    The great majority of historians agree that the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette was only consumated seven years after the official ceremony. This delay could have been due to a genital malformation (phimosis) of Louis XVI, a strict religious education, a traumatic childhood and the young age of the two spouses, factors that may have inhibited their sexuality. In this article, the authors try to determine whether Louis XVI was able to overcome his sexual difficulties following an operation (circumcision) or as a result of spontaneous cure.

  3. THE ISLANDS PROJECT. I. ANDROMEDA XVI, AN EXTREMELY LOW MASS GALAXY NOT QUENCHED BY REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monelli, Matteo; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7005, TAS (Australia); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Mayer, Lucio [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); McConnachie, Alan [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2016-03-10

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its lifetime star formation history (SFH), the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ∼6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low-mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus it is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the SFH as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the SFH: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than in the external regions, although the quenching age appears to be the same, within 1 Gyr. We also report the discovery of nine RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, eight of which belong to And XVI. The RRL stars allow a new estimate of the distance, (m − M){sub 0} = 23.72 ± 0.09 mag, which is marginally larger than previous estimates based on the tip of the red giant branch.

  4. Tissue distribution and developmental expression of type XVI collagen in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C H; Chu, M L

    1996-04-01

    The expression of a recently identified collagen, alpha 1 (XVI), in adult mouse tissue and developing mouse embryo was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein, which contained a segment of 161 amino acids in the N-terminal noncollagenous domain of the human alpha 1 (XVI) collagen. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled human or mouse fibroblast cell lysates with this antibody revealed a major, bacterial collagenase sensitive polypeptide of approximately 210 kDa. The size agrees with the prediction from the full-length cDNA. Immunofluorescence examination of adult mouse tissues using the affinity purified antibody revealed a rather broad distribution of the protein. The heart, kidney, intestine, ovary, testis, eye, arterial walls and smooth muscles all exhibited significant levels of expression, while the skeletal muscle, lung and brain showed very restricted and low signals. During development, no significant expression of the mRNA or protein was observed in embryo of day 8 of gestation, but strong signals was detected in placental trophoblasts. Expression in embryos was detectable first after day 11 of gestation with weak positive signals appearing in the heart. In later stages of development, stronger RNA hybridizations were observed in a variety of tissues, particularly in atrial and ventricular walls of the developing heart, spinal root neural fibers and skin. These data demonstrate that type XVI collagen represents another collagenous component widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the structural integrity of various tissues.

  5. Os excessos da identidade: Bento XVI e a questão da tolerância Excesses of identity: Benedict XVI and the issue of tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de algumas das polêmicas opiniões de Bento XVI, o artigo busca compreender a base doutrinária delas e discutir os seus efeitos para a questão da tolerância religiosa. Depois de uma apresentação do que entende por tolerância, propõe um percurso através da encíclica Deus caritas est, que embasa a nova doutrina papal numa interpretação particular da noção de "amor de Deus". Por fim, tenta-se mostrar como esse "amor", mediante uma ênfase exagerada da idéia de identidade, torna-se nos documentos papais um instrumento de combate a todas as diferenças, pondo a perder a possibilidade de convivência entre as religiões e, por conseqüência, semeando o fundamentalismo.This article tries to comprehend the doctrinal base of some polemical assessments of Benedict XVI; discussing its effects on the issue of religious tolerance. After presenting what is understood to mean tolerance, it proposes a way through the encyclical letter Deus caritas est; in this letter, the new papal doctrine is founded on a particular interpretation of the notion of "God's love". Lastly, it intends to show how this "love", by an exaggerated emphasis on the idea of identity, becomes an instrument of fight against every difference, spoiling the possibility of a pacific relationship among the religions and, consequently, sowing the seeds of fundamentalism.

  6. Investigation of the accuracy of MV radiation isocentre calculations in the Elekta cone-beam CT software XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, S. J.; Rowshanfarzad, P.; Ebert, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    ) and the radiation field centre (RFC) is calculated. A software package was developed for accurate calculation of the linac isocentre position. This requires precise determination of the position of the ball bearing and the RFC. Results: Data were acquired for 6 MV, 18 MV and flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV FFF...... radiation isocentre prior to routine use of the cone-beam CT system. The isocentre determination method used in the XVI software is not available to users. The aim of this work is to perform an independent evaluation of the Elekta XVI 4.5 software for isocentre verification with focus on the robustness...... iView GT software. Two images were acquired at each cardinal gantry angle (-180o, -90o , 0o, 90o) at two opposing collimator angles. The images were exported to the conebeam CT software XVI 4.5 where the difference between the ball bearing position in the XYZ-room coordinates (IEC61217...

  7. Plantas medicinais consumidas em Cochim, no século XVI e na atualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    Full Text Available O objetivo primacial desta pesquisa é investigar como solucionam os habitantes de Cochim, na Índia, seus problemas de saúde, quando não podem aceder aos sistemas convencionais ou quando optam por aceder a sistemas alternativos, na modernidade. O objetivo específico da pesquisa é compilar as espécies vegetais de uso terapêutico no século XVI e compará-las com as atuais. A flora indiana, em particular as especiarias, tem fascinado a humanidade desde o início dos tempos. Em 1498, os portugueses descobriram o caminho marítimo para a Índia e, durante os dois séculos seguintes, o pequeno país europeu dominou o comércio mundial com o oriente. Seguindo a rota das especiarias, o Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT organizou, recentemente, uma missão científica a Kerala, a fim de investigar os frutos, os legumes, os condimentos, os tubérculos e as plantas medicinais cultivadas em jardins e pátios traseiros, vendidos em mercados e feiras, e recomendados pela medicina Ayurvédica, na cidade de Cochim. O ponto de partida foi a leitura de quatro manuscritos do século XVI que enumeravam as plantas aromáticas, condimentares e medicinais da Índia renascentista. Os resultados demonstram que um número substancial de plantas colhidas durante a missão do IICT, em 2013, já era usado na Índia, no século XVI.

  8. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Vía Láctea s/n., E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  9. La educación para la paz: Una asignatura pendiente. Las aportaciones de Benedicto XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Alonso; Carlos Corral

    2012-01-01

    El mensaje de Benedicto XVI para la XLV Jornada Mundial de la Paz, titulado "Educar a los jóvenes en la justicia y la paz", ha puesto sobre la mesa la pregunta de si es posible evitar las guerras y cuáles serían los instrumentos más eficaces para ello. Uno de los principales pilares que ayudan a sostener la estabilidad del sistema internacional es la educación, entendida, por un lado, como un proceso por el cual se van adquiriendo conocimientos y destrezas para el desempeño de las funciones p...

  10. La forma litánica en el teatro. Siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fradejas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Al igual que en el teatro griego, como afirma Rodríguez Adrados, existen en el teatro español desde su origen en el s. XV villancicos y canciones, monódicas y corales. Pero tras la discusión de si la Cántica Eya velar es lírica o teatro, no había aparecido ningún texto hasta la segunda mitad del s. XVI, en que en el Códice de autos viejos se incluye la Farsa de los lenguajes, un poema de tipo religioso que incide en la forma litánica:…

  11. L'influenza del Giappone sulla moda italiana dal XVI al XX secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Questa ricerca ha per oggetto lo studio dell’influenza del Giappone sulla moda italiana, dalla metà del XVI alla fine del XX secolo. Le prime notizie sugli abiti giapponesi giunsero in Italia intorno al 1550, dopo che il Giappone era stato ‘scoperto’ nel 1543 da alcuni mercanti portoghesi naufragati sulle sue coste. Tuttavia i primi timidi influssi giapponesi nella moda italiana si manifestarono solo dopo la seconda metà del XVII secolo, quando i nobiluomini italiani cominciarono a indoss...

  12. Cartagena de indias en la historia de la lucha por la justicia en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Arévalo

    1963-04-01

    Full Text Available A juzgar por los libros y opúsculos que en Colombia se publican creemos que es bastante lo que hay que hacer para llevar a nuestros historiadores al convencimiento de que mucho antes de 1810 ya habían sonado voces de libertad en nuestra patria; que la dignidad humana y los derechos de los naturales ya habían sido públicamente defendidos y no por abogados cualesquiera sino por los más calificados teólogos que tuvo la Iglesia en el siglo XVI.

  13. Taki onqoy: epidemia de intoxicación por exposición al mercurio en Huamanga del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Santa María

    Full Text Available Taki Onqoy es un síndrome que corresponde a la intoxicación por exposición al mercurio. Apareció como consecuencia de la explotación de las minas de mercurio de Paras y Huancavelica en el Perú durante el siglo XVI. La caquexia mercurial, última etapa de la enfermedad, estaría asociada a la idea del pishtaco. El Taki Onqoy en el Perú del siglo XVI, representa la mayor epidemia por intoxicación por mercurio conocida por la humanidad.

  14. El poblamiento en el siglo XVI. Contrastes entre el Caribe y el interior andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herrera Ángel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de poblamiento en el Caribe o en el interior andino y, en general, en América en el siglo XVI, desde la perspectiva de la población que lo habitaba, resulta en buena medida un contrasentido, ya que lo que tuvo lugar en la mayor parte de este continente a lo largo del siglo XVI y buena parte del XVII , como consecuencia de la invasión europea. fue un intenso y continuado proceso de despoblamiento. Ese proceso, en todo caso, no significó la desaparición de la población nativa que, por lo menos hasta finales del siglo XVII y comienzos del siglo XVIII, continuó siendo la población mayoritaria en buena parte del territorio. Pero además, es de resaltar que en las llanuras del Caribe colombiano, así como en el interior andino, al igual que en muchas otras partes del territorio americano, el proceso de despoblamiento que tuvo lugar desde finales del siglo XV no fue compensado por el arribo de pobladores de otros continentes.

  15. Los mareantes pontevedreses y la pesca de altura en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernández, Xosé Manuel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available During most of the 16th century, the town of Pontevedra was recorder as the most dynamic urban centre of the Galician kingdom for its economy based on fishing and sea trade. In contrast with the traditional view which has always regarded the seamen from Rias Baixas as coastal fishermen, Pontevedra's historical legal documents from the Sisteenth Century provide evidence of their presence in Newfoundland and the Canary Island fishing grounds. In the light of this evidence, those seamen appear as faithful continuers of a tradition of seafaring relationships with foreign countries dating back to the late Middle Ages.

    Durante buena parte del siglo XVI la villa de Pontevedra aparece como el mayor y más dinámico núcleo urbano del Reino de Galicia, con una economía asentada en la pesca y el comercio marítimo. Frente a la visión tradicional, que considera a los hombres del mar de las Rías Baixas gallegas como pescadores de bajura, la documentación notarial pontevedresa del siglo XVI informa de su presencia tanto en Terranova como en el banco de pesca canario. De esta forma se muestran fíeles continuadores de una vocación de relación con el exterior por vía marítima presente desde la Baja Edad Media.

  16. LOS arrendadores de la Hacienda de Castilla a comienzos del siglo XVI (1517-1525

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel CARRETERO ZAMORA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El trabajo pretende profundizar en un aspecto esencial de la Hacienda de Castilla a comienzos del siglo XVI: el arrendamiento de las rentas regias. En este sentido, se insiste en la existencia de un gigantesco negocio financiero en torno a dichas rentas, donde se entremezclan intereses económicos y políticos, dando lugar a la existencia de redes clientelares económicas y grupos de presión políticos. El trabajo, por último, hace hincapié en las primeras decisiones hacendísticas de Carlos I. Decisiones que por lo demás pusieron a su servicio todo un sistema de financiación heredado de los Reyes Católicos.ABSTRACT: The present study examines in detail a vital aspect of Castile's economy at the start of the XVI century: the leasing of royal revenues. It emphasises the existence of a vast financial business based on the leasing of said revenues, within which economic and political interests co-existed, leading to the creation of networks of economic patronage and political pressure groups. Finally, the study highlights Charles I early economic decisions, which served to bring into operation the fiscal system that he had inherited from the Catholic Kings.

  17. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  18. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  19. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias... the third column, the fourth line under the ``Summary'' heading, change ``SSR-13-Xp'' to ``SSR-13-1p...

  20. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  1. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in Ni XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Msezane, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Fine-structure energy levels relative to the ground state, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for transitions among the lowest 40 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations 3s 2 3p, 3s3p 2 , 3s 2 3d, 3p 3 and 3s3p3d of Ni XVI are calculated using a large scale CI in program CIV3 of Hibbert. Relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. The existing discrepancies between the calculated and measured values for many of the relative energy positions are resolved in the present calculation which yields excellent agreement with measurement. Also, many of our oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions are in very good agreement with the recommended data by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). (orig.)

  2. Community Organization of Siberian Coachmen in Late XVI – XVII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Semenov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the wide range of archival data, mostly introduced into scientific use for the first time, studies communal (secular and church organization of Siberian coachmen in late XVI – XVII centuries. The paper touches upon the issue, concerning the time of its establishment, thoroughly characterizes the structure, functions and officials. The features of interrelation between coachmen ‘world’ and state and other corporate communities of the region are showed. The conclusion that, despite the dependence on the authorities, the processes of bureaucratization and the growth of the villeinage trends, common for the country, coachmen played significant role in the social life of Siberia is made. They intensively protected their interests and forced the government to consider them.

  3. To think modernity/coloniality in Guaraní (XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine Boidin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amerindian general languages were modern/colonial languages through which modern/colonial guaraní subjects were forged and expressed. Early transcriptions of political speeches in tupí-guaraní made by missionaries (XVI-XVII centuries, as well as letters written by indigenous mission authorities (XVIII-XIX centuries, allow for analysing their vocabularies, plots, and styles. Although the words are the same, their significance effects and their translation equivalences varied regarding texts and contexts. Even if arguments (ratio changed, several traditional verbal arts (oratio were reinvented in colonial contexts. Within missions, indigenous political authorities, familiarized with catholic and royal arguments and vocabularies, developed their oral and written eloquence in Cabildos (spaces dedicated to politics, while Jesuits incorporated some of the formal tupí-guaraní verbal arts features in their sermons.

  4. Talis mater, talis filia: las malas madres en los siglos XVI y XVII

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    Amaia Nausia Pimoulier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un tipo de violencia familiar protagonizado por madres e hijas navarras de los siglos XVI y XVII. Las acu-saciones por lenocinio o alcahuetería contra las madres que emplearon a sus propias hijas en sus tratos de mediadoras sirven para ilustrar una forma de violencia que supone, entre otras cosas, una ruptura del amor materno. La preca-ria situación de la madre y las dificultades tras el fallecimiento del esposo —la gran parte de los casos están protagonizados por madres viu-das— fue el contexto general en el que se desarrollaron los malos tratos. La historia de estas mujeres representa un mal ejercicio de la autoridad materna y una forma de violencia hacia las hijas; una violencia no siempre física, pero sí emocional y psicológica.

  5. XVI 'Jacques-Louis Lions' Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Roldán, Teo; Torrens, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents lecture notes from the XVI ‘Jacques-Louis Lions’ Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering, held in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain) in September 2014. The subjects covered include: numerical analysis of isogeometric methods, convolution quadrature for wave simulations, mathematical methods in image processing and computer vision, modeling and optimization techniques in food processes, bio-processes and bio-systems, and GPU computing for numerical simulation. The book is highly recommended to graduate students in Engineering or Science who want to focus on numerical simulation, either as a research topic or in the field of industrial applications. It can also benefit senior researchers and technicians working in industry who are interested in the use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques in the fields addressed here. Moreover, the book can be used as a textbook for master courses in Mathematics, Physics, or Engineering.

  6. Estudiantes y profesores españoles en universidades extranjeras. Siglos XII-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé BARTOLOMÉ MARTÍNEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Dentro de la línea histórico-comparada de este número de la revista, este trabajo pretende ser una elaboración de síntesis. Es un intento de encontrar unidad a algunas investigaciones dispersas que se van publicando sobre el tema. Los cartularios que existen de algunas universidades extranjeras son insuficientes y los libros de registros de estudiantes o de grados no nos han llegado apenas desde las alturas de aquellos siglos xn-xvi. Sin embargo una intensa indagación en los archivos municipales y catedralicios podría arrojar, para este caso, los datos suficientes.

  7. Una cançó de refrany i cobles glossadores del segle XVI basada en la frase "Mal aja qui en dones fia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Romeu i Figueras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author studies the origin, spread and connotations of a misogyny proverb picked up from a xvi century refrain that circulated in Valencia and Catalonia as a symbiosis of popular tradition and Renaissance flavour.

  8. Sobre los libros de oro del siglo XVI : notas críticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Martín Martín

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available De sobra es conocido que los Libros de Oro, que aparecen en el siglo XVI en el marco de la renovación pedagógica que introdujo el Humanismo y el Renacimiento, son colecciones de pensamientos, sentencias, máximas y proverbios morales entresacados de las obras de los mejores filósofos estoicos de la Antigüedad Clásica. Sin embargo, poco más es lo que se conoce de ellos fuera del marco de la Historia de la Literatura. Incidentalmente, al ocuparse de la preceptiva de príncipes, algo se ha dicho sobre los textos áureos de la vida, si bien de forma tangencial. Consciente de esta laguna historiográfica voy a redactar las siguientes notas críticas, que no tienen otro objeto más que colaborar en el debate que historiadores, filósofos, pedagogos y literatos han de sostener sobre el tema. Nuestro país aportó al pensamiento educativo del siglo xvi dos figuras señeras: Luis Vives y Pedro Simón Abril. Pero su obra quedó en el plano teórico por cuanto carecieron de capacidad u oportunidad política para implantar sus doctrinas en la sociedad española. Alguna posibilidad tuvo el segundo de los autores citados, pero las mismas se quedaron en forma de memoriales o apuntamientos dirigidos al Rey Felipe II.

  9. Natalidad, nupcialidad y fecundidad en Mérida durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un estudio demográfico de Mérida durante el siglo XVI, que ha sido realizado a partir de las actas de bautismo, confirmación y matrimonio, por el procedimiento de la agrupación de familias, o método francés, analizando la natalidad con detalle de partos simples y dobles, las concepciones, las distribuciones temporales y sus tendencias, se fia determinado en número de familias y sus composiciones, obteniendo el coeficiente para la transformación de vecinos cabezas de familia en fiabitantes, tanto el general de la ciudad como los correspondientes a las comunidades cristiana y morisca; se tian determinado las edades de acceso al matrimonio, los intervalos genésicos en las mujeres, los estados prenupciales, la distribución temporal de la nupcialidad y los grupos de ilegítimos, expósitos, esclavos y moriscos.This is a demographic study of Mérida (a town of Castilla, Spain during the XVI century, from fhe baptism, confirmation and marriages registers, according to the process of the association of families by analysing the natality in detall of simple and double childbirths, and the concepcions, the temporal distributions and their tendencies; with the determination of the number of families and their composition, by obtaining the coeffcient in order to transform the neighbours into inhabitants. Both the general one of the town and the one wich belongs to the christian and moorish communities; the age of acces to marriage, genesis inervals in women, prenuptial states, temporal distribution of nupcitiality, ilegitimate groves, abandoned people, slaves and moorishes have been determined.

  10. O mundo americano na produção escrita inglesa: séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Martins de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A apreciação do Novo Mundo por letrados ingleses, irlandeses e escoceses pode ser pontuada a partir da segunda metade do século XVI. A compreensão acerca dessa temática é um dos eixos deste artigo, que pretende avaliar as nuances da produção escrita em língua inglesa entre os séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII, com destaque para a formulação de histórias filosóficas da América. Buscamos, em linhas gerais, avaliar de que forma o cenário americano foi descrito por autores que, em diferentes momentos, se indagaram sobre o lugar da América na historiografia inglesa.

  11. Reflexiones en torno a una conciliación: arquitectura en el territorio peruano en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ante la experiencia con el patrimonio arquitectónico peruano en el sigloXVI, la administración española enfrentó dificultades con las quedebió competir con ventaja. Algunos aspectos de nuestra arquitecturareligiosa coincidían con sus tradiciones, pero otras de manera ninguna;finalmente hubo consenso. Este artículo es una reflexión acerca de lasmotivaciones y las consecuencias de este resultado.

  12. Histoire d’un non-objet historiographique : le cas Louis xvi

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    Aurore Chery

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bien que la Révolution française ait suscité l’intérêt des chercheurs du monde entier, Louis xvi fait figure de parent pauvre des études universitaires. Même si c’est à son corps défendant, il en est tout de même l’un des principaux protagonistes et la Révolution s’est aussi construite en interrogeant le rôle et la place du roi. Cette situation a eu pour conséquence de conserver vivace la légende dorée que le roi s’est construite en exerçant un contrôle sur son image dès le début de son règne. Elle l’assimile à un nouvel Henri iv, profondément concerné par les maux de ses sujets. Malgré les attaques de la Révolution, cette image continue à exercer une influence considérable sur les biographes de Louis xvi et les historiens de la Révolution.Si la Restauration en a fait un usage sans surprise, elle a, de manière plus étonnante, séduit jusqu’à Jaurès avant de souffrir du discrédit dans lequel sombre le royalisme en choisissant l’antisémitisme au xxe siècle. Néanmoins, c’est aujourd’hui par le détour de l’historiographie anglo-saxonne qu’elle fait sa réapparition et commence seulement à être questionnée.Although the French Revolution has aroused interest of international researchers, Louis xvi is widely neglected by the academic studies. Even if reluctantly, he is yet one of the main protagonists and it is also by questioning the role and the place of the king that the Revolution took its shape.This led to the consequence that the golden legend the king constructed by controlling his image from the beginning of his reign is still very lively today. In it, he is presented as a new Henri iv, deeply concerned by the misfortunes of his subjects. In spite of the attacks of the Revolution, this image still considerably influences Louis xvi’s biographers and the historians of the Revolution.If the Restoration made a not surprising good use of it, it more astonishingly seduced Jaur

  13. Naos, clima y glaciares en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI

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    Prieto, María del Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es lograr una aproximación al clima y a los fenómenos de glaciación ocurridos en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI y parte del XVII a través de registros históricos. Se complementan los resultados obtenidos por investigadores de otras disciplinas paleoclimáticas en el área, verificándose si las fuentes históricas corroboran las conclusiones de esos autores, quienes postulan un intervalo muy frío entre 1520 y 1670. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los “diarios o relaciones de navegación” de los primeros marinos españoles que pasaron por el Estrecho, recopilados en su mayor parte en Archivos históricos españoles. A través de la técnica del análisis de contenido se verificó la estabilidad en el vocabulario referido al clima y los glaciares a lo largo de esas centurias y se calificó los eventos de acuerdo a su magnitud. Se determinaron diversas categorías de las cuales se han seleccionado precipitaciones sólidas y líquidas, temperatura, dirección del viento y ocurrencia de tormentas para analizar en este trabajo. Se estudió especialmente la presencia de témpanos en el Estrecho y las descripciones de los glaciares fueguinos y del sur de la Patagonia chilena como indicadores de bajas temperaturas. Se concluye que existen referencias directas a la presencia de témpanos proveniente de glaciares en el Estrecho, sólo en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. El avance de los hielos supondría una acentuación de las condiciones de frío durante esa centuria, lo que puede ser corroborado por los datos de los navíos que consignan temperaturas estivales frías y muy frías en la vertiente pacífica. Estos datos coincidirían con los resultados de R. Villalba en cuanto a que el intervalo 1520 a 1670 fue uno de los más fríos de la Pequeña Edad Glaciar.

  14. Militares en el Mundo Urbano Fronterizo Castellano (siglos XVI-XVII Soldiers within the frontier urban communities of Castile (XVI-XVII centuries

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    Susana TRUCHUElO GARCÍA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian diversos espacios urbanos fronterizos y costeros que albergaban presidios reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se valoran las prácticas de gobierno que relacionaron, por una parte, a los vecinos, sujetos a la jurisdicción de los alcaldes y el corregidor, y, por otra, a los soldados, beneficiados por el fuero militar. Muchas de las discordias estuvieron causadas por las competencias de jurisdicción entre los distintos poderes, por el aumento de atribuciones de los militares en los contextos bélicos, por el control ejercido por los militares en las milicias concejiles y por la participación de los soldados en las instituciones de gobierno de la ciudad. Este estudio nos permite comprender el proceso de definición de una identidad particular en las ciudades fronterizas, sustentada en la exclusión de la comunidad de todo elemento que intentara segregarse del marco de acción de las autoridades urbanas y de la jurisdicción ordinaria.From different viewpoints, this article analyzes urban frontier coastal spaces in early modern Castile (16th and 17th centuries. The central focus is on the government practices that had to deal with quite different affairs, but mainly on arbitration of conflicts between urban neighbors and soldiers. The first were under the main magistrate so-called Corregidor jurisdiction, helped in this task by alcaldes (a special variety of mayors. The soldiers had specific military jurisdiction apart from that ordinary for the neighborhood. Many disputes were jurisdictional conflicts due to military special competences in war contexts, when the army widened its powers to control council regiments (milicias concejiles, and also to deal with the military participation in urban in institutions and government. These problems analysis points out the features that create a particular urban-frontier identity, based on the definition of urban community with the exclusion of individuals, groups and

  15. Montes y bosques de Orihuela en los siglos XVI y XVII

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    José Ojeda Nieto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los montes y los bosques de la época Moderna son poco conocidos. Escasean los documentos, y cuando los hay se fijan en las talas y abusos cometidos por los vecinos o en las preocupaciones -normativas concejiles- de buena utilización de la leña y la madera. La Orihuela foral, siglos XVI y XVII, gozaba de una amplia extensión de terrenos comunales donde el pastoreo convivía con el aprovechamiento silvícola. El presente estudio marca los límites del monte, concretamente del arbolado, al tiempo que cuantifica, como propuesta, los distintos espacios que configuraban el paisaje del Bajo Segura: huerta, boalares, redondas y realengo. Normas y leyes que reglamentaban cortes y talas, así como los malos usos del bosque -carboneo e incendios-, son también analizados para entender el proceso de deforestación y su control a lo largo de las citadas centurias.

  16. La «Renovatio Urbis» : poder, ciudad y universidad en el siglo XVI

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    Consuelo Gómez López

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de renovación del concepto de Estado iniciado por los Reyes Católicos a finales del siglo xv, encontró en los medios institucionales el instrumento perfecto para dirigir y difundir sus nuevos principios doctrinales y poner en práctica sus programas de acción política. Las universidades, convertidas en instituciones puestas al servicio de la expresión del poder, encontraron a partir de entonces y a lo largo de todo el siglo xvi, un gran auge. Esta circunstancia se produce una vez que se toma conciencia desde el poder del valor que posee la educación como instrumento de acción política a partir del cual poder asegurar, como ha señalado J.A. Maravall, «la transmisión de los saberes que importan para la acción de gobierno», y en consecuencia, promover la renovación del Estado y de la sociedad

  17. La producción de armas blancas en Bilbao durante el siglo XVI

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    Dueñas Beraiz, Germán

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available They are few notices published about swords manufacture in Spain during the 16th century. One of the most unknown productions centers is the city of Bilbao, wich developed an important production of arms in part destined to its export to the British Islands. This article studies some documents, it is specialy interesting an unpublished document about the litigation hold up in 1569 between Bilbao swordsmiths and the «Corregidor» from Bilbao. Thanks of them it has been posible to compile names, marks and information about the activity of this craftsmen.

