WorldWideScience

Sample records for excess light energy

  1. Transmutation in the electrolysis of light water - excess energy and iron production in a gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Tadayoshi; Mizuno, Tadahiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Enyo, Michio; Minagawa, Hideki

    1997-01-01

    The identification of some reaction products possibly produced during the generation of excess energy is attempted. Electrolysis is performed for 7 days with a constant current intensity of 1 A. The electrolytes used are Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , K 2 CO 3 , and KOH. After the electrolysis, the elements in the electrode near the surface are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. In every case, a notable amount of iron atoms in the range of 1.0 x 10 16 to 1.8 x 10 17 atom/cm 2 (true area) are detected together with the generation of a certain amount of excess energy evolution. The isotopic abundance of iron atoms, which are 6.5, 77.5, and 14.5% for 54 Fe, 56 Fe, and 57 Fe, respectively, and are obviously different from the natural isotopic abundance, are measured at the top surface of a gold electrode by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The content of 57 Fe tends to increase up to 25% in the more inner layers of the electrode. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Double photoionization of helium at an excess energy of 60 eV using left- and right-elliptically-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Cvejanovic, S.; Dawson, C.; Reddish, T.J.; Seccombe, D.P.; Huetz, A.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.; Danjo, A.; Soejima, K.; Okuno, K.; Yagishita, A.

    2002-01-01

    Helium double photoionization (γ,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) were measured at an excess energy of 60 eV using a dual toroidal spectrometer and synchrotron radiation from a helical undulator (BL-28A, Photon Factory, Japan). Energy-sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) for the two ejected electrons of 5 and 11 are studied with both right- and left-handed elliptically polarized light. The TDCSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using the hyperspherical R matrix with semiclassical outgoing waves theory. The circular dichroism for a limited mutual angular range (φ 12 ≅110 deg. -200 deg.) is determined from the experimental data for both R=5 and 11, and compared to theoretical calculations performed over the complete range of mutual angles. No dynamic nodes are found in either the experimental (within the explored φ 12 range) or theoretical circular dichroism for these R values at this excess energy

  3. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  4. Principles of light energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  5. Principles of light energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, N. [Growth Chambers, Chagrin Falls, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review is presented on methods to minimize the effects of excess energy associated with lighting systems for plant growth. Information on lamp efficiencies and methods for separating and collecting unwanted heat is included.

  6. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  7. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Red shift in the spectrum of a chlorophyll species is essential for the drought-induced dissipation of excess light energy in a poikilohydric moss, Bryum argenteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Mohamed, Ahmed; Taniyama, Koichiro; Kanatani, Kentaro; Kosugi, Makiko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats. A global target analysis was applied to a large set of data on the fluorescence-quenching dynamics for the 430-nm (chlorophyll-a selective) and 460-nm (chlorophyll-b and carotenoid selective) excitations in the temperature region from 5 to 77 K. This analysis strongly suggested that the quencher is formed in the major peripheral antenna of photosystem II, whose emission spectrum is significantly broadened and red-shifted in its quenched form. Two emission components at around 717 and 725 nm were assigned to photosystem I (PS I). The former component at around 717 nm is mildly quenched and probably bound to the PS I core complex, while the latter at around 725 nm is probably bound to the light-harvesting complex. The dehydration treatment caused a blue shift of the PS I emission peak via reduction of the exciton energy flow to the pigment responsible for the 725 nm band.

  9. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  10. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  11. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  12. Energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  13. Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osto, Luca [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Cazzaniga, Stefano [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Bressan, Mauro [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Paleček, David [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Židek, Karel [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Niyogi, Krishna K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Fleming, Graham R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate Group in Applied Science and Technology; Zigmantas, Donatas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Bassi, Roberto [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Firenze (Italy). Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante (IPP)

    2017-04-10

    Oxygenic photoautotrophs require mechanisms for rapidly matching the level of chlorophyll excited states from light harvesting with the rate of electron transport from water to carbon dioxide. These photoprotective reactions prevent formation of reactive excited states and photoinhibition. The fastest response to excess illumination is the so-called non-photochemical quenching which, in higher plants, requires the luminal pH sensor PsbS and other yet unidentified components of the photosystem II antenna. Both trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and monomeric LHC proteins have been indicated as site(s) of the heat-dissipative reactions. Different mechanisms have been proposed: Energy transfer to a lutein quencher in trimers, formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation in monomers. Here, we report on the construction of a mutant lacking all monomeric LHC proteins but retaining LHCII trimers. Its non-photochemical quenching induction rate was substantially slower with respect to the wild type. A carotenoid radical cation signal was detected in the wild type, although it was lost in the mutant. Here, we conclude that non-photochemical quenching is catalysed by two independent mechanisms, with the fastest activated response catalysed within monomeric LHC proteins depending on both zeaxanthin and lutein and on the formation of a radical cation. Trimeric LHCII was responsible for the slowly activated quenching component whereas inclusion in supercomplexes was not required. Finally, this latter activity does not depend on lutein nor on charge transfer events, whereas zeaxanthin was essential.

  14. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lightingLighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  15. Assessment of photobiological safety of energy-efficiency urban lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stanisław Pierzchała

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exceeding the safe threshold for exposure on high energy radiation (UV and blue light could cause the emergence of a number of diseases. Eyesight is particularly sensitive to excessive lighting. This paper presents the laboratory research on the assessment of the photobiological risk generated by the energy-efficiency urban lighting. The results show that LED lighting systems can be a source of radiation that significantly negatively affects the eyesight and could contribute to circadian rhythm disorders.

  16. Measuring excess free energies of self-assembled membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizoe, Yuki; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Müller, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Using computer simulation of a solvent-free, coarse-grained model for amphiphilic membranes, we study the excess free energy of hourglass-shaped connections (i.e., stalks) between two apposed bilayer membranes. In order to calculate the free energy by simulation in the canonical ensemble, we reversibly transfer two apposed bilayers into a configuration with a stalk in three steps. First, we gradually replace the intermolecular interactions by an external, ordering field. The latter is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system in this field closely resembles the structure of the original, interacting system in the absence of the external field. The absence of structural changes along this path suggests that it is reversible; a fact which is confirmed by expanded-ensemble simulations. Second, the external, ordering field is changed as to transform the non-interacting system from the apposed bilayer structure to two-bilayers connected by a stalk. The final external field is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system resembles the structure of the stalk in the interacting system without a field. On the third branch of the transformation path, we reversibly replace the external, ordering field by non-bonded interactions. Using expanded-ensemble techniques, the free energy change along this reversible path can be obtained with an accuracy of 10(-3)k(B)T per molecule in the n VT-ensemble. Calculating the chemical potential, we obtain the free energy of a stalk in the grandcanonical ensemble, and employing semi-grandcanonical techniques, we calculate the change of the excess free energy upon altering the molecular architecture. This computational strategy can be applied to compute the free energy of self-assembled phases in lipid and copolymer systems, and the excess free energy of defects or interfaces.

  17. Observation of excess redshifts when light travels through galactic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoji, Hiroshi; Nottale, Laurent; Vigier, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    Starting from an analysis of the space distribution of nearby clusters of galaxies and of the angular anisotropy of the Hubble constant (discovered by Rubin, Ford and Rubin) one can verify with very strong statistical significance the assumption of Roberts-Pecker and Vigier that light originating from distant sources is submitted to a new type of interaction when crossing the radiation field associated with clusters of galaxies [fr

  18. Fusion reaction using low energy neutron-excess nucleus beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu

    1994-01-01

    The present state and the plan of the experiment of measuring the fusion reaction near barriers by using neutron-excess nucleus beam, which has been advanced at RIKEN are reported. One of the purposes of this experiment is the feasibility investigation of the fusion reaction by using neutron-excess nuclei, which is indispensable for synthesizing superheavy elements. It is intended to systematically explore some enhancing mechanism in the neutron-excess nuclei which are unfavorable in beam intensity. This research can become the good means to prove the dynamic behavior of the neutrons on the surfaces of nuclei in reaction. The fusion reaction of 27 Al + Au was measured by using the stable nucleus beam of 27 Al, and the results are shown. In order to know the low energy fusion reaction of 11 Li and 11 Be which are typical halo nuclei, the identification by characteristic α ray of composite nuclei is carried out in 7,9,11 Li + 209 Bi and 9,10,11 Be + 208 Pb. A new detector having high performance, New MUSIC, is being developed. As the experiment by using this detector, the efficient measurement of the fusion reaction by using heavy neutron-excess nuclei up to Ni is considered. An example of 8 Li + α → 11 B + n reaction for celestial body physics is mentioned. (K.I.)

  19. Photosynthetic recovery and acclimation to excess light intensity in the rehydrated lichen soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available As an important successional stage and main type of biological soil crusts (BSCs in Shapotou region of China (southeastern edge of Tengger Desert, lichen soil crusts (LSCs often suffer from many stresses, such as desiccation and excess light intensity. In this study, the chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange in the rehydrated LSCs were detected under a series of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR gradients to study the photosynthetic acclimation of LSCs. The results showed that although desiccation leaded to the loss of photosynthetic activity in LSCs, the fluorescence parameters including Fo, Fv and Fv/Fm of LSCs could be well recovered after rehydration. After the recovery of photosynthetic activity, the effective photosynthetic efficiency ΦPSII detected by Imaging PAM had declined to nearly 0 within both the lichen thallus upper and lower layers when the PAR increased to 200 μE m-2 s-1, however the net photosynthesis detected by the CO2 gas analyzer in the LSCs still appeared when the PAR increased to 1000 μE m-2 s-1. Our results indicate that LSCs acclimating to high PAR, on the one hand is ascribed to the special structure in crust lichens, making the incident light into the lichen thallus be weakened; on the other hand the massive accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in LSCs also provides a protective barrier for the photosynthetic organisms against radiation damage. Furthermore, the excessive light energy absorbed by crust lichens is also possibly dissipated by the increasing non-photochemical quenching, therefore to some extent providing some protection for LSCs.

  20. Excess Gibbs Energy for Ternary Lattice Solutions of Nonrandom Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Young [DukSung Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    It is assumed for three components lattice solution that the number of ways of arranging particles randomly on the lattice follows a normal distribution of a linear combination of N{sub 12}, N{sub 23}, N{sub 13} which are the number of the nearest neighbor interactions between different molecules. It is shown by random number simulations that this assumption is reasonable. From this distribution, an approximate equation for the excess Gibbs energy of three components lattice solution is derived. Using this equation, several liquid-vapor equilibria are calculated and compared with the results from other equations.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories...

