WorldWideScience

Sample records for exchange environmental productivity

  1. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  2. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  3. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  4. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  5. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  6. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  7. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  8. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  9. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...... - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  10. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction......). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies...

  11. Environmental tools in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    A precondition for design of environmentally friendly products is that the design team has access to methods and tools supporting the introduction of environmental criteria in product development. A large Danish program, EDIP, is being carried out by the Institute for Product Development, Technical...... University of Denmark, in cooperation with 5 major Danish companies aiming at the development and testing of such tools. These tools are presented in this paper...

  12. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......This report presents the analyses of the shaping, implementation and embedding of eight types of environmental initiatives in product chains. The analyses focus on • the role of the type of product and branch, of the size of the companies and of governmental regulation • the focus...... of the environmental concerns and the reductions in environmental impact • organisational changes which have been part of the embedding of the initiatives The analyses are based on 25 cases from national and international product chains involving one or more Danish companies. Based on the analyses of the eight types...

  13. Production of antihydrogen via double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition of antihydrogen confined in a neutral atom trap and comparison with the equivalent spectral line in hydrogen will provide an accurate test of CPT symmetry and the first one in a mixed baryon-lepton system. Also, with neutral antihydrogen atoms, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter can be tested unperturbed by the much stronger Coulomb forces. Antihydrogen is regularly produced at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator by three-body-recombination (TBR) of one antiproton and two positrons. The method requires injecting antiprotons into a cloud of positrons, which raises the average temperature of the antihydrogen atoms produced way above the typical 0.5 K trap depths of neutral atom traps. Therefore only very few antihydrogen atoms can be confined at a time. Precision measurements, like laser spectroscopy, will greatly benefit from larger numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms. Therefore, the ATRAP collaboration developed a different production method that has the potential to create much larger numbers of cold, trappable antihydrogen atoms. Positrons and antiprotons are stored and cooled in a Penning trap in close proximity. Laser excited cesium atoms collide with the positrons, forming Rydberg positronium, a bound state of an electron and a positron. The positronium atoms are no longer confined by the electric potentials of the Penning trap and some drift into the neighboring cloud of antiprotons where, in a second charge exchange collision, they form antihydrogen. The antiprotons remain at rest during the entire process, so much larger numbers of trappable antihydrogen atoms can be produced. Laser excitation is necessary to increase the efficiency of the process since the cross sections for charge-exchange collisions scale with the fourth power of the principal quantum number n. This method, named double charge-exchange, was demonstrated by ATRAP in 2004. Since then, ATRAP constructed a new

  14. Production of antihydrogen via double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellers, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition of antihydrogen confined in a neutral atom trap and comparison with the equivalent spectral line in hydrogen will provide an accurate test of CPT symmetry and the first one in a mixed baryon-lepton system. Also, with neutral antihydrogen atoms, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter can be tested unperturbed by the much stronger Coulomb forces. Antihydrogen is regularly produced at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator by three-body-recombination (TBR) of one antiproton and two positrons. The method requires injecting antiprotons into a cloud of positrons, which raises the average temperature of the antihydrogen atoms produced way above the typical 0.5 K trap depths of neutral atom traps. Therefore only very few antihydrogen atoms can be confined at a time. Precision measurements, like laser spectroscopy, will greatly benefit from larger numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms. Therefore, the ATRAP collaboration developed a different production method that has the potential to create much larger numbers of cold, trappable antihydrogen atoms. Positrons and antiprotons are stored and cooled in a Penning trap in close proximity. Laser excited cesium atoms collide with the positrons, forming Rydberg positronium, a bound state of an electron and a positron. The positronium atoms are no longer confined by the electric potentials of the Penning trap and some drift into the neighboring cloud of antiprotons where, in a second charge exchange collision, they form antihydrogen. The antiprotons remain at rest during the entire process, so much larger numbers of trappable antihydrogen atoms can be produced. Laser excitation is necessary to increase the efficiency of the process since the cross sections for charge-exchange collisions scale with the fourth power of the principal quantum number n. This method, named double charge-exchange, was demonstrated by ATRAP in 2004. Since then, ATRAP constructed a new combined

  15. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  16. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  17. Isolating the exchanges in multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirila, P.; Thomas, G.H.; Quigg, C.

    1975-01-01

    We employ rapidity-gap distributions to identify and study the exchanges between hadron clusters produced in collisions at Fermilab energies. The observation of charge exchange disproves the neutral cluster model. At these energies, the data are consistent with the independent emission of clusters of limited charge or with a true limited-charge-exchange picture. For exchange models, two important parameters are identified: the ratio between vertical-bar ΔQ vertical-bar = 1 and ΔQ = 0 exchange, and the ratio between the density in rapidity of charged clusters and that of neutral clusters. In principle, both of these quantities are measurable, but with existing data only the first can be determined. We use a unitarity calculation to estimate the second. Given an exchange model which fits rapidity-gap distributions, we obtain a solution to the counting problem in the overlap-function calculation of the energy dependence of two-body charge exchange, and estimate the suppression of charge exchange with respect to elastic scattering

  18. Stakeholder engagement and knowledge exchange in environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Jeremy; Lowe, Philip; Proctor, Amy; Ruto, Eric

    2012-03-01

    It is commonly put forward that effective uptake of research in policy or practice must be built upon a foundation of active knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement during the research. However, what is often lacking is a systematic appreciation of the specific practices of knowledge exchange and their relative merits. The paper reports on a 2009 survey of 21 research projects within the UK Research Councils' Rural Economy and Land Use Programme regarding the involvement and perceived impact of over a thousand stakeholders in the research. The survey reveals that most stakeholders were involved as research subjects or as event participants. Large numbers were also engaged in the research process itself, including involvement in shaping the direction of research. Stakeholder engagement is perceived as bringing significant benefits to the process of knowledge production. A close relationship is found between mechanisms and approaches to knowledge exchange and the spread of benefits for researchers and stakeholders. Mutual benefits are gained from exchange of staff or where stakeholders are members of research advisory groups. Different stakeholder sectors are also associated with different patterns of engagement, which lead to contrasting impact patterns. Any efforts to alter knowledge exchange processes and outcomes must overcome these differing engagement tendencies. Overall, much greater attention should be given to early processes of knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement within the lifetime of research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  20. The development of environmental productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Schröder, Sascha T.

    the environmental productivity of individual generator units based on a panel data set for the period 1998 to 2011 that includes virtually all fuel-fired generator units in Denmark. We further decompose total productivity into technical efficiency, best practice ratio, and scale efficiency and use a global...... Malmquist index to calculate the yearly changes. By applying time series clustering, we can identify high, middle, and low performance groups of generator units in a dynamic setting. Our results indicate that the sectoral productivity only slightly increased over the fourteen years. Furthermore, we find...... that there is no overall high achiever group, but that the ranking, although time consistent, varies between the different productivity measures. However, we identify steam turbines and combustion engines for combined heat and power production as potential high performers, while combustion engines that only produce...

  1. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrade Lira Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein, climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior, and urbanization (and thus heavy metals. This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  2. Polluting Production - Environmentally Sound Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Kocsis

    2002-01-01

    With the determination of principal parameters of producing and pollution abatement technologies, this paper quantifies abatement and external costs at the social optimum and analyses the dynamic relationship between technological development and the above-mentioned costs. With the partial analysis of parameters, the paper presents the impacts on the level of pollution and external costs of extensive and intensive environmental protection, market demand change and product fees, and not enviro...

  3. Productivity Demand Shocks And Asia-Pacific Real Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ordean Olson

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a productivity-based explanation for real exchange rate behavior of East Asian currencies is examined using sectoral output and employment data, relative prices and relative productivities for China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Time series regressions of the real exchange rate on relative productivity ratios indicate significant relationships for the Philippines, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan and Korea. Only when a...

  4. Real Exchange Rate and Productivity in an OLG Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Hong Thinh DOAN; Karine GENTE

    2013-01-01

    This article develops an overlapping generations model to show how demography and savings affect the relationship between real exchange rate (RER) and productivity. In high-saving (low-saving) countries and/or low-population-growth-rate countries, a rise in productivity leads to a real depreciation (appreciation) whereas the RER may appreciate or depreciate in highproduction-growth-rate. Using panel data, we conclude that a rise in productivity generally causes a real exchange rate appreciati...

  5. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  6. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  7. Charge-exchange products of BEVALAC projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1982-11-01

    There is a substantial production of fragments of all masses lighter than the projectile, such fragments being centered in a narrow region of velocity space around the beam velocity. The exciting studies about anomalons deal with the curious enhanced reactivity of some of these secondary fragments. I direct attention here to the rather rare fragments of the same mass number as the projectile but differing in charge by one unit. We also keep track, as a frame of reference, of the products that have lost one neutron from the projectile

  8. Exchange Standards for Electronic Product Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Implementation Stds Product Definition Stds Graphics Stds j- Image Archival Stds 3 VDMNAPLPS GKS Manipulation I Core PHIGS VDI Textual Stds [ - Simple...Douglas Astronautics 5301 Bolsa Avenue Huntington Beach, CA 92647- 2048 Mr. Siegfried Goldstein Siegfried Enterprises, Inc. P. 0. Box 2308 North

  9. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  10. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  11. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  12. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  13. Examining responses of ecosystem carbon exchange to environmental changes using particle filtering mathod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Attention has been paid to the agricultural field that could regulate ecosystem carbon exchange by water management and residual treatments. However, there have been less known about the dynamic responses of the ecosystem to environmental changes. In this study, focussing on paddy field, where CO2 emissions due to microbial decomposition of organic matter are suppressed and alternatively CH4 emitted under flooding condition during rice growth season and subsequently CO2 emission following the fallow season after harvest, the responses of ecosystem carbon exchange were examined. We conducted model data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter method. The particle filter method, which is one of the Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this study, we focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as soil carbon storage. As the results, the calibrated model with estimated parameters could accurately predict the NEE flux in the subsequent years. The temperature sensitivity, denoted by Q10s in the decomposition rate of

  14. Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO

  15. Hyporheic exchange in mountain rivers I: Mechanics and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele Tonina; John M. Buffington

    2009-01-01

    Hyporheic exchange is the mixing of surface and shallow subsurface water through porous sediment surrounding a river and is driven by spatial and temporal variations in channel characteristics (streambed pressure, bed mobility, alluvial volume and hydraulic conductivity). The significance of hyporheic exchange in linking fluvial geomorphology, groundwater, and riverine...

  16. Environmental improvement through product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Bey, Niki

    Companies in Denmark and abroad are working increasingly to reduce human impacts on the environment and nature. At the same time there must still be a large focus on the creation of value for customers and consumers. This development gives rise to a huge potential for Danish companies, to create ...... Environmental Protection Agency’s company funding scheme. We hope you will be inspired!...

  17. Environmental Management Initiatives in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The Environmental Council for Cleaner Products in 2000-2001 initiated a collection of experience from the environmental co-operation in 25 product chains. This collection of experience was to elucidate the concrete co-operation between suppliers, enterprises and purchasers, to go through tools...... and to report on opportunities and barriers for environmental efforts in the entire product chain. This paper aims at giving a comprehensive analysis of the experiences, on the basis of the reporting of the 25 companies and their supply chains (reported by Ettrup and Bauer in 2002. The 25 case studies have been...

  18. Di-jet production by double pomeron exchange in CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.G.

    1998-05-01

    We have studied events with a high-x F antiproton and two central jets with E T > 7 GeV in CDF, in p anti p collisions at √s = 1800 GeV. We find an excess of events with a rapidity gap at least 3.5 units wide in the proton direction, which we interpret as di-jet production in double pomeron exchange events

  19. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  20. Environmental data exchanging – the need for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Vuk

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyses the beginning of the application of measures imposed by the Slovenian Law on the Environmental Protection and the Environmental Information System. On the basis of his knowledge of the actual state, he proposes a model by means of which it would be possible to systematically assure with EDI environmental balances and environmental accounting, thus providing the basis for the implementation of an applicable environmental information system.

  1. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  2. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...

  3. Environmental interactions of cement-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florea, M.V.A.; Schmidt, W.; Msinjili, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental interactions of concrete and other cement-based products encompasses both the influence of such materials on their environment, as well as the effects of the environment on the materials in time. There are a number of ways in which the environmental impact of concrete can be

  4. Environmental innovations in the product chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and on that basis a framework is developed and discussed in relation to environmental innovations.The paper also highlights how enterprises within two different trades in the Danish food industry have made...... environmental innovations related to their processes and products....

  5. product chain collaboration and environmental innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain.......The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain....

  6. Environmental innovations in the product chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and highlights how enterprises within the organic dairy industry and fish processing industry have made environmental innovations related to their processes and products.......The article gives an overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and highlights how enterprises within the organic dairy industry and fish processing industry have made environmental innovations related to their processes and products....

  7. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  8. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    Due to their generally positive carbon dioxide balance, biofuels are seen as one of the energy carriers in a more sustainable future transportation energy system, but how good is their environmental sustainability, and where lie the main potentials for improvement of their sustainability? Questions...... like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...

  9. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  10. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  11. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  12. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  13. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traboulsi, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); E.A. LISA – METICA, Aix Marseille Université, Pôle de l’Etoile, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Labed, V., E-mail: veronique.labed@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Dauvois, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C. [E.A. LISA – METICA, Aix Marseille Université, Pôle de l’Etoile, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2g}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2g}). TMA and H{sub 2g} are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMA{sub aq} was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMA{sub aq}), monomethylamine (MMA{sub aq}) and ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}{sub aq}). CO{sub 2g} is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMA{sub g}.

  14. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  15. International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu sokushin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-11

    The International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange was held under the theme `The function and role expected of the APEC Virtual Center,` with the objectives of clarifying the need for future intra-regional environmental technological exchange, defining the types of information and personnel exchange, and promoting the use of interactive character of the APEC Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange by encouraging access to and participation in the Virtual Center project. It was held in the period of 11th and 12th, November in 1996, at the venue of Rinku International Convention Center in Osaka. The symposium was attended by 477 persons from nine countries, i.e., Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Thailand, the US, and Japan, comprising staff members of intra-regional environment-related organizations. After the keynote speech, `Current status and tasks of environmental technology exchange`, and `Expected roles of the Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange` were discussed. During the plenary session, the chairman summarized the symposium. This summary was carried on the Virtual Center homepage of the Internet

  16. NPOESS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R.; Grant, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Together, IDPS and A&DP must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. In support of this activity, A&DP and IDPS continually updates the estimated performance of the NPOESS system with respect to both latency and data quality, using the latest operational implementation of the data processing software and information from instrument test activities. This presentation will illustrate and describe the processing chains that create the data products, as well as describe the

  17. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-01-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  18. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  19. Mechanical Characterization of Anion Exchange Membranes Under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-11

    little market penetration has been achieved. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFC ) have struggled primarily due to high cost, driven by the use...and requirements for Pt, Pt-alloy, and non-Pt oxygen reduction catalysts for PEMFCs , Appl. Catal. B Environ. 56 (2005) 9–35. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb...resins for PEMFCs , Electrochim. Acta. 50 (2004) 571–575. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2004.01.133. [89] S. Bhadra, N.H. Kim, J.S. Choi, K.Y. Rhee, J.H. Lee

  20. Technology diffusion, product differentiation and environmental subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinty, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Vries, F.P. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Law and Economics

    2007-07-01

    Technological change is often seen as the promising device that will mitigate or solve environmental problems. Policy intervention that spurs the development, adoption and diffusion of new, environmentally benign technologies therefore holds great appear for environmental authorities. Policymakers have various instruments at their disposal to affect technological diffusion, ranging from direct regulation (command-and-control strategies) to market-based instruments, such as taxes, subsidies and tradable pollution permits. This paper examines environmental subsidies as a technology diffusion policy. The authors apply evolutionary game theory to explore the relationship between subsidies for clean technology, the diffusion of that technology and the degree of product differentiation in an imperfectly competitive market. They show that the subsidy succeeds in reducing environmental damage only when the substitution effect (the reduction in pollution associated with the clean technology) exceeds the output effect (the extent that the subsidy increases output). When the substitution effect does dominate, environmental damage decreases monotonically during the diffusion process. The extent of diffusion (the degree to which clean technolgy replaces dirty) and the likelihood that the substitution effect will dominate both decrease with the extent of product differentiation. Finally, the subsidy for clean technology will spill over to the remaining dirty producers increasing their profit as well.

  1. Environmental considerations in energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Mann, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide information on the probable environmental effects of energy crop production relative to other potential uses of the land. While dedicated energy crop production is anticipated to occur primarily on land currently in agricultural production, some pastureland and forestland with a high potential for conversion to agricultural production may be utilized. Experimental results suggest that chemical use on energy crops will be lower than on most row crops and that land producing energy crops should experience less erosion than land producing row crops. Long-term site productivity should not be a major issue if macro-and micro-fertilizers are added as needed and nutrient-conserving production techniques are used. (Author)

  2. Antihyperon-hyperon production in the meson exchange framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidenbauer, J.; Holinde, K.; Speth, J.

    1992-01-01

    Strangeness production processes bar pp→ bar YY (Y=Λ,Σ) have been studied near threshold in a full coupled-channel calculation. The transition interactions are based on K- and K * -meson exchange. The elastic part of the bar pp and bar YY interactions has been derived from a one-boson-exchange version of the Bonn NN potential and a corresponding extension to the hyperon-nucleon case whereas the annihilation part is taken into account by introducing phenomenological optical potentials. First results are presented for the reactions bar pp→ bar ΛΣ 0 +bar Σ 0 Λ as well as bar pp→ bar Σ ± Σ ± , bar Σ 0 Σ 0 , which agree with existing data. As in bar pp→ bar ΛΛ, tensor and spin-triplet dominance is realized in bar pp→ bar Σ Σ but is somewhat reduced in bar pp→ bar Λ Σ 0 +bar Σ 0 Λ. Although bar Σ - Σ - cannot be reached from bar pp by a single transition, the corresponding cross section is only slightly smaller than for bar Σ + Σ + . Initial-and final-state effects play a decisive role, even in cross section ratios

  3. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzlinger, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Ohlhaeuser, K.

    1986-01-01

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  4. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  5. EXCHANGE OF KNOWLEDGES FOR A PARTICIPATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Prost

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization in its neoliberal aspect is presented as the unique economic option to reach the development, but a more critical look reveals that is a fable that hides a socially excluding system for a growing majority of the global population and with negative consequences on environment. In front of anti-globalization acts, the capitalism appropriates itself of the environmentalist slogans, but gets only a bit more “green” without questioning the structural roots of the environmental problems. Nevertheless, the progress of the new technologies of information allows to get heard the voice of the excluded, among them, the traditional populations. In the environmental debate, the conservationism is marking points with the official recognition to integrate the traditional populations in policies of environmental protection thanks to their traditional knowledge. The processes of participation should consider the differences of perception of nature by the local populations and promote the autonomy of these ones. In the Bay of Iguape, the extrativist reserve (resex has a Deliberative Counsel, but this sphere is not adequate for planning and management of natural resources. For this, it is proposed, through the realization of workshops in the area, the creation of an association of users of the resex, tools more adapted to potentialize the power of the users and manage the quotidian life of the resex.

  6. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul; Pollitt, Hector; Summerton, Philip; Chewpreecha, Unnada

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  7. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared....... It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine...

  8. Production and chemical isolation procedure of positron-emitting isotopes of arsenic for environmental and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, P. A.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Nickles, R. J.; DeJesus, O. T.

    2012-12-01

    The positron-emitting isotopes of arsenic have unique potential for imaging research in medical and environmental applications. The production and purification of radioarsenic from proton-irradiated natural GeO2 targets is reported. The separation procedure utilizes precipitation and anion exchange separation steps. Two anion exchange procedures were investigated. An overall arsenic decay-corrected separation yield of 80% was obtained.

  9. Environmental technologies of woody crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Gary S. Ba??uelos; Richard A. Hallett; Amir Hass; Craig M. Stange; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion, loss of productivity potential, biodiversity loss, water shortage, and soil and water pollution are ongoing processes that decrease or degrade provisioning (e.g., biomass, freshwater) and regulating (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil quality) ecosystem services. Therefore, developing environmental technologies that maximize these services is essential for...

  10. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  11. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  12. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables....

  13. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in tropical rainforests - sensitivity to environmental drivers and flux measurement methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Stoy, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical rainforests play a central role in the Earth system services of carbon metabolism, climate regulation, biodiversity maintenance, and more. They are under threat by direct anthropogenic effects including deforestation and indirect anthropogenic effects including climate change. A synthesis of the factors that determine the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) across multiple time scales in different tropical rainforests has not been undertaken to date. Here, we study NEE and its components, gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE), across thirteen tropical rainforest research sites with 63 total site-years of eddy covariance data. Results reveal that the five ecosystems that have greater carbon uptakes (with the magnitude of GPP greater than 3000 g C m-2 y-1) sequester less carbon - or even lose it - on an annual basis at the ecosystem scale. This counterintuitive result is because high GPP is compensated by similar magnitudes of RE. Sites that provided subcanopy CO2 storage observations had higher average magnitudes of GPP and RE and consequently lower NEE, highlighting the importance of measurement methodology for understanding carbon dynamics in tropical rainforests. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constrained GPP at all sites, but to differing degrees. Many environmental variables are significantly related to NEE at time scales greater than one year, and NEE at a rainforest in Malaysia is significantly related to soil moisture variability at seasonal time scales. Climate projections from 13 general circulation models (CMIP5) under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 suggest that many current tropical rainforest sites on the cooler end of the current temperature range are likely to reach a climate space similar to present-day warmer sites by the year 2050, and warmer sites will reach a climate space not currently experienced. Results demonstrate the need to quantify if mature tropical trees acclimate to heat and

  14. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  15. Five principles for the practice of knowledge exchange in environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Fazey, I; Evely, A C; Kruijsen, J H J

    2014-12-15

    This paper outlines five principles for effective practice of knowledge exchange, which when applied, have the potential to significantly enhance the impact of environmental management research, policy and practice. The paper is based on an empirical analysis of interviews with 32 researchers and stakeholders across 13 environmental management research projects, each of which included elements of knowledge co-creation and sharing in their design. The projects focused on a range of upland and catchment management issues across the UK, and included Research Council, Government and NGO funded projects. Preliminary findings were discussed with knowledge exchange professionals and academic experts to ensure the emerging principles were as broadly applicable as possible across multiple disciplines. The principles suggest that: knowledge exchange needs to be designed into research; the needs of likely research users and other stakeholders should be systematically represented in the research where possible; and long-term relationships must be built on trust and two-way dialogue between researchers and stakeholders in order to ensure effective co-generation of new knowledge. We found that the delivery of tangible benefits early on in the research process helps to ensure continued motivation and engagement of likely research users. Knowledge exchange is a flexible process that must be monitored, reflected on and continuously refined, and where possible, steps should be taken to ensure a legacy of ongoing knowledge exchange beyond initial research funding. The principles have been used to inform the design of knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement guidelines for two international research programmes. They are able to assist researchers, decision-makers and other stakeholders working in contrasting environmental management settings to work together to co-produce new knowledge, and more effectively share and apply existing knowledge to manage environmental change

  16. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  17. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  18. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  19. Environmental Priorities In Strategic Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M; Poole, S.; Sweatman, A.

    2000-01-01

    -design framework consisting of analyse, report, prioritize and improve steps, at both strategic and operational levels. Tests the framework by application in an Electrolux subsidiary producing vacuum cleaners, tabulates LCA results for one product and its constituents and components. Concludes that prioritizing......Reports progress of the Design for Environmental Decision Support (DEEDS) project, gives the project's aim as the development of appropriate tools and methods for eco-design for use in the electrical/electronics sector. Bases development of the tools and methods on the results of a survey of 19...

  20. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  1. Environmental Performance of Kettle Production: Product Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Zych, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach) where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4-year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g). The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste scenario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix) which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some improvements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF KETTLE PRODUCTION: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej MARCINKOWSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4- year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g. The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste sce-nario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some im-provements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  3. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS produ...