    Son escasas las noticias que poseemos sobre las zonas donde se fabricaban espadas en España. Uno de los centros más desconocidos es el de la ciudad de Bilbao, que desarrolló durante todo el siglo XVI, una importante producción de armas en parte destinadas a su exportación a las Islas Británicas. Gracias a una serie de documentos, entre los que figura uno inédito que recoge el pleito que los espaderos de Bilbao mantuvieron en 1569 con el Corregidor de Vizcaya, se han podido recoger algunos nombres y datos que permiten conocer más sobre la actividad de estos artesanos.

  18. The Arian controversy in the Homilies of the Patriarch Photios (Homilies XV and XVI

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    Afinogenov Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In his two homilies dedicated to the Arian controversy (the only surviving of the original five Photios uses different methods to actualize the matter for the broad Byzantine public, mainly in connection with the patriarch’s main concern during his fi rst tenure: the polemics against Iconoclasm. The Arianism was chosen as a purely logical juxtaposition to the latter, where the real gradual progress of iconoclast tendencies is compared to a theoretical construction of Arianism which has little to do with the actual developments in the IVth century. The comparison of the Iconoclast heresiarch John the Grammarian to Arius is chiefly aimed at justifying the permanent deposition of Iconoclast priests even in case of repentance, declared by the Patriarch Nikephoros in 815 and carried out by Methodios in 843. The triadological considerations in the Homily XVI do not in fact pertain to anti- fi lioque polemics, but rather represent a traditional Eastern conception. This, as well as the intense and negative attention to the Council of Sardica suggest the date 861, when Photios had to argue against the applicability of this council’s 10th canon to his promotion to patriarch from a layman.

  19. Rotational patient setup errors in IGRT with XVI system in Elekta Synergy and their clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhana Sresty, N.V.N.; Muralidhar, K.R.; Raju, A.K.; Sha, R.L.; Ramanjappa

    2008-01-01

    The goal of Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) is to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery. In this technique, it is possible to get volumetric images of patient anatomy before delivery of treatment.XVI( release 3.5) system in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta,Crawley,UK) has the potential to ensure that, the relative positions of the target volume is same as in the treatment plan. It involves acquiring planar images produced by a kilo Voltage cone beam rotating about the patient in the treatment position. After 3 dimensional match between reference and localization images, the system gives rotational errors also along with translational shifts. One can easily perform translational shifts with treatment couch. But rotational shifts cannot be performed. Most of the studies dealt with translational shifts only. Few studies reported regarding rotational errors. It is found that in the treatment of elongated targets, even small rotational errors can show difference in results. The main objectives of this study is 1) To verify the magnitude of rotational errors in different clinical sites observed and to compare with the other reports. 2) To find its clinical relevance 3) To find difference in rotational shift results with improper selection of kV collimator

  20. Reacomodos de población en Tzintzuntzan durante el siglo XVI

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    José Manuel Martínez Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las congregaciones o reducciones de pueblos de indios se tienen bien documentados para numerosos pueblos de la Nueva España. En el caso específico de Tzintzuntzan se ha dudado si en realidad este proceso se llevó a cabo, pues no se ha encontrado el acta de su congregación. Después de analizar distintos manuscritos coloniales, crónicas, estudios previos, tradición oral, así como la traza urbana de la ciudad, se deduce que Tzintzuntzan tuvo al menos dos momentos de reorganización urbano-social. El primero que se llevó a cabo en la década de 1530 con la reubicación del convento y una parte de la población que estaba asentada en las laderas del cerro Tariácuri. El segundo debió llevarse a cabo a finales del siglo xvi o principios del xvii, con el traslado de varios de sus barrios sujetos hacia la cabecera.

  1. Un libelo antijudío en la literatura popular impresa del siglo XVI

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    Sánchez Pérez, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is edited and studied an anti-Jewish blood libel preserved in a Spanish poetic chapbook («pliego suelto» of the 16th century and attributed to the blind traditional poet («ciego coplero» Francisco González de Figueroa. Thanks to a tracking of diverse medieval and contemporary sources, Hispanic and foreign, related to the accusations of ritual murder against Jews, we have verified that this narration is a more link of a long chain of anti-Jewish blood libels arisen in Europe, which had a wide and extensive diffusion for several centuries.En este artículo se edita y estudia un libelo antijudío conservado en un pliego suelto poético del siglo XVI y atribuido al ciego coplero Francisco González de Figueroa. Gracias a un rastreo de diversas fuentes medievales y coetáneas, hispánicas y extranjeras, relacionadas con las acusaciones de crímenes rituales contra los judíos, hemos comprobado que esta narración es un eslabón más de una larga cadena de libelos de sangre antijudíos surgidos en Europa, que tuvieron una amplia y dilatada difusión durante varios siglos.

  2. La educación para la paz: Una asignatura pendiente. Las aportaciones de Benedicto XVI

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    Antonio Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El mensaje de Benedicto XVI para la XLV Jornada Mundial de la Paz, titulado "Educar a los jóvenes en la justicia y la paz", ha puesto sobre la mesa la pregunta de si es posible evitar las guerras y cuáles serían los instrumentos más eficaces para ello. Uno de los principales pilares que ayudan a sostener la estabilidad del sistema internacional es la educación, entendida, por un lado, como un proceso por el cual se van adquiriendo conocimientos y destrezas para el desempeño de las funciones propias en el mercado laboral, y también, por otro lado, como un proceso de asimilación, por parte de las nuevas generaciones, de unos valores y de unos criterios que les ayuden a la construcción de un orden social más justo y, por ende, más estable.

  3. Dental stigmata and enamel thickness in a probable case of congenital syphilis from XVI century Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauc, Tomislav; Fornai, Cinzia; Premužić, Zrinka; Vodanović, Marin; Weber, Gerhard W; Mašić, Boris; Rajić Šikanjić, Petra

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the dental remains of an individual with signs of congenital syphilis by using macroscopic observation, CBCT and micro-CT images, and the analysis of the enamel thickness. Anthropological analysis of human skeletal remains from the 16th century archaeological site Park Grič in Zagreb, Croatia discovered a female, 17-20 years old at the time of death, with dental signs supportive of congenital syphilis: mulberry molars and canine defects, as well as non-specific hypoplastic changes on incisors. The focus of the analysis was on three aspects: gross morphology, hypoplastic defects of the molars, canines and incisors, as well as enamel thickness of the upper first and second molars. The observed morphology of the first molars corresponds to the typical aspect of mulberry molars, while that of the canines is characterised by hypomineralisation. Hypoplastic grooves were observed on the incisal edges of all incisors. The enamel of the first molars is underdeveloped while in the second molars a thick-enamelled condition is observed. Our observations for the dental and skeletal evidence are supportive to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis for this specimen from XVI century Croatia. The use of CT imaging helped documenting the diagnostic features and quantifying the effect of the dental stigmata on first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. La esperanza de vida en la ciudad de México (siglos XVI al XIX

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    Lourdes Márquez Morfín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se contrastan los diferentes escenarios demográficos construidos a partir del análisis de varias series osteológicas procedentes de la ciudad de México cuya temporalidad corresponde a los siglos xvii al xix, conformada por criollos, mestizos e indígenas; y otra procedente de un área rural fechada en el siglo xvi, en Xochimilco, de composición eminentemente indígena. La técnica paleodemográfica permite obtener perfiles demográficos específicos para cada serie que se comparan y discuten con la información histórica disponible para la ciudad de México. Los resultados de las series urbanas y la rural, describen poblaciones con bajas esperanzas de vida, escasa sobrevivencia hacia las edades adultas y una alta mortalidad infantil producto de las condiciones sanitarias, de la pobreza y de la violencia, teniendo como telón de fondo grandes cambios sociales y económicos, además de crisis demográficas epidémicas y hambre.

  5. Sujeto e ideología en el relato ejemplar (Calila e Dimna, Cap. XVI

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    Leonardo Funes

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se propone describir con cierto detalle el modo en que un texto ejemplar de la Edad Medía castellana "trabaja" ideológicamente. Para ello se analiza el capítulo XVI del Calda e Dimna, traducción alfonsí del árabe Kalila wa Dimna realizada entre 1251 y 1261, poniendo de relieve el tipo de subjetividad que el texto propone a su público para que, una vez asumido, pueda leerse el texto y situarse en el mundo. Al mismo tiempo, utilizando el cuadrado semiótico según la reformulación de Jameson, se despliega el haz de relaciones significativas que conforman el texto como dispositivo ideológico. La peculiar ubicación de la nobleza y de la naciente burguesía en el orden social diseñado por el texto, junto con la promoción de la figura regia por encima de la estructura estamental, revelan la filiación estrictamente alfonsí del sustento ideológico del Calila e Dimna.

  6. Militares en el Mundo Urbano Fronterizo Castellano (siglos XVI-XVII

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    Susana TRUCHUElO GARCÍA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian diversos espacios urbanos fronterizos y costeros que albergaban presidios reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se valoran las prácticas de gobierno que relacionaron, por una parte, a los vecinos, sujetos a la jurisdicción de los alcaldes y el corregidor, y, por otra, a los soldados, beneficiados por el fuero militar. Muchas de las discordias estuvieron causadas por las competencias de jurisdicción entre los distintos poderes, por el aumento de atribuciones de los militares en los contextos bélicos, por el control ejercido por los militares en las milicias concejiles y por la participación de los soldados en las instituciones de gobierno de la ciudad. Este estudio nos permite comprender el proceso de definición de una identidad particular en las ciudades fronterizas, sustentada en la exclusión de la comunidad de todo elemento que intentara segregarse del marco de acción de las autoridades urbanas y de la jurisdicción ordinaria.

  7. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  8. OLDTURKISHMEDICINE(XIV. - XVI. CENTURIESPROCEDURES FORMEASURINGAND DIMENSIONS ESKİ TÜRK TIBBINDA (XIV. - XVI. YÜZYILLAR ÖLÇÜLER VE ÖLÇME USULLERİ

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    Gürkan GÜMÜŞATAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkishhistory of science, and with it the language ofsciencehas advancedthe course ofTurkishXIV.-XV.centurymedicalbooksterms of the datacontainsrichdata. Theimportanceof scientificworkswrittenin thiscenturyTurkishphysiciansin the works ofthe eraby puttingadministratorsin favor ofTurkish,complied withrequests. In this way,Turkishas the language ofsciencehas grown. Since theTurkishworks ofwritingfromamong those wholivedcenturiesphysicianshaveindicated. Centuries,written inplain languageratherthanthe worksnextpostin the works ofthe erathatthe presence ofdifferenttypes offace, observethe waysof their usage. The presence oftherelevanttermsofthesedimensionsandscalesare also available. The names given tounitsof measure, scales, and their useof suchwords inthe relevant departmentsin terms ofreachingasource ofpharmaceuticalproductions. The majority ofdetectionand usesthese termsfromArabicand Persianformedthe subject ofthisreview. The datasetwasselectedsixmedicalbook. As a result,Turkish,Arabicand Persianas well asinclusionof measurementunitsby using thedrawingsinthe waysof expressionis the resulthad been reached. Türk bilim tarihi ve onunla birlikte gelişme göstermiş Türk bilim dilinin seyri XIV.-XVI. yüzyıl tıp kitaplarındaki veriler bakımından zengin bulgular içerir. İlmî eserlerin Türkçe yazılmasına önem gösterilen bu dönemde hekimler Türkçeden yana tavır koyarak devrin yöneticilerinin isteklerine uymuşlardır. Bu sayede Türkçe bilim dili olarak gelişme göstermiştir. Eserlerini Türkçe yazmaktan yana olanlar arasında belirtilen yüzyıllar arasında yaşamış hekimler de vardır. Sonraki yüzyılllarda yazılmış eserlere nazaran oldukça yalın bir dille kaleme alınmış devrin eserlerinde değişik türden söz varlığıyla karşılaşmakta, bunların kullanım yollarını gözlenebilmektedir. Bu söz varlığı arasında ölçüler ve ölçeklerle ilgili terimler de bulunur. Ölçü birimlerine verilen adlar,

  9. Conventos femeninos en el urbanismo de Canarias (siglos XVI-XIX

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    Juan Sebastián López García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Los  monasterios femeninos poseyeron una desigual presencia en el archipiélago canario, dado que sólo hubo fundaciones en tres de las siete islas, repartidos en nueve poblaciones, con un total de quince inmuebles hasta el siglo XIX. Las fundaciones más antiguas datan del siglo XVI, ya que debe recordarse que la incorporación de Canarias a la Corona de Castilla se produjo a lo largo de la centuria anterior. En cuanto a las órdenes, las más numerosas fueron las franciscanas (clarisas y concepcionistas con seis monasterios, a las que siguen las dominicas o catalinas y las bernardas, con cuatro, cada una, mientras las agustinas recoletas sólo poseyeron uno. La mayoría se pueden considerar urbanos o semiurbanos por el carácter de la ciudad o villa donde se emplazan, ocupando casi siempre las zonas más céntricas. Esta misma posición en la trama fue un factor decisivo en el momento de la desamortización, cuyas medidas provocaron la desaparición de la mayoría de los edificios, pasando los solares a ser ocupados por espacios libres (plazas y jardines, edificios público de nueva planta (ayuntamientos, teatros o construcciones privadas. Sólo permanecen abiertos en la actualidad las Catalinas y Claras de La Laguna y las Concepcionistas de Garachico, todos en Tenerife.Female monasteries in the urbanism of the Canary lslands (c. XVI-XIX The presence of nunneries in the Canary Archipelago was uneven. The fifteen buildings that appear up to the Nineteenth Century are distributed in only nine towns, and three of the seven islands. The earliest foundations date back to the Sixteenth century, as the Canaries were conquered by the Crown of Castilla only in the previous Century. The “Franciscanas (Clarisas an Concepcionistas” with six monasteries,was the most numerous Order, followed by "Dominicas or Catalinas", and the "Bernardas" with four each, and finally the "Agustinas Recoletas" with only one. The majority can be considered urban or semi

  10. Los esclavos y la inquisición (sigloXVI

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    José Luis CORTÉS LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El negro, como libre o como esclavo, fue un componente más de la sociedad española del siglo XVI. Como miembro de la misma estuvo sometido al control de las instituciones religiosas y políticas y, si era esclavo, fue un simple objeto de la voluntad de sus dueños. La Inquisición también le persiguió, y aunque éste no tenía una personalidad jurídica definida, fue considerado como persona con una formación religiosa adecuada y, por eso, juzgado por los responsables inquisitoriales. Hacemos aquí una primera aproximación en esta peculiar relación e insistimos en que los procesos inquisitoriales son también una fuente útil para estudiar ciertos aspectos y circunstancias de la vida del negro en aquella época.ABSTRACT: The Negro, as a free man or as slave, was an additional component in Spanish society during the 16th century. As member of this society he was subjected to the control of the political and religious institutions and if he was a slave, he was simply at the disposal of his master's will. The Inquisition also persecuted him and although he didn't have an officially recognized status, he was considered to be as person with a suitable religious grounding and was therefore judged accordingly by those in charge of the Inquisition. Here we approach this peculiar relationship for the first time and we emphasize that the inquisitorial trials are also an useful source enabling us to study certain aspects and circumstances in the Negro's life at that time.

  11. Italia en la Monarquía Hispánica (siglos XVI - XVII

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    Manuel RIVERO RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La victoria de la Casa de Habsburgo en las guerras de Italia (1494-1559 abrió un periodo de paz y seguridad en Italia. En el pasado, fueron muchos los historiadores que dibujaron un panorama sombrío de este periodo, que abarcó los siglos XVI al XVIII. Fueron dos siglos descritos como un tiempo oscuro que sucedió a la brillantez del Renacimiento. Despotismo, Contrarreforma e intolerancia reemplazaron a la libertad, reformismo y tolerancia preexistentes. Su responsable fue la dominación española. Hoy, esa vieja interpretación está siendo revisada por una nueva generación de historiadores que describen el periodo en otros términos. El dominio español es contemplado como un condominio, un dominio dual o coparticipado entre la Corte española y las Cortes italianas o, mejor dicho, entre las élites españolas e italianas. Esta perspectiva explica el sistema español tanto para comprender su éxito como su hundimiento.ABSTRACT: The victory of the Habsburg Army in the Italian Wars (1494-1559 opened a time of peace and security in Italy. Many historians draw a negative panorama of this new period from sixteenth to early eighteenth centuries. So, these two centuries, were traditionally described as a Dark Age before the splendid time of the Renaissance. Despotism, Counterreformation and Intolerance replace Liberty, Reform and Tolerance. The Spanish dominion was responsible of this falling back. Today this old interpretation is revised by new generations of historians that describe the period in other terms. The Spanish dominion is sawn in a different way, as condominium, dual control or ownership between the Spanish Court and the Italian Courts, between Spanish and Italian elites. This point of view explains the Spanish System, his success and his breakdown.

  12. Lizardo Seiner Lizarrága. Estudios de Historia Medioambiental. Perú, siglos XVI-XX

    OpenAIRE

    O'Phelan Godoy, Scarlett

    2014-01-01

    El libro de Lizardo Seiner Lizárraga, Estudios de historia medioambiental. Perú, siglos XVI-XX explora una temática que hasta hace poco era solo marginalmente tratada dentro de la perspectiva histórica. Indagar sobre la historia del medio ambiente en la larga duración es, por lo tanto, un mérito incuestionable del trabajo realizado por Seiner. El libro en cuestión abre con un ensayo sobre el tema de los desastres naturales y su impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Así, haciendo uso de fuentes pri...

  13. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/ epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÓN GROSFOGUEL

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente america...

  14. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Grosfoguel, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente...

  15. Las entradas de cristianos en Berbería (siglos XV-XVI): relaciones pacíficas y violentas

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Esta contribución intenta dar cuenta, de forma sintética, de las relaciones desarrolladas entre España y el norte de África entre los siglos XV y XVI. Tales relaciones adopataron tanto formas pacíficas como conflictivas. La principal tesis que subyace en este trabjo es que, por ecnima del revestimiento ideológico-religioso, que parace como un apartado justificador del enfrentamiento entre cristianos y musulmanes afines de la Edad Media y comienzos de la Edad Moderna, los contactos entre unos ...

  16. Antecedentes históricos del arte de nadar en España (siglo XVI-1807)

    OpenAIRE

    Torrebadella i Flix, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A partir de las primeros tratados que durante el siglo XVI recuperan en Europa la natación como ejercicio higiénico y gimnástico, en el caso concreto de España, revisamos las diferentes aportaciones bibliográficas y las noticias aparecidas en la prensa que se ocuparon del “arte de nadar” hasta principios del siglo XIX. Con ello se pretende colaborar, a través de las fuentes documentales primarias, a (re)construir los primeros pasos y antecedentes de la natación en España. De la inspección y h...

  17. Un problema médico y terminológico (sífilis en el siglo XVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ibáñez, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    En el umbral del siglo XVI, muy poco antes de finalizar la centuria anterior, se describe una afección hasta entonces, parece, desconocida, de síntomas alarmantes y graves consecuencias. En contra de lo esperado y deseado no parece haber literatura médica sobre ella, las auctoritates no se pronunciaron a este respecto y nada dejaron apuntado sobre cómo tratarla. Como en otros casos a lo largo de este período los hombres del momento, en este caso los médicos, deben afrontar un reto importante ...

  18. Complejidad Organizativa y Desarrollo Contable de los Pósitos en España, Siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Gómez Díaz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo estriba en la caracterización como organización empresarial de uno de los instrumentos financieros más importantes en España desde el siglo XVI: los Pósitos. Éstas instituciones locales funcionaron como Bancos de préstamo en simiente durante más de cuatro siglos. La identificación de las diferentes prácticas contables en dichas instituciones nos llevan a analizar el rol de la legislación contable, tanto por la influencia en su supervivencia como por su posterior declive y final desaparición. The aim of this paper is to characterize one o/ the most important financial institutions in the Spanish economy since XVI century. These were the Positos. These local institution functions as banks that gave their loans in seeds. The identification o/ the different accounting practices affords us an opportunity to analyse the role o/ the accounting regulation during its existence, later decline and final disappearance.

  19. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón Moderno : el abasto de pescado en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el comercio de pescado durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica de la ciudad y del municipio permitieron crear durante el siglo xvi condiciones favorables para asegurar a los habitantes de Zaragoza un suministro suficiente a un precio asequible. Sin embargo, el declive económico y el creciente endeudamiento municipal forzarán durante el siglo xvii a aumentar los impuestos sobre las transacciones y reducir la protección al consumidor.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the first trade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the city and council allowed to create during the sixteenth century favourable conditions in order to get a sufficient supply and a reasonable price for the population. However, economic decline and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to an increase of market taxation and a reduction of consumers' protection.

  20. Choquequirao en el siglo XVI: etnohistoria e implicaciones arqueológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Choquequirao au XVIe siècle : ethnohistoire et implications archéologiques Résumé: À travers l’étude de divers documents d’archives, ce travail reconstitue l’histoire coloniale du site archéologique de Choquequirao. Ce site, qui faisait tout d’abord partie d’une encomienda octroyée à Hernando Pizarro, devient partie intégrale de la réduction de Cachora, à la fin du XVIe siècle, avec les anciens villages de Sayhuite et Urco. Cet article démontre aussi que durant plus de 80 ans, les Espagnols ont concédé aux mêmes familles les charges de cacique de ces villages. Ces nouvelles données concernant l’histoire de Choquequirao amènent à se poser de nouvelles questions dans le domaine de l’archéologie. Este trabajo, a través del análisis de varias fuentes manuscritas, reconstituye la historia colonial del sitio arqueológico de Choquequirao. En primera instancia encomienda de Hernando Pizarro, este sitio fue reducido a fines del siglo XVI en el pueblo de Cachora, junto con los pueblos de Sayhuite y Urco. Este artículo demuestra también que los españoles concedieron el cargo de cacique de estos pueblos a las mismas familias durante más de 80 años. Estos nuevos conocimientos sobre la historia de Choquequirao llevan a plantear nuevas preguntas a la arqueología Choquequirao in the 16th century: ethnohistory and archaeological implications Abstract: Through the study of various archive documents, this work reconstructs the colonial history of the archaeological site of Choquequirao. This site, which first formed part of a Hernando Pizarro’s holding, was reduced together with the old villages of Sayhuite and Urcp to the locality of Cachora at the end of the 16th century. This article also shows that during more than 80 years, the Spaniards conceded the office of cacique of these villages to the same families. These new data concerning the history of Choquequirao bring to raise new questions for archaeology.

  1. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  2. 20 CFR 404.535 - How much will we withhold from your title VIII and title XVI benefits to recover a title II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How much will we withhold from your title... Officer § 404.535 How much will we withhold from your title VIII and title XVI benefits to recover a title II overpayment? (a) If past-due benefits are payable to you, we will withhold the lesser of the...

  3. La recepción de los libros de caballerías en elsiglo XVI: a propósito de los lectores en el Quijote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Aguilar Perdomo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available éxito tuvo entre el público oyente y lector durante el siglo XVI.Se conservan numerosos testimonios, tanto literarios como documentales,que indican que su lectura era habitual en distintas clasesde la sociedad española de la época. El Quijote ofrece a lo

  4. Algunos dibujos de la primera arquitectura de Nueva España: mapas, planos y proyectos de arquitectura del siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Olmedo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Moya Olmedo, P. (2014). Algunos dibujos de la primera arquitectura de Nueva España: mapas, planos y proyectos de arquitectura del siglo XVI. P+C: proyecto y ciudad: revista de temas de arquitectura (5), 75-88. ISSN 2172-9220 (ISOC; LATINDEX; DIALNET; RESH; DICE; MIAR)

  5. El valle de Jayanca y el reino de los Mochica, siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available On peut dire que la Sierra et la Côte Nord restent inconnues pour la culture péruvienne. Les chroniqueurs et historiens des XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles ont délaissé cette région, attirés par les monuments et les richesses fabuleuses du Cuzco. Cependant, s'il y a absence quasi totale de chroniques sur les Tallán, Mochica et Chimus, il est certain qu'il existe d'autres moyens pour connaître leurs cultures matérielles et spirituelles, tels que les 'visites' et autres documents. C'est ainsi que l'on arrive à découvrir aujourd'hui les peuples protohistoriques et historiques qui ont vécu dans ce qui est actuellement le département de Lambayeque, la province de Pacasmayo et la vallée du Chicama, siège du royaume inconnu des Mochica qui se développa entre les XIIIe et XVIIe siècles sous une forme très différente de la culture archéologique et préhistorique de Moche. On démontre ici que rattacher à la 'Culture Mochica' les créatures des superbes vases-portraits est aussi faux que de rattacher à la 'Culture Aymara' les fondateurs de Chavin. En effet, les Mochica formèrent une société protohistorique et historique dont l'origine remonte au début du XIIIe siècle et qui a persisté jusqu'au milieu du XVIIe siècle. C'est ainsi que nous publions pour la première fois la 'visite' à Jayanca en 1540, écrite par Sébastian de la Gama. La sierra y costa norte, etnohistóricamente se puede decir que es casi tierra incógnita en la cultura peruana. Los cronistas e historiadores de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII prácticamente las marginaron atraídos por las grandezas monumentales y riquezas fabulosas del Cuzco. Sin embargo, si bien hay ausencia casi total de crónicas sobre los Tallán, Mochica y Chimor, lo cierto es que existen otros instrumentos que permiten adentrarnos en sus culturas materiales y espirituales, como por ejemplo las visitas y otros documentos. Justo, gracias a ellos podemos descubrir hoy que los pueblos protohist

  6. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  7. XVI. Yüzyıl Türkiyesi’nde Ahi Adlı Zaviyelerin Dağılışı The Distrubution Of Akhi Lodges in XVI. Century Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker YİĞİT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Akhism, is an organization which has political, social andeconomic aspects, has been encountered the traces since XIII. Centuryin Turkey. Akhism has quite different perspectives (in terms of itsorigin, its socio-economic and social impacts, etc. and has subjected toseveral studies. Akhism may be perceived as an artisan organization,however; it is an important organization that has undertaken crucialactive roles in such as the execution of Turkization of Anatolia, openingsettlements from the desolate places and establishment of newresidential units. Indeed, (Ahi's settlements provide evidence for thissituation in XVI. century,especially by giving their names toneighbourhoods in urban areas; and to the villages, hamlets, farmsand uplands in rural areas. Akhi lodges are the venues in which theAkhi maintain their effectiveness in rural and urban areas. The Akhidervish lodges, the social organization (association created by thetradesmen and artisans together in order to provide mystical solidaritybetween the members of that culture, are the establishment which givedirections to social and economic life in the erea. The Akhi dervishlodges are one of the cultural centers in terms of both offering a widetraining services where there is no madrasa instiutution and alsohosting shelters where people come from outsides of villages or cities.The Akhi lodges provide the formation of inhabited by having animportant role in the establishment and development of the settlementsin cities and rural areas. Therefore, this study includes Akhism lodges,which have conducted their effectiveness in both urban and rural areas,and covers the distribution of XVI. century Turkey Akhism lodges.Akhi lodges, which can be encountered in almost every part of Anatolia,are deeply affecting institutions with their activities and events, haveundertaken active roles in that period of social, political and economiclife of Anatolia since Turkization of Anatolia. It is quite crucial in

  8. La industria textil y su regulación en el siglo XVI: caso particular de Toledo = The textile industry and its regulation in the XVI century: Toledo, a particular case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángela Jiménez Montañés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl sector al que correspondió el mayor protagonismo dentro de la industria europea moderna fue, sin lugar a dudas, el textil. Ello no representaba, en realidad, novedad alguna, pues la industria medieval se desarrolló precisamente en función primordialmente de la fabricación de tejidos. El vestido, al tiempo que una necesidad inmediata, resulta expresión visual de distinción social, aún más que la decoración de la vivienda. Por ello la industria textil creció a expensas tanto de la necesidad como del lujo. Uno de los grandes cambios que se producen en este tipo de industria durante todo el siglo XV y se consolida en el XVI se centra en las relaciones de producción, en la utilización de mano de obra campesina y la consolidación del ciclo de producción artesano rural. La mano de obra rural comienza a trabajar por su cuenta o en dependencia del empresario-productor de la ciudad. Si bien, la profunda transformación de la industria textil tendrá lugar en el siglo XVIII, con la revolución industrial.La transformación de la industria textil del siglo XVI propició la expansión de una nueva figura en el ámbito mercantil, que se denomina mercader-empresario, y por tanto, del sistema doméstico de producción conocido como Verlagssystem. Este nuevo sistema implicará modificaciones de factores claves para el desarrollo de las futuras sociedades mercantiles como pueden ser: el capital, la utilización de la materia prima y su proceso de transformación, la formación de los costes de producción y comercialización, la obtención de beneficios y su distribución, la concentración del capital y la generación de rentes. En definitiva, la creación de una nueva clase social, la burguesía. Este trabajo se centra en la industria sedera de la ciudad de Toledo en el siglo XVI.AbstractThe textile sector, was the greater protagonist, without doubt, within the modern European industry. It did not represent, in fact, newness some

  9. El arte del bordado en Navarra en los siglos XVI y XVII: Andrés de Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andueza Pérez, Alicia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given its classification as a decorative art, and its perception as mere artisanal work, scarce attention has been given to embroidery. Nevertheless, fortunately, in recent years there has been a resurgence of studies on this theme. This article, following these new trends, attempts to clarify certain aspects of this activity in the Navarre region during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Dada su condición de arte decorativa, y su consideración como una labor meramente artesanal, la atención que se le ha prestado al bordado es escasa. Por suerte, en los últimos años estamos asistiendo a un resurgir de los estudios sobre el tema. Este artículo, siguiendo estas nuevas tendencias, pretende esclarecer algunos aspectos sobre esta actividad en la Navarra de los siglos XVI y XVII.