  2. Energy efficient solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Poul Michael

    2012-11-15

    Even though vast improvements have been made on efficiency and light quality, SSL is still in its infancy. One of the barriers for a market introduction is the price, which still is around 5 times higher than traditional lighting technologies. In order to fulfil the potential of SSL, further research and development needs to increase the light extraction from semiconductor materials, provide better and cheaper production and packaging, and advanced optical systems for optimized light distribution and new thermal solutions for SSL lamps and luminaires. Nanotechnology and applied research at DTU Fotonik in close collaboration with industry are essential parts in the development of new enhanced LED optical systems and LEDs with higher light extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can help to efficiently extract light from LEDs and to form a desired emission profile. Future directions are devoted to the next generation of LEDs, in which the spontaneous emission is photon enhanced. One realization of this idea is using LEDs with a layer of nanocrystals, which are coupled to the quantum well of the LED. Such R and D work is ongoing all over the world and DOE roadmaps foresee luminous efficiencies by 2020 that are close to 250 lm/W for both cold and warm white light from LEDs, and prices in the order of one dollar per kilolumen. Such figures will drastically reduce the energy consumption worldwide for lighting, and hence a marked reduction in carbon emissions. (Author)

  3. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM

  4. Is the CMS e e j j excess a hint for light supersymmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Manuel E.; Porod, Werner

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the impact of additional two-body decays of the right-handed neutrino into a light charged Higgs state on the dilepton plus dijet cross sections from resonant W' production. We consider in particular a supersymmetric left-right symmetric model which predicts such a light charged Higgs boson. We demonstrate that the e e j j excess as measured by CMS can be explained best if the W' also has decay modes into Higgsino-like charginos and neutralinos with masses of a few hundred GeV. Provided that this excess is confirmed, the model predicts also one right-handed neutrino with a mass below 200 GeV as well as a doubly charged Higgs boson which should be discovered at the LHC in the near future.

  5. Revisiting light stringy states in view of the 750 GeV diphoton excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal, E-mail: pascal@hep.itp.tuwien.ac.at [Technische Universität Wien, Institut für Theoretische Physik, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Bianchi, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.bianchi@roma2.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione I.N.F.N., Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    We investigate light massive string states that appear at brane intersections. They replicate the massless spectrum in a richer fashion and may be parametrically lighter than standard Regge excitations. We identify the first few physical states and determine their BRST invariant vertex operators. In the supersymmetric case we reconstruct the super-multiplet structure. We then compute some simple interactions, such as the decay rate of a massive scalar or vector into two massless fermions. Finally we suggest an alternative interpretation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess at LHC in terms of a light massive string state, a replica of the Standard Model Higgs.

  6. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  7. Unfair and excessive prices in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woude, M. [Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    The concept of competition refers to a process where firms dispute the favour of their customers by proposing better products at the lowest possible price. This consumer welfare creating process is to a large extent Darwinian in nature: those who cannot compete must die. The law of supply and demand is ruthless and so is competition law. Principles of fairness and justice are extraneous to competition law: the lion eats the deer. Still, EC competition law is not amoral, as illustrated by the very first example of abusive conduct given by Article 82 EC: 'directly or indirectly imposing unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair trading conditions' can constitute an abuse. The concept of fairness as a constituent element of EC competition law may disturb those who analyze the competitive process through a scientific lens. Fairness does not relate to economic effects and cannot be measured or quantified. It is a concept that appeals to ethics and norms. The dichotomy between competition as an amoral welfare creating process, that can be the subject of economic research, and the normative concept of fairness does not necessarily lead to a contradiction. Fairness becomes relevant where the competitive process has ceased to play its welfare creating role: i.e. where monopolies prevail over perfect competition. When confronted to a monopoly, abstention is the customer's only choice and for some goods, such as food, clothing and housing, abstention is not considered as a realistic choice. In scenarios where the monopolist faces an inelastic demand curve, fairness is probably the customer's only safety buoy. The energy sector is one of the sectors where these situations occur. In our modern societies, customers expect the light to go on, when they turn the switch, and their houses to be heated, when activating their boilers. Candles and jumpers not offering realistic alternatives, demand is close to inelastic, at least on the short term. Moreover

  8. Unfair and excessive prices in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woude, M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of competition refers to a process where firms dispute the favour of their customers by proposing better products at the lowest possible price. This consumer welfare creating process is to a large extent Darwinian in nature: those who cannot compete must die. The law of supply and demand is ruthless and so is competition law. Principles of fairness and justice are extraneous to competition law: the lion eats the deer. Still, EC competition law is not amoral, as illustrated by the very first example of abusive conduct given by Article 82 EC: 'directly or indirectly imposing unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair trading conditions' can constitute an abuse. The concept of fairness as a constituent element of EC competition law may disturb those who analyze the competitive process through a scientific lens. Fairness does not relate to economic effects and cannot be measured or quantified. It is a concept that appeals to ethics and norms. The dichotomy between competition as an amoral welfare creating process, that can be the subject of economic research, and the normative concept of fairness does not necessarily lead to a contradiction. Fairness becomes relevant where the competitive process has ceased to play its welfare creating role: i.e. where monopolies prevail over perfect competition. When confronted to a monopoly, abstention is the customer's only choice and for some goods, such as food, clothing and housing, abstention is not considered as a realistic choice. In scenarios where the monopolist faces an inelastic demand curve, fairness is probably the customer's only safety buoy. The energy sector is one of the sectors where these situations occur. In our modern societies, customers expect the light to go on, when they turn the switch, and their houses to be heated, when activating their boilers. Candles and jumpers not offering realistic alternatives, demand is close to inelastic, at least on the short term. Moreover, the energy sector

  9. Energy costs of feeding excess protein from corn-based byproducts to finishing cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of byproducts in finishing diets leads to diets that contain greater concentrations of CP and MP than required by cattle. The hypothesis was that excess dietary CP and MP would increase maintenance energy requirments due to the energy costs of removing excess N as urea in urine. ...

  10. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  11. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  12. Rapid Recovery Gene Downregulation during Excess-Light Stress and Recovery in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Peter A; Ganguly, Diep R; Smith, Aaron B; Murray, Kevin D; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Searle, Iain; Ford, Ethan; Bogdanović, Ozren; Lister, Ryan; Borevitz, Justin O; Eichten, Steven R; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-08-01

    Stress recovery may prove to be a promising approach to increase plant performance and, theoretically, mRNA instability may facilitate faster recovery. Transcriptome (RNA-seq, qPCR, sRNA-seq, and PARE) and methylome profiling during repeated excess-light stress and recovery was performed at intervals as short as 3 min. We demonstrate that 87% of the stress-upregulated mRNAs analyzed exhibit very rapid recovery. For instance, HSP101 abundance declined 2-fold every 5.1 min. We term this phenomenon rapid recovery gene downregulation (RRGD), whereby mRNA abundance rapidly decreases promoting transcriptome resetting. Decay constants ( k ) were modeled using two strategies, linear and nonlinear least squares regressions, with the latter accounting for both transcription and degradation. This revealed extremely short half-lives ranging from 2.7 to 60.0 min for 222 genes. Ribosome footprinting using degradome data demonstrated RRGD loci undergo cotranslational decay and identified changes in the ribosome stalling index during stress and recovery. However, small RNAs and 5'-3' RNA decay were not essential for recovery of the transcripts examined, nor were any of the six excess light-associated methylome changes. We observed recovery-specific gene expression networks upon return to favorable conditions and six transcriptional memory types. In summary, rapid transcriptome resetting is reported in the context of active recovery and cellular memory. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Excess electricity diagrams and the integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system.......The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system....

  14. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  15. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M ⊙ yr −1 . Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis

  16. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  18. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  19. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  20. Phenomenology of SU(5 low-energy realizations: The diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Iura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different SU(5 low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a 750 GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of SU(5, being either an SU(2L singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new SU(2L Higgs doublet belonging to a 45H or a 70H representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ present in these large SU(5 representations. We analyze the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the 45H (the Georgi–Jarlskog model, we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that Bs mixing limits (in addition to τ→μγ always imply that Br(h→τμ,bs≲10−5.

  1. New Light on Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    observations show that the temperature changes with radius are much steeper than predicted by the currently favoured models, indicating that most of the near-infrared emission emerges from hot material located very close to the star, that is, within one or two times the Earth-Sun distance (1-2 AU). This also implies that dust cannot exist so close to the star, since the strong energy radiated by the star heats and ultimately destroys the dust grains. ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03b/08 The Region Around MWC 147 "We have performed detailed numerical simulations to understand these observations and reached the conclusion that we observe not only the outer dust disc, but also measure strong emission from a hot inner gaseous disc. This suggests that the disc is not a passive one, simply reprocessing the light from the star," explained Kraus. "Instead, the disc is active, and we see the material, which is just transported from the outer disc parts towards the forming star." ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03c/08 Close-up on MWC 147 The best-fit model is that of a disc extending out to 100 AU, with the star increasing in mass at a rate of seven millionths of a solar mass per year. "Our study demonstrates the power of ESO's VLTI to probe the inner structure of discs around young stars and to reveal how stars reach their final mass," said Stefan Kraus. More Information The authors report their results in a paper in the Astrophysical Journal ("Detection of an inner gaseous component in a Herbig Be star accretion disk: Near- and mid-infrared spectro-interferometry and radiative transfer modeling of MWC 147", by Stefan Kraus, Thomas Preibisch, Keichii Ohnaka").

  2. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  3. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds. But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost

  4. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  5. Shedding light on energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2018-01-01

    -carbon technologies in energy supply, buildings, transport, and industry, as well as address other key issues like demand response, co-benefits to other energy policies objectives, the role of declining costs for renewables and markets - all needed to facilitate energy sector transition. This editorial outlines......Ever since 2002, when the first Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) was held in Dubrovnik, the SDEWES conferences series has been providing a forum for world-wide scientists and those interested in learning about the sustainability of development...... into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, food production and environment systems and their many combinations. SDEWES has maintained high publishing standard as nearly 1100...

  6. Neutron excess generation by fusion neutron source for self-consistency of nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, V.; Chmelev, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present day fission energy technology faces with the problem of transmutation of dangerous radionuclides that requires neutron excess generation. Nuclear energy system based on fission reactors needs fuel breeding and, therefore, suffers from lack of neutron excess to apply large-scale transmutation option including elimination of fission products. Fusion neutron source (FNS) was proposed to improve neutron balance in the nuclear energy system. Energy associated with the performance of FNS should be small enough to keep the position of neutron excess generator, thus, leaving the role of dominant energy producers to fission reactors. The present paper deals with development of general methodology to estimate the effect of neutron excess generation by FNS on the performance of nuclear energy system as a whole. Multiplication of fusion neutrons in both non-fissionable and fissionable multipliers was considered. Based on the present methodology it was concluded that neutron self-consistency with respect to fuel breeding and transmutation of fission products can be attained with small fraction of energy associated with innovated fusion facilities. (author)

  7. Light and energy - daylight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Jens; Logadottir, A.; Traberg-Borup, S.; Barrie-Nielsen, K.