  4. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  5. Improvement to heat exchanger elements, to the corresponding exchangers and their methods of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a flat rectangular element for a heat exchanger made by closely assembling two regular ribbed sheets against each other. In the element thus obtained the ribbing forms two parallel passages at two opposite sides of the rectangle and running along these two sides, and a series of identical channels parallel to the two other sides of the rectangle. The two ends of these channels respectively give on to the two passages. Each light-alloy sheet is very thin, under .5mm. The total thickness of the element is less than 5 mm. The total area of each rectangular side of the element is around one square metre, its length being greater than 1 metre. The heat exchanger is built up of a bank of these elements juxtaposed side by side with requisite interpositions for the circulation of the external exchange [fr

  6. Learning from one another: evaluating the impact of horizontal knowledge exchange for environmental management and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tschirhart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing advocacy for inclusive community-based approaches to environmental management, and growing evidence that involving communities improves the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Most community-based approaches rely on partnerships and knowledge exchange between communities, civil society organizations, and professionals such as practitioners and/or scientists. However, few models have actively integrated more horizontal knowledge exchange from community to community. We reflect on the transferability of community owned solutions between indigenous communities by exploring challenges and achievements of community peer-to-peer knowledge exchange as a way of empowering communities to face up to local environmental and social challenges. Using participatory visual methods, indigenous communities of the North Rupununi (Guyana identified and documented their community owned solutions through films and photostories. Indigenous researchers from this community then shared their solutions with six other communities that faced similar challenges within Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, and Brazil. They were supported by in-country civil society organizations and academics. We analyzed the impact of the knowledge exchange through interviews, field reports, and observations. Our results show that indigenous community members were significantly more receptive to solutions emerging from, and communicated by, other indigenous peoples, and that this approach was a significant motivating force for galvanizing communities to make changes in their community. We identified a range of enabling factors, such as building capacity for a shared conceptual and technical understanding, that strengthens the exchange between communities and contributes to a lasting impact. With national and international policy-makers mobilizing significant financial resources for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, we argue

  7. Design for manufacturability of macro and micro products: a case study of heat exchanger design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, F.; Weng Feng, L.; Hansen, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology in designing a micro heat exchanger is proposed by modifying a conventional design methodology for macro products with the considerations of differences between design of a micro and a macro product. The methodology starts with the identification of differences...... for fabricating micro heat exchangers are ranked based on the defined criteria. Following the design methodology, primary design ideas for micro heat exchangers are generated according to the heat transfer principles for macro heat exchangers. Taking micro design considerations into account, the designs from next...... iteration are created. Finally, the performances of the designs for micro heat exchangers are compared with their macro counterparts. The most appropriate designs for micro heat exchangers are finalized. The micro specific design guidelines obtained by the designer through evaluating the modeling results...

  8. Carbon dioxide exchange in three tundra sites show a dissimilar response to environmental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe; Lund, Magnus; Christensen, Torben Røjle

    2015-01-01

    variability. An improved understanding of the control of ancillary variables on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) will improve the accuracy with which CO2 exchange seasonality in Arctic tundra ecosystems is modelled. Fluxes were measured with the eddy...... Lake. Growing season NEE correlated mainly to cumulative radiation and temperature-related variables at Zackenberg, while at Daring Lake the same variables showed significant correlations with the partitioned fluxes (GPP and Re). Stordalen was temperature dependent during the growing season. This study...

  9. Project to promote exchange of international information on environmental technologies; Kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Mutual information exchange at international levels is important for practical application of global environment preservation technologies, whereas the APEC Virtual Center was established in fiscal 1997. Fiscal 1998 has discussed the future functions of the Virtual Center, and carried out the following matters to improve the functions and achieve its stable operation. Discussions were given on common use with the centers of other countries and regions of the specifications of classification systems for information areas and provided information that are provided by the Virtual Center. Visits were made to sub-managing countries and regions for smooth operation of the study groups, and opinions were exchanged. Visits were made to coordinators and contact points established in each country and region when the Center was founded in fiscal 1997. A visit was made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to exchange opinions on coordination measures with the Cleaner Production Strategy of the U.S.A. being a project similar to the subject project. In order to strengthen the Japan's Center, attempts were made to expand the linking information to wider scope. Special pages publishing concentratedly the items of information that the users are interested were prepared as part of the information provision. (NEDO)

  10. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  11. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  12. Diffractive open charm production at DESY HERA. Experiment versus two-gluon exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-15

    Diffractive production of D{sup *} mesons at HERA conditions is considered in the framework of collinear two-gluon exchange model. Theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  13. Westinghouse Savannah River Site Supplier Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Information Exchange Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.; Hottel, R.E.; Christoper, N.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site conducted its first Supplier Information Exchange in September 1993. The intent of the conference was to inform potential suppliers of the Savannah River Sites mission and research and development program objectives in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management, and to solicit proposals for innovative research in those areas. Major areas addressed were Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Environmental Monitoring, Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning, and the Savannah River Technology Center. A total of 1062 proposals were received addressing the 89 abstracts presented. This paper will describe the forum the process for solicitation, the process for proposal review and selection, and review the overall results and benefits to Savannah River

  14. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiros, João Paulo Martin; da Silva, José Carlos Domingos; Nakaguma, Marcos Yamada

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coeffici...

  15. EPD--environmental product declarations for wood products : an application of life cycle information about forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Transparent and credible environmental labeling of products is vital for a sustainable future. Ecolabeling shows information on the environmental performance of products, processes, and services. This article focuses on one type of ecolabeling referred to as environmental product declarations (EPDs) that provide environmental impact information based on life cycle...

  16. Cation mobility in H+/Na+ ion exchange products of acid tantalum and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnopol'skij, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of Na + /H + exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with different substitution degree and on acid tantalum phosphate, where ion exchange occurs via formation of a continuous series of solid solutions, was studied by the method of conductometry. It was ascertained that ionic conductivity decreases monotonously with growth in substitution degree of H + for Na + in acid tantalum phosphate. Anomalous increase in ionic conductivity of ion exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with a low substitution degree has been detected for the first time. Formation of a double electric layer with a high concentration of cationic defects on the interface surface is the reason for increase in ionic conductivity [ru

  17. An environmental generalised Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator and an environmental generalised Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, A

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an environmental generalised productivity indicator and its ratio-based counterpart. The innovative environmental generalised total factor productivity measures inherit the basic structure of both Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator. This methodological contribution shows that these new environmental generalised total factor productivity measures yield the earlier standard Hicks-Moorsteen index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen indicator, as well as environmental performance index, as special cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING FOR COMPANIES LISTED ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental aspects have become significant for an increasing number of companies and can have, under certain circumstances, a significant impact on financial statements. A large number of studies can be outlined in time analyzing the variation of environmental reporting (Deegan et al, 2002; O'Donovan, 2002; Holland and Foo, 2003; Nyquist, 2003; Cormier et al, 2005; Yusoff et al, 2006; Jorgensen and Sodorstrom, 2006; Taylor and Shan, 2007; Sumiani et al, 2007. The main objective targeted by this study is the evaluation of environmental reporting for the European companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. In order to achieve the proposed objective, we have completed an longitudinal and transversal analysis of environmental reporting within companies listed on FTSE 100, monitoring first of all the way in which these companies report non-financial and financial aspects related to environmental impact as well as how these reports are being audited. For each annual statement or sustainable report, we have analized the level of environmental reporting. The evaluation of how information on environmental impact are being reported is based on four categories of information: information on indicators (technical, financial that would reflect the environmental impact (water, air, soil, information regarding the financial indicators (investments, assets and other environmental costs, debts and provisions, non-financial information (related to the company's comitment, objectives, programs, management, future perspectives etc, information on environmental audit. Analysing the results we have obtained, the following can be outlined a certain increasing trend on the level and relevance of environmental information supplied for the companies listed on FTSE 100. Only 22 of the analysed companies are reporting the environmental performance indicators recommended by accredited bodies such as the GRI Guidelines (the most complex guidance in this respect. 20 of

  19. Exporting environmental products: A small business's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.

    1992-01-01

    If the last year and a half are any indication it would appear that the early 1990's will be to international trade what the early 1980's were to entrepreneurship. Embraced by the popular and business press and encouraged by the administration, exporting has become one of the most talked about topics in business today. As manufacturers, consultants and service providers we are continually told that to survive in the world marketplace we must think globally and compete aggressively. There can be no doubt that export markets, always an interesting sector of business, have become both more important and exciting in recent years. On January 1, 1993 the unified common market of the European Community will officially open for business. Although most of the significant changes in that market have already taken place or been agreed upon, this historic event - creating the single largest market among industrial nations - will undoubtedly have an effect on how we as exporters do business in Europe. The Free Trade Agreement with Canada has been in effect for over two years now and there have been and will continue to be many benefits for us. In developing and newly capitalist countries we can point to Czechoslovakia and Hungary as the first of several potentially lucrative markets. Mexico, in the spotlight due to the new Free Trade initiative, will be a strong new export market in our own backyard. And finally the so called mini-dragons of Southeast Asia cannot be ignored. Whether or not they choose to create a formal trading bloc, their ever increasing foreign reserves should be looked at with hungry, but cautious eyes. In this paper the author identifies a large and ever increasing world of customers beyond our national borders and identifies how those companies and individuals in the environmental products market can benefit greatly

  20. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  1. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, L.

    2016-01-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. - Highlights: • The method allows cost-effective determination of U isotopes. • High amounts of environmental samples can be analyzed. • High chemical yields, energy resolution and decontamination factors were achieved. • Uranium isotope concentrations in mineral waters from Bulgaria are presented.

  2. Economic fluctuations in a small economy with two productive sectors under a floating exchange rate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical model of aggregate supply and demand in a small economy with two productive sectors, under a flexible exchange regime and imperfect capital mobility. Only one of the production sectors is assumed to produce an exportable commodity sold at world market prices, while the production of the other sector is assumed to supply the domestic market. This model helps to explain how the impact of both domestic (economic policy, productivity, etc. and foreign (changes in exchange terms shocks is spread. In every case studied, results show that real output increases consistently with those cases postulated by economic theory. Conversely, the effects on the price level, the exchange rate and the real interest rate are ambiguous. In terms of domestic shocks, fiscal or monetary policy may be seen as a way to stabilize or stimulate the economy but the costs involved raise the price level.

  3. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  4. Production and application of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhili; Tan Chunhong; Yang Xiangmin

    1995-01-01

    A third affiliated factory of our university has been established for the production in batches of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance, trade marks of which are HF-1 and HF-2. Membrane products have been applied in various fields (including industries and research institutions) with great success

  5. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  6. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  7. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ma

    Full Text Available The aircraft environmental control system (ECS is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  8. Deriving heat production from gaseous exchange: validity of the approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry as a means to quantify heat production (Q) and net substrate oxidation has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier, and today, indirect calorimetry is often used as a reference for other measures of Q. Simple equations were developed and widely

  9. Secure Data Exchange in Environmental Health Monitoring System through Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang Sudarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, disseminating latest sensory information regarding the status of environmental health in the surroundings of human life is one of very important circumstances which must be known by everyone. These circumstances should be accessible at anytime and anywhere by everyone through any type of end-user devices, both fixed and mobile devices, i.e., Desktop PCs, Laptop PCs, and Smartphones. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is one of the networks which deals with data sensors distribution from sensor nodes to the gateway node toward a Data Center Server. However, there is a big possibility for many adversaries to intercept and even manipulate data sensors crossing the network. Hence, a secure data sensor exchange in the system would be strongly desirable. In this research, we propose an environmental health conditions monitoring system through WSN and its implementation with considering secure data sensor exchange within the network and secure data sensor access. This work may contribute to support a part of smart cities and take in part the Internet of Thing (IoT technology. In our proposed system, we collect some environmental health information such as temperature, humidity, luminosity, noise, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 from sensor nodes. We keep the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted data sensors propagating through IEEE802.15.4-based communication toward a gateway node. Further, the collected data sensors in the gateway are synchronized to the Data Center Server through a secure TCP/IP connection for permanently storing. At anytime and anywhere, only legitimated users who successfully pass-through an attribute-based authentication system are able to access the data sensors.

  10. Environmental Management in Danish transnational textile product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Hendriksen, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    on capacity building at the suppliers in developing countries, while other companies seem to focus the complex activities at domestic suppliers. Two new facilitating actors in environmental management in product chains were identified. Research limitations and implications The focus on one sector in one......Purpose The purpose is to analyse environmental responsibility of companies from industrialized countries when they source materials and products in countries with less environmental protection. Methodology The article is a study of corporate environmental management in the Danish textile...... have a practice without environmental initiatives. Dominating types of initiatives are cleaner technology, environmental management systems and cleaner products. Driving forces are governmental regulation, customer demands, market expectations and protection of corporate brands. Some companies focus...

  11. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  12. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A; Seppelt, Ralf; Priess, Joerg A; Witing, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  13. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  15. Environmental improvement through product development - in Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Bey, Niki

    Companies in Denmark and abroad are working increasingly to reduce human impacts on the environment and nature. At the same time there must still be a large focus on the creation of value for customers and consumers. This development gives rise to a huge potential for Danish companies, to create ...... Environmental Protection Agency’s company funding scheme. We hope you will be inspired!...

  16. Ion Exchange Equilibrium and Kinetic Properties of Polyacrylate Films and Applications to Chemical Analysis and Environmental Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the goals of the original proposal was to study how cross-linking affects the properties of an ion exchange material(IEM) developed at Lewis Research Center. However, prior to the start of this work, other workers at LERC investigated the effect of cross-linking on the properties of this material. Other than variation in the ion exchange capacity, the chemical characteristics were shown to be independent of the cross-linking agent, and the degree of cross-linking. New physical forms of the film were developed (film, supported film, various sizes of beads, and powder). All showed similar properties with respect to ion exchange equilibria but the kinetics of ion exchange depended on the surface area per unit mass; the powder form of the IEM exchanging much more rapidly than the other forms. The research performed under this grant was directed towards the application of the IEM to the analysis of metal ions at environmental concentrations.

  17. J/Ψ and φ Electro-production in Pomeron Exchange Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baorong; Tan Zhenqiang; Gu Yunting; He Xiaorong; Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2007-01-01

    Based on Pomeron exchange model, J/Ψ and φ production in electro-proton interaction are investigated with both linear and non-linear Pomeron trajectory. The experimental differential cross sections measured as a function of the kinematic variable Q 2 ,W and t are reproduced successfully in the model. Our conclusions are that the Pomeron exchange model is a successful description of J/Ψ and φ electro-productions on the proton, and that the linear trajectory is a good approximation to non-linearity of the Pomeron trajectory.

  18. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae and their applicability for the production of biodiesel. The paper considered issues related with the processing and culturing of microalgae, for not only those that are involved in biofuel production, but as well as the possibility of their ...

  19. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions. In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary

  20. The mechanisms underlying the production of discontinuous gas exchange cycles in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D

    2018-03-01

    This review examines the control of gas exchange in insects, specifically examining what mechanisms could explain the emergence of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). DGCs are gas exchange patterns consisting of alternating breath-hold periods and bouts of gas exchange. While all insects are capable of displaying a continuous pattern of gas exchange, this episodic pattern is known to occur within only some groups of insects and then only sporadically or during certain phases of their life cycle. Investigations into DGCs have tended to emphasise the role of chemosensory thresholds in triggering spiracle opening as critical for producing these gas exchange patterns. However, a chemosensory basis for episodic breathing also requires an as-of-yet unidentified hysteresis between internal respiratory stimuli, chemoreceptors, and the spiracles. What has been less appreciated is the role that the insect's central nervous system (CNS) might play in generating episodic patterns of ventilation. The active ventilation displayed by many insects during DGCs suggests that this pattern could be the product of directed control by the CNS rather than arising passively as a result of self-sustaining oscillations in internal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. This paper attempts to summarise what is currently known about insect gas exchange regulation, examining the location and control of ventilatory pattern generators in the CNS, the influence of chemoreceptor feedback in the form of O 2 and CO 2 /pH fluctuations in the haemolymph, and the role of state-dependent changes in CNS activity on ventilatory control. This information is placed in the context of what is currently known regarding the production of discontinuous gas exchange patterns.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S PETROTAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S TECHSUPPRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  3. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  4. Effect of simultaneously induced environmental stimuli on electrical signalling and gas exchange in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralhan-Eckert, Jasmin; Lautner, Silke; Fromm, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    Electrical signalling in response to environmental stimuli is a well-known phenomenon in higher plants. For example, in maize, different stimuli, such as wounding or re-irrigation after drought, incite characteristic electrical signals which have quite particular effects on gas exchange. What is less well understood is how plants (specifically maize) respond when two different environmental stimuli are applied simultaneously. To explore this, a three-stage experiment was designed. In the first stage, drought conditions were simulated by decreasing the soil water content to 30-40 % of field capacity. In these conditions, and in contrast to well-watered plants, the maize exhibited only 60-70% of the original level of stomatal conductance and 50-60 % of the original photosynthesis rate. In the second stage of the experiment the plants were re-irrigated and heat stimulated separately. Re-irrigation led to specific electrical signals followed by a gradual increase of gas exchange. In contrast, after heat stimulation of a leaf an electrical signal was evoked that reduced the net CO 2 -uptake rate as well as stomatal conductance. In the third stage, to elucidate how plants process simultaneous re-irrigation and heat stimulation, the drought-stressed maize plants were re-watered and heat-stimulated at the same time. Results showed a two phase response. In the first phase there was a rapid decrease in both the CO 2 uptake rate and the stomatal conductance, while in the second phase each of these parameters increased gradually. Thus, the results strongly support the view that the responses from both stimuli were combined, indicating that maize plants can process simultaneously applied stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  6. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  7. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  8. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  9. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  10. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  11. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  12. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the crop production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety, this Handbook will help to expand them to include environmental and social performance. Sectio...

  13. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Geoff P.; Seth, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the global production of biofuels have been computed from a baseline of 2007-2009 out until 2019. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from OECD-FAO and related projections. In order to determine the footprints associated with these (essentially 'first generation') biofuel resources, the overall environmental footprint was disaggregated into bioproductive land, built land, carbon, embodied energy, materials and wast...

  14. Investigation the Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on the Export of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipour

    2016-10-01

    coefficients. Results and Discussion: Main results showed that real exchange rate volatility and export value of selected commodities are Co-integrated. The coefficient estimation of FMOLS and DOLS methods are equal and statically significant; so, these methods aren’t statically different and they showed that real exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on exported value for whole panel. However, the specific coefficient for each commodity showed contradictory behavior in short run and long run; for example real exchange rate fluctuation has a negative and significant impact on all the commodities; but, in short run this variable has a positive and significant impact on exported value. Moreover, based on estimated results it seems that fluctuation in exchange market has a greater impact on more valuable commodities like date. Conclusion: Considering the importance of agricultural product trade and in order to overcome mono-product economy, this study investigated long term and short term relation between export of grape, orange, date and exchange rate volatilities. To this aim, first the index of exchange volatility using generated autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH was calculated. In order to investigate the relation between exchange rate volatilities and export value of agricultural product, unit root test and cointegration test related to panel data were used during years 1971-2013. The results of model estimation showed that exchange rate volatilities in short term and long term have respectively positive and negative effects on the export value of orange, grape and date. In long term, the negative effects of Exchange rate volatilities on high-export-value products are more than its effects on low-export-value products. Based on the estimation results we can conclude that, in short run, exporters are willing to increase their interchange and gain profits of the volatility in exchange market; however, in long run exchange rate fluctuation has

  15. Clean production and design of products - Complex system and environmental politics of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    The orientation of the environmental problem in sustainable terms, especially in the industrialized economies, a new profile in the last years has found. In these economies, the search of a clean production franked by a coherent politics of products and the contribution of the design of products, it have given to the environmental speech a new dimension. With the present text it is sought to respond to the necessity of exploring in Colombia this topic that has a decisive paper inside the instruments of protection of the environment cooperating to improve the quality of life in other latitudes. At the moment the theoretical foundations around the development of products play a important role in the different lines of applied investigation carried out by these countries, especially in the mark of a politics of sustainable development. In spite of the importance of this factor in the industrialized countries where the capacity of integration of a coordinated administration is of great meaning, in Colombia, particularly, the relationship between development and design of products with industry, investigation and political of development and, for our case with a clean production, it is characterized by the scarce insert and attention of this discipline

  16. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shah, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture is a profession, which is open to natural conditions and intense human activity. This has brought it in direct interface with the environment. The activities related to agriculture can have favorable as well as unfavorable influence on environment. Pressure of burgeoning population is demanding increased production from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. This has resulted in excessive use of soil, fertilizers and pesticides. This paper describe the effect of these productive resources on environment and human health. Agriculture is a complex phenomenon. It is open both on natural conditions and to intense human activity. Cyclones, floods, hailstorm, cold, heat and heavy rains all affect agriculture and so do the man-made activities especially those related to expanding industrial production. This has brought agriculture in direct interface with the environment. Agriculture exerts both favorable and unfavorable consequences on environment. The plants absorb carbon dioxide and act as filters to purify polluting aerial substances. Growing of crops itself brings pleasant changes in microclimate and to aesthetics. On the other hand, effluents of all kinds; sewage, industrial, farmyard, domestics are dumped onto the soil surface, which pollute water bodies and affect crop quality. Agricultural chemicals used to increase production can get into air, soil and water and pose serious threat to environment. In Pakistan, agriculture is the mainstay of national economy. It is accorded second priority after defense. Its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 24%, it contributes by 35% to export earnings, employs 51% of the labour force and provides livelihood to 70% of rural population. Increased pressure of burgeoning population is, however, demanding more output from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. The productive resources on the other hand are limited and are rapidly shrinking. This has led to excessive use of soil

  17. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  18. Proceedings of the fourth information exchange meeting on nuclear production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The use of hydrogen, both as feedstock for the industry (oil and chemical) and as an energy carrier, is expected to grow substantially during the coming decades. The current predominant method of producing hydrogen by steam-reforming methane (from natural gas) is not sustainable and has environmental drawbacks, including the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Nuclear energy offers a way to produce hydrogen from water without depleting natural gas, a valuable natural resource, and without the emission of GHGs. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has conducted a number of information exchange meetings with the objective of stimulating progress in the development of nuclear production of hydrogen. These meetings, held in 2000 in Paris, France, in 2003 in Argonne, Illinois, USA, and in 2005 in Oarai, Japan, were well-attended and very successful. It is hoped that the information presented at fourth meeting and contained in these proceedings may be useful in advancing the objective of achieving economically viable, sustainable and emission-free production of hydrogen. The need for a sustainable supply of clean energy is one of the main problems facing the world. Among the various energy technologies which may be considered (including hydro, wind, solar, geo-thermal, wave and tidal), only nuclear - through the use of fast-neutron fission reactors - is capable of delivering the copious quantities of sustainable energy that will be required. In view of this, one of the means under consideration for achieving the objective of nuclear-produced hydrogen is enhanced international cooperation, including the establishment of one or more OECD/NEA joint projects. In this respect, it is worth noting that similar joint projects undertaken in the past (for example, the Dragon Project and the Halden Reactor Project) have been highly beneficial and have provided significant amounts of useful information to the sponsoring countries at shared costs. This report describes the

  19. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  20. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  1. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  2. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  3. Formation of environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR) in iron(III) cation-exchanged smectite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G; Roy, Amitava; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Dellinger, Barry; Cook, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found at a number of Superfund sites, with EPFRs being formed via a proposed redox process at ambient environmental conditions. The possibility of such a redox process taking place at ambient environmental conditions is studied utilizing a surrogate soil system of phenol and iron(III)-exchanged calcium montmorillonite clay, Fe(III)CaM. Sorption of phenol by the Fe(III)CaM is demonstrated by Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as evidenced by the peaks between 1345 cm(-1) and 1595 cm(-1), and at lower frequencies between 694 cm(-1) and 806 cm(-1), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, as shown by an increase in interlayer spacing within Fe(III)CaM. The formation and characterization of the EPFRs is determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, showing phenoxyl-type radical with a g-factor of 2.0034 and ΔHP-P of 6.1 G at an average concentration of 7.5 × 10(17) spins per g. EPFRs lifetime data are indicative of oxygen and water molecules being responsible for EPFR decay. The change in the oxidation state of the iron redox center is studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, showing that 23% of the Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm the XANES results. These findings, when combined with the EPFR concentration data, demonstrate that the stoichiometry of the EPFR formation under the conditions of this study is 1.5 × 10(-2) spins per Fe(II) atom.

  4. PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT IN THE LIFECYCLE OF PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kulczycka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of the European Commission (EC activities is to introduce uniform rules for the environmental performance assessment based on the life cycle assessment method (LCA, which can be widely used e.g. in eco-labeling, assessment of goods, services, technology, etc. Therefore, from 1 November 2013 the European Commission implemented a pilot phase of the project on developing common methods for measuring the environmental performance of the product and organisation, aims to develop guidance documents in this field. The pilot phase includes development of the Category Rules relating to the calculation, verification and communication for environmental footprint of the 25 categories of products and two organizations. Therefore, the article presents the principle of environmental performance based on life cycle assessment in relation to the objectives of the proposed methodology of environmental footprint.