  10. El clero y el delito de proposiciones en Zacatecas: los errores manifestados en los sermones, siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Quiñones Flores

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El delito de proposiciones consistía en las expresiones que refl ejaban puntos contrarios con la doctrina de la Iglesia católica. Por ello, pertenecía a la jurisdicción del Santo Ofi cio, que recibió denuncias incluso contra el clero por cometer esta transgresión, sobre todo durante los sermones, por lo que se cree que causaban confusión entre los oyentes. Pero ¿realmente provocaban escándalo entre la población o solo entre los eclesiásticos?, ¿acaso se trataba de errores de entendimiento por la poca instrucción de los predicadores?, o ¿se usaba el púlpito para expresar los confl ictos de la Iglesia? A estas preguntas se les dará respuesta en este texto, que se ubica en Zacatecas en los siglos XVI y XVII.

  11. Las dehesas maestrales de La Serena (siglos XV-XVI: cartografía de un paisaje social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Quijada, Luis Vicente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a cartography of the mastership dehesas of the military order of Alcantara in La Serena (Badajoz in the 15th and 18th centuries is presented. It has been carried out through the study of historical toponymy from several 16th and 18th-century documents and their contrast with modern cartography (MTN25 and MTN50. Together with a methodology for the development of landscape analysis based on the use of GIS, we submit an estimation of the whole dehesas surface (108,511.87 ha and their sheep stocking rate average (0.28 UGM for the analyzed period. The results retrieved question the livestock orientation of these spaces as a consequence of soil deficiencies. Instead of this, the article concludes that dehesas landscape is related to the jurisdictional model developed in the Estates of the Military Order of Alcantara during the Middle Ages.Presentamos en este artículo una cartografía del espacio ocupado por las dehesas maestrales de la Orden de Alcántara en La Serena (Badajoz durante los siglos XV-XVIII. La misma ha sido elaborada a partir del vaciado de la toponimia histórica procedente de diversas fuentes de los siglos XVI y XVIII y su posterior contraste con las series cartográficas actuales (MTN25 y MTN50. Junto a una metodología para el desarrollo de estudios del paisaje basada en el uso de SIG, ofrecemos una estimación de la superficie total de las dehesas (108.511,87 ha y del promedio de sus densidades ganaderas (0,28 UGM/ha durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI. Los resultados obtenidos permiten cuestionar la orientación ganadera de estas dehesas como consecuencia directa de la pobreza de los suelos. En su lugar proponemos que el adehesamiento guarda relación con el modelo jurisdiccional desarrollado en el maestrazgo de Alcántara durante la Edad Media. [fr] Cet article présente une cartographie de l’espace occupé par les dehesas du maître de l’Ordre d’Alcantara dans La Serena (Badajoz pendant les XV3 et XVIII

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Roldan, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-01-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcaniz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yanez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2 SnO 4 ), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia

  13. El «cursus honorum» de los letrados aragoneses en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna JARQUE MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La monarquía de los Austrias, como es de sobra conocido, topó con enormes dificultades en el gobierno de los estados de la Corona de Aragón. Los fueros y libertades de los distintos territorios impedían un ejercicio efectivo de la autoridad real y ello fue particularmente acusado en los casos del principado catalán y del reino aragonés. Por lo que a Aragón se refiere, el esquema de la modernidad podría resumirse del modo siguiente: frente a un siglo XVI en que el reino puso todo tipo de trabas al ejercicio de la autoridad real, en la centuria del seiscientos la monarquía había vencido cualquier resistencia y podía gobernar con la aquiescencia de la clase dirigente aragonesa.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  15. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  16. La remuneración y el control del servicio cultual en la Iglesia de Toledo (S. XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Villaluenga de Gracia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es examinar el sistema de remuneración del clero en la catedral de Toledo en el siglo XVI. Su cabildo mantenía un sistema basado en las enseñanzas bíblicas y la normativa conciliar. Existía así una relación directa entre la remuneración de los sacerdotes y su misión de culto. Esto permitió establecer un salario justo en función a la presencia de los beneficiados a los oficios divinos y a las horas canónicas. Además, el cabildo garantizaba la correcta ejecución de este sistema retributivo a través de importantes mecanismos de control, apuntando de forma rigurosa las ausencias o irregularidades en el culto, que eran penalizadas a cuenta de su asignación y repartidas entre los beneficiarios cumplidores.The purpose of this articte is to explore the system of remuneration to priest on the cathedral of Toledo in the XVI century. Its chapter kept a system based on the biblical preaching and the canons of the ecclesiastical councils. There was thus a plug between the remuneration of the priest and their mission of cult to God. The belief system was a key factor to set an exact salary that was based on the presence of prebendaries at the divine offices and the canonical hours. Furthermore, the chapter kept an effective control system to report about the absences or irregular behaviour in the cult that were penalized. Then, on based to this information, it was set the salary. The fines were distributed to the prebenderies that fulfilled their obligations.

  17. KEABSAHAN ALAT BUKTI ELEKTRONIK PASCA PUTUSAN MAHKAMAH KONSTITUSI NO.20/PUU-XVI/2016 DALAM PRESPEKTIF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    erma lisnawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a state of law that upholds of human rights. In the state of law, there is a human rights protection by the state including the privacy of rights. It is referred judicial review of Act No. 11 of 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions, of Article 5 Paragraph (2. To protect the privacy of recording and wiretapping conducted illegally. The Constitutional Court has been issued a ruling of the Constitutional Court No.20/PUU-XVI/2016 which imposes limits on how electronic evidence retrieval and also who is allowed to submit as an evidence in court. The court ruling was appropriate given the absence of norms regulating the procedures for the acquisition and delivery of electronic evidence. In a special lex such as criminal acts Corruption, Money Laundering and Terrorism Crime and Crime and Electronic Information only governs the kinds of electronic evidence alone, as well as the Code of Criminal Law. Indonesia adalah Negara hukum yang menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia. dalam Negara hukum, ada perlindungan hak asasi manusia oleh Negara, termasuk hak pribadi. Undang-undang Nomor 11 tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektrokni, Pasal 5 Ayat (2 telah diajukan judisial review pada Mahkamah Konstitusi. Mahkamah Konstitusi telah mengeluarkan putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 20/PUU-XVI/2016, yang memberikan batasan tentang cara pengambilan alat bukti elektronik yang diperkenankan untuk diajukan dalam proses persidangan. Hal ini, sudah tepat mengingat tidak adanya norma yang mengatur tentang cara perolehan alat bukti elektronik dan siapa yang berhak mengajukan alat bukti elektronik tersebut ke pengadilan. Dalam beberapa undang-undang khusus pedoman tentang alat bukti elektronik hanya mengatur mengenai tindak pidana khusus saja seperti pada Tindak Pidana Korupsi, Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Tindak Pidana Terorisme dan Tindak Pidana Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik.

  18. Una nueva pieza de artilleria de galeras del siglo XVI: el esmeril bastardo «matacapitanes»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fondevila Silva, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at the analysis of an unknown piece of maritime artillery dated at the second half of the XVIth century. This piece, out of any inventory record, was located within one of the Archive-Museum chambers in the Don Álvaro Bazán Palace at El Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real province, central Spain. The specimen is a bastard esmeril here so-called «matacapitanes» («killer of captains» because it seems precisely designed to be used against the bullet-proof armour of enemy officers. By means of manuscripts and impressed documents, an approach and discussion on the typology and classification of the XVIth century´s maritime artillery is also presented.

    Trabajo de investigación que presenta y analiza una pieza desconocida de artillería naval de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, localizada sin inventariar en una de las salas del Archivo-Museo «Don Álvaro de Bazán» del Palacio de El Viso del Marqués en Ciudad Real (España. Se trata de un esmeril bastardo que hemos bautizado como «matacapitanes », por ser un modelo diseñado para optimizar su empleo contra los oficiales enemigos protegidos con armaduras a prueba de balas de arcabuz. Además, se realiza una aproximación al estudio de la tipología y clasificación de la artillería naval del siglo XVI a través de los documentos, tanto manuscritos como impresos, de esa época.

  19. The provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kovalchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of the article is ‘The provincial administration of the Ottoman empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname’. The purpose of the article is to characterize the structure of the provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the sultans’ kanunname. The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire has been studied in the article: the largest ottoman provinces - eyalets were divided into two types: timarli, in which the system of sanjaks, ottoman law, timar system were established; and salyaneli, where timar system was absent, all taxes were gathered and distributed to local needs; the second administrative-military territorial units were sanjaks, the subdivisions of sanjak were kazas and kadiluks, then – nahiyes. Moreover, outside this system there were various types of vassal and tributary states. The governance of such large territory, control over the execution of orders, establishment of relations between different groups of multi-ethnic population of the empire, which lived mostly not in the metropolitan area, but in the provinces, needed the constant functioning of local authorities. The main task of the provincial administration was to organize and to strengthen the communications between the province and the center. Special attention has been given to the description of the place and role, rights and duties of beylerbey, sanjakbey, qadi (judge, defterdar and other local managers at the system of the Ottoman provincial administration. In conclusion it is necessary to point out that the system of local authorities was formed by representatives of the military-administrative (sipahi-timarli, sanjakbey, beylerbey, the Grand Vizier, judicial (qadis (judges, kazaskers, sheikh-ul-Islam and financial (defterdars branches of the Ottoman government. Legal prohibitions and mutual cooperation supported sustainable balance between these executive power branches.

  20. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón moderno : el abasto de carne en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el mercado de carne durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica del reino de Aragón, la ciudad y municipio de Zaragoza durante el siglo XVI permitieron aumentar el control público sobre las transacciones de carne para asegurar a la población un suministro suficiente, así como sustentar la demanda local. Sin embargo, el declive económico del reino de Aragón y el creciente endeudamiento municipal durante el siglo XVII obligaron a reducir la presencia pública en el mercado y la defensa de la demanda local en el mercado de carne. El reajuste de la política municipal promovió la paulatina integración del mercado aragonés, proceso que continuó en el siglo XVIII para afianzarse durante la crisis final del Antiguo Régimen.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the meat market during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the kingdom of Aragón, Zaragoza city and council during the sixteenth century allowed to increase public control of meat transactions in order to supply efficiently the population, as well as to support local demand. However, economic decline of the kingdom and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to reduce public intervention and support of local demand on the meat market. Readjustment of municipal politics gradually promoted the integration of the market in Aragón. This process continued during the eighteenth century and became firmly established during the final crisis of the "Ancien Régime".

  1. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  2. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  3. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  4. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  5. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  6. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  7. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  9. Riforme economiche e lotte politiche nel Giappone medievale. Il governo delle attività economiche durante le guerre civili del XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Gresti Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    XVI century Japan ended a long period of transition: finally a new and stable institutional framework emerged under the Tokugawa "shogun". For a very long time the Imperial court, confined in Kyoto, had played an almost symbolic rule, while the power was in the hands of military governments (bakufu). However bakufu were increasingly unable to control local developments and in the provinces a new class of powerful landlords ("daimyo") was gaining autonomy in military, judicial, administrative ...

  10. El vigía de la costa: funcionario olvidado de la historia de Yucatán, siglos XVI al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Victoria Ojeda

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an official who worked on the beaches of Yucatan, whose presence in regional history goes from colonial to independent times (XVI century-1867. Its role had not been studied in Hispanic America. In this research we give you to know the legal and illegal affairs that the watchtower (vigía performed in his job and waht that employment had implied.

  11. Évora, Algumas Etapas Fundamentais na Evolução da Cidade até ao Século XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Simplício, Maria

    2006-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende sistematizar as etapas fundamentais da evolução urbana da cidade de Évora desde a sua fundação, em época pré-romana, até ao século XVI, durante o qual a cidade alcançou a sua época de maior riqueza e importância política, económica, cultural e artística.

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  13. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  14. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  15. PRODUCEREA ŞI COMERCIALIZAREA BĂUTURILOR ALCOOLICE ÎN ORAŞELE DIN RZECZPOSPOLITA ŞI ŢARA MOLDOVEI (SEC.XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DUDNICENCO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul vizează producerea, comercializarea şi consumul băuturilor alcoolice în oraşele din Rzeczpospolita (a berii, a votcii, a miedului şi din Ţara Moldovei (a vinului, a rachiului, a berii, a brăgii în sec. XVI-XVII. Se investighează mo­dul de producere, comercializare, precum şi taxele care se percepeau pentru băuturile alcoolice în oraşele din teri­toriul dat. Producerea băuturilor alcoolice aducea venituri mari economiei oraşelor din spaţiul indicat supra.PRODUCTION AND COMMERCIALISATION OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN RZECZPOSPOLITA AND MOLDOVA PRINCIPALITY CITIES (XVI-XVII C.The article targeting the production, marketing and consumption of alcoholic drinks in the cities from Rzeczpospolita (beer, vodka, mead and from Moldova (wine, spirits, beer, braga in the XVI-XVII c. It have been investigated the mode of production, sell and taxes at which were subjected the alcoholic drinks in the cities on that territory. Production of alcoholic drinks brought substantial revenues to the economy of the cities from the indicated area.

  16. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    resulted in crop damage and famine. From the XIV century the little Ice Age began. Year average temperature becomes lower by 1.4°C and summer temperature - by 2-3°C. In the XIV century the chronicles mentioned a total of 100 extreme natural phenomena, as a result of which Russia experienced more than 37 years of famine. The climate was particularly variable in late XIV - early XV century and XVI - XVII centuries, when there were years of particularly cold winters and increased humidity (due to winter precipitation). The duration of the crop growing season was reduced by three weeks. At the beginning of the XVII century spruce became dominant in the spruce-deciduous forests and co-dominant in deciduous forests. There was a transfer of settlements and agricultural land to interfluve areas and higher river valleys. The determining factors were demographic, socio-economic and historical factors, but the role of natural factors cannot be overlooked. The end of the XVI century was marked by the most severe political and economic crisis in the Russian State (oprichnina (political and administrative apparatus established by Ivan IV) and Livonian Wars by Ivan IV), which, combined with deteriorating environmental conditions (increased humidity of the climate, the average annual temperature drop) caused massive desolation of the lands. Many hundreds of villages turned into wasteland. In this period the Moscow land was reported as a "wild desert, covered with shrubs, bogs and imbanks", there were also memories of the past navigation on small rivers, data on mills on the streams. The climate deterioration caused the agrarian revolution in Russia in XIV-XVI centuries. Slash-and-burn and shifting cultivation was replaced by plow farming system (two- and three-field), which was more adapted to the harsh climatic conditions. The work is performed under project № 17-05-00662of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research

  17. Rutas de circulación e intercambio de sal en la provincia de Tunja, segunda mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ofelia Acuña Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A través de este texto se pretende dar a conocer cómo las rutas de circulación de sal en la Provincia de Tunja contribuyeron a configurar un gran espacio económico, que integró a las provincias de Santa Fe, Pamplona y Tunja en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, durante el siglo XVI. Se partió de una reflexión historiográfica relacionada con la circulación y el comercio de la sal, los medios de transporte y las rutas usadas por los indígenas y los españoles; a partir de las cuales se consolidó un espacio económico mediado por la producción y distribución de la sal, que convirtió a la provincia de Tunja en un eje articulador de relaciones entre los sitios productores de sal en la provincia de Santa Fe y los consumidores de las provincias de Tunja y Pamplona. Esta articulación regional facilitó tanto la circulación de productos de distintos pisos térmicos, como la integración de un amplio territorio colonial. Esto debido a que la localización de Tunja como lugar de paso y conexión entre las Provincias de Santafé, Pamplona y los Llanos de San Juan, hizo de esta ciudad y sus términos un atractivo para el asentamiento hispano, a la vez que generó, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, la posibilidad para que se organizaran en toda la Provincia de Tunja, sitios de aposento, venta y reventa de productos importados de España y productos de la tierra, para el sustento y abastecimiento de las necesidades básicas, y de esta forma sacar provecho de las producciones locales como la sal, el hayo, el algodón, las mantas y otros productos.

  18. Hidalgos del Ribeiro de Avia: la casa de Candendo en San Miguel de Lebosende (Leiro, siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Palmeiro, Iago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the first results of our investigations concerning the Gonzalez Candendo family, native to San Miguel de Lebosende, council of Leiro. Its history goes back to the late sixteenth century and ends in the early eighteenth, with its union to a secondary branch of Quiroga Garza family. To this end, we will base our analysis on two main points: the genealogy and heritage, essential mainstays to understand the origin and socio-economic development of its members. Our aim is to provide a small contribution to the understanding of this social group in the rural area of Ourense and, by extension, in the inland Galicia.El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer los primeros resultados de nuestras investigaciones al respecto de la familia González Candendo, oriunda de San Miguel de Lebosende, ayuntamiento de Leiro. Su historia se remonta hasta finales del siglo XVI y concluye en los inicios del XVIII, con su unión a una rama secundaria de los Garza Quiroga de Tor. A tal efecto, basaremos nuestro análisis en dos puntos principales: la genealogía y el patrimonio, pilares fundamentales para comprender el origen y la evolución socio-económica de sus miembros. Con ello pretendemos brindar una pequeña contribución al conocimiento de este grupo social en el área rural orensana y, por extensión, en la Galicia interior. [gl] O propósito deste artigo é dar a coñecer os primeiros resultados das nosas investigacións respecto da familia González Candendo, oriúnda de San Miguel de Lebosende, concello de Leiro. A súa historia remóntase até finais do século XVI e conclúe nos inicios do XVIII, coa súa unión a unha rama secundaria dos Garza Quiroga de Tor. Con tal obxecto, basearemos a nosa análise en dous puntos principais: a xenealoxía e o patrimonio, alicerces fundamentais para comprender a orixe e a evolución socioeconómica dos seus membros. Con iso pretendemos brindar unha pequena contribuci

  19. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  20. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  1. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  2. La revocación de disposiciones testamentarias en codicilos valencianos de los siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Piqueras Juan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en este artículo la investigación realizada sobre un tipo concreto de documentos de aplicación práctica del derecho relacionados con las sucesiones mortis causa, los codicilos. Sobre la base de un grupo de 30 codicilos valencianos de los siglos XV y primeros años del XVI, se sistematiza la orientación de las diversas modificaciones que estos documentos introdujeron sobre testamentos anteriores, de forma que es accesible la valoración de las cuestiones que resultaron de mayor interés para los testadores, apareciendo resultados que sugieren la idea de predominio de una mentalidad práctica por encima de las cuestiones directamente relacionadas con el mundo espiritual.Our research focuses on a particular type of document, the codicil, which involves a practical legal application of inheritance upon death. We use a group of thirty Valencian codicils of the fifteenth and earl ysixteenth centuries in order to categorize the manifold modifications that these documents introduced in previous wills. The result is a more accessible assessment of the issues that were of most interest to the testers, which leads one to suggest the idea of a practical mind-set prevailing over issues directly related to the spiritual realm.

  3. La Biblioteca Universitaria de Salamanca en el siglo XVI: entre tradición y renovación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de la MANO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con el Humanismo surgió una nueva idea del saber que dio lugar también a una nueva concepción de las bibliotecas. A lo largo del siglo XVI esta concepción se concretará en nuevas clasificaciones del saber, en tratados sobre la historia, funciones y organización de las bibliotecas, en nuevas soluciones arquitectónicas y de instalaciones. Presentamos el ejemplo de la biblioteca de la Universidad de Salamanca, que a mediados de la centuria emprendió el camino hacia la modernización. Sin embargo, los avatares que jalonaron su trayectoria, desde su construcción física e intelectual hasta su funcionamiento interno, pasando por los procesos de recolocación y ordenamiento de los libros, le impidieron alcanzarla en plenitud.ABSTRACT: Humanism brought a new idea about knowledge that made appear a new library concept. Along sixteenth century this concept will origin new knowledge classifications, treatise about library history, functions and organization, new architectural and installations solutions We present Salamanca University Library case which, around the middle of the century, began the way to its modernization. However, the difficulties that it found on this way, from its physical and conceptual building, to its internal functioning, through books placing and classification process, hindered it to get completely its new image.

  4. Scientific approach to the specific liturgical features in the pontificate of Pope Benedict XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł dotyczy pontyfikatu papieża Benedykta XVI i jego wkładu w dziedzinie liturgii. Zwraca uwagę na różne fakty rozwijające się w duchu autentyczności i wierności względem liturgii rzymskokatolickiej, na możliwości liturgicznej formy rytów, na nowe motu proprio i na użycie języka łacińskiego w liturgii zachodniej. Artykuł pragnie dać obraz pontyfikatu obecnego papieża w relacji do duszpasterskiej posługi w parafiach. Chce ukazać, że liturgia w jej różnorodności nie jest nigdy krokiem wstecz, ale przejawem autentyczności i wierności względem orędzia Chrystusa.

  5. Moscow Autocracy of XVI - XVII Centuries: Eastern ‘’Despotism’’ or an Early Modern European Monarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij A. Zajcev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems related to the peculiarities of the Russian state political and legal development during the early New Time (XVI-XVII centuries in a comparative-historical aspect against the background of similar processes taking place in neighboring European states. The authors come to the conclusion that, despite certain, dictated by objective reasons (first of all, the conditions for the emergence and subsequent development, there are more common features than the differences between the processes of the political and legal sphere development in Russia and Western Europe. The fact that this community escaped from the view of researchers is related, in the authors' opinion, to the fact that foreign observers, describing the political system of an early Russian state, dealt only with an outer shell, while its internal contents remained if not a secret, then, in any case, a mystery for them. They were not admitted to the Russian political cuisine, and therefore the details of Russian political and legal institution functioning remained unavailable to them.

  6. Defensa a la antigua y a la moderna en el Reino de Valencia durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arciniega García

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aporta documentación inédita sobre diversas obras de defensa llevadas a cabo en el Reino de Valencia durante el siglo XVI. Las noticias, interesantes por si solas, quedan insertas en un panorama amplio que permite entender la diversidad de sistemas defensivos como un medio de adaptación a las necesidades y los medios, rechazando el prejuicio que interpreta la pervivencia de la tradición exclusivamente como un rasgo arcaico. Además se incide en la labor de ingenieros, militares y cargos de la administración en las realizaciones defensivas.This article provides us with unpublished documentation about several defensive works carried out during the Kingdom of Valencia, in the XVIth Century. The information, interesting by itself, is inserted in a wide outlook that allows to understand the diversity of defensive systems as a way of adapting to necessities and resources and rejects the prejudice that interprets the survival of tradition only as an archaic feature. Futhermore, in the defensive works, the labour of engineers, soldiers and responsables of Administration is being emphasized.

  7. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/ epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMÓN GROSFOGUEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente americano, contra los africanosraptados y esclavizados en el continente americano y contra las mujeres quemadas vivas bajo acusaciones de brujería en Europa. El artículo plantea que el argumento de Dussel de que la condición de posibilidad del «yo pienso, luego existo» (ego cogito cartesiano de mediados del siglo XVII son los 150 años de «yo conquisto, luego existo» (ego conquiro está mediada históricamente por el genocidio/epistemicidio del «yo extermino, luego existo» (ego extermino. El «yo extermino» como mediación socio-histórica estructual entre el «yo pienso» y el «yo conquisto».

  8. El adulterio y la violencia femenina en algunos pliegos sueltos poéticos del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Pérez, María

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the depiction of adultery and female violence in poetic chapbooks of the 16th century. By going over several cases we will show that adulterous women perform all kinds of atrocities and killings to enjoy her lover freely. Occasionally she will murder her husband, but also anyone who comes between their relationship. The image we get, then, is that of a lustful, cruel and dangerous woman, according to the mentality of the time.El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el tratamiento del adulterio y la violencia femenina en pliegos sueltos poéticos del siglo XVI. Mediante un recorrido por varios casos veremos cómo la mujer adúltera comete todo tipo de atrocidades y asesinatos para gozar libremente de su amante. En ocasiones asesinará al marido, pero también a todos aquellos que se interpongan en su relación. Se nos presenta así la imagen de una mujer libidinosa, cruel y peligrosa, de acuerdo con la concepción y la mentalidad de la época.

  9. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  10. THE XVI. CENTURY POET SHERÎFÎ’S WORK CALLED SHEVÂHİDÜ’SH-SHÜHEDÂ / XVI. ASIR SAİRLERİNDEN EĞİRDİRLİ SERÎFÎ’NİN SEVÂHİDÜ’S-SÜHEDÂ’SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sadık YAZAR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which XVI. century poet Sherîfî’swork called Shevâhidü’sh-shühedâ, that can be a newexample of the maktel (elegy genre, was presented; firstlyI gave brief information about Serîfî and his works. I alsolooked at the maktel (elegy genre’s development and itsexamples in the classical Turkish literature –formbegining to end of the XVI. century- briefly. In the last part of the artcile I compared Sherîfî’s Shevâhidü’shshühedâwith the Fuzûlî’s –the famous XVI. centuryTurkish poet- Hadîqatü’s-sü’edâ and after this compare itwas understood that Sherîfî has benefited from Fuzûlî’swork at the degree of plagiarism. After all these, it wasunderstood that Sherîfî’s Shevâhidü’sh-shühedâ has nomuch value of the originalty.