    2009-07-01

    All measurements where conducted in the spring of 2007, except the Interpane panel. The solar cell panels have been evaluated by three performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room and the systems ability to maintain view to the outside. In the study, we used two performance indicators to assess the daylight quantity within the room: 1. the daylight factor (overcast sky) 2. the relative work plane illuminance (clear sky condition) Overcast sky: In general, all panels provided less daylight than the recommended requirement in the Danish Building Regulation of 2% on the work plane. This will most likely result in additional need for electric lighting. However, larger window areas and more parts of the facade with clear unobstructed glass may be one solution. Clear sky: In general, all panels provided less interior light levels than the two reference systems in the back of the room. Almost all systems aloud more or less direct sunlight in the window perimeter through the clear openings and additional needs for some kind of shading device is to be expected. Some systems blocked a large portion of the light in the majority of the room, and additional electric light in this part of the room may be needed. Only one performance indicator where used to describe the quality of the panels. View: In general, all panels, except two, obstruct the view significantly and cause figure/background confusion for a view position close to the window and the discrepancies of colour judgements. Only two systems provided a fairly clear view to the outside without to much distortion of the view. (au)

  8. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  9. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  10. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  11. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lightingEnergy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  12. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  13. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hunt, Patricia A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the “mitosis” or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  14. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  15. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  16. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  17. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Energy conservation through more efficient lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, J; Grossman, M W; Lagushenko, R; Waymouth, J F

    1984-10-26

    The efficiency of a mercury-rare gas electrical discharge, which forms the basis of a fluorescent lamp, can be increased about 5 percent simply by increasing the concentration of mercury-196 from 0.146 percent (natural) to about 3 percent. These findings can be implemented immediately without any significant change in the process of manufacturing of this widely used source of illumination, provided that mercury-196 can be obtained economically. The potential energy savings for the United States are estimated to be worth in excess of $200 million per year.

  19. Energy Optimization of Road Tunnel Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A road tunnel is an enclosed and covered infrastructure for the vehicular traffic. Its lighting system provides 24 h of artificial sources only, with a higher amount of electric power used during the day. Due to safety reasons, when there is natural lighting outside the tunnel, the lighting levels in the stretches right after the entrance and before the exit must be high, in order to guide the driver’s eye towards the middle of the tunnel where the luminance must guarantee safe driving, avoid any over-dimensioning of the lighting systems, and produce energy savings. Such effects can be reached not only through the technological advances in the field of artificial lighting sources with high luminous efficiency, but also through new materials for road paving characterized by a higher reflection coefficient than other ordinary asphalts. This case study examines different technical scenarios, analyzing and comparing possible energy and economic savings. Traditional solutions are thus compared with scenarios suggesting the solutions previously mentioned. Special asphalts are interesting from an economic point of view, whereas the high costs of LED sources nowadays represent an obstacle for their implementation.

  20. Photo-double ionization of argon at 20 and 40 eV excess energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, P; Zitnik, M; Malegat, L; Selles, P; Turri, G; Coreno, M; Camilloni, R; Avaldi, L

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the triple differential cross section of the Ar 2+ 3p 4 ( 3 P e ) state at 20 and 40 eV excess energy in equal and unequal energy sharing conditions, respectively. The present results and previous data of the He 2+ ( 1 S e ) state measured in the same conditions have been represented by an exact parametrization of the triple differential cross section given by Malegat et al (1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 251; 2002 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 5169)

  1. Low energy IceCube data and a possible Dark Matter related excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, M., E-mail: chianese@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Miele, G.; Morisi, S. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Vitagliano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-06-10

    In this Letter we focus our attention on the IceCube events in the energy range between 60 and 100 TeV, which show an order 2-sigma excess with respect to a power-law with spectral index 2. We analyze the possible origin of such an excess by comparing the distribution of the arrival directions of IceCube events with the angular distributions of simply distributed astrophysical galactic/extragalactic sources, as well as with the expected flux coming from DM interactions (decay and annihilation) for different DM profiles. The statistical analysis performed seems to disfavor the correlation with the galactic plane, whereas rules out the DM annihilation scenario only in case of small clumpiness effect. The small statistics till now collected does not allow to scrutinize the cases of astrophysical isotropic distribution and DM decay scenarios. For this reason we perform a forecast analysis in order to stress the role of future Neutrino Telescopes.

  2. THE CENTAURUS A ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY EXCESS AND THE LOCAL EXTRAGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yüksel, Hasan; Kronberg, Philipp P.; Stanev, Todor; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) anisotropies discovered by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide the potential to finally address both the particle origins and properties of the nearby extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF). We examine the implications of the excess of ∼10 20 eV events around the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A. We find that, if Cen A is the source of these cosmic rays, the angular distribution of events constrains the EGMF strength within several Mpc of the Milky Way to ∼> 20 nG for an assumed primary proton composition. Our conclusions suggest that either the observed excess is a statistical anomaly or the local EGMF is stronger than conventionally thought. We discuss several implications, including UHECR scattering from more distant sources, time delays from transient sources, and the possibility of using magnetic lensing signatures to attain tighter constraints.

  3. THE CENTAURUS A ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY EXCESS AND THE LOCAL EXTRAGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueksel, Hasan; Kronberg, Philipp P. [Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kistler, Matthew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) anisotropies discovered by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide the potential to finally address both the particle origins and properties of the nearby extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF). We examine the implications of the excess of {approx}10{sup 20} eV events around the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A. We find that, if Cen A is the source of these cosmic rays, the angular distribution of events constrains the EGMF strength within several Mpc of the Milky Way to {approx}> 20 nG for an assumed primary proton composition. Our conclusions suggest that either the observed excess is a statistical anomaly or the local EGMF is stronger than conventionally thought. We discuss several implications, including UHECR scattering from more distant sources, time delays from transient sources, and the possibility of using magnetic lensing signatures to attain tighter constraints.

  4. A radiative neutrino mass model in light of DAMPE excess with hidden gauged U(1) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi; Wu, Peiwen

    2018-05-01

    We propose a one-loop induced neutrino mass model with hidden U(1) gauge symmetry, in which we successfully involve a bosonic dark matter (DM) candidate propagating inside a loop diagram in neutrino mass generation to explain the e+e‑ excess recently reported by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment. In our scenario dark matter annihilates into four leptons through Z' boson as DM DM → Z' Z' (Z' → l+ l‑) and Z' decays into leptons via one-loop effect. We then investigate branching ratios of Z' taking into account lepton flavor violations and neutrino oscillation data.

  5. Fuel poverty, excess winter deaths, and energy costs in Vermont: Burdensome for whom?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller-Elsberg, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Smith, Taylor; Laine, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Energy, whether from electricity, natural gas, heating oil, propane, kerosene, or wood, is essential for the well-being of many Americans, yet those who spend more than 10 percent of their income of energy services can be considered “fuel poor.” This study assesses the extent and severity of fuel poverty in Vermont. It analyzes energy burdens in Vermont by household income deciles, using data from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. Approximately 71,000 people suffered from fuel poverty in Vermont in 2000, and in 2012 the number rose to 125,000, or one in five Vermonters. Startlingly, fuel poverty grew 76 percent during this period. Excess winter deaths, caused potentially by fuel poverty, kill more Vermonters each year than car crashes. The article then provides 12 policy recommendations based on a small sample of elite semi-structured research interviews. These include suggestions that the Vermont legislature better fund investments in weatherization among low-income households; that community groups and social service agencies scale up the training of energy efficiency coaches; that state agencies endorse improvements in housing efficiency and appropriate fuel switching; and that utilities and fuel providers offer extra assistance for disconnected households and allow for on-bill financing of efficiency improvements. - Highlights: • Those spending 10 percent of their monthly income or more on energy services are in “fuel poverty”. • In this study we analyze the energy burden in Vermont by household income deciles. • We calculate that excess winter deaths caused potentially by fuel poverty kill more Vermonters each year than car crashes. • We conclude with implications for energy planners and policymakers.

  6. Excess diffuse light absorption in upper mesophyll limits CO2 drawdown and depresses photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-grown and shade-grown leaves of some species absorb direct and diffuse light differently. Sun-grown leaves can photosynthesize ~10-15% less under diffuse compared to direct irradiance, while shade-grown leaves do not exhibit this sensitivity. In this study, we investigate if the spatial differen...

  7. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading. (author)

  8. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  9. Radicals excess in the retina: A model for light flashes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narici, L.; De Martino, A.; Brunetti, V.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W.G.; Paci, M.

    2009-01-01

    The risk due to cosmic radiation is a major issue in planning future missions to the Moon or Mars and would be critical if inadequately addressed. Functional risks must also be considered. The perception of light flashes reported by astronauts in space, and ascribed mostly to the action of ionizing radiation in the eye (retina), is an evidence for radiation functional interaction. No detailed model of the ion/retina interaction is yet available. Here we present the first model for a generation mechanism compatible with light flashes in space, and the results of in vitro tests supporting it. The model can be a common end point for the interactions between ionizing radiation and visual system in space. It would also support the assessment of functional radiation risks in space.

  10. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Brenna, J Thomas; Giannellini, Valerio; Bini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously "on request"). We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic) and demanded meals (administered after evaluation) in 24 mother-toddler (21 months old at entry) pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping) metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in 10 toddlers. We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation) and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry) in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training. RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P kcal/kg/d (P kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). The height Z-score increased significantly, while weight growth was normal. Toddlers entering the study over the median RMR decreased their RMR significantly more than those below the median RMR (P < 0.01). Scheduled meal suspension induces meal demand frequency to increase. Demanded meals are associated with significantly lower energy intake, RMR, and TEE than scheduled meals. Feeding on demand may be an effective skill in a strategy for reducing excess energy intake in the long term

  11. Excess-electron energy levels, localization and transport in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamill, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    In disordered dielectrics, the fundamental parameters which control the physics and chemistry of excess electrons are time, temperature and energy or mean scattering distance. Viscosity and hardness do not directly affect the electron affinity of media, the optical spectra, or the chemical reactivity of dry or delocalized electrons or of relaxed localized or trapped electrons. Since the mean scattering distance and the transport mechanism, including barrier height, are fundamental, both liquids and glasses (including polymers) are considered in order to cover the range of relevant information. Based on the above described background, transport, localization, dry electron scavenging, trapped electron scavenging and recombination are explained. There are no available data for the energy of excess dry electrons in the media relative to vacuum in glasses, unfortunately, because of the very small yield of separated charge pairs at cryogenic temperature. Thermoplastic glassy solids provide attractive possibility above 250 K, and deserve consideration as the substitutes for cryogenic glasses. The same consideration applies to the measurements of electron drift mobility, which are essential for the adequate description of electron scavenging. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Excess Gibbs energy for six binary solid solutions of molecularly simple substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, L J; Staveley, L A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method developed in a previous study of Ar + CH/sub 4/ to the evaluation of the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.S/ for solid solutions of two molecularly simple components. The method depends on combining information on the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.L/ for the liquid mixture of the two components with a knowledge of the (T, x) solid-liquid phase diagram. Certain thermal properties o the pure substances are also needed. G /SUP E.S/ has been calculated for binary mixtures of Ar + Kr, Kr + CH/sub 4/, CO + N/sub 2/, Kr + Xe, Ar + N/sub 2/, and Ar + CO. In general, but not always, the solid mixtures are more non-ideal than the liquid mixtures of the same composition at the same temperature. Except for the Kr + CH/sub 4/ system, the ratio r = G /SUP E.S/ /G /SUP E.L/ is larger the richer the solution in the component with the smaller molecules.

  13. Analysis of energy efficient highway lighting retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Solid state lighting technology is advancing rapidly to a point where light emitting diode (LED) lighting : systems can be viable replacements for existing lighting systems using high pressure sodium (HPS). The : present report summarizes analyses co...