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  7. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  8. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  10. The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples by preferential ion exchange separation from calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroto; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Honda, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Toshimasa; Higuchi, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples involves a difficulty in the separation and purification of strontium from large amounts of calcium. The principal technique employed in this study is based on a cation exchange separation after preferential chelation of calcium over strontium by EDTA. The alkaline earth fraction separated from samples is dissolved in 1.2 M HCl and an equivalent amount of EDTA is added. The solution is passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ion exchange column at a flow rate of 20 ml/min after the pH has been adjusted to 5.1. A fraction of calcium retained on the resin is eluted out with 1.8 l of 2 w/v% EDTA solution at pH 5.1. Then the strontium is eluted with 450 ml of 2 M HCl. The strontium carbonate is precipitated, and the chemical yield is determined. After standing for 14 days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of 90 Sr - 90 Y, the activity of 89 Sr + 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured. Then the activity of 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured by milking the 90 Y. The proposed procedure has been applied to sea water, soil and various ash samples of vegetables, seaweeds and daily foods. The results obtained are in good agreement with those by a classical fuming nitric acid precipitation method. The detection limits are 0.1 pCi/l for 10 l of sea water, 10 pCi/kg for 100 g of soil and 1 pCi/kg-fresh for 20 g ash samples, respectively. (author)

  11. Biomass feedstock production systems: economic and environmental benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    The time is ripe for expanding bioenergy production capacity and developing a bio-based economy. Modern society has created unprecedented demands for energy and chemical products that are predominately based on geologic sources. However, there is a growing consensus that constraints on the supply of petroleum and the negative environmental consequences of burning...

  12. Environmental and production rights futures: a new booming market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    Governments or supranational organizations have begun to introduce environmental rights (such as sulfur dioxide or chlorofluorocarbon rights) and production rights (such as milk and fishery rights) to better link production process costs and results. The authors show that the characteristics of

  13. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  14. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper

    The project aims to investigate the benefits for health and environment that the use of nanomaterials in products and technologies may have. More specifically, the project provides an overview of the most relevant nano-enabled environmental technologies, different types of products and technologies...... on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation of soil...

  15. Modes of environmental management in transnational product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Hendriksen, Kåre

    2007-01-01

    opportunities by being present in the country where the sourcing takes place. The paper discusses different modes of environmental management in such transnational product chains based on a number of cases, and explores the links to the business strategy of the companies and national and international......Many companies in industrialised countries are outsourcing production or sourcing materials and products in countries with lower environmental protection than the companies’ countries of origin. The background is access to special materials and/or lower costs, but some times also the market...

  16. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  17. A Simulation Study of Inter Heat Exchanger Process in SI Cycle Process for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Sun; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Suk Hoon; Qasim, Faraz; Lee, Euy Soo; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Heung N.; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    SI Cyclic process is one of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes using iodine and sulfur for producing hydrogen molecules from water. VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) can be used to supply heat to hydrogen production process, which is a high temperature nuclear reactor. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is necessary to transfer heat to hydrogen production process safely without radioactivity. In this study, the strategy for the optimum design of IHX between SI hydrogen process and VHTR is proposed for various operating pressures of the reactor, and the different cooling fluids. Most economical efficiency of IHX is also proposed along with process conditions

  18. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  19. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  20. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Danish Kirmani; Mohammed Naved Khan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi) and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR). The data generated was analysed em...

  2. The relation between product innovation and strategic environmental goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Pedrosa, Alex; Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2017-01-01

    Innovation management in manufacturing firms including its environmental dimension is currently on top of the political agenda of the European Union. Existing studies only provide limited findings in this research field. By using cross-sectional data, this study investigates firms’ internal capab...... Policies (IPPs). IPPs combine the support of product innovations in general and environmental innovations in particular. Future research could apply mixed-method studies in single or multiple countries which combine different types of data....

  3. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  5. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  7. Behavior of sorption and thermal desorption of fission products from loaded metal oxide exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.

    1986-08-01

    A new sublimation method for the concentration and purification of 99 Mo, produced by the fission of 235 U with thermal neutrons, has been developed to replace the present final decontamination steps in the various well established 99 Mo separation processes. A distinct simplification and shortening of the actual procedure is obtained by combining the chromatographic sorption on the SnO 2 -exchanger with the direct thermal desorption of the Mo product from the oxide. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Suspension polymerization a process for the production of beaded polymer supports and derived ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension polymerization techniques for production of beaded polymers are discussed with special reference to styrene divinylbenzene copolymers. Methods to control particle size and size distribution of final copolymer beads are given. Mechanism of copolymerization and constituents of aqueous and oil phase are discussed. Mechanism of porous structure formation and control of porosity are also discussed. Chemical conversion of base copolymers into ion exchange resins is also discussed. (author) 16 figs

  9. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  10. Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Local Wine Production and Consumption in Texas: Using LCA to Inspire Environmental Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Poupart, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The future viability of wine production is directly linked to its environmental impacts and conditions in which it is required to operate. The environmental impacts related to the production of a food product are directly influenced by the amount of materials, energy, waste and the emissions the product releases throughout the products life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework that can identify a food products relative environmental impacts and provides insights into the ...

  11. Catalytic heat exchangers for small-scale production of hydrogen - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    A feasibility study concerning heat-exchanger reactors in small-scale production of hydrogen has been performed on the request of Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and SWEP International AB. The basic idea is to implement different catalysts into brazed plate-type heat exchangers. This can be achieved by installing catalytic cylinders in the inlet-and outlet ports of the heat exchangers or through treatment of the plates to render them catalytically active. It is also possible to sandwich catalytically active wire meshes between the plates. Experiments concerning steam reforming of methanol and methane have been performed in a micro-reactor to gather kinetic data for modelling purposes. Performance calculations concerning heat exchanger reactors have then been conducted with Catator's generic simulation code for catalytic reactors (CatalystExplorer). The simulations clearly demonstrate the technical performance of these reactors. Indeed, the production rate of hydrogen is expected to be about 10 nm{sup 3}/h per litre of heat exchanger. The corresponding value for a conventional steam-reforming unit is about 1 nm{sup 3}/h or less per litre of reactor volume. Also, the compactness and the high degree of integration together with the possibilities of mass production will give an attractive cost for such units. Depending on the demands concerning the purity of the hydrogen it is possible to add secondary catalytic steps like water-gas shifters, methanation and selective oxidation, into a one-train unit, i.e. to design an all-inclusive design. Such reactors can be used for the supply of hydrogen to fuel cells. The production cost for hydrogen can be cut by 60 - 70% through the utilisation of heat exchanger reactors instead of conventional electrolysis. This result is primarily a result of the high price for electricity compared to the feed stock prices in steam reforming. It is important to verify the performance calculations and the simulation results through experimental

  12. Catalytic heat exchangers for small-scale production of hydrogen - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F. [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    A feasibility study concerning heat-exchanger reactors in small-scale production of hydrogen has been performed on the request of Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and SWEP International AB. The basic idea is to implement different catalysts into brazed plate-type heat exchangers. This can be achieved by installing catalytic cylinders in the inlet-and outlet ports of the heat exchangers or through treatment of the plates to render them catalytically active. It is also possible to sandwich catalytically active wire meshes between the plates. Experiments concerning steam reforming of methanol and methane have been performed in a micro-reactor to gather kinetic data for modelling purposes. Performance calculations concerning heat exchanger reactors have then been conducted with Catator's generic simulation code for catalytic reactors (CatalystExplorer). The simulations clearly demonstrate the technical performance of these reactors. Indeed, the production rate of hydrogen is expected to be about 10 nm{sup 3}/h per litre of heat exchanger. The corresponding value for a conventional steam-reforming unit is about 1 nm{sup 3}/h or less per litre of reactor volume. Also, the compactness and the high degree of integration together with the possibilities of mass production will give an attractive cost for such units. Depending on the demands concerning the purity of the hydrogen it is possible to add secondary catalytic steps like water-gas shifters, methanation and selective oxidation, into a one-train unit, i.e. to design an all-inclusive design. Such reactors can be used for the supply of hydrogen to fuel cells. The production cost for hydrogen can be cut by 60 - 70% through the utilisation of heat exchanger reactors instead of conventional electrolysis. This result is primarily a result of the high price for electricity compared to the feed stock prices in steam reforming. It is important to verify the performance calculations and the simulation results through

  13. Integrated Strategic Planning of Global Production Networks and Financial Hedging under Uncertain Demands and Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Koberstein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-stage stochastic programming model that integrates financial hedging decisions into the planning of strategic production networks under uncertain exchange rates and product demands. This model considers the expenses of production plants and the revenues of markets in different currency areas. Financial portfolio planning decisions for two types of financial instruments, forward contracts and options, are represented explicitly by multi-period decision variables and a multi-stage scenario tree. Using an illustrative example, we analyze the impact of exchange-rate and demand volatility, the level of investment expenses and interest rate spreads on capacity location and dimensioning decisions. In particular, we show that, in the illustrative example, the exchange-rate uncertainty cannot be completely eliminated by financial hedging in the presence of demand uncertainty. In this situation, we find that the integrated model can result in better strategic planning decisions for a risk-averse decision maker compared to traditional modeling approaches.

  14. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  15. environmental studies for removal of some radioactive elements using zirconium silicate as inorganic ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2007-01-01

    inorganic ion exchangers have a good potential than the commonly used organic ones for removal and separation of radionuclides from irradiated nuclear fuel solutions. therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some radionuclides such as Cs + ,Co 2+ ,and Eu 3+ by the prepared zirconium silicate as cation exchanger. the following items will be involved:-1- preparation of zirconium silicate as a cation exchanger. 2- characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA and TG analyses. 3-chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (heating temperature and reaction temperature). 4- ion exchange isotherms. 5- breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain conditions

  16. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance

  17. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S , of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (ρ = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

  18. Selection of the process for the heavy water production using isotopic exchange amonia-hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman R, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of the Petroleos Mexicanos ammonia plants for heavy water production by the isotopic exchange NH 3 -H 2 process is presented, in addition a description of the other heavy water production processes was presented. In the ammonia hydrogen process exist two possible alternatives for the operation of the system, one of them is to carry out the enrichment to the same temperature, the second consists in making the enrichment at two different temperatures (dual temperature process), an analysis was made to select the best alternative. The conclusion was that the best operation is the dual temperature process, which presents higher advantages according to the thermodynamics and engineering of the process. (author)

  19. Prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, A.K., E-mail: kendi@if.ufrj.br [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Instituto de Física – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil); Marquet, C., E-mail: cyrille.marquet@polytechnique.edu [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-06-10

    Within the resolved Pomeron model of hard diffractive scattering, we compute prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events in proton–proton collisions. Using specific kinematical constraints chosen according to the acceptances of the forward proton detectors of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, we provide estimates for inclusive and isolated photon production. This is done using the JetPhox program. We find that next-to-leading order corrections to the hard process are important and must be included in order to correctly constrain the quark and gluon content of the Pomeron from such processes at the LHC.

  20. Prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, A.K.; Marquet, C.

    2016-01-01

    Within the resolved Pomeron model of hard diffractive scattering, we compute prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events in proton–proton collisions. Using specific kinematical constraints chosen according to the acceptances of the forward proton detectors of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, we provide estimates for inclusive and isolated photon production. This is done using the JetPhox program. We find that next-to-leading order corrections to the hard process are important and must be included in order to correctly constrain the quark and gluon content of the Pomeron from such processes at the LHC.

  1. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; Işik, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  2. Parameters for assessing the aquatic environmental impact of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, N A; Brohem, C A; Canavez, A D P M; Oliveira, C F S; Kruger, O; Lorencini, M; Carvalho, C M

    2018-05-01

    The cosmetic industry's growing concern about the impact of its supply chain on the environment, sustainability of raw materials, and biodiversity increases the need to ensure that the final product has a lower environmental impact. The objective of this review is to summarize and compare the information available from international organizations and legislation regarding the main criteria used to assess raw materials for aquatic toxicity, as well as the most suitable alternative methods for obtaining assessment parameters. Using the literature available in databases, a review of the scientific literature and international legislation, this work discusses and compares the parameters established by international organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Cradle to Cradle (C2C), as well as European legislation, namely, European Regulation 1272/2008, for assessing environmental impact. Defining the ecotoxicity parameters of the main classes of raw materials in rinse-off cosmetic products can enable the development of products that are more environmentally sustainable, prioritizing substances with less environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ukrainian realities of labeling of environmentally friendly products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Tsaruk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of life of any society is a safe environment that is not only the guarantee of welfare and quality of life, but also the guarantee of the further development of human civilization. That is why in the modern world the issue of the preservation of the natural environment is of special actuality. The gradual awareness by humanity of new threats (high degree of concentration of harmful industries; high level of resource and energy consumption; lack of modern environmental technologies; slow but inevitable degradation of the gene pool of a population due to the consumption of poor quality and in most cases harmful products, etc. forced the society to seek new approaches to socio-economic development and environmental management. One of such approaches is the introduction of ecological and organic labeling. Marking is a source of information about the purity, safety and quality of the products offered in the market; effective information mechanism, which is a kind of quality mark for the offered products. The current practice of ecological and organic labeling aimed at the increase of level consumer's awareness and the changing models of purchasing behavior in the direction of environmental protection. The feature of most marking systems of environmentally friendly and safe products is the obligation of compliance with the established requirements used by producers of raw materials and technologies taking into account their potential environmental impact. Labeling of ecologically clean and safe products is reducing the negative impact on the environment and on the human's health. It is the consequence of changes in the economic environment, namely: the improvement of socio-ethical requirements to production; the increasing level of integration of producers and service providers; the customer's satisfaction in varieties of products; globalization of economic space; reduction of time for development, standardization and production. Labeling is

  4. Environmental impacts the of production and use of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Veljković, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel as renewable, environmental friendly, less toxic, and biodegradable is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels and is produced mainly from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is expected, globally, that the use of renewable biofuels, in general, will increase rapidly in the near future. The growing biodiesel production and usage have encouraged assessment of its impact on the environment. The present paper reviews various aspects of biodiesel production using commercial processing technology and biodiesel use through evaluation and analysis of the studies concerning environmental impacts of biodiesel. As a general conclusion, it can be said that biodiesel has the potential to offer a series of perceived benefits such as political, economical, and agricultural, as well as environmental (due to its biodegradability, less toxicity, renewability) and health (greenhouse gas-saving, less harmful exhaust emissions).

  5. Environmental system analysis of tomato production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify the most important sources of greenhouse gases, acidifying and eutrophying compounds associated with tomato production in Ghana and identify options to reduce the environmental impacts. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology was used in the analysis (Cradle to gate approach).

  6. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  7. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  8. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  9. Uranium production and environmental restoration at Priargunsky Centre (Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The state enterprise 'Priargunsky Mining and Chemical Production Association' (PPGHO) is the only active uranium production centre in Russia in last decade. Mining has been operated since 1968 by two open pits and four underground mines. It is based on resources of 19 volcanic-type deposits of Streltsovsk U-ore region situated at the area of 150 km 2 . Milling and processing has been carried out since 1974 at the local hydrometallurgical plant. Since the mid 1980s, limited amount of uranium is produced by heap and block leaching methods. High level of total production marks PPGHO as one of the outstanding uranium production centers worldwide. Significant amount of solid, liquid and gas wastes have been generated for more than 30 years. The principal environmental contamination comes from waste rock piles, mine water and tailing ponds. Liquid waste seepage through tailing pond bed can essentially contaminate underground waters. The principal environmental remediation activities are: waste rock dumps and open pits rehabilitation; waste rock utilization for industrial needs; heap and block leaching mining development, strengthening dam bodies and construction intercepting wells below the tailing pond dam, hydrogeological monitoring, upgrade of mine water treatment unit. Waste is being managed by the environmental service team of PPGHO. Environmental restoration activities, including rehabilitation of the territories and waste utilization, are implemented gradually in line with decommissioning of enterprise's particular facilities. (author)

  10. Green Shoots: Environmental Sustainability and Contemporary Film Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victory, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the emerging phenomenon of ‘green filmmaking’ in film production, whereby the process of filmmaking is conducted with a view to minimising environmental impact. Establishing the motivations behind green filmmaking and surveying a range of international developments in this area, sustainability initiatives are identified and considered as a means of environmentally-sustainable economic development for the film sector. After identifying challenges of consumption habits to be overcome by the film industry worldwide, recent and current initiatives are highlighted from within the international film industry and one is specifically explored in more detail: the emerging role of a designated crew member or ‘eco-manager’ to oversee environmental initiatives on-set. The paper then concludes on a range of brief policy proposals for the film sector following on from analysis of existing film industry policy towards environmental sustainability.

  11. Pair production of neutralinos and charginos at the LHC: The role of Higgs bosons exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Benbrik, Rachid; Chabab, Mohamed; Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of the s-channel Higgs bosons exchange on the charginos-pair and neutralinos-pair production in proton-proton collision at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the following channels: pp→χ-tilde + χ-tilde - /χ-tilde 0 χ-tilde 0 +X, within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). Assuming the usual GUT relation between M 1 and M 2 at the weak scale, we found that substantial enhancement can be obtained through s-channel Higgs bosons exchange in the mixed regime where M 2 ∼|μ| with moderate to large tanβ at the resonance of the heavy Higgs bosons. By combining the phenomenological constraints on neutralinos and charginos, we may still find regions of parameter space where charginos-pair and neutralinos-pair production at the LHC from bb initial state can be large and observable at LHC. We also compute the full complete set of electroweak (EW) contributions to pp→gg→χ-tilde + χ-tilde - /χ-tilde 0 χ-tilde 0 +X at the one-loop level in the general MSSM. The analytical-computation of the complete tree-level amplitude for bb→χ-tilde + χ-tilde - /χ-tilde 0 χ-tilde 0 +X, including s-channel Higgs exchange, is given.

  12. The shaping of environmental concern in product chains: analysing Danish case studies on environmental aspects in product chain relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    indirect demand for greening activities. The analysis shows the co-construction of environmental concerns and demands, companies’ environmental practices and technological developments, and their stabilisation in the supply chain. The case studies also point to how the greening of frontrunners might make...... the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation are discussed. The role of boundary objects is discussed with eco-labelling as case. The role of and the impact on the product chain relations are analysed as part of these mechanisms. From the case studies, green innovations in the product...... chain, which the case company represents, are identified. Direct customer and regulatory demands, as well as indirect societal and regulatory demands are mapped, and their role for product chain greening analysed. The case studies point to the importance of customer demand, regulation and potentially...

  13. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  14. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    OpenAIRE

    Michalíková Frantika; Maras Michal; Floreková ¼ubica

    2001-01-01

    In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste fly ashes represent a an overview of ...

  15. Uranium production and environmental restoration at the Priargunsky Centre, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    State JSK 'Priargunsky Mining-Chemical Production Association' (PPGHO) has been the only active uranium production centre in Russia during the last decade. Mining has operated since 1968, and derives from resources in 19 volcanic-type deposits of Streltsovsk U-ore region, which covers an area of 150 km 2 . The average U grade is about 0.2%. Ten deposits have been brought into production: eight by underground mines and two by open pits. Milling and processing has been carried out since 1974 at the local hydrometallurgical plant by sulphuric acid leaching with subsequent recovery by a sorption-extraction ion exchange scheme. The high level of total production (over 100,000 mtU through 2000) marks it as one of the outstanding uranium production districts worldwide. Significant amounts of wastes have been accumulated. The main sources of the environmental contamination are: 30 piles of waste rocks and sub-grade ores, mine waters, milling and sulphuric acid plant tailings. The following activities are performed to decrease the negative impact on the environment: rehabilitation of waste rock dumps and open pits utilization of waste rock for industrial needs, heap and in situ leach mining of low-grade ores, construction of dams and intercepting wells below the tailings, hydrogeological monitoring and waste water treatment plant modernization. Environmental activities, including rehabilitation of the impacted territories and also waste utilization will be realized after final closure takes place. (author)

  16. Optical And Environmental Properties Of NCAP Glazing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Konynenburg, Peter; Wipfler, Richard T.; Smith, Jerry L.

    1989-07-01

    The first large area, commercially available, electrically-controllable glazing products sold under the tradename VARILITETM are based on a new liquid crystal film technology called NCAP. The glazing products can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for high visibility) with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are demonstrated to meet the general requirements for architectural glazing use. The first qualified indoor product is described in detail.

  17. Studies on resin degradation products encountered during purification of plutonium by anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Among the methods available for the purification of plutonium in Purex process, anion exchange method offers several advantages. However, on repeated use, the resin gets degraded due to thermal, radiolytic and chemical attacks resulting in chemical as well as physical damage. Frequently, plutonium product eluted from such resin contains significant quantities of white precipitates. A few anion exchange resins were leached with 8 M HNO 3 at 60-80degC and the resin degradation products (RDP) in the leach-extract were found to give similar precipitates with tetravalent metal ions like Pu(IV), Th(IV) etc. Tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide in 8 M HNO 3 (TPAN) also gave a white precipitate with plutonium similar to the one found in the elution streams. The results indicate that delinked quaternary ammonium functional groups might be responsible for the formation of precipitate. The characteristics of precipitates Th-RDP, Th-TPAN and that isolated from elution stream have been investigated. In a separate study a tentative formula for Th-RDP compound is proposed. The influence of RDP on the extraction of plutonium and other components in Purex process was studied and it was found that RDP complexes metal ions thus marginally affecting the kd values. A spectrophotometric method has been standardised to monitor the extent of degradation of anion exchange resins which is based on the ability of RDP to reduce the colour intensity of Th-thoron complex. This technique can be used to study the stability of the anion exchange resins. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.,

  18. Speciative determination of phosphorus in environmental water by the isotope exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Yoshikawa, M.; Murakami, S.; Kunika, J.

    1988-01-01

    An isotope exchage method for the speciative determination of phosphorus (PO 4 3- ,PO 3 3- and total P) in natural water samples is proposed by using the exchange system of molybdophosphate in the aqueous phase and tetraphenylarsonium molybdophosphate in the organic phase. In this exchange system, only PO 4 3- exchanges and is determined. When the sample water is treated with Br 2 water in advance, the amount of PO 4 3- +PO 3 3- can be obtained. When the sample is treated with H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , the amount of total P can be determined. (author) 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  19. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  20. I. Pion charge-exchange at Fermilab, and II. Some remarks on hadron production at large transverse momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pripstein, M.

    1975-06-01

    The discussion of pion charge-exchange and hadron production at large transverse momenta includes the physics motivation, the experimental method event selection criteria, results for the reaction π - p → nπ 0 (eta)

  1. Perspectives of advanced thermal management in solar thermochemical syngas production using a counter-flow solid-solid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Sizmann, Andreas; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    A modular reactor model is presented for the description of solar thermochemical syngas production involving counter-flow heat exchangers that recuperate heat from the solid phase. The development of the model is described including heat diffusion within the reactive material as it travels through the heat exchanger, which was previously identified to be a possibly limiting factor in heat exchanger design. Heat transfer within the reactive medium is described by conduction and radiation, where the former is modeled with the three-resistor model and the latter with the Rosseland diffusion approximation. The applicability of the model is shown by the analysis of heat exchanger efficiency for different material thicknesses and porosities in a system with 8 chambers and oxidation and reduction temperatures of 1000 K and 1800 K, respectively. Heat exchanger efficiency is found to rise strongly for a reduction of material thickness, as the element mass is reduced and a larger part of the elements takes part in the heat exchange process. An increase of porosity enhances radiation heat exchange but deteriorates conduction. The overall heat exchange in the material is improved for high temperatures in the heat exchanger, as radiation dominates the energy transfer. The model is shown to be a valuable tool for the development and analysis of solar thermochemical reactor concepts involving heat exchange from the solid phase.