  11. Eventos El Niño y lluvias anormales en la Costa del Perú: siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ÉVÉNEMENTS EL NIÑO ET PLUIES ANORMALES SUR LA COTE DU PEROU, XVI - XIX SIECLES. L’établissement d’une chronologie des manifestations du phénomène “El Niño” au cours des siècles derniers revêt une grande importance pour les chercheurs qui étudient ce type d’altération presque périodique du climat du globe terrestre. C’est pour cela qu’ont été rassemblés ici les principaux textes historiques qui mentionnent des pluies anormales et les inondations de la côte nord du Pérou entre 1532 et 1891. Un tableau synoptique résume les dates disponibles sur les pluies et les inondations de la côte nord du Pérou et comprend une critique des sources historiques ainsi qu’un essai de classification des anomalies climatiques. L’analyse des sources présentées ici conduit les auteurs à mettre en doute la reconstitution de l’avènement, ou de l’intensité, de certains évènements El Niño telles qu’elles ont été proposées par certains auteurs (Quinn et al., 1987. El establecimiento de una cronología de las ocurrencias del fenómeno El Niño en los últimos siglos tiene mucha trascendencia para los investigadores que estudian este tipo de alteración casi periódica del clima del globo terráqueo. Para tal fin, se junta aquí los principales textos históricos que mencionan lluvias anormales y anomalías meteorológicas ocurridas en el Perú entre 1532 y 1891. Un cuadro sinóptico resume los datos disponibles sobre las lluvias e inundaciones de la costa norte del Perú, e incluye una crítica de las fuentes históricas así como un intento de clasificación de las anomalías climáticas. El análisis de estas fuentes aquí presentadas lleva los autores a poner en duda la reconstitución de la ocurrencia y de la intensidad de algunos eventos El Niño tal como fueron propuestas por autores anteriores (Quinn et al., 1987. EL NIÑO PHENOMENA AND UNUSUAL PRECIPITATIONS IN COASTAL PERU, XVI-XIXTH CENTURIES. The establishment of a

  12. Painters in the Splendor of Tunja: Naming Unrecognized Artists to Bring them out of Anonymity (XVI and XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Liliana Vargas Murcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tunja has stood out as one of the riches cities of New Kingdom of Granada, regarding the presence of painting in the last decades of the XVI century and the first half of the XVIIth. Its painters were of importance not only in this city but in the rest of the Province as well, with the churches and museums of Boyacá containing images that were essential elements in the indoctrination of indigenous communities. Civil mural works of art in Tunja have been an object of study mostly for their interpretation, and less regarding the identities of their makers. As far as easel painting, Angelino Medoro eclipsed the names of other artists who contributed to making Tunja one the the most representative cities of the Mannerism and Renaissance of Hispanic America. This article presents the names of some of the active painters of this period, their lives and production, seeking the recognition of these characters, whose names have been brought out of anonymity in the latest years. The starting point for the information search was the research of Magdalena Corradine Mora on the inhabitants of Tunja in the first decades of the XVII century, and the search for information in the Boyacá Regional Historical Archive. In calling attention upon these artists, we hope that, in the future, the identification of their works may be initiated as well as the research, conservation and dissemination of these works, due to the fact that this heritage is not always in ideal conditions, nor is it perceived and valued as is deserved.

  13. Background of standardization and regulation of training and use of pharmaceutical regular resource potential in XI–XVI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ponomarenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of creation the system of training and retraining, determining the specific role and significance of the pharmaceutical manpower from the XVI century to the present day, the discussions about their state-public organizing and permanent improvements scheme, including the system of pharmaceutical postgraduate education in accordance with the requirements of the European Union (EU are held. The purpose of the work lies in the fact that noopharmaceutical modern (non-pharmaceutical opinion and assessment of historical events, traditions, their survival, national ethical mindset in the pharmaceutical business are extrapolated for the future reform of the sector in line with EU requirements. And on the stage of review of the conceptual characteristics of primary, medium and distant prospects, the positive experience is taken into account, rejecting the already proven negative position in reforming the pharmaceutical sector in the health sector according to European modern requirements. Materials and methods. Historical literary and official sources, archival materials have been used. Modern Pharmacy memories of veterans “Figures in pharmacy” have been used. Results. Personnel policy contributes to fight against corruption and mafia in pharmacy. This way legal and regulatory policy will accelerate the destruction of pharmaceutical, pseudo productive and alcohol-drug mafia. Regulatory policy in the pharmaceutical sector will normalize events, which will provide state control quality of drugs - implementation of EU rules, attractiveness and interest of foreign manufacturers to the pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine [20-30], including the preparation of qualified pharmacists (bachelors, masters, other professionals of pharmacy and industrial pharmacy. Conclusions. The main stages of development of the property (material and human resources to provide medical treatment and patients have been detected. The basic steps of transformation

  14. Pioneirismo bibliográfico em um polímeta do séc. XVI: Conrad Gesner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Freitas Araújo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Bibliografia é uma disciplina constituída por interfaces teóricas e práticas que, desde sua origem, têm fundamentado o tratamento documental. Possui uma longa história, cuja eminência está nas contribuições do cientista, erudito e bibliógrafo suíço, Conrad Gesner (1516-1565, e na sua obra Bibliotheca Universalis.Objetivo: 1 identificar as interfaces da Bibliografia, em particular a bibliotecária e material; 2 recuperar elementos constitutivos da cultura bibliográfica; 3 delinear o perfil biobibliográfico de Conrad Gesner; 4 identificar, de forma sumária, aspectos bibliográficos de Bibliotheca Universalis, do ponto de vista descritivo e semântico e 5 discutir seu sentido como dispositivo de mediação e memória bibliográfica.Metodologia: Revisão de literatura a partir da perspectiva histórica.Resultados: Gesner é um dos mais notáveis cientistas do período moderno, além de ser considerado o “pai da Bibliografia” e fundador da disciplina bibliográfica. Com Bibliotheca Universalis, delineou as práticas bibliográficas da Europa Moderna.Conclusões: Bibliotheca Universalis é mais do que um produto cultural e documentário: arrola aspectos da cultura manuscrita e impressa e traz implicitamente uma profunda reflexão descritiva e semântica sobre os documentos e os saberes. Tais aspectos não só contribuem à configuração histórica e conceitual da Bibliografia enquanto disciplina, mas, sobretudo, evidenciam o pioneirismo bibliográfico do polímeta do Séc. XVI.

  15. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón moderno : el abasto de trigo en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el comercio de cereal durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica del reino de Aragón, la ciudad y municipio de Zaragoza durante el siglo XVI permitieron aumentar el control público sobre el mercado de cereal para asegurar a la población un suministro suficiente, así como sustentar la demanda local. Sin embargo, el declive económico del reino de Aragón y el creciente endeudamiento municipal durante el siglo XVII obligaron a reducir la intervención y defensa pública de la demanda local en el mercado de cereal. El reajuste de la política municipal promovió la paulatina integración del mercado aragonés, proceso que continuó en el siglo XVIII para afianzarse durante la crisis final del Antiguo Régimen.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the cereal trade during tfie sixteenthi and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the kingdom of Aragón, Zaragoza city and council during the sixteenth century allowed to increase public control of cereal transactions in order to supply efficiently the population, as well as to support local demand. However, economic decline of the kingdom and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to reduce public intervention and support of local demand on the cereal market. Readjustment of municipal politics gradually prometed the integration of the market in Aragón. This process continued during the eighteenth century and became firmly established during the final crisis of the «Ancien Régime».

  16. Especulaciones lingüísticas sobre el hebreo en la España del siglo XVI y principios del XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Siller, Francisco Javier

    2003-01-01

    Las especulaciones en torno a la lengua hebrea durante el siglo XVI y principios del XVII en España arrojan luz sobre algunos temas principales de la reflexión lingüística de la época: el origen del lenguaje y la identidad de la lengua primitiva, el carácter motivado o arbitrario de las lenguas, el parentesco entre las lenguas primitivas y actuales, y el problema de la lengua más antigua de España. Se han tratado estos temas, dividiendo la tesis en dos partes: la primera analiza las discusion...

  17. Bilis humano como ofrenda al Rey: Las costumbres de Champa a finales del siglo XVI según los documentos españoles y chinos

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chung Lee, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    El reino de Champa, llamado Linyi en lengua china antigua, prosperó por su ubicación dentro de las rutas de comercio de China y el sureste de Asia. Con el crecimiento de Vietnam durante el siglo XV su poder disminuyó y la gente se retiró al norte del Río Mekong para resistir los ataques de las fuerzas de Cochinchina. Como resultado, es poco lo que puede encontrarse sobre la historia de Champa en obras referidas al sureste de Asia a partir del siglo XVI. Sin embargo, el reino de Champa mant...

  18. La desamortización en la institución parroquial. La Parroquia de San Sebastian, Villa de Agüimes. Siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Castro Pérez

    2016-12-01

    Evidenciándose una interconexión entre la Iglesia y el Estado y consecuentemente un acercamiento entre la Contabilidad Privada y la Contabilidad Pública. Con el propósito de analizar el efecto de estas medidas, tomadas por el Estado para desmantelar la economía eclesiástica, estudiamos los registros contables (Cuentas de fábrica pertenecientes a la parroquia de San Sebastián en la Villa de Agüimes, en la isla de Gran Canaria, durante los siglos XVI-XIX.

  19. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochu, F M; Burnet, N G; Jena, R; Plaistow, R; Thomas, S J; Parker, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk. (paper)

  20. Pinturas, espacios y realidades complejas: un breve acercamiento a tres versiones indígenas del territorio novohispano de finales del siglo XVI y principios del XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Amparan, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Durante el Virreinato, las sociedades indígenas vivieron un reordenamiento territorial que las alejó de sus antiguos asentamientos para ser congregadas en “pueblos de indios”, de acuerdo con los patrones de asentamiento impuestos por los conquistadores. La nueva organización generó conflictos por la tierra y por el espacio que quedaron plasmados en las pinturas de finales del siglo XVI y principios del XVII, elaboradas por un tlacuiloque. En ellas podemos apreciar la manera en que los indios ...

  1. Los orígenes y desarrollo de la pesca española en Terranova y Groenlandia (siglos XVI-XVII)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Rubín-y-Feigl, J. (Juan)

    2007-01-01

    Se describen los altibajos en las pesquerías de Terranova y las incursiones en aguas de Groenlandia-Noruega y Brasil (1625), en un cambiante y conflictivo escenario internacional. La lucha por el dominio del mar llevó a períodos de violentas agresiones en los caladeros del Atlántico Norte, influyendo en el libre acceso de los pescadores españoles durante los siglos XVI y XVII. En las costas españolas, tanto en las de la metrópoli como en las ultramarinas, se sucedieron largos períodos de esca...

  2. La dote matrimonial a finales del siglo xvi: el caso de la provincia de pamplona en el nuevo reino de granada (1574-1630)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Jorge Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Una de las prácticas más llamativas en el estudio del sistema de matrimonios de la sociedad colonial neogranadina durante los siglos XVI y XVII es la costumbre, arraigada sobre todo en las clases altas, de entregar las novias a sus maridos acompañadas de una serie de bienes. Esta costumbre, conocida como la "Dote", no era un legado exclusivamente español, ya que se dio en regiones como la China, la India y la Europa mediterránea desde tiempos muy remotos hasta bien entrada la época moderna. I...

  3. Religião e política: o pensamento antimaquiavelista espanhol dos séculos XVI E XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Estevão dos Reis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a relação entre religião e política no pensamento antimaquiavelista espanhol de fins do século XVI e primeira metade do século XVII. Frente à razão de Estado defendida por Nicolau Maquiavel, que qualificam como errônea e falsa, os escritores políticos espanhóis propõem o que chamam de verdadeira razão de Estado, baseada em princípios cristãos.

  4. Producción local, abastecimiento urbano y regulación municipal : el marco legal del vino en Bilbao (S. XIV-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rivera Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo pretendemos analizar la política intervencionista del Ayuntamiento de Bilbao, entre los siglos XIV y XVI, sobre el cultivo, producción y comercialización de vinos, tanto locales como foráneos, en un momento de transición: el paso de la Baja Edad Media al comienzo de la Modernidad. Intentaremos, igualmente, demostrar cómo el Ayuntamiento, máxima expresión del poder local, regula los distintos ámbitos de la viticultura, con el fin de proteger la producción local frente a la competencia de los vinos foráneos, con el propósito de lograr el abastecimiento de la Villa.The present article analyzes the interventionist politics of the City council of Bilbao, among the XIV and XVI centuries, on the cultivation, production and commercialization of wines, so much local as foreign, in a transition moment: the pass from the Late Middle Ages to the beginning of the Modern period. We will attempt, equally, to demonstrate how the City council, maximum expression of the local power, regulates the different environments of the viticulture, with the purpose of protecting the local production in front of the competition of the foreign wines, with the purpose of achieving the supply of the Villa.

  5. Wavelengths, classifications, and ionization energies in the isoelectronic sequences from Yb II and Yb III through Bi XV and Bi XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral observations are reported for transitions to the ground term and first excited term of the one-electron configurations in the 4f/sup 14/5p 6 nl isoelectronic sequence from Yb II through Bi XV. Resonance lines are reported for the isoelectronic sequence Yb III through Bi XVI in which the ground state is 4f/sup 14/5p 6 1 S 0 and the upper levels are the J = 1 levels of the 4f/sup 13/5p 6 nd, 4f/sup 14/5p 5 nd, and 4f/sup 14/5p 5 ns configurations. The wavelengths fall in the range 70--3700 A. The spectra were produced by means of sliding and triggered spark discharges and photographed with 10.7 m normal and grazing incidence spectrographs. The data in the Yb III sequence demonstrate the crossing of binding energies of the 4f and 5p shells at W VII. Rydberg series terms were found in a sufficient number of cases to provide extrapolation curves through Bi XV and Bi XVI. These data enabled us to calculate ionization energies for each of these ions with an uncertainty of approx.1% or better

  6. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Kudryavtsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XVI century Moscow state, defeating Kazan (1552 and Astrakhan (1556 khanate, came to the Caspian sea to the North Caucasus, where he encountered opposition from two very strong opponents: Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Ottoman Empire, which included Northern Caspian and the Caucasus in the number of its geopolitical interests, sought power and diplomatic means to subdue the mountain and nomadic population, their power and actively opposed their rapprochement with Russia. One of the main performers and conductors of Turkish policy in the region were dependent vassal of Turkey, the Crimean khanate. The peoples of the North Caucasus, first of all Nogai, the Kabardians and the representatives of several other Circassian tribes, seen in Moscow state protection from the expansive aspirations of the Crimea and Turkey and actively supported the Russian fortification construction and anticrime military operations of the Russian North Caucasus. Military and diplomatic successes of the Russian state in the North Caucasus and the Caspian sea in the second half of the XVI century contributed to the development of international Eastern trade along the Volga-Caspian route and the strengthening of the authority of Moscow in the region and in the international arena.

  7. Comparative dose evaluations between XVI and OBI cone beam CT systems using Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of energy (kVp) and filters (no filter, half Bowtie, and full Bowtie) on the dose response curves of the Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in CBCT dose fields. To measure surface and internal doses received during x-ray volume imager (XVI) (Version R4.5) and on board imager (OBI) (Version 1.5) CBCT imaging protocols using these two types of dosimeters. Methods: Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLD dose response curves were generated at different kV imaging settings used by XVI (software version R4.5) and OBI (software version 1.5) CBCT systems. The settings for the XVI system were: 100 kVp/F0 (no filter), 120 kVp/F0, and 120 kVp/F1 (Bowtie filter), and for the OBI system were: 100 kVp/full fan, 125 kVp/full fan, and 125 kVp/half fan. XRQA2 film was calibrated in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 11 cGy and scanned using reflection scanning mode with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. NanoDot OSLDs were calibrated on phantom to surface dose levels between 0 and 14 cGy and read using the inLight TM MicroStar reader. Both dosimeters were used to measure in field surface and internal doses in a male Alderson Rando Phantom. Results: Dose response curves of XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs at different XVI and OBI CBCT settings were reported. For XVI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in head region during fast head and neck scan and 4.99 cGy in the chest region during symmetry scan. On the other hand, the internal dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 3.17 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.05 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 2.41 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. For OBI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.19 cGy in head region during head scan and 4.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot

  8. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  9. A propósito de Imprenta y lecturas en la Baeza del siglo XVI. (Salamanca, Semyr, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Moreno, Juan Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing in Baeza, as technological point and its bibliographic production (1550-1599, catalogued, described and interpreted by Pedro M. Cátedra establish an outstanding point of view over the spiritual and intellectual context determined by the Counter-reformation. In this special laboratory of XVIth century spiritual life it become to a complementary analysis of pedagogical institutions (the University of Baeza, of course, and the world of printing, in its local specifically, and its national and international connection and position through the reflection about the catalogue and the material circumstances of biacense printing. The differences and affinities of the spiritual programmes and lecture represented by Juan de Ávila are outlined, also the evolution of printing in Baeza, and the conformation of a new poetic of spiritual references to a diverse and changing variety of public and the tension that new texts hold out between demand and spiritual control, orthodoxy and heterodoxy, opening and closure.La imprenta en Baeza, como enclave tecnológico, y su producción bibliográfica (1550-1599, catalogada, descrita e interpretada por Pedro M. Cátedra, constituye un observatorio privilegiado, aunque angular, en el contexto espiritual e intelectual condicionado por la Contrarreforma. En ese especial laboratorio de la espiritualidad del siglo XVI se llega a un análisis complementario de las instituciones pedagógicas (la Universidad biacense, por supuesto, y el mundo del libro y el de la imprenta, en su especificidad local, pero sobre todo en su conexión y posición nacional e internacional, a través de la reflexión sobre el catálogo y los condicionantes materiales de la imprenta biacense. Se subrayan las diferencias y afinidades de los programas espirituales y de lectura representados por Juan de Ávila y la evolución de la imprenta en Baeza, así como la conformación de una nueva poética del texto espiritual impulsada por la

  10. Chile como un “Flandes indiano” en las crónicas de los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Baraibar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La idea de un nuevo Flandes o de un segundo Flandes o simplemente de otro Flandes apareció en diferentes momentos en el territorio de la Monarquía Hispánica referida a Aragón, Cataluña o Messina. El recuerdo de la guerra pervivió en el imaginario colectivo español más allá del final del conflicto, cuando Flandes era ya un aliado de la Corona española frente a Francia. Cuando en el desarrollo de la conquista de las Indias Occidentales Chile se convierte en el gran problema militar con motivo de la resistencia de los indígenas de la Araucanía, la idea de un segundo Flandes aparecerá también en tierras americanas. Este trabajo pretende mostrar el proceso y los contextos en que Flandes se hizo presente en el discurso que se elaboró sobre el Reino de Chile en las crónicas de los siglos XVI y XVII, hasta que Diego de Rosales acuñara el término “Flandes indiano”. The idea of a new Flanders or of a second or simply of another one appeared in different moments in the territory of Hispanic Monarchy referred to Aragón, Catalonia or Messina. The memory of this war survived in the Spanish collective imaginary even long after the end of the conflict, when Flanders was an ally of the Spanish Crown against France. When Chile becomes the great military problem due to native resistance to conquest, the idea of a second Flanders will turn up in America. This article tries to show the process and contexts in which Flanders becomes visible in the discourse elaborated around the kingdom of Chile in the chronicles of 16th and 17th Centuries, until Diego de Rosales, the first writer to use the term “Indian Flanders”.

  11. José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI, Visor Libros, Madrid, 2014, 236 pp. ISBN: 9788498951547.

  12. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  13. SU-E-J-50: An Evaluation of the Stability of Image Quality Parameters of the Elekta XVI and IView Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D; Papanikolaou, N; Gutierrez, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quality assurance of the image quality for image guided localization systems is crucial to ensure accurate visualization and localization of target volumes. In this study, the long term stability of selected image parameters was assessed and evaluated for CBCT mode, planar radiographic kV mode and MV mode. Methods and Materials: The CATPHAN, QckV-1 and QC-3 phantoms were used to evaluate the image quality parameters. The planar radiographic images were analyzed in PIPSpro™ with spatial resolution (f30, f40, f50) being recorded. For XVI CBCT, Head and Neck Small20 (S20) and Pelvis Medium20 (M20) standard acquisition modes were evaluated for Uniformity, Noise, Spatial Resolution and HU constancy. Dose and kVp for the XVI were recorded using the Unfors RaySafe Xi system with the R/F Low Detector for the kV planar radiographic mode. Results A total of 20 and 10 measurements were acquired for the planar radiographic and CBCT systems respectively over a two month period. Values were normalized to the mean and the standard deviations (STD) were recorded. For the planar radiographic spatial resolution, the STD for f30, f40, f50 were 0.004, 0.002, 0.002 and 0.005, 0.007, 0.008 for the kV and MV, respectively. The average recorded dose for kV was 38.7±2.7 μGy. The STD of the evaluated metrics for the S20 acquisition were: 0.444(f30), 0.067(f40), 0.062(f50), 0.018(Water/poly-HU constancy), 0.028(uniformity) and 0.106(noise). The standard deviations for the M20 acquisition were: 0.108(f30), 0.073(f40), 0.091(f50), 0.008(Water/poly-HU constancy), 0.005(uniformity) and 0.005(noise). Using these, tolerances can be reported as a warning and action threshold of 1σ and 2σ. Conclusion A study was performed to assess the stability of the basic image quality parameters recommended by TG-142 for the Elekta XVI and iView imaging systems. Consistent imaging and dosimetric properties over the evaluated time frame were noted. This work was funded in part by the Cancer

  14. Herpetological Notes XIV - XVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1937-01-01

    At the request of Dr K. P. Schmidt, Chicago, I recently examined the types of Psammophis antillensis Schl. This species as originally described was a composite, and it is, therefore, necessary to select a lectotype to restrict the name antillensis to one of the species involved. The difficulty is

  15. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  17. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  18. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  19. Frontera, ciudad y plaza pública americana del siglo XVI: escritura, violencia y statu quo deseado en cronistas españoles de la conquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Félix Bolaños

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El dominio colonial sobre el Nuevo Mundo se inició a través de prácticas ampliamente ceremoniales -poniendo cruces, estandartes, banderas y escudos de armas- marchando en procesiones, recogiendo tierra, midiendo las estrellas, trazando mapas, expresando algunas palabras especiales, o permaneciendo en silencio. Aunque la fuerza militar aseguró efectivamente su poder sobre el Nuevo Mundo, los europeos de los siglos XVI y XVII también creyeron en su derecho a dominar. Y se crearon esos derechos para sí mismos por medio de la exposición simbólica de palabras y gestos significativos, unas veces antes, otras después o simultáneamente con la conquista militar.

  20. Relations city - village in Trasmiera and Eastern zone of Cantabria: lineages, kinfolk and clienteles under the dominion of the Constables (XIV-XVI centuries

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    Víctor Osvaldo Pereyra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the dynamic that acquired the relationships of aristocratic power in the lordship of the House of Velasco, hereditary Constables of the kingdom of Castile, based on the form taken by the intricate network of agents and service administrators manor located on level of the villages and towns that are part of the eastern Cantabria between the XIV and XVI, establishing for it the diverse mechanisms of solidarity, dependence and submission using for the Lord to exercise jurisdiction and control power through this set of plural communities and men. We intend to study the process of building the manor to a dynamic image that will provide depth and dimension and at the same time to understand the constitution of political domination, not only as an imposition from the top down, but also as a rearticulation and continuous negotiations involving both the Lord family and customers and the communities that are nested within their power

  1. Uposażenie i działalność gospodarcza klasztoru kanoników regularnych w Trzemesznie do początku XVI wieku

    OpenAIRE

    Dorszewski, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Zasadniczym celem niniejszej dysertacji było przedstawienie rozwoju uposażenia i działalności gospodarczej w dobrach klasztoru kanoników regularnych w Trzemesznie od czasów fundacji do początku XVI wieku. Na pierwszym planie ukazano majątek ziemski oraz źródła dochodów, które stanowiły materialną podstawę i służyły zabezpieczeniu długiej żywotności każdej placówki klasztornej w średniowieczu. Przedstawienie rozwoju uposażenia doprowadziło do ustalenia jego faz rozwojowych (określenie uposażen...

  2. Essays on Zarathustra and Zoroastrianism. Translated and Edited by Prods Oktor Skjaervøm, Costa Mesa, Mazda Publishers Inc., 2000, XVI-131 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Rédaction,

    2010-01-01

    Après l’avant-propos de l’éditeur s’expliquant sur sa traduction (XI-XII) et la préface de l’auteur situant chacune des parties du livre (XIII-XVI), on trouvera les documents suivants, réunis dans l’ouvrage : Pp. 1-24 : « Characters of Ancient Mazdaism » (1987), 1ère édition dans History and Anthropology, 3 (1987), pp. 239-262. Pp. 25-30 : « Achaemenid Religion : Preliminary Questions ». Traduction de « Questions préalables », in : Jean Kellens, éd., La religion iranienne à l’époque achéménid...

  3. Characterization of hidden defects of an original XVI century painting on wood by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry survey on a wooden painting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, a non-contact and nondestructive optical diagnostic technique, was employed for evaluating the conservation state of a XVI century painting on wood. The whole structure alterations, induced by the laboratory temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Long-term analysis, by sequential recording and subsequent off-line processing of the fringes progression, was carried out. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which could not be recognized by traditional art-restorer survey methods, were also easily revealed. In such a case, a simple measurement approach was utilized, with the aim to get a user-friendly method for art conservators. The results demonstrate that the interferometry method can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  4. La dote matrimonial a finales del siglo XVI: el caso de la provincia de Pamplona en el Nuevo Reino de Granada (1574-1630

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Gamboa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las prácticas más llamativas en el estudio del sistema de matrimonios de la sociedad colonial neogranadina durante los siglos XVI y XVII es la costumbre, arraigada sobre todo en las clases altas, de entregar las novias a sus maridos acompañadas de una serie de bienes. Esta costumbre, conocida como la "Dote", no era un legado exclusivamente español, ya que se dio en regiones como la China, la India y la Europa mediterránea desde tiempos muy remotos hasta bien entrada la época moderna. Incluso en algunas comunidades campesinas de estos países se sigue practicando hasta el día de hoy esta costumbre, cuya forma ha cambiado poco a través de los siglos.

  5. Paisaje forestal y representación social en Castilla (siglos XIV-XVI. Los montes de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco REYES TÉLLEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es tratar de analizar la representación social del paisaje forestal perteneciente al señorío del monasterio de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos, durante los siglos XIV-XVI, a partir de las descripciones que se realizan del mismo en la documentación judicial relacionada con pleitos, pesquisas, etc. por el uso y aprovechamiento de los bosques y montes, para procurar conocer cuál era la construcción simbólica de esos paisajes de los distintos agentes sociales, e intentar valorar si esa forma de aproximarnos al territorio nos puede aportar nuevos enfoques o posibilidades de interpretación en el estudio de esa realidad.

  6. El color como parte de la estrategia de persuasión política: El caso de los XVI Juegos Panamericanos, Guadalajara 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Valdez-Zepeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo los autores analizan el uso del color en las estrategias de persuasión política que utilizan los partidos y los candidatos durante los procesos electorales. También se describe la utilización que los principales partidos políticos de México hacen de los colores para lograr un posicionamiento y una diferenciación política. Específicamente, se indaga sobre el uso del color en los XVI Juegos Panamericanos celebrados en Guadalajara en octubre del 2011. Por ejemplo, se señala que el azul fue el color preponderante en la decoración de las instalaciones deportivas, los hoteles de la ciudad, los automóviles oficiales y en la publicidad del evento, lo que formaba parte de una estrategia ante las próximas elecciones federales del 2012.