  14. From fossil fuels to energies-of-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, C.J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Energon - Winter (C.J.) GmbH, Leonberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Energies-of-light are the final result on the ongoing decarbonisation of carbonaceous fuels, their hydrogenation and, thus, dematerialization (coal -> petroleum -> natural gas -> hydrogen). Energies-of-light utilise all sorts of renewable energies and the chemical secondary energy carrier hydrogen for energy storage and transport, as well as a transportation fuel.

  15. Light energy conversion by photocatalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Akira; Yamagata, Sadamu [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The photocatalytic reaction, to be made to a suspended semiconductor powder system, was explained in summary. By using semiconductor as an electrode for the electrolyzation, etc. and projecting light on it to generate photoelectromotive force, a photocell can be composed. eg., by composing titanium oxide electrode, n-type semiconductor and platinum electrode, and irradiating light on the former electrode to generate electric current, oxygen and hydrogen are produced from the titanium oxide electrode and platinum electrode, respectively, which means the possibility of obtainment of clean energy from water as raw material. Such a wet type photocell, easy to produce, is active also in research. With white titanium oxide powder being suspended in water solution, hydrogen is produced by projecting light into it. Such a semiconductor is called photocatalyst, in which the research has been widely developed, mainly by taking notice of the hydrogen production on reduction side, since 1972. The photocatalysis using colloid and, differently, that doing heteropolyacid are also taken notice of. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Assessment of Excess Sludge Ultrasonic, Mechanical and Hybrid Pretreatment in Relation to the Energy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Skórkowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the most common stabilization process at large sewage treatment plants. To improve its effects, a sludge pre-conditioning process called disintegration is recommended. The aim of the presented study was to compare the direct effects of various types of mechanical disintegration, performed for the same excess sludge, in relation to the energy parameters and effectiveness of the process. Four different disintegration methods were used: mechanical disintegration in semi-technical and laboratory scale homogenizing mixers, ultrasonic disintegration (US and combined (hybrid process. The disintegration was performed for volumetric energy EV = 4.67–100 kWh m−3, the results were evaluated based on dispersion (kdCOD, kdCST, lysis (kdSCOD, acidification (kdVFA and nutrient release (kdTN, kdTP disintegration indicators. The statistical analysis of the results indicates the influence of disintegrator type (mixer/US/hybrid, scale (laboratory/semi-technical and energy input on the direct results of disintegration. Hybrid disintegration delivered better direct results than two pre-treatment processes used separately. The efficiency of the hybrid process defined as the increase of the indicator (disintegration products—∆FCOD, ∆SCOD per unit of energy was considerably higher than for a single stage disintegration process.

  17. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 J Thomas Brenna,2 Valerio Giannellini,3 Stefania Bini11Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”.Objective: We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic and demanded meals (administered after evaluation in 24 mother–toddler (21 months old at entry pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE in 10 toddlers.Methods: We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training.Results: RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001 and TEE decreased from 80.1 ± 6.9 to 67.8 ± 10.0 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001. Energy intake decreased from 85.7 ± 15.3 to 70.3 ± 15.8 kcal

  18. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Nahon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L ) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  19. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  20. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  1. Opportunities of energy saving in lighting systems for public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd El-khalek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The lighting system provides many options for cost-effective energy saving with low or no inconvenience. Lighting improvements are excellent investments in most public buildings, it is usually cost-effective to address because lighting improvements are often easier to make than many process upgrades.For public buildings, the easy no and low cost options to help save money and improve the energy performance are:Understand energy use.Identify optionsPrioritize actionsMake the changes and measure the savings.Continue managing energy efficiency.The challenge is to retrofit traditional lamps with LED lamps of good quality. The benefits of LED light bulbs are long-lasting, durable, cool, mercury free, more efficient, and cost effective.The light Emitting Diode (LED bulb uses a semiconductor as its light source, and is currently one of the most energy efficient and quickly developing types of bulbs for lighting. LEDs increasingly are being purchased to replace traditional bulbs. LEDs are relatively more expensive than other types of bulbs, but are very cost-effective because they use only a fraction of electricity of traditional lighting methods nd can last for longer.Benchmarking guides decision makers to policies aimed at the energy sector through better understanding of energy consumption trends nationwide, e.g.: energy price, moderating, peak demand, and encouraging sectors, low energy expansions.The “Improving Energy Efficiency Project of Lighting and Appliances” carried out energy audits and implemented opportunities of energy saving in lighting for different type of public buildings.To rationalize the use of energy by giving guidelines to consumers, the IEEL&A project prepared some brochures.This paper leads with the results of case studies as energy audits, opportunities in lighting systems, energy saving and CO2 reduction.

  2. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H.

    2002-01-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H 2 O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction

  3. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H. [The University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H{sub 2}O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction.

  4. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  5. Search for scalar dark matter via pseudoscalar portal interactions in light of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2018-01-01

    In light of the observed Galactic center gamma-ray excess, we investigate a simplified model, for which the scalar dark matter interacts with quarks through a pseudoscalar mediator. The viable regions of the parameter space, that can also account for the relic density and evade the current searches, are identified, if the low-velocity dark matter annihilates through an s -channel off shell mediator mostly into b ¯b , and/or annihilates directly into two hidden on shell mediators, which subsequently decay into the quark pairs. These two kinds of annihilations are s wave. The projected monojet limit set by the high luminosity LHC sensitivity could constrain the favored parameter space, where the mediator's mass is larger than the dark matter mass by a factor of 2. We show that the projected sensitivity of 15-year Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies can provide a stringent constraint on the most parameter space allowed in this model. If the on shell mediator channel contributes to the dark matter annihilation cross sections over 50%, this model with a lighter mediator can be probed in the projected PICO-500L experiment.

  6. The reaction pd→3Heηat 200 MeV excess energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, M.

    1994-05-01

    This work was carried out within the scope of the PROMICE research program at the CELSIUS cooler-storage ring of the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The aim is to study the fundamental mechanisms for production of mesons in light ion collisions and their interaction with nuclei and nucleons. The role of different resonances in nuclei as well as meson-meson interactions will be examined. In order to enable even measurements of rare mesonic decays, the PROMICE detector setup will later be extended to the full 4π WASA apparatus. PROMICE/WASA is a collaboration between laboratories in Japan, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Germany. The present stage of the setup has been used to measure η production in p-d collisions by detection of the recoil nucleus in the channel d(p, 3 He)η at beam energies of T p =1250 and 1276 MeV using an internal cluster target. (orig.)

  7. Questions asked concerning energy savings in lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the question why information on the power consumption of lighting fixtures is not often to be found in articles in lifestyle magazines or in the displays of designer-boutiques. The efficiency of various types of lighting is discussed. In particular, the differences between traditional incandescent bulbs and energy-saving lighting systems are examined from the aesthetical, colour-reproduction and energy-consumption points of view. Further information presented includes details on colour-reproduction indexes and colour temperature. The lighting needs of various types of room are looked at and the influence of the physical form of the lighting fixtures on purchasing decisions is examined

  8. The bright and choked gamma-ray burst contribution to the IceCube and ANTARES low-energy excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.; Tamborra, Irene

    2018-04-01

    The increasing statistics of the high-energy neutrino flux observed by the IceCube Observatory points towards an excess of events above the atmospheric neutrino background in the 30–400 TeV energy range. Such an excess is compatible with the findings of the ANTARES Telescope and it would naturally imply the possibility that more than one source class contributes to the observed flux. Electromagnetically hidden sources have been invoked to interpret this excess of events at low energies. By adopting a unified model for the electromagnetically bright and choked gamma-ray bursts and taking into account particle acceleration at the internal and collimation shock radii, we discuss whether bright and choked bursts are viable candidates. Our findings suggest that, although producing a copious neutrino flux, choked and bright astrophysical jets cannot be the dominant sources of the excess of neutrino events. A fine tuning of the model parameters or distinct scenarios for choked jets should be invoked in order to explain the low-energy neutrino data of IceCube and ANTARES.

  9. Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Chimczak, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence has been investigated. In the investigations reported here, monomolecular centers were taken into account. It was found that the integrated light is equal to the product of generation rate and time of duration of excitation pulse for both direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence.

  10. Direct Energy Centre underground parking integrated light control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    LightSavers is a project undertaken by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund to accelerate the use of lighting technologies. As part of the project a pilot test has been carried out in the Direct Energy Center in Toronto. The aim of this report is to present the study and its results. The Direct Energy Center is a large event facility with an large underground parking facility. A lighting energy management system, the energy control system (ECS), capable of adjusting lighting levels based on occupancy was implemented in the centre and data was collected during over one year. Results showed that the ECS permitted a reduction in energy consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions by 47% and the payback will take less than 6 years. This project demonstrated that the energy control system provides better energy, environmental and economic performance than a traditional automation system.

  11. A tale of tails: Dark matter interpretations of the Fermi GeV excess in light of background model systematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calore, F.; Cholis, I.; McCabe, C.; Weniger, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from

  12. Illumination properties and energy savings of a solar fiber optic lighting system balanced by artificial lights

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfors, David

    2013-01-01

    A solar fiber optic lighting system, SP3 from the Swedish company Parans Solar Lighting AB, has been installed in a study area/corridor test site. A collector is tracking the sun during daytime, focusing the direct sun irradiance via Fresnel lenses into optical fibers, which guide the solar light into the building. The illumination properties of the system have been characterized. The energy saving due to reduced need of artificial lighting have been calculated and methods for balancing the a...

  13. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhs, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight to displace electricity (conventional topside daylighting and solar technologies). Our preliminary work indicates that hybrid solar lighting, a method of collecting and distributing direct sunlight for lighting purposes, will alleviate many of the problems with passive daylighting systems of today, such as spatial and temporal variability, glare, excess illumination, cost, and energy efficiency. Similarly, our work suggests that the most appropriate use of the visible portion of direct, nondiffuse sunlight from an energy-savings perspective is to displace electric light rather than generate electricity. Early estimates detailed in this paper suggest an anticipated system cost of well under$2.0/Wp and 5-11(cents)/kWh for displaced and generated electricity in single-story commercial building applications. Based on a number of factors discussed in the paper, including sunlight availability, building use scenarios, time-of-day electric utility rates, cost, and efficacy of the displaced electric lights, the simple payback of this approach in many applications could eventually be well under 5 years

  14. The prospect for fusion energy with light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Intense ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver. While light ions may be the long-term pulsed power approach to IFE, the current economic climate is such that there is no urgency in developing fusion energy sources. Research on light ion beams at Sandia will be suspended at the end of this fiscal year in favor of z-pinches studying ICF target physics, high yield fusion, and stewardship issues. The authors document the status of light ion research and the understanding of the feasibility of scaling light ions to IFE

  15. Expertise: to shed light on energy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report compares different visions of energy consumption and the associated energy production means proposed by IED (Innovation Energie Developpement), RTE and NegaWatt, and their consequences. These visions and consequences are studied in terms of demand satisfaction, share of electricity in the energy mix, power and energy needs by 2030, share of nuclear energy in electricity production, and socio-economic challenges. The studied scenarios are presented in terms of production fleet: a constant nuclear fleet, a reduced nuclear fleet, phasing out nuclear, phasing out nuclear by stopping 40 year old reactors. They are compared with respect of peak power, installed power, electricity production, electricity consumption, electricity production cost, funding requirements, annual production total cost, trade deficit, CO 2 emissions, used surface, and jobs. Other consequences of putting the electronuclear option into question again are discussed: issues of electric grids and gas networks, socio-economic consequences

  16. Energy saving in tunnel entrance lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Swart, L.

    1993-01-01

    Tunnel entrances may present themselves during the day as a "black hole" in which no details can be perceived. In order to ensure safe and comfortable driving at high speeds, the entrance zone must be lit to a high luminance level. Modern tunnel lighting technology is focused on two aspects:

  17. An analysis of energy-efficient light fittings and lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; Lam, Tony N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Electric lighting is one of the major energy consuming items in many non-domestic buildings. Using appropriate energy-efficient light fittings with dimming controls and proper daylighting schemes can help reduce the electrical demand and contribute to visual comfort and green building development. This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.