  2. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  3. Productivity and carbon dioxide exchange of leguminous crops: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Baker, John M.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Castro, Saulo; Chen, Jiquan; Eugster, Werner; Fischer, Marc L.; Gamon, John A.; Gebremedhin, Maheteme T.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Howard, Daniel M.; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Loescher, Henry W.; Marloie, Oliver; Meyers, Tilden P.; Olioso, Albert; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prueger, John H.; Skinner, R. Howard; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tenuta, Mario; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    Net CO2 exchange data of legume crops at 17 flux tower sites in North America and three sites in Europe representing 29 site-years of measurements were partitioned into gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration by using the nonrectangular hyperbolic light-response function method. The analyses produced net CO2 exchange data and new ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameter estimates for legume crops determined at diurnal and weekly time steps. Dynamics and annual totals of gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production were calculated by gap filling with multivariate nonlinear regression. Comparison with the data from grain crops obtained with the same method demonstrated that CO2 exchange rates and ecophysiological parameters of legumes were lower than those of maize (Zea mays L.) but higher than for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops. Year-round annual legume crops demonstrated a broad range of net ecosystem production, from sinks of 760 g CO2 m–2 yr–1 to sources of –2100 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, with an average of –330 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, indicating overall moderate CO2–source activity related to a shorter period of photosynthetic uptake and metabolic costs of N2 fixation. Perennial legumes (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) were strong sinks for atmospheric CO2, with an average net ecosystem production of 980 (range 550–1200) g CO2 m–2 yr–1.

  4. Construction of Rb charge exchange cell and characteristic experiment for He- ion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seock; Bak, Jun Gyo; Bak, Hae Ill

    1991-01-01

    The Rb charge exchange cell is constructed as the He - ion source of the SNU 1.5-MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. the characteristic experiments is carried out in order to determine the optimum operational conditions of the cell. The He + ion beam with the energy of 1 - 10 keV, extracted from the duoplasmatron ion source, is passed through the Rb vapor to become He - ions by the two step charge exchange reaction, i.e., He + + Rb → He o* + Rb + and He o* + Rb → He - + Rb + . From the experimental results, it is found that the maximum fractional yield of He - ions is produced at He + /ion energy of 7 keV. The optimum temperatures of the oven and the canal are determined to be 370 deg C and 95 deg C respectively. Under the optimum operational condition the maximum fractional yield of He - ions is 2.42 ± 0.02 5. This charge exchange cell is proved to be an effective system for the production of He - ions. (Author)

  5. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  6. PGE Production in Southern Africa, Part II: Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Buchspies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platinum group elements (PGEs, 6E PGE = Pt + Pd + Rh + Ru + Ir + Au are used in numerous applications that seek to reduce environmental impacts of mobility and energy generation. Consequently, the future demand for PGEs is predicted to increase. Previous studies indicate that environmental impacts of PGE production change over time emphasizing the need of up-to-date data and assessments. In this context, an analysis of environmental aspects of PGE production is needed to support the environmental assessment of technologies using PGEs, to reveal environmental hotspots within the production chain and to identify optimization potential. Therefore, this paper assesses greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative fossil energy demand (CEDfossil, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and water use of primary PGE production in Southern Africa, where most of today’s supply originates from. The analysis shows that in 2015, emissions amounted to 45 t CO2-eq. and 502 kg SO2 per kg 6E PGE in the case GHG and SO2 emissions, respectively. GHG emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity provision contributing more than 90% to the overall GHG emissions. The CEDfossil amounted to 0.60 TJ per kg 6E PGE. A detailed analysis of the CEDfossil reveals that electricity provision based on coal power consumes the most fossil energy carriers among all energy forms. Results show that the emissions are directly related to the electricity demand. Thus, the reduction in the electricity demand presents the major lever to reduce the consumption of fossil energy resources and the emission of GHGs and SO2. In 2015, the water withdrawal amounted to 0.272 million L per kg 6E PGE. Additionally, 0.402 million L of recycled water were used per kg 6E PGE. All assessed indicators except ore grades and production volumes reveal increasing trends in the period from 2010 to 2015. It can be concluded that difficult market conditions (see part I of this paper series and increasing

  7. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  8. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  9. Workshop on APEC virtual center for environmental technology exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu virtual center workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    At the 'policy maker workshop of the virtual center of APEC technology exchange' held in November 1997 in Osaka, Japan, it was agreed to organize study groups to discuss the scope of information provided by the virtual center, and to make common the classification systems and retrieval functions. In addition, the necessity was confirmed on international cooperation to promote establishment of virtual centers in different countries and territories. On the first day, Professor Ueda at the Kyoto University gave the basic lecture entitled 'global environment preservation and environmental technology transfer: problems and prospects'. Mr. Dan, the workshop manager gave the basic proposal entitled 'the future directionality of environmental technology exchange inside the APEC territories by using Internet'. Based on the basic proposal made on the first day, reports and discussions were given in the following sessions, where confirmation was made on the future directions. S1: establishment of the virtual centers in other countries and territories; S2: assurance of interchangeability of classification systems and retrieval functions in providing information, and S3: presentation of examples of inter-territorial exchange and the future directionality. (NEDO)

  10. Workshop on APEC virtual center for environmental technology exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu virtual center workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    At the 'policy maker workshop of the virtual center of APEC technology exchange' held in November 1997 in Osaka, Japan, it was agreed to organize study groups to discuss the scope of information provided by the virtual center, and to make common the classification systems and retrieval functions. In addition, the necessity was confirmed on international cooperation to promote establishment of virtual centers in different countries and territories. On the first day, Professor Ueda at the Kyoto University gave the basic lecture entitled 'global environment preservation and environmental technology transfer: problems and prospects'. Mr. Dan, the workshop manager gave the basic proposal entitled 'the future directionality of environmental technology exchange inside the APEC territories by using Internet'. Based on the basic proposal made on the first day, reports and discussions were given in the following sessions, where confirmation was made on the future directions. S1: establishment of the virtual centers in other countries and territories; S2: assurance of interchangeability of classification systems and retrieval functions in providing information, and S3: presentation of examples of inter-territorial exchange and the future directionality. (NEDO)

  11. Bio-fuels production and the environmental indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de Paula [Mechanical Engineering Department/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, Gavea, CEP 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Muylaert de Araujo, Maria Silvia [Energy and Environment Planning Program/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, sala 211, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The paper evaluates the role of the bio-fuels production in the transportation sector in the world, for programs of greenhouse gases emissions reductions and sustainable environmental performance. Depending on the methodology used to account for the local pollutant emissions and the global greenhouse gases emissions during the production and consumption of both the fossil and bio-fuels, the results can show huge differences. If it is taken into account a life cycle inventory approach to compare the different fuel sources, these results can present controversies. A comparison study involving the American oil diesel and soybean diesel developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presents CO{sub 2} emissions for the bio-diesel which are almost 20% of the emissions for the oil diesel: 136 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the bio-diesel from soybean and 633 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the oil diesel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Besides that, important local environmental impacts can also make a big difference. The water consumption in the soybean production is much larger in comparison with the water consumption for the diesel production [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Brazil has an important role to play in this scenario because of its large experience in bio-fuels production since the seventies, and the country has conditions to produce bio-fuels for attending great part of the world demand in a sustainable pathway. (author)

  12. Updating of U.S. Wood Product Life-Cycle Assessment Data for Environmental Product Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Maureen Puettmann; Ivan Eastin; Indroneil Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace has an increasing desire for credible and transparent product eco-labels based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data, especially involving international trade. Over the past several years, stakeholders in the U.S. wood products industry have developed many such “eco-labels” under the ISO standard of LCA-based environmental product declarations (EPDs). The...

  13. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  14. Technological challenges for boosting coal production with environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K

    2009-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenon rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This paper focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy source in foreseeable future. It examines the energy requirement perspective for India and demand of coal as the prime energy source. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and Indian coal mining industry offers a bright future for the country's energy security, provided the industry is allowed to develop by supportive government policies and adopts latest technologies for mining. It is an irony that in-spite of having a plentiful reserves, India is not able to jack up coal production to meet its current and future demand. It discusses the strategies to be adopted for growth and meeting the coal demand. But such energy are very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively The paper highlights the emissions of greenhouse gases due to burning of fossil fuels and environmental consequences of global warming and sea-level rise. Technological solutions for environment friendly coal mining and environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper.

  15. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  16. Floating on the margins [Environmental issues for floating production platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    The main environmental issues challenging oilfield development using floating production platforms in harsh environments such as the Atlantic frontier are discussed. These fall into two broad categories -operating conditions and biological disturbance. Particular combinations of wind and currents can lead to extremely difficult operating conditions through which floating units are expected to maintain production for economic reasons. This imposes stringent conditions on the design and construction of tanker hulls and of risers to enable them to remain connected at all times. Prediction of wind and wave forces is a crucial element of operational and safety planning. Fauna in seabed sediments disturbed by pipeline laying often relocate but some seeding back of colonies may be required in hard rock areas. Migration routes for cetaceans and the feeding grounds of marine birds must be considered and the potential long and short term damage to commercial fisheries through discharges need to be assessed. A significant risk is the interaction of sub-sea facilities and fishing gear and oil spills. Operational and accidental discharges of production chemicals, produced water containing oil, deck drainage and treated sewage, and discharges to air from flaring and utility exhausts are of major environmental concern calling for mitigation and protection measures and contingency plans. Some of the environmental issues associated with decommissioning are reduced by the use of floating platforms but there are global and national regulations governing the process. (UK)

  17. Products and Processes Innovation from the Perspective of Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Theis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the present scenario of globalization of the economy, the dynamics of the market determines the speed of change in business models, environmental aspects can contribute to the design of technological innovations. Given this perception, the general objective of this research was to investigate how industrial organizations in the metal-mechanic sector, located in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos region, reconcile the product innovation activities and processes, with the structuring principles of environmental management. This economic segment is characterized as one that has the highest rates of innovation and greater investment in research and development. Data were collected through a survey research with managers of 159 companies of the analysis unit. Evidence collected provided the realization that innovations tend to be adjustments made to the legal provisions that require the mitigation of environmental impacts in the production process, especially in reducing pollution and using less toxic assets, which does not generate sufficient stimulus to the development of new products.

  18. A product lifecycle management framework to support the exchange of prototyping and testing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toche Fumchum, Luc Boris

    2011-12-01

    The modern perspective on product life cycle and the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies in general have opened a new era in product representation and product information sharing between participants, both inside and outside the enterprise and throughout the product life. In particular, the Product Development Process relies on cross-functional activities involving different domains of expertise that each have their own dedicated tools. This has generated new challenges in terms of collaboration and dissemination of information at large between companies or even within the same organization. Within this context, the work reported herein focuses on a specific stakeholder within product development activities - the prototyping and testing department. Its business is typically related to the planning and building of prototypes in order to perform specific tests on the future product or one of its sub-assemblies. The research project aims at investigating an appropriate framework that leverages configured engineering product information, based on complementary information structures, to share and exchange prototyping and testing information in a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) perspective. As a first step, a case study based on the retrofit of an aircraft engine is deployed to implement a scenario demonstrating the functionalities to be available within the intended framework. For this purpose, complementary and configurable structures are simulated within the project's PLM system. In a second step are considered the software interoperability issues that don't only affect Design -- Testing interactions, but many other interfaces within either the company -- due to the silo-arrangement -- or the consortiums with partners, in which case the whole PLM platforms could simply be incompatible. A study based on an open source initiative and relying on an improved model of communication is described to show how two natively disparate PLM tools can

  19. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste – fly ashes – represent a an overview of forms and methods of its utilization. By combusting one kind of coal in various boilers, fly ashes with different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties originate, with the combustion temperature as a dominant factor. The fly ashes are directly (without influencing its composition applied in civil engineering, mining, metallurgy, waste water cleaning, etc. Their utilization after a separation removal of unwanted components is an economically difficult process. Such a unvaluable component is coal combustion residue, evaluated by the annealing loss (carbon-in-ash loss in fly ashes used for special procedures in civil enginering, e.g. in mortars (maximally 4% of c.a.s. loss or in the porous concrete (4-7% of c.a.s. loss. The building industry processes about 20% of solid energetic waste.

  20. Effect of progressive drought stress on growth, leaf gas exchange, and antioxidant production in two maize cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Khan, Imran; Wang, Longchang

    2016-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the major environmental factors responsible for reduction in crop productivity. In the present study, responses of two maize cultivars (Rung Nong 35 and Dong Dan 80) were examined to explicate the growth, yield, leaf gas exchange, leaf water contents, osmolyte accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity under progressive drought stress. Maize cultivars were subjected to varying field capacities (FC) viz., well-watered (80 % FC) and drought-stressed (35 % FC) at 45 days after sowing. The effects of drought stress were analyzed at 5, 10, 15, 20, ad 25 days after drought stress (DAS) imposition. Under prolonged drought stress, Rung Nong 35 exhibited higher reduction in growth and yield as compared to Dong Dan 80. Maize cultivar Dong Dan 80 showed higher leaf relative water content (RWC), free proline, and total carbohydrate accumulation than Run Nong 35. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion were increased with prolongation of drought stress, with higher rates in cultivar Run Nong 35 than cultivar Dong Dan 80. Higher production of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) resulted in improved growth and yield in Dong Dan 80. Overall, the cultivar Dong Dan 80 was better able to resist the detrimental effects of progressive drought stress as indicated by better growth and yield due to higher antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation, better accumulation of osmolytes, and maintenance of tissue water contents.

  1. Selective Production of Aromatics from 2-Octanol on Zinc Ion-Exchanged MFI Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Iwamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aromatization of 2-octanol derived from castor oil as a byproduct in the formation of sebacic acid was investigated on various zeolite catalysts. Zn ion-exchanged MFI (ZSM-5 zeolites with small silica/alumina ratios and zinc contents of 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % were determined to exhibit good and stable activity for the reaction at 623 to 823 K. The yield of aromatics was 62% at 773 K and the space velocity 350 to 1400 h−1. The temperature and contact time dependences of the product distributions indicated the reaction pathways of 2-octanol→dehydration to 2-octene→decomposition to C5 and C3 compounds→further decomposition to small alkanes and alkenes→aromatization with dehydrogenation. Alcohols with carbon numbers of 5 to 8 exhibited similar distributions of products compared to 2-octanol, while corresponding carbonyl compounds demonstrated different reactivity.

  2. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  3. Expanding OPEC production capacity: some legal and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There is general consensus that the global demand for oil will increase in the medium-to-long term. It is predicted that much of this additional demand will be for OPEC oil. Therefore, it will become necessary to expand OPEC production capacity to meet this perceived increase. In recent years, many OPEC countries have launched far-reaching and, in some cases, radical plans to expand their production capacity. However, given the various investment and political constraints faced by the 13 OPEC Members, each country differs markedly in its ability to boost production capacity sufficiently to meet self-imposed targets. In this paper, we examine the importance to the oil market of recent oil supply trends and possible future attempts to build OPEC production capacity, focussing in particular on the legal and environmental issues involved. A review is provided of the legal mechanisms currently evolving in OPEC Countries to encourage investment in their oil industries. In addition, we outline the impact of the environmental movement of OPEC's expansion programmes. (author)

  4. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis......, the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  5. Solar as an environmental product. Thin-film modules. Production processes and their environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild - Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Schottler, M. [M and W Zander, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The outline of this presentation is as follows: (1) Life-cycle thinking: (a) Establish emissions from the production site; (b) Include emissions from supply and disposal (Indirect Emissions); (c) Establish use of resources from nature; (2) What are the life-cycle impacts and largest contributions?: (a) Energy payback time; (b) Greenhouse gas emissions; (c) Toxic impacts; (d) Others?; (3) How to reduce life-cycle impacts?: (a) Near term objectives as a result of analysis from (2); (b) Long term objectives to reach an ecological optimum.

  6. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  7. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  8. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  9. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  10. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  11. Environmentally Benign Production of Stretchable and Robust Superhydrophobic Silicone Monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander; Surdo, Salvatore; Caputo, Gianvito; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-01-24

    Superhydrophobic materials hold an enormous potential in sectors as important as aerospace, food industries, or biomedicine. Despite this great promise, the lack of environmentally friendly production methods and limited robustness remain the two most pertinent barriers to the scalability, large-area production, and widespread use of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, highly robust superhydrophobic silicone monoliths are produced through a scalable and environmentally friendly emulsion technique. It is first found that stable and surfactantless water-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) emulsions can be formed through mechanical mixing. Increasing the internal phase fraction of the precursor emulsion is found to increase porosity and microtexture of the final monoliths, rendering them superhydrophobic. Silica nanoparticles can also be dispersed in the aqueous internal phase to create micro/nanotextured monoliths, giving further improvements in superhydrophobicity. Due to the elastomeric nature of PDMS, superhydrophobicity can be maintained even while the material is mechanically strained or compressed. In addition, because of their self-similarity, the monoliths show outstanding robustness to knife-scratch, tape-peel, and finger-wipe tests, as well as rigorous sandpaper abrasion. Superhydrophobicity was also unchanged when exposed to adverse environmental conditions including corrosive solutions, UV light, extreme temperatures, and high-energy droplet impact. Finally, important properties for eventual adoption in real-world applications including self-cleaning, stain-repellence, and blood-repellence are demonstrated.

  12. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Thornton, Peter E.; White, Mike A.; Running, Steven W.

    1997-01-01

    A process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce stands. Model simulations of daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem (NEE) explained 51.7% (SE = 1.32 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in daily NEE derived from stand eddy flux measurements of CO(2) during 1994. Differences between measured and simulated results were attributed to several factors including difficulties associated with measuring nighttime CO(2) fluxes and model assumptions of site homogeneity. However, comparisons between simulations and field data improved markedly at coarser time-scales. Model simulations explained 66.1% (SE = 0.97 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in measured NEE when 5-day means of daily results were compared. Annual simulations of aboveground net primary production ranged from 0.6-2.4 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and were concurrent with results derived from tree increment core measurements and allometric equations. Model simulations showed that all of the sites were net sinks (0.1-4.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) of atmospheric carbon for 1994. Older conifer stands showed narrow margins between uptake of carbon by net photosynthesis and carbon release through respiration. Younger stands were more productive than older stands, primarily because of lower maintenance respiration costs. However, all sites appeared to be less productive than temperate forests. Productivity simulations were strongly linked to stand morphology and site conditions. Old jack pine and aspen stands showed decreased productivity in response to simulated low soil water contents near the end of the 1994 growing season. Compared with the aspen stand, the jack pine stand appeared better adapted to conserve soil water through lower daily evapotranspiration losses but also exhibited a narrower margin between daily net

  13. Multi-objective synthesis of work and heat exchange networks: Optimal balance between economic and environmental performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Jiménez, Laureano; Caballero, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-objective optimization model for the simultaneous WHEN synthesis. • A multistage superstructure allows power and thermal integration of process streams. • Simultaneous minimization of environmental impacts and total annualized cost. • Alternative set of Pareto solutions is presented to support decision-makers. - Abstract: Sustainable and efficient energy use is crucial for lessening carbon dioxide emissions in industrial plants. This paper introduces a new multi-objective optimization model for the synthesis of work and heat exchange networks (WHENs), aiming to obtain the optimal balance between economic and environmental performance. The proposed multistage superstructure allows power and thermal integration of process gaseous streams, through the simultaneous minimization of total annualized cost (TAC) and environmental impacts (EI). The latter objective is determined by environmental indicators that follow the life cycle assessment (LCA) principles. The WHEN superstructure is optimized as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming (moMINLP) model and solved with the GAMS software. Results show a decrease of ∼79% in the heat transfer area and ∼32% in the capital cost between the solutions found for single problem optimizations. These results represent a diminution of ∼23.5% in the TAC, while EI is increased in ∼99.2%. As these solutions can be impractical for economic or environmental reasons, we present a set of alternative Pareto-optimal solutions to support decision-makers towards the implementation of more environment-friendly and cost-effective WHENs.

  14. Environmental protection in exploration and production by AGIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, G.; Di Luise, G.; Ceffa, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a panorama of environmental protection activities being undertaken by AGIP (Italian General Petroleum Company). The Company has developed a wide-ranging program based on 20 years experience in world-wide on- and off-shore exploration and production. The research studies on technologically innovative on-site waste management, noise abatement and subsidence control and monitoring techniques are co-operative efforts involving the joint participation of national research institutions, universities and leading international petroleum companies. Given the intense oil carrier traffic along Italy's tourism dependent coastlines, one of the key projects is the creation of a national emergency plan to deal with oil spills. AGIP is also actively involved in the training of national and foreign site personnel in environmental protection techniques

  15. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  16. Graviton exchange effects on dijet production in pp-interactions at √s = 14 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubov, Z.U.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the virtual graviton exchange on the dijet production in proton-proton collisions at the ATLAS detector at the LHC are considered. The high E T cross section and the angular distribution for dijet production are examined. A sensitivity of the LHC to a parameter of the model with extra dimensions is estimated

  17. Production and exchange during the Portuguese Chalcolitic: the case of bifacial flaked stone industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forenbaher, Stašo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the economic organization of bifacial flaked stone industries of the Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic Portugal. It is often claimed that social hierarchies first appeared in Western Iberia during this period (ca. 3500-2500 BC. The specific research goals are: determining the production repertoire at lithic production sites, examining the possibility of craft specialization (with particular regard to artifact standardization, and investigating the geographic distribution of artifacts, in order to detect evidence of centralization. The analyses show that the organization of economy differed markedly between different artifact classes. Production of subsistence-related lithics was decentralized and they circulated through local exchange networks, although some of them could enter long-distance exchange. Prestige-related items were exchanged over large distances and apparently were produced by specialists. The level of specialization and its importance for the economy remained modest. There is no evidence for large-scale sociopolitical integration.

    Este estudio se centra en la organización económica de las industrias líticas de talla bifacial del Neolítico Final/ Calcolítico en Portugal. Se ha defendido a menudo que las jerarquías sociales aparecieron por primera vez en el occidente de la Península Ibérica durante este periodo (ca. 3500-2500 AC. Los objetivos específicos de la investigación son: determinar el repertorio de la producción en los talleres líticos, examinar la posibilidad de una especialización artesanal (prestando particular atención a la estandarización artefactual, e investigar la distribución geográfica de los artefactos para detectar las evidencias de centralización. Los análisis muestran que la organización de la economía difiere de forma notable entre las distintas clases de artefactos. La producción de los instrumentos conectados con la subsistencia era descentralizada. Los útiles

  18. Combustion and environmental performance of clean coal end products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications]|[Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab]|[Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Solid Fuels and Environment; Someus, E. [Thermal Desorption Technology Group (Greece); Grammelis, P.; Amarantos, P.S. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications; Palladas, A.; Basinas, P.; Natas, P.; Prokopidou, M.; Diamantopoulou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab

    2006-07-01

    Clean and affordable power production is needed in order to achieve sustainable economic development. This paper focused on clean coal technologies in which coal-fired power plants are used in conjunction with large amounts of renewable energy sources to offer a high level of process safety and long term management of all residual operation streams. Thermal Desorption Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Technology (TDT-3R) was described as being a promising solid fuel pretreatment process for clean energy production up to 300 MWe capacities. TDT-3R is based on low temperature carbonisation fuel pre-treatment principles, which produce cleansed anthracite type fuels from coal and other carbonaceous material such as biomass and organic wastes. The combustion efficiency of such clean coals and the environmental performance of the TDT-3R process were investigated in this study via pilot scale tests of clean fuel production. Tests included flue gas emissions monitoring, raw fuel and product characterisation and thermogravimetric tests, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans, and heavy metals analyses, and toxicity tests. Raw material included coal and biomass, such as willow, straw and demolition wood. The fuels were heated in a rotary kiln operating at 550 degrees C under slightly vacuum conditions. Clean coals were tested either alone or in conjunction with biomass fuels in a pilot scale combustion facility at Dresden, Germany. The clean coal samples were shown to have higher fixed carbon and ash content and lower volatiles compared to the respective raw coal samples. The major advantage of the TDT-3R process is the production of fuels with much lower pollutants content. Low nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal contents result in produced fuels that have excellent environmental performance, allow boiler operation in higher temperatures and overall better efficiency. Moreover, the use of clean fuels reduces deposition problems in the combustion chamber due to the

  19. Amplitudes and exchange mechanisms for K*(890) and K*(1420) production. [Exchange degenerate Regge poles, 13 GeV/c, nonevasive cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estabrooks, P; Martin, A D [Durham Univ. (UK); Brandenburg, G W; Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Dunwoodie, W M; Lasinski, T A; Leith, D W.G.S.; Matthews, J A.J.

    1976-02-16

    The anti K*(890) and antiK*(1420) production amplitudes are determined using data on the reaction K/sup -/p..-->..K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n at 13 GeV/c. The energy dependence of anti K*(890) production is investigated by using in addition the corresponding data at 4 GeV/c. A simple model, based on exchange degenerate Regge poles together with non-evasive 'cut' contributions is found to provide a good description of all features of the data.