  7. Pesca y trabajo en el reino de Toledo. La cuenca alta y media del Tajo en los siglos XII al XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Quiñones, Julián

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work treats about the professions related with the fishing in the Kingdom of Toledo, in the high and middle course of river Tagus, from XII-XVIth centuries. Along these pages we have seen many different kind of people, public servants, great merchants, workers of the fisheries, involved in the fishing, trading and delivering of fish in this time. So with this article, we break with the idea which identified the fishing only with fishing men and boats showing how the medieval society was interested in every economic activity which produced profits.



    Este trabajo trata acerca de las profesiones relacionadas con la pesca en el Reino de Toledo, en la cuenca alta y media del río Tajo, de los siglos XII al XVI. A lo largo de estas páginas hemos visto muchos tipos diferentes de personas, oficiales públicos, grandes mercaderes, trabajadores de las pesquerías, envueltos en la captura, comercio y distribución del pescado. Con este artículo, queremos romper con la idea que identifica la pesca sólo con los pescadores y los barcos, mostrando como la sociedad medieval se interesaba en cualquier actividad económica que produjese beneficios.

  8. Evaluating the accuracy of the XVI dual registration tool compared with manual soft tissue matching to localise tumour volumes for post-prostatectomy patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Amelia; Brown, Elizabeth; Pryor, David; Lehman, Margot; Owen, Rebecca; Bernard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computerised tomography (CBCT) enables soft tissue visualisation to optimise matching in the post-prostatectomy setting, but is associated with inter-observer variability. This study assessed the accuracy and consistency of automated soft tissue localisation using XVI's dual registration tool (DRT). Sixty CBCT images from ten post-prostatectomy patients were matched using: (i) the DRT and (ii) manual soft tissue registration by six radiation therapists (RTs). Shifts in the three Cartesian planes were recorded. The accuracy of the match was determined by comparing shifts to matches performed by two genitourinary radiation oncologists (ROs). A Bland–Altman method was used to assess the 95% levels of agreement (LoA). A clinical threshold of 3 mm was used to define equivalence between methods of matching. The 95% LoA between DRT-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −2.21 to +3.18 mm, −0.77 to +0.84 mm, and −1.52 to +4.12 mm, respectively. The 95% LoA between RTs-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −1.89 to +1.86 mm, −0.71 to +0.62 mm and −2.8 to +3.43 mm, respectively. Five DRT CBCT matches (8.33%) were outside the 3-mm threshold, all in the setting of bladder underfilling or rectal gas. The mean time for manual matching was 82 versus 65 s for DRT. XVI's DRT is comparable with RTs manually matching soft tissue on CBCT. The DRT can minimise RT inter-observer variability; however, involuntary bladder and rectal filling can influence the tools accuracy, highlighting the need for RT evaluation of the DRT match.

  9. O Papa precisa do marxismo? Bento XVI e a incompatibilidade entre a fé cristã e a fé marxista (Does Pope need of Marxism? Benedict XVI and the incompatibility between the Christian faith and the Marxist faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Albino Assunção

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O marxismo aparece insistentemente na teologia e no magistério de Joseph Ratzinger-Bento XVI como um inimigo permanente ao qual o cristianismo deve se contrapor, sem possibilidades de conciliação entre ambos. Mas qual concepção subjaz essa rejeição tão peremptória, tão decidida? Para alcançarmos a resposta a tal questão, aprofundamos a visão de Joseph Ratzinger a partir de alguns de seus escritos teológicos (anteriores ao pontificado e, em seguida, nas suas três encíclicas, o ponto alto de seu magistério papal (Deus caritas est, Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate. Defendemos que a crítica de Bento XVI, antes de ser exclusivamente teológica (ou doutrinária, é filosófica, baseada na racionalidade e não na fé professada pela Igreja, que lhe permite tratar o marxismo não simplesmente como um programa político que vai contra alguns valores cristãos, mas como uma escatologia judaico-cristã secularizada, um messianismo político, portanto, como uma religião, como uma fé, que nega e esvazia o núcleo essencial da fé cristã. E aqui está a raiz da sua oposição. Palavras-chave: Marxismo. Bento XVI. Messianismo. Escatologia política.   Abstract: Marxism appears repeatedly in Pope Benedict’s theology and teaching as a permanent enemy that Christianity must oppose without any possibilities of conciliation between them. However, what underlies this decisive rejection? To answer this question we look further into Joseph Ratzinger’s perspective starting with some of his theological writings (before the pontificate followed by three of his encyclicals, the high point of his papal teaching (Deus caritas est, Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate. We argue that Benedict XVI's criticism, prior to being purely theological (or doctrinal, is philosophical, based on rationality and not in the faith professed by the Church, allowing him to treat marxism not simply as a political program that goes against some Christian values

  10. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  11. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  12. Robert Muchembled. El Orgasmo y Occidente. Una Historia del Placer desde el Siglo XVI a nuestros días. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2008, 425 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Crucelly González Rey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El orgasmo, la voluptuosidad, el disfrute, solían ser un tema tabú en occidente. Robert Muchembled presenta esta historia social, producto de su estancia académica en el Institute for Advanced Study de Princenton, en un extenso argumento que abarca desde el Renacimiento en los siglos XVI y XVII hasta nuestros días en lo que el autor ha denominado “el triunfo del narcisismo”.

  13. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  14. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  15. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Studies of the analytical chemistry on filter paper. XVI. Paper chromatography of radioactive substance. Radiochemical studies on ''Bikini ashes''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S

    1956-01-01

    Radioactivity from ''Bikini ashes'' and /sup 235/U fission is divided into 3 major groups by ion-exchange methods and then subdivided by paper chromatography. In the first group, TeO/sub 4/--, SO/sub 4/--, PO/sub 4//sup 3/-, and I-, as well as two /sup 106/Ru spots, are resolved in filter paper by iso-AmOH. /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce from the second and /sup 90/Y and /sup 90/Sr from the third group are separated also. It is shown that the presence of carrier or foreign elements alters the chromatographic behavior of the tracers.

  17. Poder y ordenamiento espacial en la Costa Caribe colombiana: Patrones de asentamiento en el Partido de Cartagena (Tierradentro- Provincia de Cartagena de Indias, siglos XVI - XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Díaz Pardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura histórica colombiana y caribeña se ha dado un fuerte acento en el papel que jugaron las ciudades y las regiones que emergieron de ellas en ola formación la moderna cultura caribeña. En la arqueología el énfasis se ha limitado a analizar procesos prehispánicos adaptativos a condiciones cambiantes del medio ambiente dejando de manera tacita fuera de foco la discusión de las consecuencias sociales y culturales de la conquista y la colonia y su impacto en el tejido social que surgiría a finales del siglo XVI. Estas delimitaciones disciplinarias se han convertido en un obstáculo para el conocimiento e interpretación de las dinámicas que siguieron al impulso inicial de la colonización del litoral caribeño y la bien conocida fundación de los centros militares y administrativos. Consecuentemente los historiadores han ignorado en gran parte el papel de las poblaciones aborígenes en la formación de los asentamientos al interior de la llanura costera a pesar que es un hecho bien conocido que no desaparecieron completamente después del siglo XVI. A pesar de que han existido intentos de sintetizar y complementar la información histórica con datos arqueológicos especialmente en los últimos diez años no hemos asistido a un evaluación del campo que consideramos de la mayor importancia para entender la estrategias a traves de las cuales las comunidades aborígenes y algo mas tarde las comunidades de composición mixta africano-indígena y mestizas establecieron exitosamente una serie de asentamientos fuera del sistema colonial reinante. El análisis de los patrones de asentamiento se ha restringido a estudios arqueológicos pero su potencial se extiende mucho mas alla de esta disciplina. La colonia en el siglo XVIII registra un gran número de asentamientos en las planicies caribeñas para los cuales tenemos muy poca información precedente, se hace necesario entonces entender el sistema de asentamientos que exitosamente

  18. La ciudad palatina de la Alhambra y las obras realizadas en el siglo XVI a la luz de sus libros de cuentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Casares López

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, parte de mi tesis doctoral, aporta un singular estudio de la Alhambra elaborado desde la información obtenida de los libros de cuentas de las obras reales de este Real Sitio. Con el presente trabajo comprobaremos que este tipo de fuentes contienen valiosos datos para la Historia en general pero ante todo para la Historia Económica. En el caso concreto que abordamos, nos han servido para conocer cómo, cuando y donde se realizaron reparos, remodelaciones y nuevas construcciones en la Alhambra del siglo XVI, tema de vital importancia para la Historia del Arte de este monumento. Las obras reales de la Alhambra fueron iniciadas en la etapa de los Reyes Católicos, al día siguiente de la entrada en el recinto, cuando comprobaron el deterioro de esta bella ciudadela y fortaleza. Con el mismo ahínco y respeto fueron seguidas por su nieto Carlos V, quien sumó, al antiguo conjunto palaciego, la construcción del palacio imperial y su entorno urbanístico renacentistas. Finalmente, las obras fueron continuadas por Felipe II y sus sucesores los Austrias. Gracias al esfuerzo económico realizado por ellos, sobre todo durante el siglo XVI, hoy podemos contemplar la Alhambra. Ratifican lo dicho los Cargos y Datas de los libros de cuentas de Ceprián y Gaspar, fedatarios del volumen de las inversiones y de los considerables gastos realizados por la Real Hacienda castellana en las obras de la Alhambra1. Es valiosísima la aportación de los citados libros al respecto ya que recogen, detalladamente, los ingresos recibidos de cada una de esas consignaciones y su procedencia. Del mismo modo las datas nos proporcionan la cuantificación del gasto de las obras, pormenorizado por conceptos, en qué lugar del recinto se realizaron, qué materiales utilizaron y quiénes fueron sus proveedores –incluyendo curiosidades como la dificultad de la lejanía de canteras e incluso las particulares situaciones laborales de alguno de sus

  19. Diseño y construcción de las bóvedas por cruceros en España durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to present the historical guidelines, design and construction of the grid crossing vaults built in Spain during the 16th century to show how the Gothic tradition of building ribbed vaults could be adapted to classical aesthetic principles. In the Andalusia of the 16th century, both a Renaissance classical architecture and another extraordinarily evolved Gothic one reached, at the same time, their full development, taking place between them interesting knowledge, stylistic and technical transfers. In this respect, the grid crossing vaults are a remarkable example of the formal autonomy of Gothic ribs which, without losing their medieval construction principles, are capable of adapting themselves to Renaissance models. We will see how in the grid crossing vaults, the Gothic crossings adapted themselves to the shape of a classical grid structure, drawing on the surface of the vault a design of caissons according to the stricter Roman Canon.El objetivo de este texto es dar a conocer las pautas históricas, de diseño y construcción de las bóvedas por cruceros erigidas en España durante el siglo XVI, como muestra de cómo la tradición gótica de construir bóvedas con nervaduras pudo adaptarse a los principios estéticos clásicos. En la Andalucía del siglo XVI, una arquitectura clásica renacentista y otra gótica extraordinariamente evolucionada alcanzaron, al mismo tiempo, su pleno desarrollo; entre ambas se produjeron interesantes transferencias de conocimiento, estilísticas y técnicas. En este sentido, las bóvedas por cruceros constituyen un notable ejemplo de autonomía formal de la nervadura gótica que, sin perder sus principios constructivos medievales, es capaz de adaptarse a modelos renacentistas. Veremos como en las bóvedas por cruceros, las crucerías góticas se adaptan a la forma de una trama reticular clásica, dibujando sobre la superficie de la bóveda un diseño de casetones conforme al canon

  20. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  1. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  2. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  3. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  4. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  5. Il fenomeno abachistico a supporto dei cambiamenti socio-economici: Arezzo tra il XIII ed il XVI secolo = The role of the abacus tradition for the economic and social development of the society: evidence from Tuscany (Italy between XIII and XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Maraghini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo indaga sobre los orígenes de la contabilidad con el objetivo de analizar el comportamiento económico. En particular, se examinan los primeros lugares específica-mente dispuestos y organizados para la enseñanza del conocimiento contable así como los medios de estudio para su transmisión: las escuelas y los libros de ábaco. Ampliamente extendidos en Italia entre los siglos XIII y XVI tenían la finalidad de transmitir, por un lado, el conocimiento generalmente difundido como matemática práctica y, por otro, las técnicas para realizar operaciones aritméticas y las reglas prácticas para la resolución de problemas comerciales y financieros.El objetivo de esta investigación es profundizar en el estudio de las escuelas y de los libros de ábaco evidenciando el papel desempeñado en el origen de la contabilidad y en el desarrollo económico y social en la época medieval y los primeros siglos del Renacimiento.Con este fin, el estudio se basa en algunas evidencias sobre la evolución de los estudios y las escuelas de ábaco en Arezzo (Toscana, Italia entre los siglos XIII y XVI. Combinando evidencias similares con el análisis teórico el estudio revela la contribución de la tradición del ábaco en el mejor desarrollo de la vida pública en época medieval y renacentista. La constatación de esta contribución ha sido la base del creciente interés mostrado hacia la cultura del ábaco por las autoridades locales de la época.This paper focuses on the “origins” of the book-keeping art which aims to record economic behaviour. In particular, this research investigates the early specific “places” arranged and organized to teach the accounting knowledge and the primitive “means” of study with which it could be handed over: the abacus schools and books. They prevalently spread in Italy between XIII and XVI century with the aim of transferring the knowledge generally defined as “practical maths”, such as the

  6. La performance teatral de las máquinas maravillosas. Configuraciones ambivalentes de la técnica y el teatro en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Friedrich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las formas de representación y a la dimensión epistemológica de la máquina en el campo discursivo de los siglos XVI y XVII, cuando todavía no existe una diferencia fundamental entre los discursos científicos, paracientíficos, filosóficos y estéticos. A partir de las investigaciones de Jan Lazardzig, analiza el carácter paradójico de la ingeniería mecánica entre la funcionalidad y la admiración, la racionalidad y lo maravilloso dentro del contexto español en el Siglo de Oro. En este sentido, el artículo examina las formas de performance teatral de la máquina como objeto admirable y maravilloso: por un lado en el teatro de máquinas cortesano y por el otro en los libros de máquinas en la tradición del Theatrum machinarum. Analizamos así los paralelismos y las diferencias respecto a sus estructuras, sus modos de representación y sus dimensiones pragmáticas.

  7. La polémica en la investigación botánica del siglo XVI. Mattioli contra Lusitano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderas, José María

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates in Renaissance played a critical role in developing Botany, Philosophy, Medicine, and Theology. Particularly angry disputes arose from different interpretations of ancient texts, say, Dioscoride's Materia Medica. In one of the most infamous two-sections booklet Mattioli replics «insane discourses et calumnies» by Lusitanus. I deal with the first one, the Apologia. which concerns to false identifications of plants and some errors in Mattioli translation, according to Lusitanus. What was behind the quarrel?

    Las controversias que reaparecen con el movimiento humanista adquieren , desde las postrimerías del siglo XV, especial encono. Por lo que atañe a la botánica. revisten suma importancia las relativas a la interpretación de Dioscórides y Plinio. Nos ocupamos aquí de la disputa mantenida por Mattioli y Lusitano a propósito de la correcta identificación de determinadas plantas. En particular de la Apología del sienes contra supuestas calumnias de Lusitano. La diatriba entera supone una revisión crítica de los fundamentos metodológicos de la botánica del siglo XVI.

  8. El rol de las alianzas entre misioneros e indígenas en la conquista de Apolobamba (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role accomplished by political alliances between catholic orders and indigenous groups during the Spanish conquest of the Apolobamba high forests. This was an alternative way to set missions positions and power spaces in front of the military State advance. Furthermore, this strategy shows that catholic orders did not form a compact block neither with the State nor with more or less irregular troops which entered to Apolobamba from the middle sixteenth century, as they looked indeed at any moment for their own autonomy based on indigenous consensus.

    Este artículo demuestra el rol que cumplieron en la ocupación española de las selvas de Apolobamba las alianzas políticas entre órdenes religiosas y grupos aborígenes, como modo alternativo de fijar posiciones y espacios de poder frente al avance militar oficial. Esta estrategia demuestra a la vez que las órdenes no formaron un bloque compacto con el estado ni con las tropas más o menos irregulares que penetraron Apolobamba desde mediados del siglo XVI, sino que aspiraron en todo momento a su propia autonomía mediante el logro del consenso indígena.

  9. Nimfes al Vinalopó. La poesia renaixentista d’un alacantí oblidat, Josep Gosalbes de Cunedo (s. XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Biosca i Bas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L’obra del poeta alacantí del segle XVI Josep Gosalbes de Cunedo ha passat a l’oblit. Alguns aspectes de la seua vida i obra mereixen atenció, com a mínim, per haver tractat temes propis de la seua terra. Alguns dels seus poemes tracten l’antiga Governació d’Oriola, al sud del regne de València, i celebren la creació del bisbat d’Oriola, motiu pel qual l’autor descriu el territori amb gust renaixentista. La seua amistat amb l’humanista Just Lipsi marca la seua biografia, on guerres i presó també estan presents. The work of the 16th. century poet from Alicante Joseph Gosalbes of Cunedo has been forgotten. Some aspects of his life and work deserve attention, at least because he had written about topics of their own land. Some of his poems deal with the former Region of Orihuela, in the south of Valencia kingdom, and celebrate the creation of the diocese of Orihuela, so the author describes this territory in a Renaissance style. His friendship with the humanist Justus Lipsius mark his biography, where wars and prison are also present.

  10. Nivel de alfabetización en una ciudad castellana del siglo XVI: sectores sociales y grupos étnicos en Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín de TAPIA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estas líneas se redactan con la voluntad de contribuir, desde el análisis local, a un mayor conocimiento de un fenómeno social tan importante y poco conocido como el del nivel cultural del conjunto de la población de las ciudades castellanas del siglo XVI. Hasta ahora en nuestro país las élites son las que han recibido la mayor atención a este respecto y ello por dos motivos; el primero porque quienes más precozmente se interesaron por el asunto fueron los historiadores de la literatura quienes, como es lógico, orientaron sus trabajos hacia los consumidores de la producción impresa, que resultan ser los miembros de las clases acomodadas; el segundo, porque la mayoría de los historiadores ha preferido rastrear el nivel cultural de las sociedades a través de un instrumento tan seguro al efecto como el análisis de los inventarios de bibliotecas, lo que necesariamente conduce a ocuparse fundamentalmente de los privilegiados, ya que hasta no hace mucho tiempo la posesión de libros ha sido monopolio de las élites a causa de su elevado precio.

  11. Introducción al estudio tipológico de las espadas españolas: siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas Beraiz, Germán

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article pretends to reflect on the spanish swords from 16th and 17th centuries. The history of this production has been eclipsed by Toledo fame. The identification of spanish types have been mainly made according its marks, signatures and some typologies, but little is know about another centers. Therefore this article studies the variety and richness of the spanish contemporary productions, not only from Toledo.

    Este artículo pretende reflexionar sobre las espadas españolas de los siglos XVI y XVII. La historia de esta producción ha sido eclipsada por la fama de Toledo. La identificación de los tipos españoles se ha basado en sus marcas, firmas y algunas tipologías, pero se sabe muy poco sobre otros centros productores. Por ello este artículo aborda la variedad y riqueza de las producciones españolas contemporáneas, no sólo de Toledo.

  12. Religión, género y construcción de una sexualidad en los Andes (Siglos XVI y XVII. Una acercamiento provisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armas Asin, Fernando

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the conceptual changes in regard to sex, sexuality and general genre relations in the Andes, in the 16th and 17th centuries, in the context of the establishment of the colonial society. It is analyzed the way in which a new discourse on the body was developed as a consequence of the deeply represive baroque culture. This culture recreated religious values which controlled every aspect of the daily life. It also enforced a rigid legislation which ruled through society as a whole.

    El estudio busca enfatizar los cambios conceptuales que se produjeron en torno al sexo, la sexualidad, y, en términos generales, en las relaciones de género en los Andes en los siglos XVI y XVII, en un contexto de establecimiento de la sociedad colonial. Se analiza cómo se construyó un nuevo discurso sobre el cuerpo en los Andes como consecuencia de la cultura barroca, profundamente represiva. Dicha cultura recreó valores religiosos que controlaban todos los aspectos de la vida diaria, además de poner en marcha una legislación muy rígida que reguló toda la sociedad.

  13. La construcción de un mito : fortuna crítica de Juan de Juanes en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Falomir Faus

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende analizar los inicios de la fortuna crítica de Juan de Juanes en los siglos XVI y XVII. La «leyenda» de Juanes se asentó en su triple condición de gloria local, pintor ejemplar y artista piadoso, y quienes la forjaron, de Escolano a Vicente Vitoria pasando por Pacheco o Jusepe Martínez, no dudaron en potenciar, e incluso distorsionar, aquellas facetas de la personalidad de Juanes afines a sus intereses particulares.This article seeks to analyze the origins of the historiographical treatment of Juan de Juanes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The «myth» of Juanes was posited on three aspects: as exemplary and illustrious citizen, model forpainters, and pious artist. Those who forged this image of the artist, from Escolano to Vicente Vitoria and passing by Pacheco or Jusepe Martínez, did not doubt in emphasizing and even distorting those aspects of his personality and life that affirmed their individual interests.

  14. Las familias indígenas de Santafé, Nuevo Reino de Granada, según los testamentos de los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Turbay Ceballos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de 89 testamentos indígenas de Santafé, capital del Nuevo Reino de Granada, de los siglos XVI y XVII, da cuenta de las transformaciones de la familia muisca en la ciudad colonial. Desapareció la poliginia y el precio de la novia, y se legitimó el matrimonio a través del sacramento católico; se instauró la costumbre de la dote mediterránea y los hijos empezaron a heredar los bienes de su padre. Sin embargo, los testamentos demuestran la persistencia de algunos rasgos matrilineales en los legados que los hombres dejaban a los hijos de sus hermanas y en la sucesión de los cacicazgos. La migración masiva de indígenas a la nueva ciudad promovió el mestizaje y la reconfiguración de las familias indígenas que acogieron en su seno a huérfanos de diferente condición. Algunas mujeres alcanzaron posiciones inéditas y recurrieron a la Real Audiencia para defender los derechos que creían conculcados por sus maridos indígenas o por los padres españoles de sus hijos.

  15. EUROPA Y SU PERCEPCIÓN DEL NUEVO MUNDO A TRAVÉS DE LAS ESPECIES COMESTIBLES Y LOS ESPACIOS AMERICANOS EN EL SIGLO XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAYA SANFUENTES ECHEVERRÍA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El encuentro europeo con las nuevas especies y espacios americanos en el siglo XVI, complejiza ese universo de percepciones de superioridad occidental frente a mundos que se consideraban más exóticos y menos civilizados. Las descripciones europeas de la naturaleza americana, las primeras imágenes de sus productos alimenticios y especies autóctonas pintadas con los colores del paraíso, el exotismo y la belleza, la fertilidad y la abundancia, ayudarán a conformar una imagen positiva del continente americano. A pesar del original desprecio o indiferencia frente a ciertos alimentos indígenas, con el tiempo estas percepciones cambiarán al convertirse muchos de ellos en salvavidas de las hambrunas mundiales e ingredientes fundamentales de las gastronomías nacionalesThe European encounter with the new American space and it species during the sixteenth century, allows us to look at the European percepction of superiority towards exotic worlds in a more complex way. European description of American nature, the first visual images of the local species described with the colors of paradise, exotism and beauty, fertility and abundance, help in constructing a positive image of America. Despite the original disdain or indifference towards the indigenous food, these percepctions will change over time when many of these products become a solution to world wide hunger and important ingredients for national gastronomies

  16. The Dominicans, The Third Order and a social order. Santafé de Bogotá. XVI-XIX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Elvis Plata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their arrival in New Granada, the dominicans promoted the so called “Third Order”, which brought a number of lay organizations such as fraternities, sororities and devouts groups. This article analyzes such organizations as key nodes of colonial society, through a symbiotic relationship with the colonial elite, which continued until the dawn of republican era. This link were favored by institutions such as chaplaincies and pious deeds. It allowed, among other things, the provision of many of the new members of the order and endowed convents of movable and immovable property and capital necessary for its functioning, in exchange for ensuring social order and provide prestige for this life and salvation for the other. This successful model was torn apart with the advent of the Enlightenment and will fall precipitously shortly after Independence.

  17. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  18. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  19. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  20. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  1. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  2. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  3. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  4. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  5. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  6. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  7. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  8. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  9. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  10. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  11. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  12. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  13. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  14. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  15. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  16. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  17. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  18. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  19. Las relaciones de visitas «ad limina» de los obispos de Osma en los siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Millán, David

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Review, analysis and study of the «relationes» or reports presented to the Sacred Congregation Council, by the bishops of Osma, owing to the visits «ad limina » that they carried out in the last years of the sixteenth century and thruoghout the seventeenth century. There are twelve relations in all, which correspond to the bishops, Pedro de Rojas (1595, Friar Enrique Enríquez (1607, Cristóbal de Lobera (1619, Friar Domingo Pimentel (1635, Martin Carrillo y Alderete (1637, Antonio Valdés (1644, 1647, 1649 and Friar Sebastián de Arévalo y Torres (1686, 1690, 1695, 1700. At the end the texts of said relations are offered transcribed in acordance with the documents kept in the Vatican Archives.

    Reseña, análisis y estudio de las 'relationes' o informes presentados a la Sagrada Congregación del Concilio, por los obispos de Osma, con motivo de las visitas «ad limina» que realizaron en los últimos años del siglo XVI y durante todo el siglo XVII Son en total doce relaciones que corresponden a los obispos, D. Pedro de Rojas (1595, Fr. Enrique Enríquez (1607, D. Cristóbal de Lobera (1619, Fr. Domingo Pimentel (1635, D. Martín Carrillo y Alderete (1637, D. Antonio Valdés (1644, 1647, 1649 y Fr. Sebastián de Arévalo y Torres (1686, 1690, 1695, 1700. Al final se ofrecen transcritos los textos de dichas relaciones conforme a los documentos conservados en el Archivo Vaticano.

  20. La capilla de los Neira de Luaces en la iglesia compostelana de Santa María do Camiño (ss. XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Blanco-Rajoy, Rosario

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using epigraphic testimonies and unpublished documents, we can establish that the chapel of the family Neira de Luaces was founded in the first quarter of the 16th Century, being sponsored by Juan Outeiro, ancient alderman of Santiago de Compostela. This chapel is in the church of Santa María do Camiño, a building directly linked with the pilgrimages tradition, situated near of the old door of the French Way. We try to describe the historical evolution of this chapel till today, making a bibliographical review and a historiographical synthesis, where are combined material evidences and textual testimonies. We are also publishing new information about its artistic configuration that acquires a new dimension and a new meaning, being understood in the context of the family pantheon.

    A partir de noticias epigráficas y documentales inéditas se puede establecer la fundación de la capilla de los Neira de Luces en la primera mitad del siglo XVI, bajo el patrocinio de Juan Outeiro regidor de la ciudad de Santiago. La capilla se encuentra en la iglesia compostelana de Santa María do Camiño, muy ligada a la tradición jacobea por estar situada en la entrada de la ciudad, junto a la antigua puerta del Camino Francés. Se sigue en lo posible su evolución hasta nuestros días, efectuando una labor de revisión y síntesis históriográfica que combina la evidencia material y la escrita. Se aportan además, algunos datos sobre determinados aspectos artísticos que adquieren nueva dimensión y significado al ser tratados en su conjunto, contextualizando el recinto funerario familiar en el ámbito urbano y considerando al mismo tiempo los diferentes períodos históricos.