  18. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  19. Mechanisms of Light Energy Harvesting in Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Andrews

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their earliest synthesis, much interest has arisen in the use of dendritic and structurally allied forms of polymer for light energy harvesting, especially as organic adjuncts for solar energy devices. With the facility to accommodate a proliferation of antenna chromophores, such materials can capture and channel light energy with a high degree of efficiency, each polymer unit potentially delivering the energy of one photon—or more, when optical nonlinearity is involved. To ensure the highest efficiency of operation, it is essential to understand the processes responsible for photon capture and channelling of the resulting electronic excitation. Highlighting the latest theoretical advances, this paper reviews the principal mechanisms, which prove to involve a complex interplay of structural, spectroscopic and electrodynamic properties. Designing materials with the capacity to capture and control light energy facilitates applications that now extend from solar energy to medical photonics.

  20. Day-light-controlled artificial lighting a potential energy saver": right interior light by sky luninance trracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.J.F.; Mills, Evan

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption in office buildings can considerably be cut, if daylight is used as task lighting. A conservative estimate - starting from existing knowledge and calculation methods - gives a potential saving of 460 GWh a year or 46 % of the electricity costs for artificial lighting in Dutch

  1. Boxes, Boosts, and Energy Duality: Understanding the Galactic-Center Gamma-Ray Excess through Dynamical Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Boddy, Kimberly K.

    2017-03-28

    Many models currently exist which attempt to interpret the excess of gamma rays emanating from the Galactic Center in terms of annihilating or decaying dark matter. These models typically exhibit a variety of complicated cascade mechanisms for photon production, leading to a non-trivial kinematics which obscures the physics of the underlying dark sector. In this paper, by contrast, we observe that the spectrum of the gamma-ray excess may actually exhibit an intriguing "energy-duality" invariance under $E_\\gamma \\rightarrow E_\\ast^2/E_\\gamma$ for some $E_\\ast$. As we shall discuss, such an energy duality points back to a remarkably simple alternative kinematics which in turn is realized naturally within the Dynamical Dark Matter framework. Observation of this energy duality could therefore provide considerable information about the properties of the dark sector from which the Galactic-Center gamma-ray excess might arise, and highlights the importance of acquiring more complete data for the Galactic-Center exce...

  2. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research and the University of Houston Clear Lake have teamed to develop a widely extensible, affordable, energy efficient, smart lighting...

  3. Saving energy by overriding automatic lighting control: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelkens, A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern office buildings are often equipped with automatic systems that turn on the lights if somebody enters a room and turn them off when everybody has left the room. This ensures that users do not leave the lights on during the night and thus avoids wasting energy. For cost reasons, most of these

  4. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  5. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, T P J; Van Grondelle, R

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example. (topical review)

  6. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  7. Persuasive lighting : the influence of feedback through lighting on energy conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.R.C.; Midden, C.J.H.; Maan, S.J.; Merkus, B.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; et al, xx

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has investigated persuasive technology: Technology designed to influence human behavior or attitudes. The current research investigates lighting as persuasive technology. In an experimental study, participants could conserve energy while carrying out tasks and received feedback

  8. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  10. Light and architecture. Daylight - artificial light - energy; Licht und Architektur. Tageslicht - Kunstlicht - Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M. (ed.) [ip5 ingenieurpartnerschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Fachhochschule Rosenheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The symposium intends to provide scientific and technical fundamentals for room lighting with daylight. Daylight deflection systems and artificial light control systems were analyzed for this purpose, and a catalogue of criteria was established. Planners were given tools for projecting daylight control systems. Builder-owners received the fundamentals for economic assessment of combined daylight and artificial light illumination systems, while industrial producers obtained information for further development to maturity and for marketing of daylight-dependent artificial light control systems. (GL)

  11. Light + architecture. Daylight - artificial light - energy; Licht + Architektur. Tageslicht - Kunstlicht - Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The symposium intends to provide scientific and technical fundamentals for room lighting with daylight. Daylight deflection systems and artificial light control systems were analyzed for this purpose, and a catalogue of criteria was established. Planners were given tools for projecting daylight control systems. Builder-owners received the fundamentals for economic assessment of combined daylight and artificial light illumination systems, while industrial producers obtained information for further development to maturity and for marketing of daylight-dependent artificial light control systems. (GL)

  12. Energy efficiency public lighting management in the cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulovic, Dusko; Skok, Srdjan; Kirincic, Vedran

    2011-01-01

    Cities all around the world are faced with a rapid increase of urban population, and their crucial sustainable development issue becomes energy management. Moreover, the national energy management sector is slowly passing from government surveillance to the responsibility of local municipalities. The energy efficiency management in cities helps local governments to focus on important energy projects that have strong environmental aspects and financial feasibility. This paper analyzes the public lighting energy management in the Croatian city of Rijeka in order to determine the connection of the energy market liberalization and sustainable development in urban areas. Research results indicate a significant connection between investments in energy management of public lighting and its influence on lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

  13. Recycled Thermal Energy from High Power Light Emitting Diode Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae-Hoon; Jo, GaeHun; Ha, Jae-Geun; Koo, Sang-Mo; Kamiko, Masao; Hong, JunHee; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2018-09-01

    In this research, the recycled electrical energy from wasted thermal energy in high power Light Emitting Diode (LED) system will be investigated. The luminous efficiency of lights has been improved in recent years by employing the high power LED system, therefore energy efficiency was improved compared with that of typical lighting sources. To increase energy efficiency of high power LED system further, wasted thermal energy should be re-considered. Therefore, wasted thermal energy was collected and re-used them as electrical energy. The increased electrical efficiency of high power LED devices was accomplished by considering the recycled heat energy, which is wasted thermal energy from the LED. In this work, increased electrical efficiency will be considered and investigated by employing the high power LED system, which has high thermal loss during the operating time. For this research, well designed thermoelement with heat radiation system was employed to enhance the collecting thermal energy from the LED system, and then convert it as recycled electrical energy.

  14. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A [Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0601 (United States); Saunders, H D, E-mail: jytsao@sandia.go, E-mail: jrcreig@sandia.go, E-mail: mecoltr@sandia.go, E-mail: jsimmon@sandia.go, E-mail: hsaunders@decisionprocessesinc.co [Decision Processes Incorporated, 2308 Saddleback Drive, Danville, CA 94506 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  15. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A; Saunders, H D

    2010-01-01

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  16. Carbon neutral and flexible underground storage of renewable excess energy; Klimaneutrale Flexibilisierung regenerativer Ueberschussenergie mit Untergrundspeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Michael; Nakatem, Natalie; Streibel, Martin; Kempka, Thomas [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    We present an innovative, extended and carbon neutral 'Power-to-Gas-to-Power' concept. Excess electricity from wind and sun can be transformed into hydrogen and with carbon dioxide subsequently into methane. When needed, electricity is regained in a combined cycle plant burning the methane. To close the carbon cycle carbon dioxide is captured on site. Two subsurface storage formations for both gases are required for the technology. Our regional showcase of two German cities, Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel, demonstrates that about 30% of their electricity demand can be provided in that way, using 17.2% of renewable electricity generated in the State of Brandenburg. We calculate the overall efficiency of the system with 27.7% and the associated costs of electricity are 20,43 Euro-cent/ kWh. Compared to pump storage hydro power and compressed air storage the determined efficiency is worse, however the costs of electricity are competitive. (orig.)

  17. Lighting consumption and buildings’ energy certifications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaso, Laura; Loverso, Valerio R.M; Mutani, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the procedure prescribed by Italian Standards to account the heat gains due to artificial lighting in the calculation of the energy performance indices for a building. A new procedure, based on the Lighting Energy Numerical Indicator (LENI), is proposed. This consists of three steps: i) internal gains from lighting are calculated accounting for day lighting and controls; ii) these gains are summed to the internal heat gains from occupants and appliances; iii) the global heat gains are used to calculate the energy performance indices (for lighting, cooling, heating and hot water production) for an office building following the Italian Technical Standards. The case-study used is the building hosting the Department of Energy at Politecnico di Torino. The building was assumed to be located in Turin and Palermo, and the use of a manual on/off switch and of a photo dimming sensor was also compared. For each configuration, all energy performance indices were calculated comparing standard and new approach [it

  18. Induction of Efficient Energy Dissipation in the Isolated Light-harvesting Complex of Photosystem II in the Absence of Protein Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilioaia, C.; Johnson, M.P.; Horton, P.; Ruban, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Under excess illumination, the Photosystem II light-harvesting antenna of higher plants has the ability to switch into an efficient photoprotective mode, allowing safe dissipation of excitation energy into heat. In this study, we show induction of the energy dissipation state, monitored by

  19. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  20. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE), compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50)]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect...

  1. CMOS indoor light energy harvesting system for wireless sensing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira Carvalho, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the CMOS implementation of energy harvesting.  The authors describe an integrated, indoor light energy harvesting system, based on a controller circuit that dynamically and automatically adjusts its operation to meet the actual light circumstances of the environment where the system is placed.  The system is intended to power a sensor node, enabling an autonomous wireless sensor network (WSN). Although designed to cope with indoor light levels, the system is also able to work with higher levels, making it an all-round light energy harvesting system.  The discussion includes experimental data obtained from an integrated manufactured prototype, which in conjunction with a photovoltaic (PV) cell, serves as a proof of concept of the desired energy harvesting system.  ·         Discusses several energy sources which can be used to power energy harvesting systems and includes an overview of PV cell technologies  ·         Includes an introduction to voltage step-...