  20. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing an environmental compliance program for accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.W.; Roberts, J.S.; Dyer, K.W.; Shedrow, C.B.; Sheetz, S.O.; England, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an environmental program for a large proposed federal project currently in the preliminary design phase, namely, the accelerator production of tritium (APT) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This project is complicated not only by its size ($3.5 to $4.5 billion) but also by its technical complexity and one-of-a-kind nature. This is further complicated by the fact that government projects are driven by budgets subject to public pressures and annual Congressional fiscal considerations, whereas private companies are driven by profits. The measure of success for a federal project such as the APT is based on level of public support, not profits. Finally, there are not too many equivalent environmental programs that could be used as models, and benchmarking is nearly impossible. Forming an environmental program during the conceptual design phase of this large federal project included the formation of a core environmental working group (EWG). The group has membership from all major project organizations with a charter formally recognized by the project director. The envelope for traditional environmental work for the APT project has been stretched to include teaming with management in the establishment of project goals and direction. The APT EWG was set up organizationally to include several subgroups or teams that do the real work of assessing, establishing the regulatory framework, and then developing a compliance program. Setting aside the organizational difficulties of selecting the right team leads and members, each team was tasked with developing a charter, plan, and schedule. Since then, each team has developed an appropriate level of supporting documentation to address its particular issues and requirements

  2. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-12-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow effect. These spacers can be relatively thick compared to the membrane, and thus they increase internal stack resistance due to high solution (ohmic) resistance associated with a thick spacer. New types of patterned anion and cation exchange membranes were developed by casting membranes to create hemispherical protrusions on the membranes, enabling fluid flow between the membranes without the need for a non-conductive spacer. The use of the patterned membrane decreased the MRC stack resistance by ∼22 Ω, resulting in a 38% increase in power density from 2.50 ± 0.04 W m-2 (non-patterned membrane with a non-conductive spacer) to 3.44 ± 0.02 W m-2 (patterned membrane). The COD removal rate, coulombic efficiency, and energy efficiency of the MRC also increased using the patterned membranes compared to the non-patterned membranes. These results demonstrate that these patterned ion exchange membranes can be used to improve performance of an MRC. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of disinfection by-product precursors by coagulation and an innovative suspended ion exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, David; Rockey, Chris; Jefferson, Bruce; Judd, Simon; Jarvis, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This investigation aimed to compare the disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFPs) of three UK surface waters (1 upland reservoir and 2 lowland rivers) with differing characteristics treated by (a) a full scale conventional process and (b) pilot scale processes using a novel suspended ion exchange (SIX) process and inline coagulation (ILCA) followed by ceramic membrane filtration (CMF). Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection analysis highlighted clear differences between the organic fractions removed by coagulation and suspended ion exchange. Pretreatments which combined SIX and coagulation resulted in significant reductions in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance (UVA), trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (THMFP, HAAFP), in comparison with the SIX or coagulation process alone. Further experiments showed that in addition to greater overall DOC removal, the processes also reduced the concentration of brominated DBPs and selectively removed organic compounds with high DBPFP. The SIX/ILCA/CMF process resulted in additional removals of DOC, UVA, THMFP, HAAFP and brominated DBPs of 50, 62, 62, 62% and 47% respectively compared with conventional treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan.

  5. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129 I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129 I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan

  6. Energy and environmental implications of novel protein production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwardson, W; Lewis, C W; Slesser, M

    1981-04-01

    The energy requirements of many novel protein production systems are compared with an examination of the relevant environmental implications of these systems. The prospects for single cell protein, leaf protein, fish farming, fish protein concentrate, algal cultivation, and hydroponic plant growth systems are investigated. Single cell protein from carbohydrate substrates, algal protein, and fish protein seem to hold much promise, as they are technologically feasible for near-term implementation and do not require major energy inputs. (2 diagrams, 1 graph, 47 references, 6 tables)

  7. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  8. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  9. Proceedings of the Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is one of the key technologies for reducing the radiotoxicity and volume of radioactive waste arisings. Recent developments indicate the need for embedding P and T strategies in advanced fuel cycles considering both waste management and economic issues. In order to provide experts a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the P and T field, the OECD/NEA has been organising biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The previous meetings were held in Mito (Japan) in 1990, at Argonne (United States) in 1992, in Cadarache (France) in 1994, in Mito (Japan) in 1996, in Mol (Belgium) in 1998, in Madrid (Spain) in 2000, in Jeju (Korea) in 2002, in Las Vegas (United States) in 2004, in Nimes (France) in 2006 and in Mito (Japan) in 2008. They have often been co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The 11. Information Exchange Meeting was held in San Francisco, California, United States on 1-4 November 2010, comprising a plenary session on national P and T programmes and six technical sessions covering various fields of P and T. The meeting was hosted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), United States. The information exchange meetings on P and T form an integral part of NEA activities on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The meeting covered scientific as well as strategic/policy developments in the field of P and T, such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios; radioactive waste forms; the impact of P and T on geological disposal; radioactive waste management strategies (including secondary wastes); transmutation fuels and targets; pyro and aqueous separation processes; materials, spallation targets and coolants; transmutation physics, experiments and nuclear data; transmutation systems (design, performance and safety); handling and transportation of transmutation fuels; and

  10. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  11. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  12. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  13. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George G; Khanna, Vikas

    2013-06-20

    Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of -46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae's life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae's direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Given the high variability in microalgae's energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative.

  14. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  15. Production of giant gourami Osphronemus goramy Lac. juvenile with different rate of water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGiant gourami Osphronemus goramy Lac. is one of the most important fresh water fish commodities with increasing production level every year. Water quality management through a proper water exchange both in quantity and quality can be one of the alternatives to support the elevating production. This research was conducted from July to August 2010 at the Aquaculture Production Technology and Management Laboratory, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The juvenile used was 0.84±0.011 cm in length and 0.017±0.001 cm in weight which reared in nine units of aquaria with a size of 60×29×33 cm3. Silk worm was used as the feed and provided daily at satiation. Water exchange was performed twice a day at a level depending on the treatment, namely 75% (50% at morning and 25% at evening, 100% (50% at morning and evening and 125% (75% at morning and 50% at evening of total water volume. Water exchange at 75%, 100%, and 125%/day resulted in survival rates of 94.11±0.63%; 91.89±2.02%; and 93.89±0.75%; specific growth rates of 7.43±0.15%, 8.58±0.24%, and 9.97±0.18%. Growth rate in length of 1.06±0.06 cm, 1.33±0.04 cm, and 1.55±0.01 cm; coefficient of variation in length of 11.31±1.43%, 9.35±1.46%, and 6.90±2.30%; feed efficiency of 12.47±0.30%, 14.32±1.05%, and 19.67±0.54%. The financial benefits resulted of the process were worth of IDR.351,903.00; IDR.402,302.00; and IDR.464,715.00; whereas R/C ratio of 1.71; 1.80; dan 1.90; BEP of 1,845 unit, 1,645 unit, and 1,517 unit; payback period (PP of 0.97 years, 0.85 years, and 0.74 years; and the cost production as much as IDR.79.90; IDR.82.70; and IDR.82.90/individual, respectively. The treatments were significantly different on several parameters, such as specific growth rate, length of growth rate, feed efficiency at p<0.05. The results of this experiment showed that 125% daily water exchange improved the production

  16. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  17. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which results in a high water absorption of the recycled secondary aggregate. This leads to lower density and strength, and other durability related properties. The use of most recycled aggregate in concrete structures is still limited to low strength and non-structural applications due to important drop in strength and durability performances generated. Embedding recycled aggregates in concrete is now a current practice in many countries to enhance sustainability of concrete industry and reduce its environmental impacts. The present paper discusses the various possible recycled aggregates used in concrete production, their effect on both fresh and hardened properties as well as durability performances. The economic and environmental impacts of partially or fully substituting natural aggregates by secondary recycled aggregates are also discussed.

  18. [Features of the lipid exchange in workers employed in aluminium productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Masnavieva, L B; Popkova, O V; Abramatets, E A

    Aluminum production can be referred to the category of industries of the increased health hazard for the workers. During technological process of receiving aluminum the air of a working zone is polluted by a large number of harmful substances. Workers are exposed to the complex of toxicants possessing a polytropic impact on the body. The most significant consequences are violations of different types of metabolism in the organism, including lipid metabolism. The purpose of the study is the investigation of the state of lipid metabolism in persons working in the production of aluminum. The object of research was 108 male workers of aluminum production suffering from occupational pathology of airways. The group of comparison was consisted of 103 men, apparently healthy, not exposed to toxicants. There was determined the content of the total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and LDLC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), atherogenic index (AI). Statistical processing was performed with the use of software «Statistica 6.0». There were established statistically significant differences of indices of lipid exchange in the persons occupied in aluminum production when related to the group of comparison. IA values in persons from the study group proved to be higher than in the comparison group, due to elevated levels of TC and LDLC. The TG and PL level was also higher. The values of IA, TC and TG in workers of aluminum production in more than 50% cases exceeded the reference values. The average concentration of HDL cholesterol in both groups did not differ, and was above the lower reference boundary. Established features of lipid metabolism in workers of aluminum allow us to suggest the distinction in mechanisms of developing proatherogenic disorders from previously established ones for workers exposed to other chemicals. One of the causes of the shaping of these disorders can be oxidative stress, which in turn serves as a response to

  19. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  20. Nickel production in Serbia-technological and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand for nickel is constantly growing due to the versatility of its application, at the first place for stainless steel production. Ore reserves and possibility of nickel production of today’s Serbia and in neighboring countries were thoroughly investigated, and presented work is part of a wider project of sublimation of scientific and professional experience in the field of nickel extractive metallurgy on domestic raw materials. Presented research explores the possibility of high pressure sulfuric acid leaching of Serbian lateritic ores from localities Rudjinci, Ba and Lipovac. All three investigated ore deposits behaved differently both during preparation and during hydrometallurgical treatment. As optimal method for ore preparation proved to be crushing-milling-sieving route, but without possibility of concentrate production. Only for Rudjinci ore deposit achieved leaching efficiency reached satisfactory level of 95%. Within presented paper flow-sheet is proposed for processing high-magnesium laterite ores, with iron and magnesium oxide Both could be recirculated and used again in technological process; MgO for iron precipitation and SO2 for production of leaching agent, sulfuric acid. Final decision on the sustainability of the process will be made according to techno-economic and environmental evaluation. Estimated overall impact of the project implementation on the environment is negative.

  1. Effects of exchange rate volatility on export volume and prices of forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijia Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2010-01-01

    The relative value of currencies varies considerably over time. These fluctuations bring uncertainty to international traders. As a result, the volatility in exchange rate movements may influence the volume and the price of traded commodities. The volatility of exchange rates was measured by the variance of residuals in a GARCH(1,1) model of the exchange rate. We...

  2. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  3. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  4. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  5. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  6. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour Majid; Bahmiary Elahe

    2017-01-01

    The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we r...

  7. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  8. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, J.S.; Thornton, P.E.; White, M.A.; Running, S.W. [Montana Univ., Missoula, MT (United States). School of Forestry

    1997-12-31

    Studies have shown that the boreal forest region is in danger of experiencing significant warming and drying in response to increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and other greenhouse gases. Since the boreal forest region contains 16-24 per cent of the world`s soil carbon, warming in this region could result in a rapid, large-scale displacement and redistribution of boreal forest, enhanced release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and an intensification of global warming. A study was conducted in which a process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce. The objective was to integrate point measurements across multiple spatial and temporal scales using process level models of the boreal forest water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. Climate characteristics that control simulated carbon fluxes were also studied. Results showed that trees with large daily evapotranspiration rates and those situated on sandy soils with low water holding capacities were especially vulnerable to increased temperature and drought conditions. Trees subject to frequent water stress during the growing season, particularly older trees that exhibit low photosynthetic and high respiration rates, were on the margin between being annual net sources or sinks for atmospheric carbon. 71 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. One-boson-exchange approach to dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglin, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The author calculates energy-dependent nucleon-nucleon elastic cross sections and electron-positron pair production differential cross sections for the processes pp → pp, np → np, and pp → ppe + e - , np → npe + e - at laboratory kinetic energies in the 1-5 GeV range. These calculations will be based on a one-boson-exchange (π, ρ, ω, σ, δ, η) approximation to the nucleon-nucleon scattering problem. Strong form factors are included in a manner which preserves gauge invariance. He finds excellent results as compared with data for the total elastic cross sections. The calculate differential elastic cross sections show only qualitative agreement with data. For dilepton production in n-p scattering the model overestimates the number of pairs as compared with proton on beryllium data. For the p-p case he finds the tensor coupling of the ρ to the nucleons to be clearly dominant. Data do not yet exist for the p-p case at these energies: the author predicts them

  10. Potential Fusion Market for Hydrogen Production Under Environmental Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO 2 emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO 2 emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important

  11. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  12. The IAEA network on environmental management and remediation (ENVIRONET) - promoting sustainable uranium production operations by taking environmental remediation under a life-cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monken-Fernandes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the past uranium production operations have caused extensive environmental problems. The lack of appropriate regulatory framework in addition to the fact that environmental issues were not conveniently addressed in the operations contributed to this situation. Nowadays, this situation has changed dramatically and lessons learned from the past have led to the implementation of responsible operations from both environmental and social perspectives. Involvement of different stakeholders in the decision making process turned out to be a mandatory issue in many countries. With the so called 'Renascence of Nuclear Power' new production sites will come into play. The sustainability of the uranium industry will depend on the adoption of good practices in these operations under a life-cycle perspective. The recently launched IAEA initiative - the ENVIRONET is aimed at contributing to expedite the transfer of experience amongst its members. It brings together private and state-owned companies, research institutes, and governmental organizations providing a forum for information and experience exchange. Sharing of practical experience is to be addressed by means of training courses and workshops. In addition to this long distance training and educational material will be made available. This paper will present the ENVIRONET and describe how networking can contribute to the implementation of sustainable and responsible uranium production operations worldwide. (author)

  13. Product-oriented environmental management. A study of capability building, stakeholder orientation and continuous improvement regarding products' environmental characteristics in firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, F.G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Companies are increasingly giving attention to the environmental characteristics of their products. This book focuses on the ways in which large, proactive, firms could develop and maintain product-oriented environmental management (POEM), both at the strategic and the operational level. POEM is

  14. Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Tarpeh, William A; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-11-07

    Nitrogen standards for discharge of wastewater effluent into aquatic bodies are becoming more stringent, requiring some treatment plants to reduce effluent nitrogen concentrations. This study aimed to assess, from a life-cycle perspective, an innovative decentralized approach to nitrogen recovery: ion exchange of source-separated urine. We modeled an approach in which nitrogen from urine at individual buildings is sorbed onto resins, then transported by truck to regeneration and fertilizer production facilities. To provide insight into impacts from transportation, we enhanced the traditional economic and environmental assessment approach by combining spatial analysis, system-scale evaluation, and detailed last-mile logistics modeling using the city of San Francisco as an illustrative case study. The major contributor to energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was the production of sulfuric acid to regenerate resins, rather than transportation. Energy and GHG emissions were not significantly sensitive to the number of regeneration facilities. Cost, however, increased with decentralization as rental costs per unit area are higher for smaller areas. The metrics assessed (unit energy, GHG emissions, and cost) were not significantly influenced by facility location in this high-density urban area. We determined that this decentralized approach has lower cost, unit energy, and GHG emissions than centralized nitrogen management via nitrification-denitrification if fertilizer production offsets are taken into account.

  15. Impact of Environmental Regulation on Productivity: Case Studies of Three Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chalermthanakom, Adisak; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Although fi rms bear the cost of compliance, strict but fl exible environmental regulation may benefi t them by spurring the innovation process. However, the relationship between environmental regulation and productivity is unclear. We calculate productivity growth by using data envelopment analysis; we then conduct regression analysis, using panel data on productivity growth by environmental regulation stringency. A one-year lag of environmental regulation stringency is included in the model...

  16. Environmental applications of natural zeolitic materials based on their ion-exchange properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, C.

    1998-01-01

    Natural zeolites, such as clinoptilolite, chabazite, phillipsite and mordenite, exhibit good selectivities for some water pollutants, e.g., Cs + , NH 4 + and Pb 2+ . Zeolite-rich tuffs may be therefore utilized for removing the above and other cations from wastewaters before discharge. Continuous processes with fixed beds are usually employed for water purification, such as those in service in the U.S.A for ammonium removal from municipal sewage. Direct action of the ion exchanger is needed when the pollutant must be removed from soil and trapped in the zeolite framework. Discontinuous processes (addition of zeolite to the waste solution) are also possible, provided the polluted zeolitic sludge is stabilized-solidified in a cement matrix matrix before disposal. Removal of radionuclides from nuclear power plant waters with natural zeolites is discussed

  17. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  18. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  19. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  20. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  1. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO 2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO 2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  2. Productivity and CO2 exchange of Great Plains ecoregions. I. Shortgrass steppe: Flux tower estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Morgan, Jack A.; Hanan, Niall P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rajan, Nithya; Smith, David P.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The shortgrass steppe (SGS) occupies the southwestern part of the Great Plains. Half of the land is cultivated, but significant areas remain under natural vegetation. Despite previous studies of the SGS carbon cycle, not all aspects have been completely addressed, including gross productivity, ecosystem respiration, and ecophysiological parameters. Our analysis of 1998 − 2007 flux tower measurements at five Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) and three eddy covariance (EC) sites characterized seasonal and interannual variability of gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation for the diurnal CO2 exchange, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation and exponential temperature response, quantified quantum yield α, photosynthetic capacity Amax, and respiration rate rd with variation ranges (19 \\production from − 900 to + 700 g CO2 m− 2 yr− 1, indicating that SGS may switch from a sink to a source depending on weather. Comparison of the 2004 − 2006 measurements at two BREB and two parallel EC flux towers located at comparable SGS sites showed moderately higher photosynthesis, lower respiration, and higher net production at the BREB than EC sites. However, the difference was not related only to methodologies, as the normalized difference vegetation index at the BREB sites was higher than at the EC sites. Overall magnitudes and seasonal patterns at the BREB and the EC sites during the 3-yr period were similar, with trajectories within the ± 1.5 standard deviation around the mean of the four sites and mostly reflecting the effects of meteorology.

  3. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-07-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement.

  4. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement

  5. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  6. Environmental monitoring and management of contaminated territories for clean product production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Bajrasheuskaya, D.; Laberch, J.-C.; Pohu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Current research interests are focussing into two major research problems with immense environmental importance and impact to society. These two areas of interest are (a) the radioactive pollution of an ecosystem and, particularly, the behavior of the radionuclides in soil and the pollution of plants which participate in human's food and (b) the production of municipal solid wastes and the problem of uncontrolled disposal and its negative effects to the environment. (authors)

  7. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains reuse cycles. The study showed that hybrid IX/catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3 - N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs

  9. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we require further investigation in this area in order to increase green purchasing among different group of people. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concerns and care for green products. This research is an applied research, and correlational-descriptive in terms of data analysis. The research population includes consumers from Bushehr city, sampled based on availability. In this research, 300 questionnaires were distributed among consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The findings of this research showed that the environmental attitude of customers has significant and positive impact on caring for green products and environmental concerns. In addition, environmental concerns and care for green products have a significant and positive impact on green purchasing decision.

  10. The environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsone, E.; Korjakins, A.; Sahmenko, G.; Sinka, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on the environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation. CO2 emissions are very important factor for describing durability and sustainability of any building material and its life cycle. The building sector is one of the largest energy-consuming sectors in the world. In this study CO2 emissions are evaluated with regard to three types of energy resources (gas, coal and eco-friendly fuel). The related savings on raw materials are up to 120 t of water per 1000 t of traditionally mixed foamed concrete and up to 350 t of sand per 1000 t of foamed concrete produced with intensive mixing technology. In addition, total reduction of CO2 emissions (up to 60 t per 1000 m3 of material) and total energy saving from introduction of foamed concrete production (depending on the type of fuel) were calculated. In order to analyze the conditions of exploitation, both thermal conductivity and thickness of wall was determined. All obtained and calculated results were compared to those of the commercially produced autoclaved aerated concrete.

  11. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities

  12. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  13. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  14. Characteristics of environmentally conscious production behaviour in agricultural waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Kormosne-Koch, Krisztina

    2008-01-01

    When measuring environmentally conscious behaviour and determining its variables, focus often lies only on consumers, but environmental conservation requires not only the consumers’ but also the producers’ input. After defining environmentally conscious behaviour, I utilized the market research method to determine how participating in agri-environmental programs and subsidies affects producers’ environmental consciousness and waste management behaviour. The research result indicates tha...

  15. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  16. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.; Zahary, G.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of the panel are the following: to produce an annual inventory of relevant research being conducted by the supporting members; to exchange information on projected and completed research; to identify research needs and to stimulate research activity

  17. Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembo, V.I.; Kritskii, V.G.; Slobodov, A.A.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 )-water (H 2 O)-gas (H 2 , O 2 )-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu 2 O and Cu(OH) 2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10 -2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

  18. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  19. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  20. TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation): a simplified software tool to support environmentally conscious design in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misceo, Monica; Buonamici, Roberto; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldesi, Luciano; Grimaldi, Filomena; Rinaldi, Caterina

    2004-12-01

    TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation) is the prototype of a software tool developed within the framework of the "eLCA" project. The project, (www.elca.enea.it)financed by the European Commission, is realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs)". The implementation by SMEs of environmental product innovation (as fostered by the European Integrated Product Policy, IPP) needs specific adaptation to their economic model, their knowledge of production and management processes and their relationships with innovation and the environment. In particular, quality and costs are the main driving forces of innovation in European SMEs, and well known barriers exist to the adoption of an environmental approach in the product design. Starting from these considerations, the TESPI tool has been developed to support the first steps of product design taking into account both the quality and the environment. Two main issues have been considered: (i) classic Quality Function Deployment (QFD) can hardly be proposed to SMEs; (ii) the environmental aspects of the product life cycle need to be integrated with the quality approach. TESPI is a user friendly web-based tool, has a training approach and applies to modular products. Users are guided through the investigation of the quality aspects of their product (customer"s needs and requirements fulfilment) and the identification of the key environmental aspects in the product"s life cycle. A simplified check list allows analyzing the environmental performance of the product. Help is available for a better understanding of the analysis criteria. As a result, the significant aspects for the redesign of the product are identified.

  1. Report on International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange and Experts; APEC kankyogijutsu koryusokushin kokusai shinpojium jisshi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above event took place at Nagoya City, Japan, on December 5, 2000. Taken up were the response of developing nations to the problem of environmental protection, their needs for environmental technologies, examples of the transfer of environmental technologies carried out by Japan's environment related businesses or organizations, introduction of technologies Japan was able to present, and so forth. Introduced also were the current state and future outlook of such activities as the exchange of environmental technologies and business through the utilization of the virtual center for APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) environmental technology exchange now in service, and so forth. At the symposium, a keynote address entitled Toward the Realization of Sustainable Society was delivered by Professor Yamamoto of the Institute of Industrial Science of the University of Tokyo. Panel discussions were held on the exchange of environmental technologies and business making use of the international network APEC-VC (virtual center) at Session 1, on some front-line cases of environmental technology transfer at Session 2, and on the transfer of technologies useful for developing nations as it ought to be at Session 3. (NEDO)

  2. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

  3. Are anxious workers less productive workers? It depends on the quality of social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Trougakos, John P; Cheng, Bonnie Hayden

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we draw from Conservation of Resources Theory to advance and test a framework which predicts that emotional exhaustion plays an explanatory role underlying the relation between workplace anxiety and job performance. Further, we draw from social exchange theories to predict that leader-member exchange and coworker exchange will mitigate the harmful effects of anxiety on job performance. Findings across a 3-wave study of police officers supported our model. Emotional exhaustion mediated the link between workplace anxiety and job performance, over and above the effect of cognitive interference. Further, coworker exchange mitigated the positive relation between anxiety and emotional exhaustion, while leader-member exchange mitigated the negative relation between emotional exhaustion and job performance. This study elucidates the effects of workplace anxiety on resource depletion via emotional exhaustion and highlights the value of drawing on social resources to offset the potentially harmful effects of workplace anxiety on job performance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Simple models to predict grassland ecosystem C exchange and actual evapotranspiration using NDVI and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid grasslands contribute significantly to net terrestrial carbon flux as plant productivity and heterotrophic respiration in these moisture-limited systems are correlated with metrics related to water availability (e.g., precipitation, Actual EvapoTranspiration or AET). These variables are als...