  1. De sillas y almohadones o de la naturaleza ritual del poder en la nueva España de los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañeque, Alejandro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between public ritual and colonial authority in sixteenth and seventeenth-century New Spain. In colonial society, the establishment of authority depended more on such things as prestige, reputation and/or public appearance than on the use of force. This helps explain the great transcendence attributed by contemporaries to all kinds of public rituals. Their effects were far from negligible: they were much more than a disguise with which to make the rulers’ power more palatable. Royal officials constituted their power and identities through public ceremony, and therefore placed crucial importance on maintaining an authoritative public image.

    El artículo estudia la interrelación entre ritual público y autoridad colonial en la Nueva España de los siglos XVI y XVII. En la sociedad colonial, el afianzamiento de la autoridad dependía más de cuestiones tales como prestigio, reputación y/o apariencia pública que del uso de la fuerza. Eso permite explicar la trascendencia tan grande que los contemporáneos dieron a todo tipo de rituales públicos pues sus efectos estaban lejos de ser algo insignificante y eran mucho más que simples disfraces para hacer más digerible el poder de los gobernantes. Los oficiales reales consituían su poder y su identidad a través del ceremonial público y, por tanto, daban una importancia crucial al mantenimiento de una imagen pública llena de autoridad.

  2. Universidade de Coimbra instituição educativa do Império Lusitano: análise da reforma joanina no século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Araújo Nascimento-Guaraldo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem o objetivo de apresentar algumas reflexões referente a reforma da Universidade de Coimbra, realizada no reinado de D. João III, século XVI. Mediante a análise desse período chamamos atenção para dois aspectos presente na vida da instituição: contratação docente e reorganização financeira. Percebemos que esses dois aspectos podem ser compreendidos como algumas das diretrizes da Coroa portuguesa para reformar a Universidade de Coimbra. Por meio da analise e apresentação das fontes documentais, cartas e alvarás remetidos a Universidade pela Coroa, procuramos demonstrar ao leitor a importância desse momento para a história das instituições de ensino não apenas portuguesas, mas também brasileiras, já que depois desse fato a Universidade de Coimbra passou a ser considerada o centro de formação do Império, responsável pela formação dos quadros dirigentes da sociedade, tanto no plano eclesiástico como civil, no reino e em territórios de ultramarinhos. Acreditamos que investigar esse momento histórico da Universidade de Coimbra colabora na compreensão dos objetivos de formação humana que se pretendia naquele período.

  3. The Movement of Tlaxcaltecas Indians Families to North Region of Nueva Galicia (Virreinato de la Nueva España). A Policy of Colonization and Pacification of the Spanish Empire at the End of the XVI Century

    OpenAIRE

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the XVI century, the Spanish empire had the necessity to create a series of strategies to access deposits of metal deposits located them in the North of Nueva España. These metal deposits were very important to the colony economy. The porpouse of this text in to analize the colonization and pacification policy that the Spanish goverment used in the North of Nueva Galicia during this history period of time, in which a group of tlaxcaltecas families took the leading role. The meth...

  4. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  5. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  6. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  7. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  8. Tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  9. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  10. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  11. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  12. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  13. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  14. Innovative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Scholl, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  15. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  16. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  17. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  18. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  19. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  20. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  1. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  2. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  3. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  4. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  5. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  7. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  8. De aprendiz a mercader : el factor en el comercio internacional inglés del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lanero Fernández

    2007-12-01

    commercial education. An apprentice could not trade for his own without his merchant's permission who, to certain extent, was responsible for the apprentices' actions. The knowledge an agent had about a foreign market used to have an influence on the merchant's decision about which goods should be exported. Factors, apart from writing letters, should keep books of accounts, which implied a knowledge of bookkeeping, foreign currencies and bills of exchange. Foreign trade conditions increased factors' responsibilities and created new representation problems which have no equivalence in other commercial relations of the period.

  9. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  10. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of arsenic and mercury in human remains of the XVI-XVII centuries from the Moscow Kremlin necropolises by neutron activation analysis at the IREN facility and the IBR-2 reactor of FLNP, JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panova, T.D.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Borzakov, S.B.; Khramko, K.

    2017-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) of three samples of human remains of the XVI-XVII centuries from the necropolises of the Moscow Kremlin has been carried out at FLNP JINR. The samples were irradiated at two facilities: at the IREN source of resonance neutrons and at the IBR-2 reactor. Spectra of induced activity of the irradiated samples were measured by using the automatic measurement system developed at FLNP JINR. This system consists of a high-purity germanium detector with spectrometric electronics, a sample changer, and a control software. Mass fractions of arsenic, mercury and other elements were calculated by relative and absolute NAA methods. The obtained values confirmed the fact of an acute mercury poisoning of the first wife of Tsar Ivan Vasilievich the Terrible - Tsarina Anastasia Romanovna. Increased mercury content was detected in the bone remains of the son of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich, and Prince M. V. Skopin-Shuisky. The obtained results allow us to introduce into scientific circulation the exact values of mass fraction of mercury, arsenic and some other elements in the samples from the graves of Russian historical figures of the second half of XVI - early XVII centuries. [ru

  12. José de Anchieta, o teatro e a educação dos moços do Colégio de Jesus na Bahia do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Romualdo Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata do teatro educativo jesuítico no Brasil do século XVI. Aborda o teatro deAnchieta e tem como objeto específico de pesquisa a peça “Diálogo de Pero Dias”, queteria sido apresentada no Colégio de Jesus na ciudad do Salvador, na Bahia. Um auto nafórmula de diálogo, por meio de perguntas e respostas, como o catecismo tridentino,preparadas para a catequese. Diálogo que teria como espectadores, provavelmente, oscolonos, viajantes, homens do governo, soldados, mas como alvo principal de seusensinamentos os “moços” do colégio. O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma nova leituradessa peça de Anchieta para resgatar, a partir de uma leitura crítica baseada em Foucault,os ensinamentos que os padres jesuítas pretendiam para os “moços”, mas também paraoutras personagens sociais do Brasil do século XVI.

  13. Un Enquiridion de Erasmo desconocido y un raro ejemplar del Libro de Albeytería de Francisco de la Reyna adquiridos por la Biblioteca Universitaria de Zaragoza, nuevas adiciones a la tipobibliografía aragonesa del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moralejo Álvarez, María Remedios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de la adquisición, por la Biblioteca Universitaria de Zaragoza, de dos raros impresos aragoneses del siglo XVI: un Enquiridion de Erasmo, de Jorge Coci, 1529, hasta ahora absolutamente desconocido, y el ejemplar del Tratado de Albeytería de Francisco de la Reina, que con toda probabilidad perteneció al "Bibliófilo Aragonés", Juan M. Sánchez. Incluye el estudio y la descripción bibliográfica de ambos para incorporar a la tipobibliografía aragonesa del siglo XVI.The paper is about the acquisition, by the University Library of Saragossa, of two rare 16th Century Aragonese prints: An Enchiridion of Erasmus by Jorge Coci, 1529, to date completely unknown, and the copy of the 'Tratado de Albeytería' by Francisco de la Reyna, which, in all likelihood, belonged to the 'Aragonese Bibliophile', Juan M. Sánchez. It includes the bibliographic study and description of both so as to form part of 16th Century Aragonese typo bibliography.

  14. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  15. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  16. El otro portugués: tipos y tópicos en la España de los siglos XVI al XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Pedrosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de los portugueses, como estereotipo a un tiempo “étnico” y “nacional”, en la cultura y en la literatura españolas de los siglos XVI al XVIII, fue constante. La cercanía geográfica, los intercambios transitorios o permanentes de población a través de la frontera entre los dos países, las complejas relaciones –fluctuantes entre la afinidad cultural y religiosa y la rivalidad política y comercial– que mantuvieron ambos reinos, que en algunos momentos llegaron a encontrarse bajo la autoridad de un mismo monarca, hicieron que sobre la imagen que los españoles construyeron de los portugueses y, al revés, sobre la que los portugueses se hicieron de los españoles, se acumulasen prejuicios y tópicos que hoy, vistos desde la perspectiva que da el tiempo, resultan tan falsos y exagerados como representativos de las ideas más comunes y de las señas de identidad propia y ajena más arraigadas en la mentalidad de la época. No es posible, en el limitado espacio que nos ofrecen estas páginas, hacer una revision exhaustiva de todas las fuentes literarias que reflejan la presencia de portugueses ni las reacciones culturales que su presencia provocaba en la España de la época. Nos tendremos que conformar con una selección y con un análisis muy parciales, que tengan como objeto principal la atención a un número amplio y representativo de obras y de autores que atestiguaron los conflictos de identidades y de convivencia entre portugueses y españoles. Nuestro enfoque quedará, inevitablemente, limitado a sólo una parte de la cuestión: las ideas que los españoles tenían de los portugueses, y no al revés.

  17. Los manuales de confesión para indígenas del siglo XVI (Hacia un nuevo modelo de formación de la conciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis ARIAS GONZÁLEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se hace mención del impacto de la llegada de los españoles sobre los pueblos indígenas, se suele hablar casi siempre de aspectos tangibles y cuantificables: descenso demográfico, cambio de habitats, migraciones, nuevo sistema económico, dominación política, cambio de estructura social, etc.; sin embargo, hay otra serie de aspectos más difíciles de aprehender este fenómeno de aculturación, absorción cultural o «desestructuración». Nos referimos a los denominados de una forma excesivamente genérica como objeto de estudio por parte de la «Historia Espiritual» o «Historia de las Mentalidades», por utilizar el término actualmente más reiterado en la bibliografía reciente. Dentro de este «etéreo» apartado de la Historia, la Conciencia como capacidad de distinción entre el Bien y el Mal con toda su complejidad a lo largo del tiempo, debería ocupar un lugar por sí misma; no estaría de más que en estos momentos en que todo se considera digno de ser considerado como objeto de grandes historias —desde el calzado a la vida privada—, se publicase una «Historia de la Conciencia». El objetivo de este artículo es mucho más modesto, sólo pretende ayudar a entender la formación de la Conciencia cristiana de los indígenas y su proceso, a través de los «manuales de confesión» del siglo XVI; sin embargo, hay otros muchos temas anejos a éste y presentes en los «manuales» que estudiamos; temas que no vamos a desarrollar del todo, pero que ofrecemos a modo de sugerencia para otros especialista y futuros trabajos.

  18. Conversaçiones de Música a finals del segle XVI: el cas de l’acadèmia de Joan de Borja i Castro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Escrivà-Llorca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resum: Aquest article s’insereix dins del conjunt d’investigacions sobre la Cort dels Habsburgs. L’estudi de les acadèmies musicals és poc conegut. A partir d’algunes investigacions sobre acadèmies literàries, l’article focalitzarà en l’acadèmia musical que Joan de Borja i Castro tenia a Madrid. En aquest sentit, si el mecenatge literari cortesà ja és un tema amb múltiples variants, l’aproximació al patrocini d’altres activitats artístiques, com el cas de la música, ho és encara més. En les següents pàgines s’aprofundirà en les diverses facetes erudites de Joan de Borja amb el fil conductor de les acadèmies, com a centre d’intel·lectualitat, de creació i promoció cultural i també personal. Per aquesta acadèmia van passar alguns dels personatges del món musical ibèric més important de l’època com Francisco Guerrero o Tomás Luis de Victoria. Aquest article pretén mostrar la importància d’aquesta acadèmia com un punt neuràlgic del mecenatge musical de les darreres dècades del segle XVI.   Paraules clau: Joan de Borja, Borja, acadèmies, Habsburgs, Música, Madrid   Abstract: This work is part of the research on The Court of Habsburg in Modern Era. The study of music academies is not quite known. From few works on literary academies, this article will focus on the music academy that of Juan de Borja i Castro hold in Madrid. In this way, if the courtly literary patronage is already an issue with multiple variants, the approach to other artistic activities, such as the music, it is even more. In the following pages, it will delve into the various aspects of erudition of Juan de Borja with the thread of the academies, as a centre of intellectual, creative and cultural promotion and personal. Some of the most important composers of the Iberian World of that time, such as Francisco Guerrero or Tomás Luis de Victoria, were involved in this academy. The article aims to show the relevance of this

  19. Los métodos pedagógicos de la Corona para disciplinar la experiencia de los navegantes en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Martínez, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the limited scientific training of pilots who traveled to the Spanish Indies in the early sixteenth century, Spanish Crown, first with Charles V and later with Philip II, was devoted not only to build institutions and scientific positions for organizing the nautical and cosmographic knowledge of the New World, but also teaching methods designed in the form of lectures, courses and examinations for the training and licensing of those navigators willing to sail the Mar Océano (Atlantic Ocean. The ultimate objective of the Monarchy was, first, to guarantee the maintenance of its production overseas Empire and, secondly, to ensure both the safety of their fleets and their men as well as State coffers, since the shipwrecks posed serious economic losses.

    Dada la escasa formación científica de los pilotos que viajaban a Indias en los primeros años del siglo XVI, la Corona española, primero con Carlos I al frente y más tarde con Felipe II, no sólo se conformó con crear instituciones y cargos científicos para organizar el saber náutico y cosmográfico del Nuevo Mundo, sino que además diseñó métodos pedagógicos, en forma de cátedras, cursos y exámenes, para la formación y licencia de aquellos navegantes dispuestos a surcar el “Mar Océano”. El objetivo último de la Monarquía era, por un lado, garantizar el mantenimiento de su productivo imperio de ultramar y, por el otro, velar tanto por la seguridad de sus flotas y hombres como por las arcas del Estado, pues los naufragios de los navíos suponían grandes pérdidas económicas. La unión entre ciencia y experiencia sería el mejor remedio.

  20. La partecipazione dei fedeli laici alla vita pubblica. Testimonianza cristiana, etica pubblica e bene comune nell’insegnamento di Benedetto XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Versione riveduta e ampliata, nel testo e nell’apparato bibliografico, della relazione presentata con il titolo “L’impegno dei fedeli laici nella vita pubblica tra responsabilità propria, libertà e dovere di obbedienza al magistero. L’insegnamento di Benedetto XVI” al Convegno di studi “Il fedele laico: realtà e prospettive”, organizzato dalla Pontificia Università della Santa Croce (7-8 aprile 2011. Il contributo è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Convegno. SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive. Natura essenzialmente laicale della responsabilità politica - 2. L’intervento della Chiesa nel dibattito pubblico su questioni inerenti alla vita sociale e politica. I principi c.d. non negoziabili - 3. Fondamentale libertà dei fedeli rispetto alle indicazioni della gerarchia in materia temporale – 4. La funzione di orientamento dei pastori della comunità ecclesiale e i confini dell’intervento della stessa – 5. I limiti alla libertà dei fedeli in materia temporale: il rapporto tra libertà e verità e la salvaguardia delle esigenze etiche fondamentali e irrinunciabili per il bene comune e della società – 6. Benedetto XVI e l’invito a una nuova generazione di cattolici impegnati in politica. La difesa della centralità della persona umana come compito primario dei credenti impegnati nel governo della città terrena– 7. (segue L’impegno a favore della promozione di un concetto positivo di laicità, aperto alla Trascendenza − 8. (segue La politica come forma singolare di realizzazione della carità – 9. (segue La dottrina sociale della Chiesa come strumento di formazione essenziale e guida sicura per i fedeli laici impegnati nell’ambito socio-politico – 10. Considerazioni conclusive. Doveri, rispettivi, dello Stato e della Chiesa affinché si conservino, o se necessario si creino le condizioni esterne idonee e necessarie allo svolgimento dei compiti dei christifideles laici nella polis.

  1. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  3. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  4. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  5. Ressenya a Rosa Mª Gregori Roig, La impressora Jerònima Galés i els Mey (València, segle XVI, València, Generalitat Valenciana-Biblioteca Valenciana, 2012, 611 pp. ISBN:978-84-482-5722-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Ferrer del Río

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review to Rosa Mª Gregori Roig, La impressora Jerònima Galés i els Mey (València, segle XVI, València, Generalitat Valenciana-Biblioteca Valenciana, 2012, 611 pp. ISBN:978-84-482-5722-4.

  6. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  7. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  8. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  9. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  10. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  11. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  12. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  13. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  14. Cultura letteraria nella Spagna del XVI secolo. Le «Treze questiones muy famosas sacadas del Philocolo del famoso Juan Boccaccio»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fatima Blanco Valdés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1546 si pubblica a Siviglia una traduzione “non autorizzata” dell’episodio delle «Tredici Questioni d’amore» che fanno parte del IV libro del Filocolo di Boccaccio. Lo stesso anno, a Toledo, si pubblica la traduzione dello stesso testo, questa volta con il permesso dei traduttori. Di quest’ultima si faranno due riedizioni, la prima a Toledo nel 1549 e la seconda a Venezia nel 1553. La traduzione è opera di due traduttori: Diego López de Ayala, canonico della cattedrale di Toledo, che si occupa della traduzione del testo, e Diego de Salazar, che compone dei poemetti che servono come riassunto sia dell’argo- mento di ognuna delle questioni sia della soluzione finale. Entrambi i traduttori collaboreranno nuovamente nella traduzione dell’Arcadia di Sannazaro. Da ricerche precedenti si può stabilire come testo base della traduzione l’incunabolo veneto del Filocolo del 1472 (riedito nel 1481, 1488 e 1497. L’articolo confronta contrastivamente i due testi per individuare, in un primo momento, le differenti tecniche e strategie traduttologiche usate da López de Ayala. Scopo dello studio non è solo quello di descrivere queste tecniche, ma anche di metterle in rapporto con vari aspetti che riguardano la cultura editoriale e la situazione sociale della Spagna del XVI secolo, come il nuovo tipo di lettori, la censura letteraria – ragione per la quale, a nostro avviso, il traduttore modifica e manipola frammenti del testo – o la finalità ultima del testo che vede modificata la sua funzione testuale rispetto al testo d’origine. In effetti, la traduzione spagnola si avvicina piú a una specie di catalogo di casistica amorosa con intenzionalità didattica e moraleggiante, diversa dalla funzione di diletto del romanzo sentimentale di derivazione alessandrina scritto da Boccaccio. Prima di affrontare l’analisi della traduzione si offre un’introduzione in cui vengono contestualizzate la storia editoriale della Spagna del

  15. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  16. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  17. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  18. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  19. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  20. PREFACE: Sensors & their Applications XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Panicos; O'Riordan, Alan

    2011-08-01

    This volume records the Proceedings of the sixteenth conference in the biennial Sensors and Their Applications series which took place at the Clarion Hotel, Cork, Ireland between 12-14 September 2011. The conference is organized by the Instrument Science and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. On this occasion, the conference was hosted by Tyndall National Institute at University College Cork. This year the conference returns to Ireland, having last been held in Limerick in 2003. The conference proceedings record the continuing growth of the sensors community nationally and internationally. The conferences bring together contributions from scientists and engineers from academia, research institutes and industrial establishments, and therefore provide an excellent opportunity for these communities to present and discuss the latest results in the field of sensors, instrumentation and measurement. Amongst the more traditional themes, such as optical sensing, there is growth in new areas such as biomedical sensing and instrumentation, and nanosensing, which is reflected in this volume. Similarly the contribution of modelling and simulation techniques in sensor and instrumentation design and their applications is acknowledged by a session in this area. The sessions across the conference are supported by notable contributions from invited speakers. We would like to thank all of our colleagues in the sensor and instrumentation community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts. Our thanks also go to Tyndall National Institute for hosting this conference and all the sponsors who, with their generous financial and in-kind contributions, enabled the better organization of this conference. We would also like to thank all the members of the Instrument Science and Technology Group for their support, and in particular for refereeing the submitted manuscripts. We are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. Panicos KyriacouConference ChairmanAlan O'RiordanConference Local Chairman

  1. Métodos didácticos y sistemas de aprendizaje: teneduría de Libros y Partida Doble en Inglaterra (siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lanero Fernández

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los tratados pedagógicos de teneduría de libros en el Reino Unido desde el siglo XVI, cuando se incorporó la partida doble, hasta finales del siglo XIX.Los rasgos didácticos más significativos de los primeros 250 años de docencia en teneduría de libros se resumen en la importancia que se concede al Libro Diario. Con el desarrollo de la partida doble se hizo habitual ampliar el significado de los términos débito y crédito más allá de la connotación personal original y aplicarlos a objetos inanimados y conceptos abstractos. La exposición mediante la personificación de cuentas consistía en un aprendizaje memorístico apoyado en normas y versificación.La disputa entre los que eran partidarios del Diario y aquellos que preferían el Mayor como libro de enseñanza, no era otra cosa más que la traducción del conflicto entre el enfoque memorístico y el racional de la teneduría de libros. Los seguidores del enfoque del Mayor salieron doblemente reforzados: significaba una enseñanza más racional y un cambio en las exigencias de los negocios.El Diario perdió su posición dominante cuando, a mediados del siglo XIX, surgió una teoría alternativa a la personificación de las cuentas. Se trata de la teoría de la propiedad de las cuentas y se ocupa del significado de éstas desde el punto de vista del propietario.The present paper makes a bibliographic checking of the pedagogic treatises of bookkeeping in the United Kingdom since 16th Century, when the double-entry system was introduced, up to the end of 19th Century.The most outstanding didactic feature of the first 250 years of bookkeeping teaching could be summed up in the prevalent role the Journal was given. With the development of the double-entry system, it became common extending the meaning of the terms debit and credit beyond the original personal connotation and applying them to inanimate objects and abstract

  2. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  3. El estrecho de Magallanes como antesala del Pacífico: evolución cartográfica y toponimia entre los siglos XVI y comienzos del XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Jeria, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Strait of Magellan was one of the geographical areas which generated more attention in the cartographers during the XVI and XVII centuries. In fact, for the Chilean case, together with Chiloe and Valdivia, the Magellanic region is the most represented. The reasons are both navigational and strategic purposes. That means that the surviving examples on public and private archives of several countries are comparatively abundant. The present study shows a new piece, which forms part of a navigational chart or «Derrotero» that is conserved in the Historical Archive of the Peruvian Navy, whose dating is roughly the early XVII century, although showing geographical representations from the previous century.El estrecho de Magallanes fue uno de los territorios que mayor atención despertó en los cartógrafos de los siglos XVI y XVIII. De hecho, para el caso chileno, junto a Chiloé y Valdivia, el territorio magallánico es el más importante en cuanto a representación geográfica, siendo razones de navegación así como estratégicas las que explican la gran cantidad de fuentes cartográficas existentes en archivos públicos y privados nacionales como extranjeros. El presente estudio da a conocer una nueva pieza que forma parte de un derrotero que se conserva en el Archivo de la Marina de Guerra del Perú, cuya datación aproximada es de comienzos del siglo XVII, aunque con representaciones geográficas del siglo anterior.

  4. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  5. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  6. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  7. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  8. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  9. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  10. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  11. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  12. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  13. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  14. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  15. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  16. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  17. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  18. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  19. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  20. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  1. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  2. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  3. A spin exchange model for singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.

  4. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  5. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  6. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  7. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  8. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  9. El Libro di ricercate a qvattro voci (1575 de Rocco Rodio y algunas consideraciones sobre relaciones entre Nápoles y España en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasini, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief setup on musicological studies on the relationships between Naples and Spain, in particular in the keyboard production of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, this paper occupies almost exclusively - on analysis and style - on the LIBRO DI RICERCATE A QVATTRO VOCI DI ROCCO RODIO CON ALCVNE FANTASIE SOPRA VARII CANTI FERMI, published in Naples by Gioseppe Cacchio dall’Aquila in 1575. The book by Rocco Rodio (“Rocchus Rodius Civitatis Barensis”; Bari-Napoli 1530ca, 1615ca is the fi rst release ever appeared in score, which was particularly followed in Naples in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century and of which we find significant use in Italy and Europe throughout the course of the seventeenth century, with examples also in the eighteenth century. The analysis of form and style of the compositions contained in this printing shows the ‘Modern’ and progressive author’s writing, which seems refractory to the contemporary practice of improvisation and ‘diminutions’ that was practiced in the polyphonic motet and madrigale affettuoso; the fantasies are a superb example of invention and mastery of composition to be read not only in the flow of tradition practiced on the harpsichord, but should be understood as the exemplary model resulted in the broader vocal, didactic and experimental literature of the polyphonic instrumental schools in Naples, Rome and Spain.Tras un breve repaso de los estudios musicológicos centrados en las relaciones que la música para tecla de los siglos XVI y XVII creó entre Nápoles y España, el ensayo se centra de manera casi exclusiva, y desde un punto de vista analítico y estilístico, en el «Libro di ricercate a qvattro voci di Rocco Rodio con alcvne fantasie sopra Varii canti fermi» publicado en Nápoles por Gioseppe Cacchio dall’Aquila en el 1575. El libro de Rocco Rodio («Rocchus Rodius Civitatis Barensis»; Bari, 1530ca - Nápoles, 1615ca constituye la primera impresi

  10. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  11. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  12. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  13. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  14. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  15. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  16. Exchange of Information in Tax Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present issues related to exchange of tax information. The author focuses on models of exchange of information and boundaries of obligations in reference to above-mentioned problems. Automatic exchange of information, spontaneous exchange of information and exchange of information on request are analysed in this work on the base of OECD Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Council Directive 2011/16 and OECD Model Agreement on Exchange...

  17. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  18. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  19. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  20. Mechanical calculation of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, Francis.

    1977-01-01

    Many heat exchangers are still being dimensioned at the present time by means of the American TEMA code (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The basic formula of this code often gives rise to significant tubular plate thicknesses which, apart from the cost of materials, involve significant machining. Some constructors have brought into use calculation methods that are more analytic so as to take into better consideration the mechanical phenomena which come into play in a heat exchanger. After a brief analysis of these methods it is shown, how the original TEMA formulations have changed to reach the present version and how this code has incorporated Gardner's results for treating exchangers with two fixed heads. A formal and numerical comparison is then made of the analytical and TEMA methods by attempting to highlight a code based on these methods or a computer calculation programme in relation to the TEMA code [fr

  1. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  2. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  3. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  4. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  6. Minería y metalurgia en la antigua gobernación del Tucumán (siglos XVI - XVII: Colonial Tucumán 16th and 17th Centuries Minig and metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Gluzman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La actividad minera y la producción metalúrgica constituyen aspectos que jugaron papeles cruciales a lo largo del devenir histórico de las poblaciones nativas del Noroeste argentino. Por un lado, durante los tiempos prehispánicos, los objetos de metal y la producción metalúrgica acreditaron una alta valorización social. Por otro, la obtención de ganancias a partir del aprovechamiento minero se desarrolló como la actividad primordial detrás de los procesos de conquista y colonización del Nuevo Mundo durante los siglos XVI y XVII. Mientras es conocido que la extracción de metal fue uno de los principales espacios de explotación de mano de obra indígena en el Alto Perú, poco interés tuvo su análisis en el contexto de las rebeliones indígenas ocurridas en el valle Calchaquí hasta 1665. El objetivo es abordar los conflictos desplegados en esta región durante los siglos XVI y XVII tomando como eje la minería y metalurgia en la Antigua Gobernación del Tucumán.Mining activity and metallurgical production were aspects that played important roles during the history of the native Northwestern Argentine population. On the one hand, during the prehispanic times, metal objects and metallurgical production had a high social value. On the other hand, profiting from mining was the primary activity during the processes of conquest and colonization in the New World during the 16th and 17th centuries. While it is known that the extraction of metal was one of the main elements of exploitation of indigenous labor force in Alto Peru, little attention has been paid to its analysis in the context of the native rebellions in the Calchaqui valley before 1665. The objective is to study the conflicts in this area during the 16th and 17th centuries, focusing on mining and metallurgy in the Antigua Gobernación del Tucumán.