  2. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  3. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  4. Prediction of mass excess, β-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and β-decay energies (β-decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV

  5. Prediction of mass excess, #betta#-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and #betta#-decay energies (#betta# - -decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV. (author)

  6. Excess energy partitioning between electrons departing at 0o and 180o in the ionization of helium near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, K.R.; Allan, M.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning of excess energy between electrons departing at 0 o and 180 o after electron-impact ionization of helium has been measured. A recently developed scheme, using a magnetically collimated electron-impact spectrometer, pulsed incident electron beam and time-of-flight detection was used to detect the electrons departing in the forward and backward directions. The ratios of the forward and backward doubly differential cross-sections (DDCS) for an incident electron energy 3 eV above threshold and secondary electron energies of 0.7, 1.5 and 2.9 eV were measured. The relative DDCS at 0 o and 180 o are also presented as a function of the secondary electron energy, for incident electron energies 3 and 5 eV above threshold. Our measurements show that the distribution of the secondary electrons is, in contrast to electrons detected at 90 o , not flat for electrons departing at 0 o and 180 o at the present low primary energies. The yield of the faster secondary electrons is forward peaked, the yield of the slower secondary electrons is backward peaked. The sum of the 0 o and 180 o DDCS is, however, flat within the experimental uncertainty limits. (Author)

  7. Hydrogen evolution from water using solid carbon and light energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, T; Sakata, T

    1979-11-15

    Hydrogen is produced from water vapour and solid carbon when mixed powders of TiO2, RuO2 and active carbon exposed to water vapor at room temperature, or up to 80 C, are illuminated. At 80 C, the rate of CO and COat2 formation increased. Therefore solar energy would be useful here as a combination of light energy and heat energy. Oxygen produced on the surface of the photocatalyst has a strong oxidising effect on the carbon. It is suggested that this process could be used for coal gasification and hydrogen production from water, accompanied by storage of solar energy.

  8. Casino Rama hits the jackpot with energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2007-10-15

    A lighting retrofit program was conducted by Casino Rama in an effort to improve quality while reducing costs and environmental impacts. Casino Rama, Ontario's only commercial First Nation's casino, was opened in July 1996. With over 25,000 bulbs in use, the facility had a lot to gain by reducing energy costs. Toronto Hydro (TH) Energy Services evaluated the facility's current usage level and recommended ways to increase energy efficiency. The casino used mostly incandescent and fluorescent lights which provided adequate light, but which required a great deal of upkeep. The operators wanted to relamp the lighting package that consumed the most electricity with high-efficiency lighting systems that would maintain a consistent look with that of the warm-glow provided by incandescent light bulbs. In order to benefit from energy savings, an efficient, non-invasive system was needed with minimal construction costs to retrofit the lighting system. TH Energy concluded that high-quality, longer-lasting lamps were required. TCP Inc. provided energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that have an average life of 10,000 hours and use a quarter of the energy of standard incandescent bulbs, resulting in increased energy savings, lower utility costs and greenhouse gas reduction. The retrofit involved the replacement of more than 5,000 bulbs with over 4,000 CFLs being installed on the 3 massive canopies over the casino entrance. Long-life LED products lasting up to 50,000 hours were also used for the glass elevator shaft, which minimized maintenance costs. Cold-cathode lamps that last an average 25,000 hours were recommended for rapid cycle applications such as signage. The relamping process was completed in 7 working days with minimal disruption to business activity. The casino has saved $200,000 from its annual hydro bill and has freed up valuable manpower for other maintenance-related tasks. The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8 per cent, based

  9. Casino Rama hits the jackpot with energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-10-15

    A lighting retrofit program was conducted by Casino Rama in an effort to improve quality while reducing costs and environmental impacts. Casino Rama, Ontario's only commercial First Nation's casino, was opened in July 1996. With over 25,000 bulbs in use, the facility had a lot to gain by reducing energy costs. Toronto Hydro (TH) Energy Services evaluated the facility's current usage level and recommended ways to increase energy efficiency. The casino used mostly incandescent and fluorescent lights which provided adequate light, but which required a great deal of upkeep. The operators wanted to relamp the lighting package that consumed the most electricity with high-efficiency lighting systems that would maintain a consistent look with that of the warm-glow provided by incandescent light bulbs. In order to benefit from energy savings, an efficient, non-invasive system was needed with minimal construction costs to retrofit the lighting system. TH Energy concluded that high-quality, longer-lasting lamps were required. TCP Inc. provided energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that have an average life of 10,000 hours and use a quarter of the energy of standard incandescent bulbs, resulting in increased energy savings, lower utility costs and greenhouse gas reduction. The retrofit involved the replacement of more than 5,000 bulbs with over 4,000 CFLs being installed on the 3 massive canopies over the casino entrance. Long-life LED products lasting up to 50,000 hours were also used for the glass elevator shaft, which minimized maintenance costs. Cold-cathode lamps that last an average 25,000 hours were recommended for rapid cycle applications such as signage. The relamping process was completed in 7 working days with minimal disruption to business activity. The casino has saved $200,000 from its annual hydro bill and has freed up valuable manpower for other maintenance-related tasks. The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8

  10. Partitioning of the nonfixed excess energy and the reverse critical energy in CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: A classical trajectory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Myung Soo; Park, Seung C.

    1996-04-01

    Dynamics of the four-centered elimination reaction CH2OH+→CHO++H2 has been investigated over the internal energy range 4.6-5.9 eV using the classical trajectory method. A realistic semiempirical potential reported previously [J. Chem. Phys. (in press, 1996)] has been used for the calculation. It has been found that the disposal of the nonfixed excess energy at the transition state and of the reverse critical energy can be considered independently as manifest in the sum rule analysis. The former is determined statistically while the latter dynamically. Based on the above idea, a method to determine the kinetic energy release distribution originating only from the reverse critical energy has been developed.

  11. MCNP6 fragmentation of light nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G., E-mail: mashnik@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kerby, Leslie M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the latest Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 and with its cascade-exciton model (CEM) and Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM) event generators, version 03.03, used as stand-alone codes. Such reactions are involved in different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU's), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, among others; therefore, it is important that MCNP6 simulates them as well as possible. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. Both CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to {sup 4}He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  12. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  13. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 ( p nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  14. Prospects of type-II seesaw models at future colliders in light of the DAMPE e+e- excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yicong; Zhang, Yongchao

    2018-05-01

    The DAMPE e+e- excess at around 1.4 TeV could be explained in the type-II seesaw model with a scalar dark mater D which is stabilized by a discrete Z2 symmetry. The simplest scenario is the annihilation D D →H++H- followed by the subsequent decay H±±→e±e±, with both the DM and triplet scalars roughly 3 TeV with a small mass splitting. In addition to the Drell-Yan process at future 100 TeV hadron colliders, the doubly charged components could also be produced at lepton colliders like ILC and CLIC in the off shell mode and mediate lepton flavor violating processes e+e-→ℓi±ℓj∓ (with i ≠j ). A wide range of parameter space of the type-II seesaw could be probed, which are well below the current stringent lepton flavor constraints.

  15. Conversion of excess wind energy into hydrogen for fuel cell applications. A system analysis within the context of the Dutch energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraaij, G.J.; Weeda, M.

    2008-09-01

    For reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, an increased use of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector is planned. The amount of excess wind power from an increase of offshore wind power capacity is calculated for an isolated Dutch society. The excess wind power is converted into hydrogen by electrolysis and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in residential applications as well as transport applications is investigated for economic, environmental and storage aspects. At an equivalent of 8 GW offshore wind power in 2020 the wind power contributes around 20% to the electricity demand, with an excess wind power amounting to approx. 4% of the Dutch electricity consumption. Excess wind occurs during 20% of the time. Conversion of this electricity to hydrogen requires 6 GW of electrolyser capacity with an average load factor of 10%, leading to high depreciation costs of the electrolysers and subsequent high hydrogen costs. For economic as well as environmental reasons the use of hydrogen in transport applications is more beneficial than in residential applications

  16. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic

  17. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  18. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Murase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB. Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24 h or 4/10 J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8 cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induced by UVA irradiation in NB1-RGB cells was measured using a reactive-oxygen-species- (ROS- sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA. Moreover, the effects of propolis on the UVA-induced activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK were examined by immunoblotting. Results. Treatment with propolis and two dicaffeoylquinic acids significantly inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by white light in 661W. Propolis and its constituents inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by UVA in NB1-RGB. Moreover, propolis suppressed the intracellular ROS production by UVA irradiation. Propolis also inhibited the levels of phosphorylated-p38 and ERK by UVA irradiation. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis may become a major therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AMD and skin damage induced by UV irradiation.

  19. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  20. Impacts of side chain and excess energy on the charge photogeneration dynamics of low-bandgap copolymer-fullerene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Hu, Rong; Xing, Ya-Dong; Liu, Yu-Chen; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Hou, Jian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Primary charge photogeneration dynamics in neat and fullerene-blended films of a pair of alternating benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b ′ ]dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) copolymers are comparatively studied by using near-infrared, time-resolved absorption (TA) spectroscopy under low excitation photon fluence. PBDTTT-E and PBDTTT-C, differed merely in the respective TT-substituents of ester (-E) and carbonyl (-C), show distinctly different charge photogeneration dynamics. The pair of neat PBDTTT films show exciton lifetimes of ∼0.1 ns and fluorescence quantum yields below 0.2%, as well as prominent excess-energy enhanced exciton dissociation. In addition, PBDTTT-C gives rise to >50% higher P •+ yield than PBDTTT-E does irrespective to the excitation photon energy. Both PBDTTT-E:PC 61 BM and PBDTTT-C:PC 61 BM blends show subpicosecond exciton lifetimes and nearly unitary fluorescence quenching efficiency and, with respect to the former blend, the latter one shows substantially higher branching ratio of charge separated (CS) state over interfacial charge transfer (ICT) state, and hence more efficient exciton-to-CS conversion. For PBDTTT-C:PC 61 BM, the ultrafast charge dynamics clearly show the processes of ICT-CS interconversion and P •+ migration, which are possibly influenced by the ICT excess energy. However, such processes are relatively indistinctive in the case of PBDTTT-E:PC 61 BM. The results strongly prove the importance of ICT dissociation in yielding free charges, and are discussed in terms of the film morphology and the precursory solution-phase macromolecular conformation

  1. Effects of excessive energy intake and supplementation with chromium propionate on insulin resistance parameters in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Aboin, A C; Drago, F L; Gennari, R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare insulin resistance parameters in cows with adequate or excessive energy intake as well as in cows with excessive energy intake receiving Cr supplementation as chromium propionate. Thirteen multiparous, nonlactating Gir × Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments on d 0: 1) diet to meet their ME requirements without Cr supplementation (MAN; n = 4), 2) diet to exceed their ME requirements without Cr supplementation (HIGH; n = 4), and 3) HIGH with 2.5 g/d of chromium propionate (HIGHCR; n = 5, with 10 mg of Cr/cow daily). Diets were formulated to provide 100% of daily ME requirements of MAN and 177% of daily ME requirements of HIGH and HIGHCR cows and offered twice daily via individual self-locking head gates from d 0 to 88. Cow BW and BCS were recorded on d 0 and 88 of the experiment. Blood samples were collected before and 2 h after the morning feeding twice weekly. Preprandial revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was determined using serum glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations obtained before feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed on d 32 and 88 by infusing cows with 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW whereas blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min relative to infusion. Change in BCS tended to be greater in HIGH and HIGHCR (P = 0.09) compared with MAN cows. Within samples collected twice weekly, serum concentrations of glucose, insulin (beginning on d 14 of the experiment), and NEFA (preprandial samples only) were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in HIGH compared with HIGHCR cows and tended to be greater in HIGH compared with MAN cows (P ≤ 0.10) but did not differ (P ≥ 0.52) between HIGHCR and MAN cows. Moreover, HIGH cows had reduced RQUICKI compared with MAN (P = 0.02) and HIGHCR cows (P = 0.05) whereas RQUICKI was similar between MAN and HIGHCR cows (P = 0.53). Within samples collected during the GTT, mean serum insulin concentrations