  5. Examining the Extent of Environmental Compliance Requirements on Mechatronic Products and Their Implementation through Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukica

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study examined the opinions of industry practitioners related to the implementation of environmental compliance requirements into design and manufacturing processes of mechatronic and electromechanical products. It focused on the environmental standards for mechatronic and electromechanical products and how Product…

  6. Lessons for South Africa from global trends in environmental labelling of buildings and construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines the international state-of-the-art of environmental labelling of buildings and construction products; and discusses ways in which the emerging South African framework for environmental labelling could benefit from the lessons...

  7. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  8. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  9. Progress towards Sustainable Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Assessments of the Cellulose Nanofiber Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dami Moon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the process for producing cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, which are considered to be a valuable sustainable woody biomass feedstock. The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with CNF production are greater than the emissions associated with producing most plastic materials used in vehicle components because the grinding process during CNF production generates significant GHG emissions. The cost of CNF production is also higher than the cost of producing comparable plastics for automotive use because of the high cost of the pulverization process. The sensitivity analysis in this study suggested that GHG emissions and manufacturing costs could be reduced by 19.1–76.4% and 3.6–12.2%, respectively, by improving the energy efficiency of CNF production by two to five times. We compared the potential social risks associated with CNF production between Japan and Vietnam using a product social impact life cycle assessment database. It is desirable to reduce the social risk on the fair salary and child labor, and to improve the safe and healthy living conditions in the local communities that import wood chips harvested in Vietnam.

  10. Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orieux, A.

    1990-01-19

    Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

  11. Ion exchange chromatography on a new form of tin dioxide for the isolation of strontium radioisotopes from fission products: an application to milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1990-01-01

    An amorphous, partially-reduced tin dioxide, having properties of an inorganic exchanger, was tested for application to fission product separations. Due to the good sorption of both strontium and barium the application of the exchanger to radiostrontium isolation from fission product mixtures is subjected to important restrictions. An application to 90 Sr determination in milk is proposed. (author)

  12. The green entrepreneur's challenge : The influence of environmental ambition in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berchicci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies dealing with environmental issues in New Product Development have made significant progress explaining how firms can develop greener new products that succeed in the market and Environmental New Product Development (ENPD) has become a wide-spread practice within an increasing number of

  13. Illustrating Environmental Issues by Using the Production-Possibility Frontier: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a new classroom experimental game to illustrate environmental issues by using the production-possibility frontier in an introductory economics course. Waste evolves as a byproduct of the production of widgets. Environmental cleanup is produced by reallocating scarce resources away from the production of the dirty good. In…

  14. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A Jan; Meent, Dik van de; Ragas, Ad M J; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories

  15. Design and production of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the production of brown's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essuman, Samuel Pamford Kojo

    2017-07-01

    The use of petroleum products (fossil fuels) has raised a lot of environmental concerns over the past years. This is due to the fact that most of the machines and devices manufactured are engineered to use these conventional fuels which include petrol, diesel and natural gas. However, these fuels substances pollute and deteriorate the quality of the environment. Some of these pollutants include sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and ozone. These gases are called greenhouse gases because they contribute to the greenhouse effect. These gases also cause depletion of the ozone layer. In the search for alternative fuels, researchers have used improved technologies such as steam reforming, partial oxidation, and electrolysis among many to produce hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is used in modern times for varied applications in industries and is now been considered as a viable primary fuel for the future. Meanwhile, all these methods produce impure hydrogen except electrolysis of water. Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen as products gases. A collection of these gases through a common outlet gives rise to a unique type of gas called Brown’s or oxyhydrogen gas. Brown’s gas is a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen bonded magnetically in a ratio of 1:2. In the automobile industry, Brown’s gas is used as a fuel supplement to gasoline in internal combustion engines (ICEs), as well as welding and cutting of iron plates in the fabrication sector. In this project, a fabricated oxyhydrogen generator was used to produce Brown’s gas from distilled water using three selected catalyst namely caustic soda (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Parameters that influence the yield of oxyhydrogen gas were further studied. It was observed that increasing in the number of electrodes, catalyst concentration, voltage and time increased the yield of oxyhydrogen gas production. With the rapid increase in consumption of fossil fuels and

  16. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Animal Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in todayapos;s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the ru...

  17. Enhanced biocatalytic production of L-cysteine by Pseudomonas sp. B-3 with in situ product removal using ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; He, Jun-Yao; Yin, Jiang-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Bioconversion of DL-2-amino-Δ(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (DL-ATC) catalyzed by whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. was successfully applied for the production of L-cysteine. It was found, however, like most whole-cell biocatalytic processes, the accumulated L-cysteine produced obvious inhibition to the activity of biocatalyst and reduced the yield. To improve L-cysteine productivity, an anion exchange-based in situ product removal (ISPR) approach was developed. Several anion-exchange resins were tested to select a suitable adsorbent used in the bioconversion of DL-ATC for the in situ removal of L-cysteine. The strong basic anion-exchange resin 201 × 7 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for L-cysteine and low adsorption for DL-ATC, which is a favorable option. With in situ addition of 60 g L(-1) resin 201 × 7, the product inhibition can be reduced significantly and 200 mmol L(-1) of DL-ATC was converted to L-cysteine with 90.4 % of yield and 28.6 mmol L(-1 )h(-1) of volumetric productivity. Compared to the bioconversion without the addition of resin, the volumetric productivity of L-cysteine was improved by 2.27-fold using ISPR method.

  18. Environmental controls of daytime leaf carbon exchange: Implications for estimates of ecosystem fluxes in a deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, M.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf-level photosynthesis and respiration are sensitive to short- and long-term changed in temperature, and how these processes respond to phenological and seasonal transitions and daily temperature variation dictate how carbon is first assimilated and released in terrestrial ecosystems. We examined the short-term temperature response of daytime leaf carbon exchange at Harvard Forest across growing season, with the specific objective to quantify the light inhibition of dark respiration and photorespiration in leaves and use this to better inform daytime carbon assimilation and efflux estimates at the canopy scale. Dark and light respiration increased with measurement temperature and varied seasonally in a proportional manner, with the level of inhibition remaining relatively constant through the growing season. Higher rates of mitochondrial respiration and photorespiration at warmer temperatures drove a lower carbon use efficiency. Using temperature, light, and canopy leaf area index values to drive models, we estimate partitioned ecosystem fluxes and re-calculate gross primary production under multiple scenarios that include and exclude the impact of light inhibition, thermal acclimation, and seasonal variation in physiology. Quantifying the contribution of these `small fluxes' to ecosystem carbon exchange in forests provides a nuanced approach for integrating physiology into regional model estimates derived from eddy covariance and remote-sensing methods.

  19. Tritium labeled Gentamicin C : II.- Bioradioactive products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The main bioradioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + C1a) in basic form, are generated by N-dimethylations in 3 - N and 6'-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by HNMR and 13 CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicina are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic subproducts as garamine, gentamicine, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1 > C1a. Because of 6' -N-dimenthyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H 2 O- 3 H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicins were studied by stron and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (author)

  20. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste

  1. Step-Based Data Sharing and Exchange in One-of-a-Kind Product Collaborative Design for Cloud Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the trend for global collaboration, there is a need for collaborative design between geographically distributed teams and companies. In particular, this need is inevitable in the companies doing their business based on one-of-a-kind production (OKP. One important problem is the lack of interoperability and compatibility of data between different CAx systems. This problem is further highlighted in data exchange in cloud manufacturing. To the best of authors' knowledge, current studies have limitations in achieving the interoperability and compatibility of data. In this paper, a STEP-based data model is proposed to represent OKP product data/knowledge, which contains four categories of product knowledge (i.e., customer, product, manufacturing, and resource resp.. A STEP-based data modelling approach is proposed to describe each category of knowledge separately and then connect them to form the final integrated model. Compared with most current product models, this model includes the more complete product data/knowledge involved in OKP product development (OKPPD, and thus it can provide more adequate knowledge support for OKPPD activities. Based on the proposed STEP-based data model, a product data exchange and sharing (DES framework is proposed and developed to enable DES in collaborative OKPPD in the cloud manufacturing environment. Case studies were carried out to validate the proposed data model and DES framework.

  2. Biogas energy production in Ghana: environmental pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabli, C.K.; Gyasi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of biomass fuel conversion options for biogas production at Appolonia in Ghana has demonstrated that the technique is promising not only for solving some of the country's energy and agricultural problems, but as a very useful way of waste treatment which should help improve waste management. Some environmental analyses were made and some of the preliminary results obtained are presented and discussed. There has been considerable decrease in both biochemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand of the effluents compared with the corresponding values obtained for the influents of the three most readily available biomass sources used - human faeces, cow dung and pig dung. Apart from methane (about 54%) and carbon dioxide (about 40%) the biogas produced at Appolonia , according to investigations, using a gas filter analyser and gas chromatography, was found to contain from 1 to 2% hydrogen sulphide which is poisonous. Two other components were detected in the gas but not identified in this present work. (author). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 8 refs

  3. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  4. The Environmental Quality – Requirements for the Pro-active Approach of Production Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Stehlíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The interrelationship and cooperation of the Quality Management System, the Environmental Management System QMS, and Environmental Management System EMS in production enterprises has a very important impact to their performance. The synergic effect of two systems {QMS + EMS} created the so called POEMS Product and the Process Oriented Environmental Management System functioning for the benefit of the Company Profit, Customer Satisfaction, Product Competition, Environment and the Social Responsibility.

  5. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  6. Gross primary production controls the subsequent winter CO2 exchange in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats B

    2016-12-01

    In high-latitude regions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions during the winter represent an important component of the annual ecosystem carbon budget; however, the mechanisms that control the winter CO 2 emissions are currently not well understood. It has been suggested that substrate availability from soil labile carbon pools is a main driver of winter CO 2 emissions. In ecosystems that are dominated by annual herbaceous plants, much of the biomass produced during the summer is likely to contribute to the soil labile carbon pool through litter fall and root senescence in the autumn. Thus, the summer carbon uptake in the ecosystem may have a significant influence on the subsequent winter CO 2 emissions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a plot-scale shading experiment in a boreal peatland to reduce the gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. At the growing season peak, vascular plant biomass in the shaded plots was half that in the control plots. During the subsequent winter, the mean CO 2 emission rates were 21% lower in the shaded plots than in the control plots. In addition, long-term (2001-2012) eddy covariance data from the same site showed a strong correlation between the GPP (particularly the late summer and autumn GPP) and the subsequent winter net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE). In contrast, abiotic factors during the winter could not explain the interannual variation in the cumulative winter NEE. Our study demonstrates the presence of a cross-seasonal link between the growing season biotic processes and winter CO 2 emissions, which has important implications for predicting winter CO 2 emission dynamics in response to future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Production and Trade Situation in Iran and USA and Impact of Exchange rate Volatility on the Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salarpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pistachio production and trade and influential factors on its exports in Iran and the USA are compared the the .Using the annual data from 1970 to 2011; this study aimed to analyze the effects of pistachio price and the effects of food security. Moreover, the relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export in the Iranian economy was analyzed through examining a non linear relation between the two factors. Therefore, the hypothesis validation upon nonlinearity relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export was analyzed using smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR. The results of smooth transition model (STAR show that there is a nonlinear Granger causality between exchange rate and pistachio export and vice versa. It is therefore recommended ,in order to determine the threshold level of potential benefits of pistachio exports, the existence of the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic exchange rate and pistachio exports should be considered. Furthermore, in order to maintain market share in the international level, understanding target markets of export and achieving complete information upon the position of the major competitors in the production and trade of Pistachio is essential.

  8. Solid-Solid Vacuum Regolith Heat-Exchanger for Oxygen Production, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel coaxial counterflow solid-solid heat exchanger to recover heat energy from spent regolith...

  9. Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Frimpong Asamoah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale gold mining is an important component of the Ghanaian economy but it has also caused enormous damage to local ecosystems. In this paper, an emergy analysis was conducted in Ghana to assess the environmental performance and the relative sustainability of two artisanal and small-scale gold production systems: alluvial “dig and wash” and underground “ghetto” mines. Results show that both production systems have high environmental impacts, as indicated by an environmental loading ratio (ELR of 4.31 and environmental sustainability index (ESI of 0.33 for the alluvial system and 2.53 and 0.52 for the underground system, respectively. Concerning the international trade balance, the emergy exchange ratios of the two systems are both lower than one, at, 0.23 and 0.33 for the alluvial and underground systems, respectively, indicating a significant amount of resource loss to foreign regions. This study could assist in the regulation of the small-scale mining sector bearing in mind the unsustainable nature of their activities. In addition, supporting miners to consider land rehabilitation ethics is urgently needed.

  10. Production of an aluminium heat exchanger coil; Fertigung eines gewickelten Waermetauschers aus Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, G. [Linde AG, Tacherting (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The heat exchangers presented in this contribution are the liquefier and subcooler of a two-component natural gas liquefaction plant to be exported to Australia, with a total heat exchanger surface that corresponds to the area of 8 soccer fields. [German] Bei den vorgestellten Waermetauschern handelt es sich um Liquefier und Subcooler einer aus 2 Prozesseinheiten bestehenden Erdgasverfluessigungsanlage fuer Australien, mit einer Gesamt-Waermeaustauschflaeche vergleichbar mit der Groesse von 8 Fussballfeldern. (orig.)

  11. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  12. Hydrogen production by high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear hydrogen production is necessary in an anticipated hydrogen society that demands a massive quantity of hydrogen without economic disadvantage. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has launched the conceptual design study of a hydrogen production system with a near-term plan to connect it to Japan's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTTR. The candidate hydrogen production system is based on the thermochemical water-splitting iodine sulphur (IS) process.The heat of 10 MWth at approximately 900degC, which can be provided by the secondary helium from the intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR, is the energy input to the hydrogen production system. In this paper, we describe the recent progresses made in the conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system. A new concept of sulphuric acid decomposer is proposed. This involves the integration of three separate functions of sulphuric acid decomposer, sulphur trioxide decomposer, and process heat exchanger. A new mixer-settler type of Bunsen reactor is also designed. This integrates three separate functions of Bunsen reactor, phase separator, and pump. The new concepts are expected to result in improved economics through construction and operation cost reductions because the number of process equipment and complicated connections between the equipment has been substantially reduced. (author)

  13. Computer-aided process planning in prismatic shape die components based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient technologies made good integration between the die components in design, process planning, and manufacturing impossible in the past few years. Nowadays, the advanced technologies based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data are making it possible. This article discusses the three main steps for achieving the complete process planning for prismatic parts of the die components. These three steps are data extraction, feature recognition, and process planning. The proposed computer-aided process planning system works as part of an integrated system to cover the process planning of any prismatic part die component. The system is built using Visual Basic with EWDraw system for visualizing the Standard for the Exchange of Product model data file. The system works successfully and can cover any type of sheet metal die components. The case study discussed in this article is taken from a large design of progressive die.

  14. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An integrated approach for a dynamic energy and environmental system analysis of biogas production pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Liu, Wen; Moll, Henri C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written to Biogas Science for oral presentation. Regarding a new methodology for determining the energy efficiency, carbon footprint and environmental impact of anaerobic biogas production pathways. Additionally, results are given regarding the impacts of energy crops and waste products

  16. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  17. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  18. Production and Trade Situation in Iran and USA and Impact of Exchange rate Volatility on the Exports

    OpenAIRE

    M. Salarpour; S. Mojarad; M. Sabouhi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, pistachio production and trade and influential factors on its exports in Iran and the USA are compared the the .Using the annual data from 1970 to 2011; this study aimed to analyze the effects of pistachio price and the effects of food security. Moreover, the relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export in the Iranian economy was analyzed through examining a non linear relation between the two factors. Therefore, the hypothesis validation upon nonlinearity re...

  19. Coherent production of pions in nuclei with ({sup 3}He,t) charge exchange reaction at 2. GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, L.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Boyard, J.L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Hennino, T.; Kagarlis, M.; Radvanyi, P. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dahl, R.; Ellegaard, C. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Augustiniak, W.; Zupranski, P. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The ({sup 3}He,t) charge exchange reaction at 2. GeV incident energy with the new setup SPES IV-{pi} has been realized in order to study the coherent production process of pions. This setup allows to isolate the ground state of the target nucleus, and to sign this process without ambiguity. Some preliminary results in target excitation energy and transferred energy are given. (author). 8 refs.

  20. Method for heavy-water production by H2S--H2O chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The invention discloses a heavy water production stage in a bithermal H 2 S gas H 2 O liquid exchange plant wherein the cold tower is operated under temperature and pressure conditions such that H 2 S in the liquid phase is formed and is maintained in the separation units (sieve trays or plates) of the cold tower. It has been found that the presence of liquid H 2 S acts as an efficient anti-foaming agent

  1. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  2. Climatic and management drivers of CO2 exchanges by a production crop: analysis over three successive 4-year cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Moureaux, Christine; Bodson, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between crops and the atmosphere are influenced by both climatic and crop management drivers. The investigated crop, situated at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (candidate ICOS site) in the Hesbaye region in Belgium and managed for more than 70 years using conventional farming practices, was monitored over three complete sugar beet/winter wheat/potato/winter wheat rotation cycles from 2004 to 2016. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chambers, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). Meteorological data and crop management practices were also recorded. Climatic and seasonal evolutions of the carbon balance components were studied and crop carbon budgets were computed both at the yearly and crop rotation cycle scales. On average over the 12 years, NEE was negative but NBP was positive, i.e. as far as carbon exportation by harvest are included in the budget, the site behaved as a carbon source. Impacts of both meteorological drivers and crop management operations on CO2 exchanges were analyzed and compared between crop types, years, and rotation cycles. The uncertainties associated to the carbon fluxes were also evaluated and discussed.

  3. Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. The main findings are: (1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000; (2) The main contributing factors for productivity...

  4. Dynamic environmental transmission electron microscopy observation of platinum electrode catalyst deactivation in a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Xudong, Zhang; Bright, Alexander N; Saitoh, Koh; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2013-02-15

    Spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied to study the catalytic activity of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These electrode catalysts were characterized in different atmospheres, such as hydrogen and air, and a conventional high vacuum of 10(-5) Pa. A high-speed charge coupled device camera was used to capture real-time movies to dynamically study the diffusion and reconstruction of nanoparticles with an information transfer down to 0.1 nm, a time resolution below 0.2 s and an acceleration voltage of 300 kV. With such high spatial and time resolution, AC-ETEM permits the visualization of surface-atom behaviour that dominates the coalescence and surface-reconstruction processes of the nanoparticles. To contribute to the development of robust PEMFC platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts, the change in the specific surface area of platinum particles was evaluated in hydrogen and air atmospheres. The deactivation of such catalysts during cycle operation is a serious problem that must be resolved for the practical use of PEMFCs in real vehicles. In this paper, the mechanism for the deactivation of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts is discussed using the decay rate of the specific surface area of platinum particles, measured first in a vacuum and then in hydrogen and air atmospheres for comparison.

  5. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  6. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange..., metrology, product information, and reliability-maintain ability data on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing processes, environmental issues associated with those manufacturing...

  8. Nitrogen Exchanges: Testing the Hypothesis of a Country without Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Slak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million tons of nitrogen. This excess is enormous. What would the balance of a country be if agricultural activity were stopped? In the following article, a country (France is used as an example without agriculture is studied in order to assess its nitrogen balance. Using a previously published model describing nitrogen input and output of a given country, nitrogen flows are identified. Inputs include deposition, fixation, and products not intended for agricultural use. Outputs are reduced to zero if agriculture disappears (in France, agriculture is the only sector exporting products containing nitrogen. All flows are calculated considering the hypothesis of disappearance of agriculture. Nitrogen requirements to feed people and pets in France are estimated based on medical and veterinary data (recommended daily amounts for proteins and/or usual average consumption. Indeed, most of the food that nourishes the French population is produced nationally. If agriculture stops, it will be necessary to import food from foreign countries. Results show an unexpectedly high excess (for a country without agriculture having a structure similar to France: number of human beings and pets of 1.5 million tons of nitrogen. An attempt to calculate an agricultural balance with the same data gives a result close to 3 million tons. Differences in French agricultural balances found in the literature can mainly be explained by values taken into account for deposition and fixation (values used here are at least 300,000 tons higher than values used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. In conclusion, nitrogen excess in agriculture

  9. Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depping, Verena; Grunow, Martin; Middelaar, van Corina; Dumpler, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy

  10. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Høst-Madsen, Niels Karim Høst-Madsen; Schmidt, Jannick H.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO) database...... as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study...... a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results...

  11. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  12. Not in Your Backyard? Selective Tariff Cuts for Environmentally Preferable Products

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle, Gozlan; Ramos, Maria Priscila

    2007-01-01

    Current negotiations at the WTO’s Committee on Trade and Environment have made it conceivable that WTO members agree on selective tariff cuts for certain Environmentally Preferable Products, in an attempt to combine gains from trade and from cleaner production/consumption. This raises questions on the environmental and welfare implications of trade policy when a close substitute (“environmentally worse") exists. Using a simple partial equilibrium model with two substitutable goods ('green' an...

  13. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  14. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  15. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  16. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  17. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Securitization product design for China's environmental pollution liability insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.

  19. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  20. Process for the production of heavy water by H2-methylamine isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briec, M.; Ravoire, J.; Rostaing, M.

    1977-01-01

    An isotopic exchange process for separating D 2 from H 2 is presented. The H 2 -monomethylamine system is studied on the laboratory scale (kinetics, H 2 solubility, thermal stability and solubility of the catalyst) and on the pilot plant scale (operating conditions and economics) [fr

  1. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  2. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  3. Increasing the production efficiency and reducing the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource profoundly impacting US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydraulic fracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. In this study, we developed and prototyped the microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments required to reveal the fundamental dynamics of fracture-fluid interactions. The goal is transformation of hydraulic fracturing from present ad hoc approaches to science-based strategies while safely enhancing production. Specifically, we have demonstrated an integrated experimental/modeling approach that allows for a comprehensive characterization of fluid-solid interactions and develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  4. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  5. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    the benefits of using mixtures compared to pure fluids as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In order to do so, thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out, first on an overall cycle level, and next on component level including detailed modelling of heat exchangers, pumps and expanders involving...... project collaborators with expertise in these areas. In addition to this, novel innovative cycle layouts are developed with the aim of increasing the economic feasibility of utilizing low temperature heat. As an example, this can be achieved by implementing separators in the power cycle to create optimal...

  6. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions

  7. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijó, Lucía, E-mail: lucia.lijo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); González-García, Sara [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  8. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  9. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  10. Project to promote the development of global environmental industry technology. Feasibility study of research exchanges; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In fiscal 1995, three teams were organized to study the following subjects: plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress; simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction; the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange. The team studying plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress visited the Department of Botany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Grunion University, Israel, the Department of Biochemistry and the Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arizona University, the U.S. to survey the present and future trend of the study and feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction visited Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electric Power Research Institute, and Battle Research Institute in the U.S. to survey feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange visited institutes in ASEAN countries to survey needs for the Virtual Center. 312 refs., 74 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  12. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  13. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section

  14. Dressed dibaryon production as a new mechanism for basic nuclear force and meson-exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    A novel concept for the nuclear force is introduced. The approach assumes that a specific dressed six-quark state (dressed dibaryon) is generated in NN collision at intermediate and short ranges. The new dressing mechanism providing π-, σ-, ρ- and ω-meson clouds around the six quark core is discussed. These novel components produce both strong intermediate-range attraction and short-range repulsion in the NN sector due to the s-channel exchange mechanism which is supplemented with conventional π- and 2π- Yukawa exchanges at intermediate and long ranges. The model developed is demonstrated to lead to numerous new effects and contributions in many fields of nuclear physics. (author)

  15. DIMP: an interoperable solution for software integration and product data exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi Vincent; Xu, Xun William

    2012-08-01

    Today, globalisation has become one of the main trends of manufacturing business that has led to a world-wide decentralisation of resources amongst not only individual departments within one company but also business partners. However, despite the development and improvement in the last few decades, difficulties in information exchange and sharing still exist in heterogeneous applications environments. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, related research work and integrating solutions are reviewed and discussed. The second part introduces a collaborative environment called distributed interoperable manufacturing platform, which is based on a module-based, service-oriented architecture (SOA). In the platform, the STEP-NC data model is used to facilitate data-exchange among heterogeneous CAD/CAM/CNC systems.