  7. On one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in the resonating group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Fernandez, F.; Shimizu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of quark exchange between different nucleons on the one pion exchange potential is studied in the framework of the resonating group method. The calculated phase shifts including the one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in addition to the one gluon plus sigma meson exchange are shown to be consistent with experiments. Especially the p-wave phase shifts are improved by taking into account the quark exchange on the one pion exchange potential. (orig.)

  8. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  9. Experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1978-10-01

    Two pairs of line-reversed reactions π + P → K + Σ + , K - p → π - Σ + and π + p → K + Y* + (1385), K - p → π - Y* + (1385) provide an experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions. From their study it is concluded that in contrast to the lower energy data, the 11.5 results for the two pairs of reactions are consistent with exchange degeneracy predictions for both helicity-flip and nonflip amplitudes. The Y(1385) decay angular distributions indicate that the quark model and Stodolsky--Sakurai predictions are in agreement with the main features of the data. However, small violations are observed at small momentum transfer. While the Y(1385) vertex is helicity-flip dominated, the nonvanishing of T/sub 3/2 - 1/2/ and T/sub -3/2 1/2/ suggests some finite helicity nonflip contribution in the forward direction. 23 references

  10. Estimating Exchange Market Pressure and the Degree of Exchange Market Intervention for Finland during the Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pösö, Mika; Spolander, Mikko

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use a fairly simple monetary macro model to calculate the quarterly measures of exchange market pressure and the degree of the Bank of Finland's intervention during the time the markka was floated. Exchange market pressure measures the size of the exchange rate change that would have occurred if the central bank had unexpectedly refrained from intervening in the foreign exchange market. Intervention activity of the central bank is measured as the proportion of exchange marke...

  11. Conflict and Fairness in Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Collett, Jessica L.; Schaefer, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent to all social exchange relations are elements of both cooperation and competition. We develop and test a theoretical model which proposes that the relative salience of the competitive, conflictual elements of exchange mediate and explain the negative effects of negotiated exchange, as compared with reciprocal exchange, on actors'…

  12. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  13. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  14. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  15. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  16. Heat exchanger. [Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C; Brisseaux, A

    1976-01-19

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger between a fluid flowing through a tube and a gas. Such an exchanger can be used, inter alia, for removing calories that cannot be used for generating electricity in a thermal or nuclear power station. This exchanger can withstand any pressure surges in the system and even the use of a high vapour pressure coolant such as ammonia, since the fluid flows in a round tube with low pressure drops (both with respect to the fluid to be cooled and the cooling air). It is rigid enough to stand up to being moved and handled as well as to gusts of wind. It is formed of units that can be handled without difficulty and that are easily dismantable and interchangeable, even in service, and it is easily maintained. The exchange area is high for a minimum frontal area and this enables the size of the supporting frame to be reduced and makes it easy to hide it behind a screen of trees should this prove necessary. Finally, it is composed of a small number of standard units thus reducing the industrial production cost. These units are rectangular plates, each one being a flat tubular coil fitted between two flat parallel sheet metal plates having on their outer sides flat top raised bosses. These units are assembled together by the tops of the bosses so as to form an exchanger bank, each bank comprising two collectors to which the bank coils are tightly connected.

  17. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  18. O capelão do rei, o livreiro da Sorbonne, o advogado da corte: livros, bibliotecas e leitura da história na França do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nicolazzi

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este ensaio trata do tema da leitura da história no século XVI, articulando uma reflexão sobre a emergência da imprensa na França e sobre o papel das bibliotecas humanistas nesse contexto, a partir da relação estabelecida entre três personagens que viveram na França quinhentista: o capelão Gaston Olivier, o livreiro Galliot du Pré e o advogado Pierre Droict de Gaillard. Como pano de fundo para a reflexão proposta, o texto sugere pensar a historiografia não apenas a partir de suas dimensões epistemológicas, mas também considerando sua realidade material ou livresca, isto é, o livro como condição para a prática da leitura da História e, portanto, para o próprio conhecimento histórico.

  19. A estrutura do conhecimento nas universidades ocidentalizadas: racismo/sexismo epistêmico e os quatro genocídios/epistemicídios do longo século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Grosfoguel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a estrutura epistêmica do mundo moderno em relação aos quatro genocídios/epistemicídios do longo século XVI (1450-1650. Argumenta-se que o privilégio epistêmico do homem ocidental foi construído às custas do genocídio/epistemicídios dos sujeitos coloniais. O artigo relaciona o racismo/sexismo epistêmico da estrutura das universidades ocidentalizadas e do mundo moderno ao genocídio/epistemicídio contra muçulmanos e judeus na conquista de Al-Andalus, contra povos nativos na conquista das Américas, contra povos africanos na conquista da África e a escravização dos mesmos nas Américas e, finalmente, contra as mulheres europeias queimadas vivas acusadas de bruxaria. Esses quatro genocídios/epistemicídios são fundantes da estrutura epistêmica moderno-colonial e das universidades ocidentalizadas. A tese principal deste artigo é que a condição de possibilidade para o cartesianismo idolátrico dos anos 1640 que assume o olho de Deus e arroga-se o direito de dizer "penso, logo existo" é o "extermino, logo existo".

  20. Entre la doble vara y el privilegio. La administración de la justicia frente al fenómeno de la sodomía masculina en el Virreinato del Perú (Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina, Fernanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the both the civil and Episcopal legal actions taken on issues on issues related to the crime of sodomy in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the 16th and 17th centuries. The extent to which family, social and ethnic background, as well as the relationship of the accused with powerful networks or groups influenced the actions taken by the magistrates and the fulmination of the causes is a particular focus point of the study. Additionally, within the scope of these trials for sodomy, how the granting of privileges and corporate logic also served as possible effective mechanisms used to manipulate and avoid legal provisions is also examined.Este artículo indaga en la actuación de la justicia tanto civil como episcopal en asuntos relativos al delito de sodomía en el Virreinato del Perú entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Particularmente, analiza en qué medida los orígenes familiares, sociales y étnicos de los acusados así como su pertenencia a redes o grupos de poder pudieron influir en la actuación de los magistrados y en la fulminación de las causas. Asimismo, en el marco de los procesos seguidos por sodomía, examina cómo los fueros y la lógica corporativa también pudieron constituir mecanismos eficaces a fin de manipular y eludir las disposiciones judiciales.

  1. The Movement of Tlaxcaltecas Indians Families to North Region of Nueva Galicia (Virreinato de la Nueva España. A Policy of Colonization and Pacification of the Spanish Empire at the End of the XVI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XVI century, the Spanish empire had the necessity to create a series of strategies to access deposits of metal deposits located them in the North of Nueva España. These metal deposits were very important to the colony economy. The porpouse of this text in to analize the colonization and pacification policy that the Spanish goverment used in the North of Nueva Galicia during this history period of time, in which a group of tlaxcaltecas families took the leading role. The method used en this research is the historical reconstruction, which give us elements to build up all the past events of the differents sources —vestiges and testimonies— already analized. All this let us know a successfuly colonial policy which help the colonial government to extracted the silver, and also contribuid to legitimize the expansion of tlaxcalteca people in North of Nueva España. Also we conclude two kinds of aculturation: the macroestructural and the microestructural, both affecting in a considerate way the two different social groups wich consider in the same space.

  2. Políticas de la conversión. Memoria, testimonio y materialidad de la hispanización en la Nueva España (siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz Serrano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tiene como objetivo destacar la relación entre la proyección política de la Monarquía Hispánica en sus territorios de Ultramar y la acción evangelizadora. Las particularidades de la Iglesia indiana potenciaron la labor del clero regular, cuya influencia se extendió desde el ámbito de lo religioso hacia todas las esferas de la vida en las nuevas sociedades americanas. Evangelizar significó ante todo crear una identidad colectiva católica y, con ella, la base de la adhesión de los naturales al dominio del rey de España. Para ello destacamos la 'conquista espiritual' como un proceso paralelo y fuertemente ligado a la 'conquista militar', marcado por la violencia de una fe impositiva, anuladora del pasado prehispánico. Lo hacemos a través de imágenes y testimonios del siglo XVI que interpretaron los acontecimientos del cambio que dio lugar a la América hispánica.

  3. Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory

  4. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  5. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  6. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    value creation. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt at reviewing the management literature on value appropriation in business exchange. The authors provide overview, details, comparisons, and frame a research agenda as a first step towards establishing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  7. Knowledge Exchange and Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2018-01-01

    for ‘interesting’ discoveries has a potential to lift off papers with a high level of scientific rigor as well as a high level of relevance for practice. Originality: An outcome focus on the relationship between knowledge exchange activities and management research is to our knowledge new in the debate about......Purpose: The growing involvement of management researchers in knowledge exchange activities and collaborative research does not seem to be reflected in a growing academic output. The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers for academic output from these activities as well as the potential...... derived from knowledge exchange activities and Mode 2 research into academic papers such as low priority of case study research in leading management journals, a growing practice orientation in the research funding systems, methodological challenges due to limited researcher control, and disincentives...

  8. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib......We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  9. EXTERNALITIES IN EXCHANGE NETWORKS AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING THEORIES OF EXCHANGE NETWORKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The present paper extends the focus of network exchange research to externalities in exchange networks. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct effects on an actor's utility, of an exchange in which this actor is not involved. Existing theories in the field of network exchange do not inform

  10. Statistical thermodynamics and energy exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1987-01-01

    The probability of finding the energy of a particle in the vicinity of a given energy is determined, taking into account of the conservation of energy during the exchanges of energy. As a result the exchanges which determine the different probabilities also introduce a dependence between them, allowing a full calculation. The solution has the main properties of the distribution of Fermi-Dirac, with the mean energy per particle as variable in place of temperature. It allows to propose a localized model for the conduction electrons [fr

  11. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  13. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  14. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  15. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  17. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  18. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  19. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  20. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  1. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  2. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  3. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  4. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  5. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...

  6. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  7. Fragmentary model of exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, V M

    2000-01-01

    This article makes attempt to refusal from using neutrino for explanation continuous distribution of beta particle energy by conversion to characteristic exchange interaction particles in nucleolus. It is taking formulation for nuclear position with many different fragments. It is computing half-value period of spontaneous fission of heavy nucleolus. (author)

  8. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  9. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  10. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  11. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrites * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  12. Commodity exchanges - Function and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the potential impacts that a futures market may have on the international trade of uranium. The discussion first centers around the New York Mercantile Exchange. The following market aspects are discussed: long-term contracting; spot market; commoditization and pricing; and advantages, disadvantages, risks, and provisions of futures market contracts

  13. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  14. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  15. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  16. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  17. 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management and XVI Congreso de Ingeniería de Organización

    CERN Document Server

    García-Arca, Jesús; Annals of Industrial Engineering 2012 : Overcoming the Crisis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of CIO is to establish a forum for the open and free exchange of ideas, opinions and academic experiences about research, technology transfer or successful business experiences in the field of Industrial Engineering. The CIO 2012 is an annual meeting promoted by “Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Ingeniería de Organización” (Industrial Engineers Association, ADINGOR) with a  Scientific Committee composed of 61 international referees and more than 200 professionals from 7 countries. A selection of the lectures and presentations made over three days by researchers and practitioners from  different countries are presented here. A range of topics is covered including: ·         Business Administration & Economic Environment ·         Technological & Organizational Innovation ·         Logistics & Supply Chain Management ·         Production & Operations Management ·         Management Systems & Sustainability   The Conference in ...

  18. Exchange Reactions. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exchange Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of chemical reactions are of great interest to chemists. The study of exchange reactions in particular helps to shed light on the dynamics of chemical change, providing an insight into the structures and the reactivities of the chemical species involved. The main theme of this meeting was the subject of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the net result is the transfer of one or more electrons between the different oxidation states of the same element. Other studies reported included the transfer of protons, atoms, complex ligands or organic radicals between molecules. Heterogeneous exchange, which is of importance in many cases of catalytic action, was also considered. For a long time isotopic tracers have formed the most convenient means of studying exchange reactions and today a considerable amount of work continues to be done with their aid. Consequently, several papers presented at this Symposium reported on work carried out by purely radiochemical tracer methods. In recognition, however, of the important role which nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance play in this field, in particular in the study of fast reactions, a number of reports on investigations in which these techniques had been used was included in the programme. By kind invitation of the United States Government the Symposium on Exchange Reactions was held from 31 May to 4 June at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N.Y., USA. It was attended by 46 participants from nine countries and one inter-governmental organization. The publication of these Proceedings makes the contents of the papers and the discussion available to a wider audience

  19. A sixteenth century Portuguese report concerning an early Javanese world map Relatório português do século XVI descreve mapa-múndi antigo de origem javanesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Olshin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available In the sixteenth century, there were numerous voyages of discovery in the oceans of the world, expanding European understanding and influence. These explorations, and in particular the knowledge they created, have tended to overshadow other ventures into the unknown. Not just the Europeans, but other cultures as well, navigated the seas and accumulated geographical information, putting together their own ideas about the distribution of the lands and seas around the globe. Arab and Asian seafarers plied the oceans in trade and exploration, and created maps and geographical texts. These maps and texts, however, are not as numerous as a scholar might wish. The Asian maps, particularly early ones, are few in number, and these are virtually all Chinese and Korean creations, world maps based on traditional religious concepts of a circular landmass. There are few maps based on actual navigation. But an early sixteenth-century Portuguese document gives a brief description of a Javanese map, which apparently showed much of the world. It also depicted the routes of the navigations of the Chinese and other Pacific peoples. The map itself has been lost, but we read of it in a letter from the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque to his king, Dom Manuel, dated 1 April 1512.No século XVI, várias viagens de descobrimento expandiram a influência e o reconhecimento europeus. Essas expedições marítimas, e em particular o conhecimento que geraram, ofuscaram outras aventuras pelo desconhecido. Outros povos navegaram pelos oceanos, acumularam informações e organizaram suas próprias idéias sobre a distribuição de terras e mares. Navegadores árabes e asiáticos criaram mapas, cartas náuticas e textos geográficos expondo suas descobertas. Esses mapas, no entanto, não são tão numerosos. Os asiáticos, particularmente os mais antigos, são poucos e quase todos originários da China e Coréia, e baseavam-se em conceitos religiosos tradicionais e na id

  20. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  1. The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... We also find that keiretsu multinationals are more exposed to exchange rate risk that non-keiretsu firms.

  2. Fiscal deficits, exchange rate crises and inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article extends earlier work on unsustainable monetary policies by endogenizing the regime switch that ultimately restores sustainability. Within this framework we analyze exchange rate based stabilization programs and shows how constraints on Central Bank borrowing during an exchange crisis

  3. Indígenas andinos en Chile Colonial: Inmigración, inserción espacial, integración económica y movilidad social (Santiago, Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 16th century conquering expeditions, many Andean natives who served the Spaniards arrived in Chile, where they settled in and integrated in the work and social areas of this outlying «New World»; they formed local networks and relationships, had offspring; a number of them became artisans and some drafted wills or left their mark in ecclesiastical or notarized documents that provide us with an idea of their mobility and local integration. This work offers a background and reveals the principle hubs of a process resembling a medullar structure, in order to understand how the early Chilean colonial society was made up. At the same time, it provides insights into the phenomena of movement, uprooting and settlement of the indigenous population in the southern Peruvian viceroyalty.

    Desde las expediciones de conquista del siglo XVI llegaron a Chile numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este «nuevo mundo» periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su movilidad e inserción local. Este trabajo aporta antecedentes y desvela los principales ejes de un proceso que aparece como medular para entender la formación de la sociedad colonial chilena temprana y, a la vez, para dar cuenta de fenómenos de circulación, desarraigo y asentamiento de población indígena en el virreinato peruano meridional.

  4. Representaciones históricas y bíblicas en la fabricación de la Monarquía de España. Discursos y teología a mediados del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizaremos la relación que se dio entre la Iglesia y la Monarquía de España a través de algunos de los discursos que fundaron su edificio historiográfico. En especial, haremos hincapié en la forma en que se representó al príncipe y a la monarquía hacia mediados del siglo XVI. Así, sin dejar de hacer referencia al contexto cultural y político de la época, indagaremos sobre aquellas características que dotaban al soberano y su gobierno de cualidades que daban a su accionar una legitimidad real para intervenir en el gobierno eclesiástico. Para que esto fuera posible, era necesario dotar a España de una identidad. Al igual que otras monarquías europeas, veremos cómo desde el plano discursivo se fundamentó en los modelos históricos de las monarquías antiguas. In this paper we will analyze the relationships between the Church and the Monarchy of Spain through some of the discourses that founded its historiographic building. In particular, we will highlight how they represented the prince and the monarchy in mid sixteenth century. Thus, we will focus on those characteristics that endow the sovereign and his government with qualities that gave his actions a real legitimacy to intervene in ecclesiastical government without disregarding the cultural and politica context of the time. In order to obtain this legitimacy, it was necessary to provide Spain with an identity. Like other European monarchies, we will see how these discourses were founded on the historical patterns of ancient monarchies.

  5. Information exchange - DOE oversight programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbs, D.C.; Field, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Oversight programs are conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to review activities carried out by field and contractor organizations. Two of these oversight programs focus on safeguards and security and on safety and health activities. These two programs are independent, but share many common objectives and review techniques. The mutual potential benefit was recognized from an exchange of information on review techniques. The first step in this exchange was the participation by an Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) staff member with the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) during their planning, conduct and reporting of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA). This paper briefly describes the OSE and ONS programs. It also identifies and analyzes the similarities and differences of the two programs. The purpose of this paper is to provide perspectives on the approach taken, the techniques used and the differences between two oversight programs conducted by the Department of Energy

  6. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  7. Communication as Sociocultural Meaning Exchange:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication is expected to result in meaning exchange. However, when definite meanings could not be established in a communication exchange, an odd situation usually results. Such situations are observed to actually go beyond syntactic and logical misnomer in the communication process. This paper thus examines the semantic oddities in Richard Wright’s Black Boy. It made use of the linkage points of such linguistic approaches like pragmatics, semiotics, presupposition and truth-condition semantics to do a semantic analysis of the novel. It found that sociological factors have a great deal of influence on the odd way of interpreting utterances/communication signals in the text. The paper therefore advocates that there is the need to incorporate co-text sociological elements as being of relevance to meaning analysis.

  8. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  9. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  10. What are sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of new staining techniques to visualise sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cells exposed to mutagens has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of such exchanges. SCE are induced by a wide variety of different physical and chemical agents and their incidence provides a sensitive indicator of DNA damage in proliferating mammalian cells. It is shown that lesions which affect one or both strands of the DNA can result in the development of SCE, but only when damaged DNA undergoes replication. The nature of the lesions, the frequency and distribution of SEC in mammalian cells; the sensitivity of the cells to their induction by X-radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemical mutagens, are discussed and possible mechanisms involved in the formation of SCE during replication considered. (Auth.)

  11. [Балтийский вопрос в конце XVI-XVII вв. Сборник научных статей] / Andres Adamson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adamson, Andres, 1964-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Балтийский вопрос в конце XVI-XVII вв. Сборник научных статей / Hrsg. von Александр Филюшкин (Москва : Квардига, 2010)

  12. El traslado de familias de indios tlaxcaltecas hacia la región norte de la Nueva Galicia (Virreinato de Nueva España). Una política de colonización y pacificación del Imperio español de finales del siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Galván, José

    2016-01-01

    A finales del siglo XVI el Imperio español se vio en la urgente necesidad de generar una serie de estrategias que le permitieran acceder a los ricos yacimientos de metales preciosos localizados en el inestable septentrión novohispano, pues de ello dependía el buen funcionamiento de la economía colonial. El objetivo es analizar la política de colonización y pacificación que el gobierno español implementó en el norte de la< Nueva Galicia durante ese periodo, donde un grupo de familias de indios...

  13. Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII Araucanian ecological landscape disturbances by the mapuche assimilation of the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming (16th and 17th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO TORREJÓN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características biogeográficas de la América templada favorecieron la introducción y propagación de especies animales y vegetales que sustentaron al modelo agroganadero hispano-mediterráneo. Los efectos de este fenómeno generaron alteraciones ecológicas, especialmente en los territorios habitados por aborígenes carentes de actividades productivas intensivas, como fue el caso de la Araucanía. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, la presente investigación reconoció las principales características del proceso de alteración del paisaje ecológico araucano entre los siglos XVI y XVII: (i en el siglo XVI, la introducción de especies exóticas desarticuló el sistema económico mapuche, (ii tanto la relativa pristinidad de la Araucanía como el proceso bélico de los siglos XVI y XVII, favorecieron la introducción y propagación de las nuevas especies, (iii durante el siglo XVI coexistieron especies nativas e introducidas, sin embargo, durante el siglo XVII preponderaron las exóticas, y (iv este predominio habría generado la extinción local de especies animales y vegetales nativas, alterando definitivamente el paisaje ecológico araucanoThe bio-geographic characteristics of the temperate America favored the introduction and spreading of exotic plant and animal species that supported the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming model. The effects of this situation produced ecological alterations on the territories inhabited by Indians without intense productive systems; as the Araucanía case. Through a historical and documental analysis this paper reports the main characteristics of the Araucanian ecological landscape disruption process during the 16th and 17th centuries: (i during the 16th century, the introduction of exotic species dislocated the Mapuche economic system, (ii both the relative Araucanía pristine conditions and the warlike process, occurred between the 16th and 17th centuries, favored the introduction and

  14. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  15. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  16. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  17. Essays on Stock Exchange Competition and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Atso

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the industrial structure, the nature of competition and the pricing of stock exchange trading services in Europe. Specific for the study is that exchanges are considered to be profit-maximizing institutions that face competition. A conventional analysis of concentration ratios shows that the concentration of European stock exchanges is low. When the nature of competition is measured in more detail, regression results indicate that exchanges operate in monopolistic o...

  18. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  19. Bargaining over Tax Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    May Elsayyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically studies recent treaty signings between tax havens and OECD countries as the outcome of a bargaining process over treaty form. Havens can decide not to sign an agreement, to sign a tax information exchange agreement or to sign a double taxation convention. We use a highly stylized bargaining model to develop testable hypotheses with regards to the type of agreement signed. We show that the main determinants of treaty signing are a haven's bargaining power and good govern...

  20. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  1. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  2. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  3. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  4. 47 CFR 90.675 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.675 Section 90.675... exchange. (a) Prior coordination. Public safety/CII licensees may notify an ESMR or part 22 Cellular... cell is activated. (c) Public safety information exchange. (1) Upon request by an ESMR or part 22...

  5. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  6. 47 CFR 90.555 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.555 Section 90.555...-805 MHz Bands § 90.555 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety licensees... Safety Information Exchange. (1) Upon request by a 746-757, 758-763, 776-787, or 788-793 MHz band...

  7. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  8. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  9. The Deceptive Resilience of Fixed Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mushin, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the experience of exchange-rate systems since 1978. Despite the accelerating trend in favour of floating exchange rates, a substantial minority of IMF members have continued to fix the value of their currencies. The recent incidence of each of the principal types of exchange-rate peg is described.

  10. Neighbourhood Book Exchanges: Localising Information Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Tenny; Gollner, Kathleen; Nathan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Through this paper we report on an exploratory study into the design and use of neighbourhood book exchanges in North America. We identify dominant media framings of these book exchanges in North America, along with claims made concerning the influence of the exchanges. We compare the media claims with insights from interviews with…

  11. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings, Opinion, and Order of the... Registration as a National Securities Exchange (``Form 1 Application'') \\1\\ under Section 6 of the Securities... substantive, are consistent with the existing rules of other registered national securities exchanges, or are...

  12. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  13. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  14. Synthetic inorganic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange isotherms for hydrogen ion/alkali metal ions have been measured at 20 and 40 0 C, with a solution ionic strength of 0.1, in crystalline antimonic(V) acid as a cation-exchanger. The isotherms showed S-shaped curves for the systems of H + /Na + , H + /K + , H + /Rb + and H + /Cs + , but not for H + /Li + exchange. The selectivity coefficients (logarithm scale) vs equivalent fraction of alkali metal ions in the exchanger give linear functions for all systems studied. The selectivity sequences are shown. Overall and hypothetical (zero loading) thermodynamic equilibrium constants were evaluated for these ion-exchange reactions. (author)

  15. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  16. Exchange of Information in Tax Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present issues related to exchange of tax information. The author focuses on models of exchange of information and boundaries of obligations in reference to above-mentioned problems. Automatic exchange of information, spontaneous exchange of information and exchange of information on request are analysed in this work on the base of OECD Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Council Directive 2011/16 and OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information in Tax Matters. In the summary, it was showed that the most efficient method of exchange of tax information is automatic exchange of information. Furthermore, it was stated that exchange on request can be related to negative phenomenon such as fishing expedition. Spontaneous exchange of information is thought to play only supportive role.  The author also considers that boundaries of exchange of information in tax matters were regulated so as to protect jeopardised raison d’ État.

  17. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  18. The effects of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange volatility on exports

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ibrahima Amadou

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses panel data cointegration techniques to study the impacts of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to 2004. The results show that both real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility affect negatively exports. The results also illustrate that real exchange rate volatility is more harmful to exports than misalignment. These outcomes are corroborated by estimations on s...

  19. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  20. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  1. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  2. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  3. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  4. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  5. Compact heat exchanger for fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, P.A.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a welded heat exchanger with two or more fluids which can be used counter current. The principle of the apparatus allows the use of rolled welded concentric metal strips as well as spiral rolled metal strips. The ring sheets are kept apart either by their rigidity due to the cylindrical shape or by deformations in the sheets themselves or yet again by spacers or chequered and/or perforated sheets forming for instance corrugated spacers, the end sheet being thick enough to take the pressure strain [fr

  6. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  7. Heat exchanges in coarsening systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corberi, Federico [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Università di Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gonnella, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal properties of ageing systems where statistically independent degrees of freedom with greatly separated time scales are expected to coexist. Focusing on the prototypical case of quenched ferromagnets, where fast and slow modes can be respectively associated with fluctuations in the bulk of the coarsening domains and in their interfaces, we perform a set of numerical experiments specifically designed to compute the heat exchanges between different degrees of freedom. Our studies promote a scenario with fast modes acting as an equilibrium reservoir to which interfaces may release heat through a mechanism that allows fast and slow degrees to maintain their statistical properties independently.