  2. Usual Dietary Energy Density Distribution Is Positively Associated with Excess Body Weight in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Tania C; Cantoral, Alejandra; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Studies suggest a positive association between dietary energy density (DED) and body weight in adults, but evidence in children is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to compare usual DED distributions of nonoverweight vs. overweight or obese (OW/O) Mexican children. The study used 24-h recall (24HR) data from 2367 children aged 5-11 y from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Repeated 24HR measures were obtained in a random sample (∼10%) to estimate usual intake distributions by using the Iowa State University (PC-Side) method. Implausible dietary reports were identified. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relation between DED and body mass index status and to compare results with and without PC-Side adjustment and restriction to plausible reporters. A total of 35.1% of the children in the sample were OW/O. The usual DED mean was ∼175 kcal/100 g in both the complete sample and the plausible reporters subsample. Regression models adjusted by PC-Side and for potential confounders showed higher DED in OW/O relative to nonoverweight children for both plausible reporters (9.7 kcal/100 g; n = 1452, P 0.10). A positive association between usual DED and OW/O was found in Mexican children. The association was stronger when only plausible reporters were considered. This suggests that there is a need for strategies to reduce energy density in the diet of Mexican children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Energy transfer dynamics in Light-Harvesting Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinger, Joseph S.; McMorrow, Dale; Kleiman, Valeria D.

    2002-03-01

    We explore energy transfer dynamics in light-harvesting phenylacetylene symmetric and asymmetric dendrimers. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to probe the ultrafast dynamics of electronic excitations in these dendrimers. The backbone of the macromolecule consists of branches of increasing conjugation length, creating an energy gradient, which funnels energy to an accepting perylene trap. In the case of the symmetric dendrimer (nanostar), the energy transfer efficiency is known to approach nearly unity, although the nature and timescale of the energy transfer process is still unknown. For the asymmetric dendrimers, energy transfer efficiencies are very high, with the possibility of more complex transfer processes. We experimentally monitor the transport of excitons through the light-harvesting dendrimer. The transients show a number of components, with timescales ranging from <300fs to several tens of picoseconds, revealing the complex photophysics taking place in these macromolecules. We interpret our results in terms of the Förster mechanism in which energy transfer occurs through dipole-dipole interactions.

  4. Reuse of the Reflective Light and the Recycle Heat Energy in Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex solar unit with microcrystalline silicon solar cells placed around the centered GaAs triple junction solar cell has been proposed and carried out. With the same illumination area and intensity, the total resultant power shows that the excess microcrystalline silicon solar cells increase the total output power by 13.2% by absorbing the reflective light from the surface of optical collimators. Furthermore, reusing the residual heat energy generated from the above-mentioned mechanism helps to increase the output power by around 14.1%. This mechanism provides a simple method to enhance the utility rate of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Such concept can be further applied to the aerospace industry and the development of more efficient CPV solar energy applications.

  5. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

  6. Light Ion Beams for Energy Production in ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraipan Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the energy efficiency of proton beams with an energy from 0.5 GeV to 4 GeV and light ion beams (7Li, 9Be, 11B, and 12C with energies from 0.25 AGeV to 1 AGeV in natural and enriched quasi-infinite U target is presented. The numerical results on the particle transport and interaction are obtained using the code Geant4. The following target optimization issues are addressed: the beam window dimensions, and the possibility to use a core from low Z materials. The best solution for ADS from the point of view of the energy gain and miniaturization is obtained for 7Li or 9Be beam with an energy of 0.3–0.4 AGeV and a target with Be core.

  7. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  8. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  9. Search for new light bosons in high energy astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Denis

    2014-01-01

    High-Energy astronomy studies the most violent phenomena in the universe with observations in a large spectrum of energies ranging from X rays to very high energy gamma rays (1 keV - 100 TeV). Such phenomena could be for instance supernovae explosions and their remnants, pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae or ultra relativistic jets formation by active galactic nuclei. Understanding these phenomena requires to use well-known particle physics processes. By means of high energy photons, studying such phenomena enables one to search for physics beyond the standard model. Concepts regarding the emission and propagation of high-energy photons are introduced and applied to study their emission by extragalactic sources and to constrain the extragalactic background light which affects their propagation. In this thesis, these high-energy extragalactic emitters are observed in order to search for new light bosons such as axion-like particles (ALPs). The theoretical framework of this family of hypothetical particles is reviewed as well as the associated phenomenology. In particular, because of their coupling to two photons, ALPs oscillate with photons in an external magnetic field. A new signature of such oscillations in turbulent magnetic fields, under the form of stochastic irregularities in the source energy spectrum, is introduced and discussed. A search for ALPs with the HESS telescopes with this new signature is presented, resulting in the first constraints on ALPs parameters coming from high-energy astronomy. Current constraints on ALPs at very low masses are improved by searching for the same signature in X-ray observations. An extension of these constraints to scalar field models for modified gravity in the framework of dark energy is then discussed. The potential of the search for ALPs with CTA, the prospected gamma-ray astronomy instrument, is eventually studied; in particular, a new observable is proposed that relies on the high number of sources that are expected to

  10. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  11. Data mining application in industrial energy audit for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maricar, N.M.; Kim, G.C.; Jamal, N. [Kolej Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A data mining application for lighting energy audits at industrial sites was presented. Data collection was based on the parameters needed for the analysis part of the audit. Data collection included the activity for which the room was used; its dimension; light level readings in lux; the number of luminaries; the number of lamps per luminaries; lamp fixtures; and lamp wattage. The lumen method was used to calculate the recommended numbers of luminaries in the room. The number was then compared with the existing system's luminaries. The installed load efficacy ratio (ILER) was then used to determine proper retrofit action to maximize energy usage. The difference between the calculated lux and the standard lux was used to create data subsets. A data mining algorithm was used to determine that the ILER plays an important role in calculating the efficiency of lighting systems. It was also concluded that the method can be used to minimize the time needed to analyze large amounts of lighting data. The results of case studies were also used to show that the combined data mining algorithm provided accurate assessments using existing calculated data. 7 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  13. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, David; Bradshaw, DS

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems,organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Sta...

  14. Use of light agricultural waste as biomass for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Along with solar energy light agricultural wastes form an important source of renewable energy. Sugar cane field trash (PACHAT) forms a large source of energy, totally wasted even today. This article covers the thinking on biomass as energy source in India from 1985 till today and describes the important developments. Agricultural waste is a widely distributed source and costly to collect and transport. Hence its mode of use, equipment required became site specific. Equipment for carbonization and gasification of pachat developed by the author are described. Utilisation of agricultural waste is still an open field and challenge to develop and perfect small and large devices directly for thermal use or power generation. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Practical Investigation for Road Lighting using Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Hybrid renewable energy systems are recently used to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions. This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics. The computerized model is designed step by step by the aid of Simulink-Matlab and the simulation was successfully run to show the performance of each module.

  16. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  17. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  18. Mechanisms of energy transfer and conversion in plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Tiago Ferreira de

    2009-09-24

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is the major antenna complex in plant photosynthesis. It accounts for roughly 30% of the total protein in plant chloroplasts, which makes it arguably the most abundant membrane protein on Earth, and binds about half of plant chlorophyll (Chl). The complex assembles as a trimer in the thylakoid membrane and binds a total of 54 pigment molecules, including 24 Chl a, 18 Chl b, 6 lutein (Lut), 3 neoxanthin (Neo) and 3 violaxanthin (Vio). LHC-II has five key roles in plant photosynthesis. It: (1) harvests sunlight and transmits excitation energy to the reaction centres of photosystems II and I, (2) regulates the amount of excitation energy reaching each of the two photosystems, (3) has a structural role in the architecture of the photosynthetic supercomplexes, (4) contributes to the tight appression of thylakoid membranes in chloroplast grana, and (5) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo damage by non photochemical quenching (NPQ). A major fraction of NPQ is accounted for its energy-dependent component qE. Despite being critical for plant survival and having been studied for decades, the exact details of how excess absorbed light energy is dissipated under qE conditions remain enigmatic. Today it is accepted that qE is regulated by the magnitude of the pH gradient ({delta}pH) across the thylakoid membrane. It is also well documented that the drop in pH in the thylakoid lumen during high-light conditions activates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the carotenoid Vio into zeaxanthin (Zea) as part of the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, studies with Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the photosystem II subunit PsbS is necessary for qE. How these physiological responses switch LHC-II from the active, energy transmitting to the quenched, energy-dissipating state, in which the solar energy is not transmitted to the photosystems but instead dissipated as heat, remains unclear and is the

  19. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2004-08-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems, organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Starting from a thorough treatment of the underlying theory based on the principles of molecular quantum electrodynamics, it is possible to identify and characterize several optically nonlinear mechanisms for directed energy transfer and energy pooling in multichromophore dendrimers. Such mechanisms fall into two classes: first, those where two-photon absorption by individual donors is followed by transfer of the net energy to an acceptor; second, those where the excitation of two electronically distinct but neighboring donor groups is followed by a collective migration of their energy to a suitable acceptor. Each transfer process is subject to minor dissipative losses. In this paper we describe in detail the balance of factors and the constraints that determines the favored mechanism, which include the excitation statistics, structure of the energy levels, laser coherence factors, chromophore selection rules and architecture, possibilities for the formation of delocalized excitons, spectral overlap, and the overall distribution of donors and acceptors. Furthermore, it transpires that quantum interference between different mechanisms can play an important role. Thus, as the relative importance of each mechanism determines the relevant nanophotonic characteristics, the results reported here afford the means for optimizing highly efficient light-harvesting dendrimer devices.

  20. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  1. Modification of Light Emission in Si-Rich Silicon Nitride Films Versus Stoichiometry and Excitation Light Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchynska, T.; Khomenkova, L.; Slaoui, A.

    2018-04-01

    Si-rich SiN x films with different stoichiometry were grown on Si substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Si content was varied by changing the NH3/SiH4 gas flow ratio from 0.45 up to 1.0. Conventional furnace annealing at 1100°C for 30 min was applied to produce the Si quantum dots (QDs) in the SiN x films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the SiN x films that allowed estimating the film's stoichiometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been also used to confirm the stoichiometry and microstructure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si-rich SiN x films are complex. A non-monotonous variation of the different PL peaks versus Si excess contents testifies to the competition of different radiative channels. The analysis of PL spectra, measured at the different excitation light energies and variable temperatures, has revealed that the PL bands with the peaks within the range 2.1-3.0 eV are related to the carrier recombination via radiative native defects in the SiN x host. Simultaneously, the PL bands with the peaks at 1.5-2.0 eV are caused by the exciton recombination in the Si QDs of different sizes. The way to control the SiN x emission is discussed.