  16. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-21

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section.

  17. Sustainability, environmental, and safety aspects in the production of biocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank

    Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well as the en......Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well...

  18. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Laumann Kjaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO database as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study 2, the approach was used as basis for an Environmental Profit and Loss account for the healthcare company, Novo Nordisk A/S. Case study 3 used the approach for life cycle assessment of a tanker ship. We conclude that EIO-based analyses offer a holistic view of environmental performance, provide a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results, including how to measure and monitor the effect of the different actions. Thus, future research should include more detailed models to support decision-making.

  19. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  20. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  1. Environmental conditions and primary production in a Sahelian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental descriptors (nutrient, water transparency, temperature ... Nutrient concentrations were low, with high variability (from 0 to 30 µg.l-1 for DIN and from 0 to 18 µg.l-1 for. PO4). The primary ... and permanent interventions of sea water.

  2. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  3. environmental system analysis of tomato production in ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    eutrophying compounds associated with tomato production in Ghana and identify options to reduce the environmen- tal impacts. Life Cycle .... Equation (1). Activities in production that contributed to the emissions were fertiliser application and fuel usage. Table 1 shows activity data for calculation of emission originating from ...

  4. Estimating Preferences for Wood Products with Environmental Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaji Sakagami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest degradation are serious problems for the global environment; as a result, sustainable forest management and forest certification have become important. In this study, using a choice experiment, we investigated, on the demand side, consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP for certified wood products that attempt to address public concerns regarding deforestation and forest degradation. Specifically, we investigated how estimates of consumers’ preferences and WTP were influenced by product attributes such as quality, certification, and price. To the authors’ knowledge, few studies of this kind have been conducted, particularly in Japan. The study’s main finding was that Japanese consumers were willing to pay a premium for certified wood products with attributes related to sustainable forest management; most preferred were products with attributes related to preserving biodiversity. These findings indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that contribute to solving the problems of deforestation and forest degradation.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  6. Green marketing - How to put an environmental spin on your energy product, service, program or project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines how some smart marketers have quickly picked up on the new consumer interest in protecting the environment, turned it into increased sales and profits and at the same time effectively increased energy conservation. They asked their product developers to improve the environmental benefits of their existing products and to design some new ones. Then they asked their advertising writers to put an environmental spin on their product advertising. Next they made frequent visits to the bank with the increased sales revenues from an expanding market share and at the same time are doing something worthwhile in energy and environmental conservation

  7. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  8. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... buyers to purchase products that are less harmful to the environment, when they are life cycle cost... highlight environmental products under Federal Supply Service schedule contracts in various communications..., and low volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Post-consumer material means a material or finished product...

  9. Tracing distant environmental impacts of agricultural products from a consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastner, Thomas; Kastner, Michael; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2011-01-01

    Globally, trade flows of agricultural products are increasing. While value is typically added along the whole production chain, certain environmental impacts, such as land and water use, biomass appropriation, and soil degradation, are intrinsically linked to where the primary products originate

  10. Dynamic separation of Szilard-Chalmers reaction products applied to the trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of dynamic elution of recoiled 51 Cr +3 , formed by the Szilard-Chalmers reaction during the irradiation of trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin is presented. The influence of some factors on the separation yield of chromium-51, such as: composition, concentration and flow rate of eluent, mesh size of the resin and irradiation time are studied. The results are compardd with those obtained by the static method, in which the recoiled atom is separated from the target after irradiation. Because of the high separation yield of chromium-51, the method of dynamic separation is proposed for routine production of this elemnt, with high specific activities. (author) [pt

  11. A symbiotic gas exchange between bioreactors enhances microalgal biomass and lipid productivities: taking advantage of complementary nutritional modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C A; Ferreira, M E; da Silva, T Lopes; Gouveia, L; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the association of two bioreactors: one photoautotrophic and the other heterotrophic, connected by the gas phase and allowing an exchange of O(2) and CO(2) gases between them, benefiting from a symbiotic effect. The association of two bioreactors was proposed with the aim of improving the microalgae oil productivity for biodiesel production. The outlet gas flow from the autotrophic (O(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the heterotrophic bioreactor. In parallel, the outlet gas flow from another heterotrophic (CO(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the autotrophic bioreactor. Aside from using the air supplied from the auto- and hetero-trophic bioreactors as controls, one mixotrophic bioreactor was also studied and used as a model, for its claimed advantage of CO(2) and organic carbon being simultaneously assimilated. The microalga Chlorella protothecoides was chosen as a model due to its ability to grow under different nutritional modes (auto, hetero, and mixotrophic), and its ability to attain a high biomass productivity and lipid content, suitable for biodiesel production. The comparison between heterotrophic, autotrophic, and mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides growth for lipid production revealed that heterotrophic growth achieved the highest biomass productivity and lipid content (>22%), and furthermore showed that these lipids had the most suitable fatty acid profile in order to produce high quality biodiesel. Both associations showed a higher biomass productivity (10-20%), when comparing the two separately operated bioreactors (controls) which occurred on the fourth day. A more remarkable result would have been seen if in actuality the two bioreactors had been inter-connected in a closed loop. The biomass productivity gain would have been 30% and the lipid productivity gain would have been 100%, as seen by comparing the productivities of the symbiotic assemblage with the sum of the two

  12. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  13. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  14. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  15. Product Configurators as a means to support the Exchange of Knowledge in Company Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2002-01-01

    to develop and implement a structured procedure for building product models. In the following focus will be on the adaption of product modelling techniques when dealing with companies in a network. Four different network types will be introduced. They will be used to describe different product model...

  16. The environmental impact of nitrogen in field vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Carton, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many intensive systems of field vegetable production are not sustainable because they lose excessive amounts of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Processes in the N cycle of agricultural systems include assimilation, mineralization/immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia

  17. Production and characterization of amorphous and crystalline zirconium phosphate for using as ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, F.F.P.; Serafim, M.J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results obtained from the development of sintered zirconium phosphates in their amorphous and crystalline structures aimed to be used as ionic exchanger. Such materials, prepared with suitable stoichiometric formula, were obtained from zirconila chloride originated from brazilian zirconite. We have used chemical analysis along with thermogravimetric, differential thermogravimetric, and X-ray diffraction techniques to determine the synthesis parameters obtained from on techniques to determine the synthesis parameters obtained from the suitable powders. The physical characteristics of the samples were available from the analysis of surface area, size and shape of the particles and agglomerates and also from the porosity of the powders. (author)

  18. Environmental assessment of different strategies for production of stabilized yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Monclus, Vincent; Pénicaud, Caroline; Perret, Bruno; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Yeast are widely used for producing fermented (bread, beer...) and health benefit (probiotics) products. The production of stable and active yeast involves fermentation, concentration, protection, drying (stabilization) and storage. During the stabilization and storage steps, the cells face numerous stress which may deteriorate functional properties and cause cell death. Different strategies can be used to preserve cell survival, such as changing growth medium for fermentation or adapting pro...

  19. Study of environmental concerns: offshore oil and gas drilling and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R

    1978-01-01

    Material on the environmental concerns associated with offshore drilling and production activities has been synthesized with Department of Fisheries and Environment files on specific projects, these being the primary information source. Recommendations to resolve these concerns have also been provided. Most of the environmental concerns identified in this study are traceable to specific weaknesses in offshore drilling and production procedures and management systems. Hardware weaknesses are seldom of central importance. Areas of concern include the gradual deposition of pollutants from rigs, underwater pipelines and onshore ancillary structures, and the quality of the following: action plans to deal with oil spills, standards for safety and anti-pollution equipment, information provided on the environmental hazards in offshore drilling and production areas, environmental impact assessments, and communication links between those having environmental concerns and expertise (including the public-at-large) and those who make the decisions regarding offshore oil and gas development.

  20. Danish experience with the EDIP tool for environmental design of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    Since its publication in, 1996, the Danish method and tools for the environmental design of industrial products (EDIP) have been used in companies in Denmark and abroad, and experience has been gained with a variety of product categories such as electronics, electromechanical products, furniture......, foodstuffs, packaging, textiles, building equipment, energy systems and railway systems. The experience shows that large environmental improvement potentials can be found in all product categories. As a broad average, 30-50% environmental improvement of products have been implemented over few years...... by companies working with the EDIP tools. The paper presents examples from pumps, refrigerator, high pressure cleaners audio/video products, book shelves and moulded cardboards. A questionnaire investigation of the experience with life cycle assessment (LCA) and ecodesign within the Danish pioneer companies...

  1. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  2. Prediction of Hydrolysis Products of Organic Chemicals under Environmental pH Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminformatics-based software tools can predict the molecular structure of transformation products using a library of transformation reaction schemes. This paper presents the development of such a library for abiotic hydrolysis of organic chemicals under environmentally relevant...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - TETRATEC PTFE TECHNOLOGIES TETRATEX 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  4. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Environmental Data Record (EDR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of numerous retrieved estimates of hydrological variables and trace gases as Environmental Data Record (EDR) products from the NOAA Unique...

  5. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  6. Environmental labelling of buildings and construction products: lessons for South Africa from global trends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available be informed by life cycle considerations. Environmental labelling in construction takes the form of whole building rating systems and construction product certification programmes. The First Generation building rating systems have to date experienced much...

  7. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  9. To what extent are DFX principles really used when developing environmentally sensitive products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that over the past five years, industry has improved its understanding of the need to consider the environmental impacts of its products As a result companies are now beginning to incorporate environmental decisions into their design processes. It has been observed that companies f...

  10. Environmental aspects and renewable energy sources in the production of construction aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Buda-Ożóg, Lidia; Kogut, Janusz; Słowik, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The main activity of open pit mining of aggregates are aggregates' exploitation of natural mineral deposits and its modification in order to obtain high-quality aggregates. The development of aggregate production is conditioned by a number of factors. The most important are: documented material resources, mining and manufacturing capabilities, the need of environmental protection (environmental aspects), the subordination of the plan of spatial development, formal and legal issues, as well as economic and financial aspects. While identifying and assessing the environmental impacts of manufacturing aggregates one may distinguish those environmental aspects that have or may have the greatest magnitude of the impact on the environment as a result of industrial activities. Manufacturers producing aggregates located in the areas covered by the special environmental protection require extra diligence in the conduct of mining activities for preservation of natural resources. The article discusses some main environmental aspects of the production of construction aggregates on the example of one of the largest producers of this material in Subcarpathian province of Poland. Environmental protection in production of aggregates may refer to four aspects: the use of natural resources, having excluded land from agriculture and forestry, land reclamation after exploitation, and use of energy from renewable energy sources. The economic and environmental impact of production volume of aggregates is evaluated by the index information capacity method and the method of graphs.

  11. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halberg, N.; Werf, H.M.G.; Basset-Mens, C.; Dalgaard, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and

  12. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  13. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  14. Good news to use from the environmental front: coal combustion products as an environmental success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.N. [ISG Resources, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    ISG Resources in the USA's largest manager and marketer of coal combustion products, involved also in developing new technologies and applications for treatment and use of fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and FGD by-products. The paper, outlined in a series of 14 overheads, describes the USA's successes and initiatives so far in coal combustion products utilization. Further opportunities for the coal industry were discussed. The industry is encouraged to become involved now in carbon trading mechanisms for fly ash utilization displacing cement production.

  15. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  16. Physical foundation of the labor theory of value: production and environmental destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, T.

    2005-01-01

    A concept negentropy is introduced to supplement Marx's labor theory of value. The negentropy, that is a less entropy state than the thermal equilibrium state of matter, is a common property of the usefulness of material needs. The production of commodity increases the negentropy of product, but the action raises more environmental entropy than the negentropy of the product. This is environmental damage. In addition the negentropy plays a role of the substance of value and answers the issue about productive and unproductive labor. It is clarified that the origin of surplus value is the negentropy of information

  17. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  18. Removing constraints on the biomass production of freshwater macroalgae by manipulating water exchange to manage nutrient flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Cole

    Full Text Available Freshwater macroalgae represent a largely overlooked group of phototrophic organisms that could play an important role within an industrial ecology context in both utilising waste nutrients and water and supplying biomass for animal feeds and renewable chemicals and fuels. This study used water from the intensive aquaculture of freshwater fish (Barramundi to examine how the biomass production rate and protein content of the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium responds to increasing the flux of nutrients and carbon, by either increasing water exchange rates or through the addition of supplementary nitrogen and CO2. Biomass production rates were highest at low flow rates (0.1-1 vol.day-1 using raw pond water. The addition of CO2 to cultures increased biomass production rates by between 2 and 25% with this effect strongest at low water exchange rates. Paradoxically, the addition of nitrogen to cultures decreased productivity, especially at low water exchange rates. The optimal culture of Oedogonium occurred at flow rates of between 0.5-1 vol.day-1, where uptake rates peaked at 1.09 g.m-2.day-1 for nitrogen and 0.13 g.m-2.day-1 for phosphorous. At these flow rates Oedogonium biomass had uptake efficiencies of 75.2% for nitrogen and 22.1% for phosphorous. In this study a nitrogen flux of 1.45 g.m-2.day-1 and a phosphorous flux of 0.6 g.m-2.day-1 was the minimum required to maintain the growth of Oedogonium at 16-17 g DW.m-2.day-1 and a crude protein content of 25%. A simple model of minimum inputs shows that for every gram of dry weight biomass production (g DW.m-2.day-1, Oedogonium requires 0.09 g.m-2.day-1 of nitrogen and 0.04 g.m-2.day-1 of phosphorous to maintain growth without nutrient limitation whilst simultaneously maintaining a high-nutrient uptake rate and efficiency. As such the integrated culture of freshwater macroalgae with aquaculture for the purposes of nutrient recovery is a feasible solution for the bioremediation of wastewater and the

  19. Removing Constraints on the Biomass Production of Freshwater Macroalgae by Manipulating Water Exchange to Manage Nutrient Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andrew J.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater macroalgae represent a largely overlooked group of phototrophic organisms that could play an important role within an industrial ecology context in both utilising waste nutrients and water and supplying biomass for animal feeds and renewable chemicals and fuels. This study used water from the intensive aquaculture of freshwater fish (Barramundi) to examine how the biomass production rate and protein content of the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium responds to increasing the flux of nutrients and carbon, by either increasing water exchange rates or through the addition of supplementary nitrogen and CO2. Biomass production rates were highest at low flow rates (0.1–1 vol.day−1) using raw pond water. The addition of CO2 to cultures increased biomass production rates by between 2 and 25% with this effect strongest at low water exchange rates. Paradoxically, the addition of nitrogen to cultures decreased productivity, especially at low water exchange rates. The optimal culture of Oedogonium occurred at flow rates of between 0.5–1 vol.day−1, where uptake rates peaked at 1.09 g.m−2.day−1 for nitrogen and 0.13 g.m−2.day−1 for phosphorous. At these flow rates Oedogonium biomass had uptake efficiencies of 75.2% for nitrogen and 22.1% for phosphorous. In this study a nitrogen flux of 1.45 g.m−2.day−1 and a phosphorous flux of 0.6 g.m−2.day−1 was the minimum required to maintain the growth of Oedogonium at 16–17 g DW.m−2.day−1 and a crude protein content of 25%. A simple model of minimum inputs shows that for every gram of dry weight biomass production (g DW.m−2.day−1), Oedogonium requires 0.09 g.m−2.day−1 of nitrogen and 0.04 g.m−2.day−1 of phosphorous to maintain growth without nutrient limitation whilst simultaneously maintaining a high-nutrient uptake rate and efficiency. As such the integrated culture of freshwater macroalgae with aquaculture for the purposes of nutrient recovery is a feasible solution for the

  20. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  1. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  2. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  3. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  4. A Data Base of Nutrient Use, Water Use, CO2 Exchange, and Ethylene Production by Soybeans in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.; Sharifi, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    A data set is given describing daily nutrient and water uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, ethylene production, and carbon and nutrient partitioning from a 20 sq m stand of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. McCall] for use in bioregenerative life support systems. Stand CO2 exchange rates were determined from nocturnal increases in CO2 (respiration) and morning drawdowns (net photosynthesis) to a set point of 1000 micromol/ mol each day (i.e., a closed system approach). Atmospheric samples were analyzed throughout growth for ethylene using gas chromatography with photoionization detection (GC/PH)). Water use was monitored by condensate production from the humidity control system, as well as water uptake from the nutrient solution reservoirs each day. Nutrient uptake data were determined from daily additions of stock solution and acid to maintain an EC of 0.12 S/m and pH of 5.8. Dry mass yields of seeds, pods (without seeds), leaves, stems, and roots are provided, as well as elemental and proximate nutritional compositions of the tissues. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar documenting set point adjustments and the occasional equipment or sensor failure.

  5. Transition to Organic Tea Production in the Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam: Economic and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nghia Dai Tran

    2009-01-01

    This study from Vietnam shows that a switch from conventional to organic tea productions would bring real environmental, health and economic benefits for the country's farmers and its society as a whole. In particular, the amount of agrochemical residue and waste produced by tea production would be reduced. Farmers would also be able to enjoy a better livelihood as they could command a premium price for their organic tea products. The study therefore recommends that organic tea production is ...

  6. Simplified production and concentration of HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors using HYPERFlask vessels and anion exchange membrane chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Robert H; Puthli, Sharon; Marino, Michael P; Reiser, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background During the past twelve years, lentiviral (LV) vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression in target cells in vitro and in vivo. However, despite significant progress, the production and concentration of high-titer, high-quality LV vector stocks is still cumbersome and costly. Methods Here we present a simplified protocol for LV vector production on a laboratory scale using HYPERFlask vessels. HYPERFlask vessels are high-yield, high-performance flasks that utilize a multilayered gas permeable growth surface for efficient gas exchange, allowing convenient production of high-titer LV vectors. For subsequent concentration of LV vector stocks produced in this way, we describe a facile protocol involving Mustang Q anion exchange membrane chromatography. Results Our results show that unconcentrated LV vector stocks with titers in excess of 108 transduction units (TU) per ml were obtained using HYPERFlasks and that these titers were higher than those produced in parallel using regular 150-cm2 tissue culture dishes. We also show that up to 500 ml of an unconcentrated LV vector stock prepared using a HYPERFlask vessel could be concentrated using a single Mustang Q Acrodisc with a membrane volume of 0.18 ml. Up to 5.3 × 1010 TU were recovered from a single HYPERFlask vessel. Conclusion The protocol described here is easy to implement and should facilitate high-titer LV vector production for preclinical studies in animal models without the need for multiple tissue culture dishes and ultracentrifugation-based concentration protocols. PMID:19220915

  7. Genetic and environmental parameters for ewe productivity in Merinos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 3272 lambing records collected on 818 ewes born from 689 dams and sired by 371 rams were used in the evaluation of ewe lifetime productivity (total number born, number weaned and total weight weaned). These records were collected from ewes born from 1969 to 1994 and which gave birth during the period ...

  8. Environmental and metabolomic study of antibiotic production by actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This thesis may be regarded as a concept work, to see how feasible drug discovery approaches still are. For this, a strain collection was built up consisting of actinomycetes from soil in the Qinling and Himalaya mountains, which were subsequently tested for antibiotic production against multi-drug

  9. Project to promote the technical development of global environmental industries. International research exchange project; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Exchanges with researchers/research institutes in overseas countries have an important meaning in promoting the research and development toward the creation of new research fields where the solution to the environmental problem is aimed at and toward the construction of new technological systems. Therefore, under the cooperation of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), and RITE related researchers and societies, given were invitation and dispatch of researchers to international conferences and symposia involved in the global environment related technology, and exchanges with major overseas research institutes/universities. At the same time, based on the short-term invitation and dispatch so far given, a system was established for medium- and long-term dispatch/invitation of researchers who are thought to hold an important position in the future research activities. From the results obtained, domestic and foreign exchanges relating to the latest research could be promoted. In addition, researches in the basic domain related to the global environmental technology were advanced in a variety of fields overseas. The numbers of invitation and dispatch given in fiscal 1995 were 12 and 13, respectively, the results of which were included in this paper. 121 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Studies on inorganic ion-exchangers. Part I : application of polyantimonic acid for the polishing of uranium product of reprocessing stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Mayan Kutty, P.C.; Mani, V.V.S.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of applying various inorganic exchangers to specific problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing industry and related spheres of activity. An investigation has been carried out to select a suitable exchanger for the polishing of tail-end uranium product of reprocessing stream free of residual plutonium activity. It includes determination of distribution ratios of uranium and plutonium on the exchangers like zirconium phosphate (ZrP), ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP), ammonium phosphotungstate (APW), polyantimonic acid (PA), polyphosphoantimonic acid (PPA) and breakthrough capacities of plutonium on some of these exchangers. The inhibition studies of sodium on plutonium uptake on polyantimonic acid and the effective decontamination factors achieved using uranium tanker solution from the plant for recycling work have been described. These results indicated the usefulness of the polyantimonic acid exchanger for this purpose. (author)

  11. A Pro-Environmental Reasoned Action Model for Measuring Citizens’ Intentions regarding Ecolabel Product Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Nadlifatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecolabel products are one approach towards environmental sustainability. Ecolabel programs have been socialized by governments all over the world to reduce environmental harm caused by the daily life cycles of the products that citizens use. The present study was aimed at measuring citizens’ behavior intention (BI regarding ecolabel product usage. An extended theory of reasoned action (TRA, namely that of pro-environmental reasoned action (PERA, is used as the predictor model. A total of 213 questionnaire data, collected from citizens of Indonesia, was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The analysis results show that the PERA model is able to describe 68% of citizens’ BI regarding ecolabel product usage. The analysis results also reveal that attitude is a key determinant factor. Several practical suggestions based on the results can be used as input for policy makers and company management to consider in their efforts to increase citizens’ BI to use ecolabel products.

  12. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  13. International recommendations for managing environmental risk from nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of any recommendations relating to the control of radiation exposure requires decisions on the management of the associated risk. Those decisions must reflect attitudes towards the acceptable levels of risk for both workers and the public. The environmental impact of nuclear energy principally concerns radiation doses and risks to members of the public. The author shows how the considerations of risk and acceptability are used internationally to set standards for protection. The results differ as between limiting doses for normal operations, for restricting the likelihood of accidents, intervening after an accident, or reducing doses from a chronic exposure situation. It is concluded that there is a coherent pattern in the resulting protection system

  14. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  15. Suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair production due to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer

    1999-01-01

    The environment in which bremsstrahlung and pair creation occurs can strongly affect cross sections for these processes. Because ultrarelativistic electromagnetic interactions involve very small longitudinal momentum transfers, the reactions occur gradually, spread over long distances. During this time, even relatively weak factors can accumulate enough to disrupt the interaction. In the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, multiple scattering reduces the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross section. This review will discuss this and a variety of other factors that can suppress bremsstrahlung and pair production, as well as related effects involving beamstrahlung and QCD processes. After surveying different theoretical approaches, experimental measurements will be covered. Recent accurate measurements by the SLAC E-146 Collaboration will be highlighted, along with several recent theoretical works relating to the experiment. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltekov A.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS. In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5. In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine were studied. The arsenic contamination of soils in the vicinity of nonferrous metals smelter KCM SA, Plovdiv, Bulgaria as a result of zinc and lead productions has been studied.

  17. Seibt: Environmental engineering. 4th edition, 1995. Buyer's guide for environmental engineering. Products, suppliers, services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The book lists more than 8,900 enterprises in German-speaking countries and informs the reader about their products and services. A product index with more than 7,000 entries facilitates access to the desired information. For each product, suppliers and producers are liested in the main part of the buyer's guide with their complete address, telephone number, and fax number. In addition, there is an alphabetic list of suppliers and a section on trademarks. The nomenclature according to which the book is structured is continually revised and updated by experts

  18. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which ...

  19. Unequal Ecological Exchange and Environmental Degradation: A Theoretical Proposition and Cross-National Study of Deforestation, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.

    2006-01-01

    Political-economic sociologists have long investigated the dynamics and consequences of international trade. With few exceptions, this area of inquiry ignores the possible connections between trade and environmental degradation. In contrast, environmental sociologists have made several assumptions about the environmental impacts of international…

  20. Analysis of RDX and RDX Breakdown Products in Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felt, Deborah R.; Larson, Steven L.; Wani, Altaf; Davis, Jeffrey L.