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  9. 31 CFR 500.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 500.325... Definitions § 500.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  10. 31 CFR 515.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 515.325... Definitions § 515.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  11. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  12. Isotope exchange process and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvalle, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    A process for enriching uranium in one of its isotopes is described. To do so, cascade isotopic exchanges are made by contact between U(III) and U(IV) in conditions avoiding the oxidation of U(III) in U(IV). A liquid phase containing an uranium compound and free of other group III to VIII metals of the periodic classification, in which uranium is present at a first valence is placed in contact with a second valence uranium compound, protected from any contact with a conducting solid and with an agent bringing free or release oxygen. The second phase is organic. The process includes a counter current isotopic exchange between an aqueous phase containing a U +4 salting-out agent and the uranium as U +3 ions and an organic phase containing the uranium at valence IV. This is followed by the extraction of U(IV) from the organic phase into the previously spent aqueous phase and the reduction of uranium from valence IV to valence III; finally by oxidation of U(III) of the aqueous phase into U(IV) and the transfer of U(IV) into the previously exhausted organic phase [fr

  13. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  14. Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Meir, Avishai; Ramon, Guy Z.; WET Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines are reliable machines holding great promise in converting heat from low grade heat sources to mechanical or electrical power. In these engines the working fluid is a gas mixture containing one condensable component, decreasing the temperature difference required for ignition and steady state operation. Our experimental setup consists of a vertical acoustic resonator containing a mixture of air-water vapor. Water evaporates near the heat source, condenses at the heat sink and is drawn back down by gravity and capillary forces where it re-evaporates, sustaining a steady state closed thermodynamic cycle. We investigated the stability limit, namely the critical point at which temperature difference in the engine enables onset of self-excited oscillations, and the steady state of the engine. A simple theoretical model was derived, describing mechanisms of irreversible entropy generation and production of acoustic power in such engines. This model captures the essence in the differences between regular and phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines, and shows good agreement with experimental results of stability limit. Steady state results reveal not only a dramatic decrease in temperature difference, but also an increase in engine performances. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  15. El brocado de estaño en relieve aplicado. Evolución histórica y material en la Europa medieval con atención al arte español (siglos XV-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez López, Ainhoa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The term applied tin-relief brocade (commonly called applied brocade refers to painted decoration that simulates the velvet and silk brocades made of gold and silver threads commonly used in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This technique uses a mould, tin leaf, and filling mass to reproduce in a mechanical way the relief motifs of textile brocades. Once cut, they are applied to artwork, and then sometimes gilded or painted. The discovery of many examples of this type of decoration in northern Spain has led us to the study of the documentary sources, especially Spanish ones, with the purpose of improving our understanding of the technique, its historic and material development, and the typology of standardized patterns. Furthermore, this study has provided us with an important glossary of the relief painting additive techniques that culminated in applied tinrelief brocade.El término brocado de estaño en relieve aplicado (comúnmente conocido como brocado aplicado se refiere a una decoración polícroma que imita los brocados de terciopelo y seda hechos con hilos de oro y plata, los cuales dominan el mundo de la moda de Europa en los siglos XV y XVI. Esta técnica reproduce mecánicamente a través de una matriz, lámina de estaño y masa de relleno motivos en relieve de brocados textiles, que, una vez recortados, son aplicados sobre la obra, pudiendo estar en ocasiones dorados y pintados. El hallazgo de más ejemplos de esta decoración en el Norte de España nos ha conducido a analizar las fuentes documentales, especialmente las españolas, con el objetivo de ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre la técnica en cuestión, su evolución histórica y material y sus diferentes tipologías. Asimismo, dicho estudio nos ha proporcionado un importante glosario de técnicas pictóricas en relieve por adición precursoras del brocado de estaño en relieve aplicado.

  16. El uso de productos del reino mineral en la terapéutica del siglo XVI. El libro de los Medicamentos simples de Juan Fragoso (1581 y el Antidotario de Juan Calvo (1580

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresquet Febrer, José Luis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to approach us the use of "mineral products" in medicine during 16th and 17th centuries. To have an idea about the use of minerals in daily practice, we have studied Juan Fragoso's Libro de los medicamentos simples (1581, and Juan Calvo's Antidotario (1580. We have also checked the presence of these substances in Dioscorides Materia medica, version of Andres Laguna, and the Diccionario de Autoridades. In addition, but not exhaustively, we have followed the used of these products in medicine until the present. This work proves the medical application of about half a hundred of mineral products, the use of which, was coommon in metallurgy, in paintings and vernishes manufacture, in ceramics, in dying industry, etc. However, the physicians of those times, such as Fragoso and Calvo were careful when applying mineral substances due to their great toxicity.

    Este trabajo pretende acercamos al uso de lo que podemos designar como productos pertenecientes al reino mineral, en la medicina científica de los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de hacemos una idea de lo que realmente se utilizaba en la práctica cotidiana, se han estudiado el Libro de los medicamentos simples de Juan Fragoso y el Antidotario de Juan Calvo. Tomando como base los fármacos que en ellos se describen y comentan, hemos comprobado su presencia en la versión de la Materia médica de Dioscórides, de Andrés Laguna, y hemos completado la información con las definiciones del Diccionario de Autoridades. Además de esto, aunque no de forma exhaustiva, hemos seguido el empleo de estas sustancias en medicina hasta la actualidad. El trabajo demuestra el empleo en terapéutica de más de medio centenar de este tipo de productos cuyo uso era habitual en metalurgia, en la fabricación de pinturas y barnices, en cerámica, en tintes, etc. Los médicos de entonces fueron bastante cautelosos al

  17. Uma análise crítica da literatura sobre a oferta e a circulação de moeda metálica no Brasil nos séculos XVI e XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carlos G. de Cerqueira Lima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina os principais fatores determinantes da oferta e da circulação de moeda metálica no Brasil nos séculos XVI e XVII. O objetivo é contribuir para o debate, até hoje pouco explorado, sobre a escassez de moeda no Brasil colonial. O trabalho é dividido em seis seções, além da introdução e considerações finais. A primeira apresenta as principais características do sistema bimetálico então vigente em Portugal e de sua política de desvalorização da unidade de conta. A análise da oferta de moeda no Brasil é desenvolvida nas quatro seções seguintes, destacando o início do processo de monetização, os fluxos de entrada e saída de metais, os impactos da política de cunhagem metropolitana e os episódios de remarcação e cunhagem de moeda no Brasil. Os determinantes do entesouramento são discutidos a seguir. Uma última seção resume os argumentos apresentados ao longo do trabalho.This paper examines the main factors that determined the supply and circulation of metallic coins in Brazil in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The objective is to contribute to the debate, often neglected, on the scarcity of money in colonial Brazil. The paper is divided into six parts, on top of the introduction and the concluding remarks. The first presents the main features of the then prevalent Portuguese monetary system, as well as its policy of debasement. The next four parts deal with the supply of metallic currency in Brazil analysing respectively the early stages of the process of monetization, the inflows and outflows of precious metals, the impacts of the policy of coinage adopted by the Portuguese Crown, and some episodes of marking and minting of coins in Brazil. This is followed by an analysis of hoarding. It concludes with a summary of the main arguments developed along the paper.

  18. Los sonetos y canciones del poeta Francisco Petrarcha de Enrique Garcés. Notas sobre el Canzoniere de Francesco Petrarca en la América del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertomeu Masiá, Mª José

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 16th century three translations to Castilian of were made; only the complete one is the one that was published in 1591: Los sonetos y canciones del poeta Francisco Petrarcha que traduzia Henrique Garcés de lengua thoscana en castellana by a miner, bookseller and poet of Portuguese origin named Enrique Garces who developed his cultural work in Peru and maintained contact with the most important intellectual circles of second half of the century in Hispano-America. This article, after a brief introduction that looks at the figure of Enrique Garcés and his role in viceroyal Peru, it is centered in the analysis of the translation in order to find out the text that worked Garcés with and, finally, it studies the poem Canción al Pirú a imitación de «Italia mia, ben che’l parlar sia in darno».En la segunda mitad del siglo XVI se realizaron tres traducciones al castellano del Canzoniere de Francesco Petrarca; la única completa es la que publicó en 1591 con el título Los sonetos y canciones del poeta Francisco Petrarcha que traduzia Henrique Garcés de lengua thoscana en castellana, un minero, librero y poeta de origen portugués llamado Enrique Garcés que desarrolló su labor cultural en Perú y mantuvo contacto con los círculos intelectuales más importantes de la segunda mitad del siglo en Hispanoamérica. Este artículo, tras una breve introducción a la figura de Enrique Garcés y su papel en el Perú virreinal, se centra en el análisis de la traducción para intentar averiguar cuál podría ser el texto italiano del que tradujo Garcés y, por último, estudia la Canción al Pirú a imitación de «Italia mia, ben che’l parlar sia in darno».

  19. Notas acerca de los dispositivos de poder en la sociedad colonial-fronteriza, la resistencia y la transculturación de los reche-mapuches del Centro-Sur de Chile (XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccara, Guillaume

    1996-12-01

    escapar la principal consecuencia del contacto hispano-indígena, a saber: la gestación de una nueva entidad e identidad étnica a través de un largo proceso de etnogénesis que nos hace pasar de los reche del siglo XVI a los mapuche del siglo XVIII.

  20. Las categorías clínicas de la neurosis y la perversión en el Seminario 16 The clinical categories of neurosis and perversion in the XVI Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazzuca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone delimitar con precisión las categorías clínicas de perversión y neurosis tal como Lacan las elabora en su Seminario 16 en íntima relación con las nociones estructurales introducidas en ese seminario: fundamentalmente la estructura topológica del Otro estructurada por el significante y sostenida por el objeto (a y la inconmensurabilidad entre el 1 y el objeto. Se examinan los conceptos que definen la estructura de la neurosis y la perversión en general, como las variedades clínicas que las integran. Se destacan dos momentos: uno en que Lacan opone estas categorías según los ejes anaclítico y narcisista, otro en que abandona este último para pasar a caracterizar la neurosis, al igual que la perversión, respecto del Otro, el goce y el objeto (a. En la transición entre uno y otro se sitúa la fobia como placa giratoria desde la estructura de la perversión hacia alguna forma de neurosis.This paper is aimed to accurately delimit the clinical categories of perversion and neurosis, exactly as Lacan elaborates them in his XVI Seminar, in close connection to the structural notions presented in it. Mainly, the topological frame of the Other structured by the significant and sustained by the (aobject and the immeasurability between the 1 and the object. The concepts that define the neurosis and the perversion are examined in general as well as the clinical varieties that integrate them. Two moments are highlighted: one in which Lacan opposes these categories according to the anaclitical and narcissistic cores, and, the other, in which Lacan abandons this last idea to characterize neurosis, the same as perversion, with regard to the Other, the lust and the (a object. In the transition between one and the other, the phobia is situated as a rotating plate from the perversion structure to some neurosis form.

  1. La consolidación de una práctica original: el reparto del superávit del refitor entre los prebendados de la Catedral de Toledo (S. XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Villaluenga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Según lo previsto en la normativa interna, cada año en el cabildo catedral de Toledo se repartía entre los canónigos y racioneros el superávit o excedente de tesorería del refitor, la oficina que gestionaba el acervo de rentas más importante de la Corporación. Esta misma costumbre existía en otros cabildos hispánicos y en las universidades. En este último caso era frecuente que se repartiera el superávit entre el arca de la fundación y los catedráticos. El reparto del superávit entre los prebendados de los cabildos catedrales resulta un tema de investigación novedoso. Su interés está justificado inicialmente por la curiosidad que puede suscitar este comportamiento económico tan cercano a los modernos sistemas de retribución utilizados en la empresa y que ponen de manifiesto la preocupación de la corporación por preservar los intereses económicos de sus miembros. A este respecto, podemos decir que la producción bibliográfica es escasa. Únicamente existen ciertas referencias en trabajos de contenidos distintos, que tratan de cuestiones relativas a la norma interna, constituciones o estatutos de estas corporaciones. El trabajo que aquí presentamos analiza el origen del superávit del refitor de la Catedral de Toledo, la forma de reparto y su objeto, así como su evolución durante el siglo XVI. De su análisis concluiremos que el incremento de los ingresos de este departamento no fue empleado en aumentar los gastos, como era costumbre, sino en consolidar el excedente de tesorería para su reparto entre los prebendados, al objeto de potenciar la asistencia al coro, siguiendo la doctrina de concilio de Trento. Así, dicho complemento retributivo premiaba la productividad en el servicio cultual del personal ya existente, evitando comprometer a largo plazo recursos en la dotación de nuevas plazas.

  2. Investigating the effects of liquidity and exchange rate on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of two macroeconomic factors; namely exchange rate and liquidity on stock index. The proposed study was applied in Iran and on major index of Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2001-2011. They reported that the currency exchange maintained negative impact on stock exchange for the period of investigation. This is due to the fact that when currency devalued, working capital decreases and firms did not enough money to purchase raw materials, pay wages, etc. In addition, liquidity marinated a direct and positive relationship with exchange index. However, the impact of liquidity seems to be bigger than currency exchange.

  3. Foreign Exchange Exposures of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbin Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measure foreign exchange exposures as sensitivity of firm's value to FX premium in the CAPM plus FX premium model, and try to find determinants of the exposures; using data of non-financial companies listed in the Korea Exchange from the year 2007 to 2008. Main findings are as follows. If Korean won depreciates, only a small number of firms is benefitted while majority of firms are harmed to the contrary of common knowledge. As a firm's export increases, the foreign exchange exposure increases up to a certain level and after that it declines. And, smaller firms of negative foreign exchange exposures are more sensitive to foreign exchange changes. These suggest heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange rates on industries and firms.

  4. Ion exchange in ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.P.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ion exchange properties of Na-ZSM5 have been studied using a number of univalent and divalent cations at 25degC and 65degC. All the univalent cations studied achieved 100 per cent exchange. The thermodynamic affinity sequence Cs > Rb=NH 4 =H 3 O>K>Na>Li was found at both temperatures for a sample with Si/Al=39. Standard enthalpies of exchange ΔH o were calculated using the van't' Hoff isochore and standard entropies of exchange were then calculated from ΔH o and ΔG o . Multivalent cations were unable to achieve 100 per cent exchange. The maximum exchange was found to increase through the series Ca 2+ cations ( 57 Fe enriched) on dehydration and rehydration following sorption and desorption of ethanol. At least 3 sites for Fe 2+ were observed in the dehydrated zeolite. (author)

  5. Ion exchange and hydrolysis reactions in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, Risto.

    1993-09-01

    Among other uses, zeolites are efficient cation exchangers for aquatic pollution control. At present they they are mainly used in nuclear waste effluent treatment and in detergency. In the thesis, several ion exchange equilibria, important in these main fields of zeolite applications, were studied, with special emphasis on the formulation and calculation of the equilibria. The main interest was the development of thermodynamic formulations for the calculation of zeolite ion exchange equilibria in solutions of low or very low (trace) ion concentration, which are relevant for the removal of trace pollutants, such as radionuclides, from waste waters. Two groups of zeolite-cation systems were studied. First, binary Ca 2+ /Na + exchange in zeolites X and Y, which are of interest for detergency applications. Second, binary Cs + /Na + and Cs + /K + exchanges, and ternary Cs + /Na + /K + exchange in mordenite, which are important in nuclear waste effluent treatment. The thesis is based on five previous publications by author. (100 refs., 7 figs.)

  6. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange o......-directional data exchange as well as efficient requirements change management through a graphical user interface. The paper also demonstrates the use of the proposed solution based on a farming case study and open source technologies....... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  7. Sparseness and Roughness of Foreign Exchange Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, N.; Ausloos, M.

    An accurate multiaffine analysis of 23 foreign currency exchange rates has been performed. The roughness exponent H1 which characterizes the excursion of the exchange rate has been numerically measured. The degree of intermittency C1 has been also estimated. In the (H1,C1) phase diagram, the currency exchange rates are dispersed in a wide region around the Brownian motion value (H1=0.5,C1=0) and have a significantly intermittent component (C1≠0).

  8. Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, J.S.; Bressler, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test was the first part of a test program to develop a water-cooled (tube-side), compact heat exchanger for removing heat from the circulating gas in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Measurements of velocity and pressure were made with various shell side inlet and outlet configurations. A flow configuration was developed which provides acceptable velocity distribution throughout the heat exchanger without adding excessive pressure drop

  9. A new assessment of floating exchange rates

    OpenAIRE

    Waimann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The switch to floating exchange rates during the 1970s has given economists the first comprehensive opportunity to assess the arguments for and against floating. Much new work has been done on various aspects of floating exchange rate behaviour. This article attempts a limited survey of the evidence concerning two important issues—whether floating exchange rates are inherently unstable and whether they harm international trade.

  10. China; Sources of Real Exchange Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of China's real effective exchange rate between 1980 and 2002, and uses a structural vector autoregression model to study the relative importance of different types of macroeconomic shocks for fluctuations in the real exchange rate. The structural decomposition shows that relative real demand and supply shocks account for most of the variations in real exchange rate changes during the estimation period. The paper also finds that supply shocks are as important ...

  11. Exchange rate policy and devaluation in Malawi:

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Karl; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mazunda, John

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates why devaluation was ultimately necessary in Malawi and also what its eventual impact might be in terms of prices, income distribution, and domestic production. Our approach is to use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to evaluate the economywide impacts of foreign exchange shortages in Malawi under two alternative exchange rate regimes. The foreign exchange shortages are modeled by simulating the effect of actual shocks, including tobacco price declines and r...

  12. Preparation of β-cyclodextrin-gold nanoparticles modified open tubular column for capillary electrochromatographic separation of chiral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Shenmeng; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Linlin; Guo, Xingjie

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated open tubular column (OT column) was prepared for capillary electrochromatography. The open tubular column was constructed through self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) prederivatized capillary and subsequent modification of thiols β-cyclodextrin (SH-β-CD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the prepared open tubular column and synthesized gold nanoparticles. By comparing different coating times of gold nanoparticles and thiols β-cyclodextrin, we got the optimal conditions for preparing the open tubular column. Also, the separation parameters were optimized including buffer pH, buffer concentration and applied voltage. Separation effectiveness of open tubular column was verified by the separation of four pairs of drug enantiomers including bifonazole, fexofenadine, omeprazole and lansoprazole, and satisfactory separation results were achieved for these analytes studied. In addition, the column showed good stability and repeatability. The relative standard deviation values less than 5% were obtained through intra-day, inter-day, and column-to-column investigations. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Pressurized capillary electrochromatographic analysis of water-soluble vitamins by combining with on-line concentration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Liu, Yaling; Du, Yanyan; Xing, Da

    2007-06-22

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) system was developed for the separation of water-soluble vitamins, in which UV absorbance was used as the detection method and a monolithic silica-ODS column as the separation column. The parameters (type and content of organic solvent in the mobile phase, type and concentration of electrolyte, pH of the electrolyte buffer, applied voltage and flow rate) affecting the separation resolution were evaluated. The combination of two on-line concentration techniques, namely, solvent gradient zone sharpening effect and field-enhanced sample stacking, was utilized to improve detection sensitivity, which proved to be beneficial to enhance the detection sensitivity by enabling the injection of large volumes of samples. Coupling electrokinetic injection with the on-line concentration techniques was much more beneficial for the concentration of positively charged vitamins. Comparing with the conventional injection mode, the enhancement in the detection sensitivities of water-soluble vitamins using the on-line concentration technique is in the range of 3 to 35-fold. The developed pCEC method was applied to evaluate water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  14. Heat exchangers in heavy water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Important features of some major heat exchange components of pressurized heavy water reactors and DHRUVA research reactor are presented. Design considerations and nuclear service classifications are discussed

  15. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  16. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  17. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  18. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  19. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  20. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  1. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  2. Exchange interactions in Fe/Y multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkabil, R.; Elkaidi, I.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Hamdoun, A.; Bensassi, B.; Berrada, A.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetization of Fe/Y multilayers has been measured as a function of temperature. A bulk-like T 3/2 temperature dependence of the magnetization is observed for all multilayers in the temperature range 5-300 K. The spin-wave constant B is found to decrease inversely with t Fe . A simple theoretical model with exchange interactions only, and with non-interacting magnons, has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b , surface exchange interaction J s and the interlayer exchange interaction J I for various Fe layer thicknesses have been obtained

  3. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  4. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  5. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  6. The Hatch-Smolensk exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproles, A.

    1993-01-01

    During summer 1992, the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) sponsored an exchange visit between Georgia Power Company's Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant, a two-unit boiling water reactor site, and the Smolensk atomic energy station, a three-unit RBMK (graphite-moderated and light-water-cooled) plant located 350 km west of Moscow, in Desnogorsk, Russia. The Plant Hatch team included Glenn Goode, manager of engineering support; Curtis Coggin, manager of training and emergency preparedness; Wayne Kirkley, manager of health physics and chemistry; John Lewis, manager of operations; Ray Baker, coordinator of nuclear fuels and contracts; and Bruce McLeod, manager of nuclear maintenance support. Also traveling with the team was Jerald Towgood, of WANO's Atlanta Centre. The Hatch team visited the Smolensk plant during the week of July 27, 1992

  7. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  9. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  10. 76 FR 79254 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Market Maker'') in a derivative securities product (``UTP Derivative Security'') that derives its value... Derivative Security on the Exchange(s) from acting or registering as a market maker on any other exchange in any Reference Asset of that UTP Derivative Security, or any derivative instrument based on a Reference...

  11. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  12. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  13. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  14. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; van Westen, Danielle; Brockstedt, Sara; Lasič, Samo; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8±0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6±0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9±0.8 s(-1). In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Is a more stable exchange rate associated with reduced exchange rate pass-through?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark J. Holmes

    2007-01-01

    Pass-through from the nominal effective exchange rate to import prices is modelled within a regime-switching environment. Evidence suggests that exchange rate pass through can be characterised as regime-specific where the probability of switching between regimes is influenced by the extent of exchange rate volatility.

  16. Kinetic equation of heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trokhimets, A I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii

    1979-12-01

    A kinetic equation is derived for the bimolecular isotope exchange reaction between AXsub(n)sup(*) and BXsub(m)sup(o), all atoms of element X in each molecule being equivalent. The equation can be generalized for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange.

  17. MONETARY MODELS AND EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Power Party [PPP] based on the law of one price asserts that the change in the exchange rate between .... exchange in international economic transactions has made it vitally evident that the management of ... One lesson from this episode is to ...

  18. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  19. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  20. Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1996-01-01

    Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The

  1. The tail index of exchange rate returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M. Schafgans (Marcia); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature on the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates there is now consensus that exchange rate yields are fat-tailed. Three problems, however, persist: (1) Which class of distribution functions is most appropriate? (2) Are the parameters of the distribution invariant

  2. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  3. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); A. Markiewicz (Agnieszka); R. Verhoeks (Ralph); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a theoretical framework of exchange rate behavior where investors focus on a subset of economic fundamentals. We find that any adjustment in the set of predictors used by investors leads to changes in the relation between the exchange rate and fundamentals. We test the

  4. Heat exchanger versus regenerator: A fundamental comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, M.E.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Irreversible processes in regenerators and heat exchangers limit the performance of cryocoolers. In this paper we compare the performance of cryocoolers, operating with regenerators and heat exchangers from a fundamental point of view. The losses in the two systems are calculated from the entropy

  5. Development of commodity exchange in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Sicel, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis work is to show relevance and necessarity for existing of commodity exchange and it’s influence to the economy of Croatia. Because eastern part of Croatia, region called Slavonia is mostly agricultural oriented, it is of essential relevance to establish and make operate of first commodity exchange in Croatia.

  6. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  7. Development of heat exchangers for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, R.I.; Dalrymple, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Unusual design constraints, due to tube vibration, are called for when tube-in-shell heat exchangers are incorporated into CANDU type reactor power plants. CRNL has programs studying tube excitation and response, flow conditions, and the fretting process in such exchangers, tube plugging techniques, and eddy current scanning systems for inside bores of full-length tubes. (E.C.B.)

  8. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  9. 47 CFR 22.880 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.880 Section 22.880 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.880 Information exchange. (a...

  10. 47 CFR 22.973 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.973 Section 22.973 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.973 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety/CII...

  11. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate. It adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange interventions, where the weights are their effectiveness. The

  12. Foreign Exchange and Library Collections in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiagwu, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the difficulties involved in acquiring materials for academic libraries in Nigeria uses statistics at one university to demonstrate the drop in foreign exchange based orders. Alternatives to overseas purchasing, including local purchasing, gifts and exchanges, and resource sharing programs, are also discussed. (CLB)

  13. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, R.; Markiewicz, A.; Verhoeks, R.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Exchange rate models with uncertain and incomplete information predict that investors focus on a small set of fundamentals that changes frequently over time. We design a model selection rule that captures the current set of fundamentals that best predicts the exchange rate. Out-of-sample tests show

  14. Experimental evaluation of vibrations in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ghiselli, A.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations may produce damage of heat exchangers, condensers and steam generators tubes. To evaluate this problem a set of tests were developed to know the real support state of the tubes, which have great influence on the vibration response. This paper include a description of the tests and the results obtained applying them on a heat exchanger equipment. (author) [es

  15. Lattice QCD simulation of meson exchange forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.G.; Sinclair, D.K.; Sivers, D.

    1990-01-01

    We present the formalism for investigating the bar Qq bar Qq system in lattice QCD. This system serves as a model for describing exchange forces between heavy, static hadrons. We use this formalism to calculate the exchange potential from gauge configurations which incorporate the effects of dynamical quarks. Our data can be interpreted as giving preliminary results on the range of the nuclear force

  16. Carboxylic acid exchangers in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on the use of carboxylic acid exchangers in inorganic analytical chemistry is reviewed. It is classified under two heads, based on the ionic form in which the exchanger is employed, viz., the salt form and the acid form. In the salt form, the separations reported in the beginning are mostly carried out in alkaline medium, employing ammonia and its derivatives as complexing agents to hold cations in solution. This was followed by the use of ammonium ion as an eluent from heavy weakly or neutral solutions. There are a few separations reported making use of EDTA as eluent. It appears that separation of some anions from cations can be achieved with greater ease with these exchangers than with sulphonic acid type. Contary to the general belief, carboxylic acid exchangers are used in H + form to achieve some analytical separations of cations of interest. These exchangers exhibit better sorption of some cations in presence of complexing agents containing basic nitrogen as a donor. In fact, a careful study of these exchangers with different matrices might yield really selective exchangers, than the chelating ones known commercially. From the separation cited, carboxylic acid exchangers appear to have greater potentialities in their applications, than what is normally expected. (author)

  17. Isolating the exchanges in multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirila, P.; Thomas, G.H.; Quigg, C.

    1975-01-01

    We employ rapidity-gap distributions to identify and study the exchanges between hadron clusters produced in collisions at Fermilab energies. The observation of charge exchange disproves the neutral cluster model. At these energies, the data are consistent with the independent emission of clusters of limited charge or with a true limited-charge-exchange picture. For exchange models, two important parameters are identified: the ratio between vertical-bar ΔQ vertical-bar = 1 and ΔQ = 0 exchange, and the ratio between the density in rapidity of charged clusters and that of neutral clusters. In principle, both of these quantities are measurable, but with existing data only the first can be determined. We use a unitarity calculation to estimate the second. Given an exchange model which fits rapidity-gap distributions, we obtain a solution to the counting problem in the overlap-function calculation of the energy dependence of two-body charge exchange, and estimate the suppression of charge exchange with respect to elastic scattering

  18. Apparent exchange rate imaging in anisotropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Lundell, Henrik M; Søgaard, Lise V

    2014-01-01

    Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the effect of macroscopic tissue anisotropy on the measurement of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in multicompartment systems....

  19. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle

  20. Pan-American Teletandem Language Exchange Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Scott, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a TeleTandem language exchange project between English speaking Spanish students at Georgia College, USA, and Spanish speaking English students at Universidad de Concepción, Chile. The aim of the project was to promote linguistic skills and intercultural competence through a TeleTandem exchange. Students used Skype and Google…