    2003-03-26

    The identification and quantification of explosives and their degradation products in soil and natural waters is helpful in the design of remediation technologies, mobility investigations and performing risk assessments. The objective of this study was to develop a method for the determination of the degradation of nitramine compounds, specifically hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The analytical methods developed in this study were based on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using both C-18 and CN bonded silica columns to eliminate common interferences. Contaminant identification was further confirmed by performing spectral analysis of the compounds upon elution. The proposed method yields good separation of RDX from its degradation products and from other common energetic compounds. Method detection limits for the proposed method ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L. This method satisfies the need for analytical techniques to monitor the formation and subsequent degradation products of toxic and carcinogenic nitrosyl substituted nitramines.

  1. Household Production and Environmental Kuznets Curves. Examining the Desirability and Feasibility of Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Chaudhuri, S. [Department of International and Public Affairs, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Nye, Howard L.M. [Department of Economics, Columbia University SIPA, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This paper provides a theoretical explanation for the widely debated empirical finding of 'Environmental Kuznets Curves', i.e., U-shaped relationships between per-capita income and indicators of environmental quality. We present a household-production model in which the degradation of environmental quality is a by-product of household activities. Households can not directly purchase environmental quality, but can reduce degradation by substituting more expensive cleaner inputs to production for less costly dirty inputs. If environmental quality is a normal good, one expects substitution towards the less polluting inputs, so that increases in income will increase the quality of the environment. It is shown that this only holds for middle income households. Poorer households spend all income on dirty inputs. When they buy more, as income rises, the pollution also rises. they do not want to substitute, as this would reduce consumption of non-environmental services for environmental amenities that are already abundant. Thus, as income rises from low to middle levels, a U shape can result. Yet an N shape might eventually result, as richer households spend all income on clean inputs. Further substitution possibilities are exhausted. Thus as income rises again pollution rises and environmental quality falls.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  3. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Luo, Xi; Hou, Huijie; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Yujie; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow

  4. Mechanistic insights on the responses of plant and ecosystem gas exchange to global environmental change: lessons from Biosphere 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Rucks, Jessica S; Aubanell, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    Scaling up leaf processes to canopy/ecosystem level fluxes is critical for examining feedbacks between vegetation and climate. Collectively, studies from Biosphere 2 Laboratory have provided important insight of leaf-to-ecosystem investigations of multiple environmental parameters that were not before possible in enclosed or field studies. B2L has been a testing lab for the applicability of new technologies such as spectral approaches to detect spatial and temporal changes in photosynthesis within canopies, or for the development of cavity ring-down isotope applications for ecosystem evapotranspiration. Short and long term changes in atmospheric CO2, drought or temperature allowed for intensive investigation of the interactions between photosynthesis and leaf, soil and ecosystem respiration. Experiments conducted in the rainforest biome have provided some of the most comprehensive dataset to date on the effects of climate change variables on tropical ecosystems. Results from these studies have been later corroborated in natural rainforest ecosystems and have improved the predictive capabilities of models that now show increased resilience of tropics to climate change. Studies of temperature and CO2 effects on ecosystem respiration and its leaf and soil components have helped reconsider the use of simple first-order kinetics for characterizing respiration in models. The B2L also provided opportunities to quantify the rhizosphere priming effect, or establish the relationships between net primary productivity, atmospheric CO2 and isoprene emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products

  6. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental waters

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrouzo Lanuza, Marta

    2010-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se han desarrollado diferentes métodos analíticos para la determinación de pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) en aguas medioambientales. El término PPCPs engloba todos los fármacos, drogas de abuso, hormonas y los excipientes activos incluidos en productos de uso personal, así como los metabolitos, conjugados y sub-productos de transformación. Los métodos desarrollados han estado basados en extracción en fase sólida o extracción con barras magnéti...

  7. In vivo study on the replicative model validity of sister chromatid exchanges production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequency determination has been used as index of damage to DNA, however the biological meaning of this event is still ignored. Different models in order to explain the mechanism of their formation have been proposed and they could be contained in two categories: a) those that consider that the SCE is produced by means of discreet lesions to the DNA and that they occur in the place of the lesion, and b) those that propose that the SCE is caused by a group of lesions and that therefore the place in which they occur could not be associated with a lesion in particular. The model of Painter (1980) belongs to this last group. It suggests that the region of the DNA where the clusters are united, is the only place in which the exchange of double chain could happen during the synthesis of the DNA and makes the prediction that since the x rays retard the beginning of the duplication, the pretreatment with ionizing radiation would reduce the frequency of SCE induced by agents capable to block the lengthening of the chain of DNA, that are the most efficient SCE inducers. The objective of the present work was to establish the validity of this replicative model for the SCE formation, based in its prediction. The effect of the unilateral preexposition of mouse to gamma radiation was determined on the SCE induction by Mitomycin C (MMC), in cells of the femoral bone marrow In vivo. This strategy allows to determine the effect of the pretreatment in the same organism, minimizing the variability of the response between individuals. There was not a significant variability between the frequencies of SCE, basal and induced by gamma radiation or MMC in the same organism. The animals that received the gamma radiation pretreatment, showed a reduction of approximately the 30 % in the frequency of SCE, assuming an additive effect of the radiation with the MMC. These results coincide with the prediction of the model of Painter, however it is not

  8. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of 95 Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire

  9. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of /sup 95/Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire.

  10. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions

  11. Extractant Screening for Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Environmentally Benign Production Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Schuur, B.; Sukumaran, M.; Zuilhof, H.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation processes offer a promising alternative for the production of chemicals by more environmentally benign routes. However, a major challenge in applying this technology remains the recovery of typically highly hydrophilic products from the complex broth. Here, we report the results of a

  12. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  13. A watershed-based environmental and regulatory data analysis system for the forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Beebe

    2012-01-01

    A watershed-based data analysis system was created as a tool for forest product companies to better understand potential implications from environmental regulations. Also known as the Receiving Water Database (RWDB), this data system was designed with the purpose of assisting companies that own pulp and paper mills, wood product facilities, and commercial timberlands...

  14. Economic and environmental effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.J. Brooks; J.A. Ferrante; J. Haverkamp; I. Bowles; W. Lange; D. Darr

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the incremental economic and environmental impacts resulting from changes in the timing and scope of forest products tariff reductions as proposed in the Accelerated Tariff Liberalization (ATL) initiative in forest products. This initiative was proposed for agreement among member countries of the World Trade Organization. The analysis of...

  15. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An intermediate heat exchanging-depressurizing loop for nuclear hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon; Lee, Jeong Ik [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle should overcome many engineering challenges to commercialize and prove its feasibilities to compete other thermo-chemical cycles. Some critical issues such as structural material, harsh operating condition and high capital costs were considered obstacles to be actualized. Operating SI cycle at low-pressure is one of the solutions to actualize the cycle. The flash operation with over-azeotropic HI at low pressure does not require temperature and pressure as high as those in the existing methods as well as heating for separation. The operation in low pressure reduces corrosion problems and enables us to use flexible selection of structural material. We devised an intermediate heat exchanging-depressurizing loop to eliminate high operating pressure in the hydrogen side as well as a large pressure difference between the reactor side and the hydrogen side. Molten salts are adequate candidates as working fluids under the high-temperature condition with homogeneous phase during pressure changing process. Using molten salts, 2.20-4.65 MW of pumping work is required to change the pressure from 1 bar to 7 MPa. We selected BeF{sub 2}-containing salts as the possible candidates based on preliminary economic and thermal hydraulic consideration.

  17. The environmental suitability of industrial secondary products used as covering materials in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.; Maekelae, E.

    2001-01-01

    The industrial secondary products and landmasses polluted in a minor way can be used as coverings and sealing materials and also restricted in the ground construction of landfills. By using suitable secondary products, natural materials can be reduced. Substitutes are needed due to the fact that the availability of natural materials is poor in many areas. The presented project is a part of the Streams technology programme financed by Tekes. It includes the development of the measuring methods to study the environmental suitability of industrial secondary products, which will be used as covering materials of landfills. Based on the results, a handbook addressing the environmental suitability procedure will be compiled

  18. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25 years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the

  1. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  2. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  3. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  5. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) : RESPONSES OF CO(2) EXCHANGE TO CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Siedow, J N

    1981-08-01

    Patterns of CO(2) exchange in Spanish moss under various experimental conditions were measured using an infrared gas analysis system. Plants were collected from a study site in North Carolina and placed in a gas exchange chamber for several days of continuous measurements. No substantial seasonal effects on CO(2) exchange were observed. High rates of nocturnal CO(2) uptake were observed under day/night temperature regimes of 25/10, 25/15, 25/20, 30/20, and 35/20 C; however, daytime temperatures of 40 C eliminated nighttime CO(2) uptake and a nighttime temperature of 5 C eliminated nocturnal CO(2) uptake, regardless of day temperature. Constant chamber conditions also inhibited nocturnal CO(2) uptake. Constant high relative humidity (RH) slightly stimulated CO(2) uptake while low nighttime RH reduced nocturnal CO(2) uptake.Reductions in daytime irradiance to approximately 25% full sunlight had no effect on CO(2) exchange. Continuous darkness resulted in continuous CO(2) loss by the plants, but a CO(2) exchange pattern similar to normal day/night conditions was observed under constant illumination. High tissue water content inhibited CO(2) uptake. Wetting of the tissue at any time of day or night resulted in net CO(2) loss. Abrupt increases in temperature or decreases in RH resulted in sharp decreases in net CO(2) uptake.The results indicate that Spanish moss is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, irradiances, and water contents. They also indicate that high nighttime RH is a prerequisite for high rates of CO(2) uptake.

  6. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  7. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  8. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  9. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  10. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  11. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.

    1983-02-01

    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  12. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  13. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  14. Improving the thermal efficiency of a jaggery production module using a fire-tube heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madrid, Raul; Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Jaggery is a product obtained after heating and evaporation processes have been applied to sugar cane juice via the addition of thermal energy, followed by the crystallisation process through mechanical agitation. At present, jaggery production uses furnaces and pans that are designed empirically based on trial and error procedures, which results in low ranges of thermal efficiency operation. To rectify these deficiencies, this study proposes the use of fire-tube pans to increase heat transfer from the flue gases to the sugar cane juice. With the aim of increasing the thermal efficiency of a jaggery installation, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based model was used as a numerical tool to design a fire-tube pan that would replace the existing finned flat pan. For this purpose, the original configuration of the jaggery furnace was simulated via a pre-validated CFD model in order to calculate its current thermal performance. Then, the newly-designed fire-tube pan was virtually replaced in the jaggery furnace with the aim of numerically estimating the thermal performance at the same operating conditions. A comparison of both simulations highlighted the growth of the heat transfer rate at around 105% in the heating/evaporation processes when the fire-tube pan replaced the original finned flat pan. This enhancement impacted the jaggery production installation, whereby the thermal efficiency of the installation increased from 31.4% to 42.8%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Guidelines for evaluating the environmental performance of Product/Service-Systems through life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pigosso, Daniela C. A.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2018-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative environmen......Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative....... In this article, we propose a set of guidelines consisting of six steps, which elaborates the LCA process with respect to the specific consideration for PSS assessment. The guidelines were developed based on identified challenges for the application of LCA on PSS, a review of existing LCAs on PSS case studies...

  17. The shaping of environmental impacts from Danish production and consumption of clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses environmental impacts from production and consumption of clothing in Denmark based on 10 business case studies, an ethnographic study of clothing practices among a group of young women, and a statistical analysis of clothing consumption. The environmental strategies and impacts...... are shaped by the businesses' on-going interpretation of external pressures and opportunities, transnational outsourcing of production to newly industrialised countries, changes towards ‘fast fashion’ and lower retail prices. Differences are identified with respect to whether and when companies take...... a need to show environmental commitment publicly. The fast changing fashions and low price strategies encourage increased clothing consumption among young women, unused clothing in their wardrobes and frequent changes of clothing during the week. Concerns about environmental impacts are limited...

  18. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  19. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  20. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  1. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  2. Evaluating the Effects of Fire on Semi-Arid Savanna Ecosystem Productivity Using Integrated Spectral and Gas Exchange Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, H. D.; Jimenez, J. R.; Gallery, R. E.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Smith, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands account for 40% of the land surface and have been identified as increasingly important in driving interannual variability of the land carbon sink. Yet, understanding of dryland seasonal ecosystem productivity dynamics - termed Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) - is limited due to complex interactions between vegetation health, seasonal drought dynamics, a paucity of long-term measurements across these under-studied regions, and unanticipated disturbances from varying fire regimes. For instance, fire disturbance has been found to either greatly reduce post-fire GPP through vegetation mortality or enhance post-fire GPP though increased resource availability (e.g., water, light, nutrients, etc.). Here, we explore post-fire ecosystem recovery by evaluating seasonal GPP dynamics for two Ameriflux eddy covariance flux tower sites within the Santa Rita Experimental Range of southeastern Arizona: 1) the US-SRG savanna site dominated by a mix of grass and woody mesquite vegetation that was burned in May 2017, and 2) the US-SRM savanna site dominated by similar vegetation but unburned for the full measurement record. For each site, we collected leaf-level spectral and gas exchange measurements, as well as leaf-level chemistry and soil chemistry to characterize differences in nutrient availability and microbial activity throughout the 2017 growing season. From spectral data, we derived and evaluated multiple common vegetation metrics, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectivity index (PRI), near-infrared reflectance (NIRv), and MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI). Early results suggest rates of photosynthesis were enhanced at the burned site, with productivity increasing immediately following the onset of monsoonal precipitation; whereas initial photosynthesis at the unburned site remained relatively low following first monsoonal rains. MTCI values for burned vegetation appear to track higher levels of leaf-level nitrogen

  3. The Development of Environmental Productivity: the Case of Danish Energy Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    the environmental productivity of individual generator units based on a paneldata set for the period 1998 to 2011 that includes virtually all fuel-fired generator units in Denmark. We further decompose total environmental energy conversion productivity into conversion efficiency, best conversion practice ratio......, and conversion scale efficiency and use a global Malmquist index to calculate the yearly changes. By applying time series clustering, we can identify high, middle, and low performance groups of generator units in a dynamic setting. Our results indicate that the sectoral productivity only slightly increased over...... the fourteen years. Furthermore, we find that there is no overall high achiever group, but that the ranking, although time consistent, varies between the different productivity measures. However, we identify steam turbines and combustion engines for combined heat and power production as potential high...

  4. Incorporating lean thinking and life cycle assessment to reduce environmental impacts of plastic injection moulded products

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Leong, Jun; Vichare, Parag

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, environmental footprint of the product manufacture has emerged as an important public concern, causing manufacturers to re-assess their product’s environmental impacts. Responding to global outcry on global warming, world leaders have agreed to limit global temperature rise to less than 2°C above the temperature in pre-industrial times. As a result, governments and industrial leaders around the world have proposed a roadmap for 80% emissions reduction by 2050. The aim of ...

  5. 'Underutilised' agricultural land: its definitions, potential use for future biomass production and its environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Bargiel, Damian

    2017-04-01

    A growing bioeconomy and increased demand for biomass products on food, health, fibre, industrial products and energy require land resources for feedstock production. It has resulted in significant environmental and socio-economic challenges on a global scale. As a result, consideration of such effects of land use change (LUC) from biomass production (particularly for biofuel feedstock) has emerged as an important area of policy and research, and several potential solutions have been proposed to minimise such adverse LUC effects. One of these solutions is the use of lands that are not in production or not suitable for food crop production, such as 'marginal', 'degraded', 'abandoned' and 'surplus' agricultural lands for future biomass production. The terms referring to these lands are usually associated with the potential production of 'marginal crops', which can grow in marginal conditions (e.g. poor soil fertility, low rainfall, drought) without much water and agrochemical inputs. In our research, we referred to these lands as 'underutilised' agricultural land and attempted to define them for our case study areas located in Australia and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Our goal is to identify lands that can be used for future biomass production and to evaluate their environmental implications, particularly impacts related to biodiversity, water and soil at a landscape scale. The identification of these lands incorporates remote sensing and spatially explicit approaches. Our findings confirmed that there was no universal or single definition of the term 'underutilised' agricultural land as the definitions significantly vary by country and region depending not only on the biophysical environment but also political, institutional and socio-economic conditions. Moreover, our results highlighted that the environmental implications of production of biomass on 'underutilised' agricultural land for biomass production are highly controversial. Thus land use change

  6. Current Status and Outlook in the Application of Microalgae in Biodiesel Production and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Rong, Junfeng [SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing (China); Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2014-08-19

    Microalgae have been currently recognized as a group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids, and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO{sub 2} fixation, NO{sub x}, and wastewater treatment) and biorefinery has been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g., food, medicine, wastewater treatment, and flue gas treatment) with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  7. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  8. Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Environmental Safety of Thermal Energy Through the Implementation of Contact Energy Exchange Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Gennadii Borysovich; Romanova, Kateryna Alexandrovna; Nazarova, Iryna; Daschenko, Olga; Kapustiansky, Andry

    2017-12-01

    Energy efficiency improvement and ecological safety of heat power plants are urgent problems, which require scientifically grounded approaches and solutions. These problems can be solved partly within the presented heat-and-power cycles by including contact energy exchange equipment in the circuits of existing installations. A significant positive effect is obtained in the contact energy exchange installations, such as gas-steam installation `Aquarius' and the contact hydrogen heat generator that also can use hydrogen as a fuel. In these plants, the efficiency increases approximately by 10-12% in comparison with traditional installations, and the concentration of toxic substances, such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in flue gas can be reduced to 30 mg/m3 and to 5 mg/m3, respectively. Moreover, the plants additionally `generate' the clean water, which can be used for technical purposes.

  9. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  10. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  11. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  12. Comparative environmental impact and efficiency assessment of selected hydrogen production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbilen, Ahmet, E-mail: Ahmet.Ozbilen@uoit.ca; Dincer, Ibrahim, E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca; Rosen, Marc A., E-mail: Marc.Rosen@uoit.ca

    2013-09-15

    The environmental impacts of various hydrogen production processes are evaluated and compared, considering several energy sources and using life cycle analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen produced by thermochemical water decomposition cycles are more environmentally benign options compared to conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The nuclear based four-step Cu–Cl cycle has the lowest global warming potential (0.559 kg CO{sub 2}-eq per kg hydrogen production), mainly because it requires the lowest quantity of energy of the considered processes. The acidification potential results show that biomass gasification has the highest impact on environment, while wind based electrolysis has the lowest. The relation is also investigated between efficiency and environmental impacts. -- Highlights: • Environmental performance of nuclear-based hydrogen production is investigated. • The GWP and AP results are compared with various hydrogen production processes. • Nuclear based 4-step Cu–Cl cycle is found to be an environmentally benign process. • Wind-based electrolysis has the lowest AP value.

  13. Site-Dependent Environmental Impacts of Industrial Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Koj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial hydrogen production via alkaline water electrolysis (AEL is a mature hydrogen production method. One argument in favor of AEL when supplied with renewable energy is its environmental superiority against conventional fossil-based hydrogen production. However, today electricity from the national grid is widely utilized for industrial applications of AEL. Also, the ban on asbestos membranes led to a change in performance patterns, making a detailed assessment necessary. This study presents a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA using the GaBi software (version 6.115, thinkstep, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany, revealing inventory data and environmental impacts for industrial hydrogen production by latest AELs (6 MW, Zirfon membranes in three different countries (Austria, Germany and Spain with corresponding grid mixes. The results confirm the dependence of most environmental effects from the operation phase and specifically the site-dependent electricity mix. Construction of system components and the replacement of cell stacks make a minor contribution. At present, considering the three countries, AEL can be operated in the most environmentally friendly fashion in Austria. Concerning the construction of AEL plants the materials nickel and polytetrafluoroethylene in particular, used for cell manufacturing, revealed significant contributions to the environmental burden.

  14. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International symposium on uranium raw material for the nuclear fuel cycle: Exploration, mining, production, supply and demand, economics and environmental issues (URAM-2009). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009) addressed all aspects of the uranium fuel cycle, from the availability of raw materials to the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. The revival of the uranium industry in recent years has caused a dramatic increase in uranium exploration and mining activities in several countries. URAM-2009 was intended to bring together scientists, exploration and mining geologists, engineers, operators, regulators and fuel cycle specialists to exchange information and discuss updated research and current issues in uranium geology and deposits, exploration, mining and processing, production economics, and environmental and legal issues. Contributed papers covered uranium markets and economics (including supply and demand); social licensing in the uranium production cycle; uranium exploration (including uranium geology and deposits); uranium mining and processing; environmental and regulatory issues; human resources development. There was a poster session throughout the symposium, as well as an exhibition of topical photographs. A workshop on recent developments in Technical Cooperation Projects relevant to the Uranium Production Cycle area was also organized. On the last day of the symposium, there was an experts' Panel Discussion. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2009 (a) led to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand, (b) provided information on new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources, (c) described new production technology having the potential to more efficiently and economically exploit new uranium resources; (d) documented the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of the final

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Health Indicators of Halva and Tahini Production Centers in Ardakan, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2014-03-01

    Results: Generally, 75% production centers had favorable hygienic status and 25% had slightly favorable hygienic status. According to obtained results, hygienic status of production centers had relatively favorable and favorable conditions and only in January and February in 31.3% and 18.8% processing hall and 12.5% product store was in a very favorable hygienic status. The results showed that in terms of environmental health status, 62.5% production centers in raw materials store part, 66.66% in production processing hall, 20.83% in packaging hall, 60.41% in product store and 37.5% in bathrooms had favorable status. Based on the results, hygienic status of bathrooms and processing hall achieved lowest and highest score, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that between hygienic status and production rate (p=0.411 there is no significant relationship. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the halva and tahini production centers of Ardakan city in terms of environmental health indicators had slightly favorable status to favorable and none of the production centers had not very favorable conditions. The results of this study can be used to improve health status of halva and tahini production centers.

  17. Comparative environmental and economic assessment of production, use and recycling of aluminium cans: Bologna vs Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princigallo, Raffaele; Visini, Davide; Bonoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    in the integrated LCA -LCC analysis. The comparative analysis of aluminium cans production, use, collection and recycling in the two systems showed that the best option from an environmental point of view is also leading to higher costs and trade - offs need to be considered in the decision making process....... and Copenhagen. We performed a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) analysis of the purchasing, production and wa ste management of beer aluminium cans, with the aim to compare the environmental and economic performances of the two systems and to identify potential misalignment...

  18. Change, exchange, and rearrange: protein engineering for the biotechnological production of fuels, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael A; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2013-12-01

    Enzymes are indispensable in the effort to produce chemicals from fuels to pharmaceuticals in an ecologically friendly manner. They have the potential to catalyze reactions with high specificity and efficiency without the use of hazardous chemicals. Nature provides an extensive collection of enzymes, but often these must be altered to perform desired functions under required conditions. Advances in protein engineering permit the design and/or directed evolution of enzymes specifically tailored for such industrial applications. Recent years have seen the development of improved enzymes to assist in both the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals, and the creation of key intermediates in pharmaceutical production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rate coefficients of exchange reactions accounting for vibrational excitation of reagents and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.

  20. Effect of some environmental parameters on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, K.; Kumar, A.; Das, D. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology, Fermentation Technology Laboratory

    2006-06-15

    This study addressed the issue of using biological systems for hydrogen production as an environmentally sound alternative to conventional thermochemical and electrochemical processes. In particular, it examined the potential for anaerobic fermentation for biological hydrogen production and the possibility of coupling gaseous energy generation with simultaneous treatment of biodegradable waste materials. The study focused on hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation using Enterobacter cloacae DM11, a Gram-negative, motile facultative anaerobe. Although hydrogen production by these bacteria depends on many environmental parameters, there is very little information on the effects of these factors in the hydrogen production potential of this organism. For that reason, this study examined the effect of initial medium pH, reaction temperature, initial glucose concentration, and iron (Fe2+) concentration on the fermentative production of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production was carried out by Enterobacter cloacae DM11, using glucose as the substrate. Batch cultivations were performed in a 500 ml custom-designed vertical tubular bioreactor. The maximum molar yield of hydrogen was 3.31 mol (mol glucose){sub 1}. The rate and cumulative volume of hydrogen production decreased at higher initial glucose concentration. The pH of 6.5 at a temperature of 37 degrees C was most suitable for maximum rate of production of hydrogen in batch fermentation. The addition of Fe2+ on hydrogen production had a marginal enhancing effect on total hydrogen production. A simple model developed from the modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative hydrogen production curve and to estimate the hydrogen production potential, maximum production rate, and lag time. It was concluded that these study results could be used in the development of a high rate continuous hydrogen production process. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.