  2. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  3. Bimodal nature in low-energy fission of light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Yuichiro; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Otsuki, Tsutomu; Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Kudo, Hisaaki.

    1995-01-01

    To solve various problems in the mass division process of light actinoids, some experiments on the basis of bimodal fission were carried. Mass and kinetic energy distribution of Th-232 and U-238 were determined. Pa-225 (N= 134) and Pa-227 (N=136), fission nuclei, were produced by Bi-209 + 0-16 and Bi-209 + 0-18 heavy ion nucleus reactions, and the mass yield distribution were determined by the time-of-flight method and the radiochemical procedure. From the results, two independent deforming processes were proved in the fission process of light actinoid nuclei. On the deforming process through the low fission barrier, nucleus fissioned after small deformation under the influence of stabilization of the shell structure of fission product. In the case of process through the high barrier, however, the nucleus fissioned after large deformation. The unsymmetrical mass division was derived from the former and the symmetrical one from the latter. (S.Y.)

  4. η-meson production in proton-proton collisions at excess energies of 40 and 72 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén, H.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslavsky, D.; Calén, H.; Clement, H.; Demirörs, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Fäldt, G.; Gerén, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Lindberg, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Skorodko, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Tegnér, P.-E.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wilkin, C.; Wolke, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zartova, I.; Złomańczuk, J.

    2010-11-01

    The production of η mesons in proton-proton collisions has been studied using the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring at excess energies of Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV. The η was detected through its 2γ decay in a near-4π electromagnetic calorimeter, whereas the protons were measured by a combination of straw chambers and plastic scintillator planes in the forward hemisphere. About 6.9×104 and 9.3×104 events were found at Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV, respectively, with background contributions of less than 5%. A simple parametrization of the production cross section in terms of low partial waves was used to evaluate the acceptance corrections. Strong evidence was found for the influence of higher partial waves. The Dalitz plots show the presence of p waves in both the pp and the η{pp} systems and the angular distributions of the η in the center-of-mass frame suggest the influence of d-wave η mesons.

  5. Membrane systems for energy efficient separation of light gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Archuleta, T.; Barbero, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and propylene are two of the largest commodity chemicals in the United States and are major building blocks for the petrochemicals industry. These olefins are separated currently by cryogenic distillation which demands extremely low temperatures and high pressures. Over 75 billion pounds of ethylene and propylene are distilled annually in the US at an estimated energy requirement of 400 trillion BTU`s. Non-domestic olefin producers are rapidly constructing state-of-the-art plants. These energy-efficient plants are competing with an aging United States olefins industry in which 75% of the olefins producers are practicing technology that is over twenty years old. New separation opportunities are therefore needed to continually reduce energy consumption and remain competitive. Amoco has been a leader in incorporating new separation technology into its olefins facilities and has been aggressively pursuing non-cryogenic alternatives to light gas separations. The largest area for energy reduction is the cryogenic isolation of the product hydrocarbons from the reaction by-products, methane and hydrogen. This separation requires temperatures as low as {minus}150{degrees}F and pressures exceeding 450 psig. This CRADA will focus on developing a capillary condensation process to separate olefinic mixtures from light gas byproducts at temperatures that approach ambient conditions and at pressures less than 250 psig; this technology breakthrough will result in substantial energy savings. The key technical hurdle in the development of this novel separation concept is the precise control of the pore structure of membrane materials. These materials must contain specially-shaped channels in the 20-40A range to provide the driving force necessary to remove the condensed hydrocarbon products. In this project, Amoco is the technology end-user and provides the commercialization opportunity and engineering support.

  6. Laser, light, and energy devices for cellulite and lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer D; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2011-07-01

    Cellulite affects all races, and it is estimated that 85% of women older than 20 years have some degree of cellulite. Many currently accepted cellulite therapies target deficiencies in lymphatic drainage and microvascular circulation. Devices using radiofrequency, laser, and light-based energies, alone or in combination and coupled frequently with tissue manipulation, are available for improving cellulite. Laser assisted liposuction may improve cellulite appearance. Although improvement using these devices is temporary, it may last several months. Patients who want smoother skin with less visible cellulite can undergo a series of treatments and then return for additional treatments as necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy-saving control strategy for lighting system based on multivariate extremum seeking with Newton algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chun; Dadras, Sara; Huang, Xuegang; Mei, Jun; Malek, Hadi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy-saving control strategy is proposed for multi-group lighting sources. • The proposed controller is designed to minimize the light-energy consumption. • It is designed to speed up the convergence rate without increasing the oscillation. • The minimal energy usage is guaranteed, while keeping the desired lighting level. • Experimental results shows the superiorities of the energy-saving control strategy. - Abstract: In recent years, the energy problem has been a universal concern. In order to improve the lighting energy efficiency and reduce the electric energy consumption, this paper develops an energy-saving control strategy for the lighting system with multiple lighting sources. The control strategy presented in this paper includes two parts: a new multivariate extremum seeking control method with Newton algorithm is developed to minimize the light-energy consumption by separately manipulating the brightness of multiple lighting sources, and a proportion-integration-differentiation control approach is adopted to realize the desired lighting level. The proposed scheme can increase the convergence speed of the closed loop system toward the minimum light-energy consumption, meanwhile, the accuracy of the control strategy will be improved. Experimental results illustrate that the light-energy consumption via the proposed method can reach more rapidly to a smaller vicinity of the minimum energy point, so, the lighting energy efficiency is greatly increased accordingly.

  8. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  9. Nanostructures for Enhanced Light Absorption in Solar Energy Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Edman Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fascinating optical properties of nanostructured materials find important applications in a number of solar energy utilization schemes and devices. Nanotechnology provides methods for fabrication and use of structures and systems with size corresponding to the wavelength of visible light. This opens a wealth of possibilities to explore the new, often of resonance character, phenomena observed when the object size and the electromagnetic field periodicity (light wavelength λ match. Here we briefly review the effects and concepts of enhanced light absorption in nanostructures and illustrate them with specific examples from recent literature and from our studies. These include enhanced optical absorption of composite photocatalytically active TiO2/graphitic carbon films, systems with enhanced surface plasmon resonance, field-enhanced absorption in nanofabricated carbon structures with geometrical optical resonances and excitation of waveguiding modes in supported nanoparticle assembles. The case of Ag particles plasmon-mediated chemistry of NO on graphite surface is highlighted to illustrate the principle of plasmon-electron coupling in adsorbate systems.

  10. Conversion and conservation of light energy in a photosynthetic microbial mat ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najjar, A. A.; de Beer, Dirk; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2010-01-01

    : in light-limiting conditions, 95.5% of the absorbed light energy dissipated as heat and 4.5% was channeled into photosynthesis. This energy disproportionation changed in favor of heat dissipation at increasing irradiance, with >99% of the absorbed light energy being dissipated as heat and 700 micromol...

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Energy savings due to daylight and artificial lighting integration in office buildings in hot climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ashwal, Nagib T. [Sana' a University, Sana' a (Yemen); Budaiwi, Ismail M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    Reducing energy consumption while maintaining acceptable environmental quality in buildings has been a challenging task for building professionals. In office buildings, artificial lighting systems are a major consumer of energy and can significantly contribute to building cooling load. Furthermore, although reliable, artificial lighting does not necessarily provide the required quality of lighting. Significant improvement in lighting quality and energy consumption can be achieved by proper integration of daylight and artificial lighting. The objective of this study is to investigate the energy performance of office buildings resulting from daylight and artificial lighting integration in hot climates. A parametric analysis is conducted to find the impact of different window design parameters, including window area, height and glazing type, on building energy performance. Results have shown that as much as 35% reduction in lighting energy consumption and 13% reduction in total energy consumption can be obtained when proper daylighting and artificial lighting integration is achieved.

  14. An Improved Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System in Light Rail Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Long Cheng; Wei Wang; Shaoyuan Wei; Hongtao Lin; Zhidong Jia

    2018-01-01

    A single-objective optimization energy management strategy (EMS) for an onboard hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for light rail (LR) vehicles is proposed. The HESS uses batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The main objective of the proposed optimization is to reduce the battery and SC losses while maintaining the SC state of charge (SOC) within specific limits based on the distance between consecutive LR stations. To do this, a series of optimized SOC limits is used to prevent the SC from ...

  15. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  16. Excess energy and decoherence factor of a qubit coupled to a one-dimensional periodically driven spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanay

    2016-06-01

    We take a central spin model (CSM), consisting of a one-dimensional environmental Ising spin chain and a single qubit connected globally to all the spins of the environment, to study the excess energy (EE) of the environment and the logarithm of decoherence factor namely, generalized fidelity susceptibility per site (GFSS), associated with the qubit under a periodic driving of the transverse field term of environment across its critical point using the Floquet theory. The coupling to the qubit, prepared in a pure state, with the transverse field of the spin chain yields two sets of EE corresponding to the two species of Floquet operators. In the limit of weak coupling, we derive an approximated expression of GFSS after an infinite number of driving period which can successfully estimate the low- and intermediate-frequency behavior of GFSS obtained numerically with a large number of time periods. Our main focus is to analytically investigate the effect of system-environment coupling strength on the EEs and GFSS and relate the behavior of GFSS to EEs as a function of frequency by plausible analytical arguments. We explicitly show that the low-frequency beatinglike pattern of GFSS is an outcome of two frequencies, causing the oscillations in the two branches of EEs, that are dependent on the coupling strength. In the intermediate frequency regime, dip structure observed in GFSS can be justified by the resonance peaks of EEs at those coupling parameter-dependent frequencies; high-frequency saturation behavior of EEs and GFSS are controlled by the same static Hamiltonian and the associated saturation values are related to the coupling strength.

  17. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  18. Energy Saving by Chopping off Peak Demand Using Day Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Maitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligent technique has been implemented in this research using real time datas to calculate how much energy can be chopped from peak load demand. The results are based on real time data that are taken from power delivering centers. These datas do reflect the present condition of power and a solution to those critical conditions during the peak period. These are done in such a way such that helps in judicious scheduling of load. The time based load scheduling has been done so as to understand the basic criteria for solving power crisis during morning peak and early evening peak. The sunray availability and percentage of load that will use day light saving (DLS technique has been taken into account in this work. The results shows that about 0.5% to 1% of load can be shedded off from the peak load period which otherwise is reduction of power. Thus it otherwise also means that an equivalent amount of energy is saved which amounts to a large saving of national money. This result is obtained on monthly and even daily basis. Thus this paper justifies DLS gives a new renewable technique to save energy.

  19. Visible light to electrical energy conversion using photoelectrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, Mark S. (Inventor); Ellis, Arthur B. (Inventor); Kaiser, Steven W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Sustained conversion of low energy visible or near i.r. light (>1.25 eV) to electrical energy has been obtained using wet photoelectrochemical cells where there are no net chemical changes in the system. Stabilization of n-type semi-conductor anodes of CdS, CdSe, CdTe, GaP, GaAs and InP to photoanodic dissolution is achieved by employing selected alkaline solutions of Na.sub.2 S, Na.sub.2 S/S, Na.sub.2 Se, Na.sub.2 Se/Se, Na.sub.2 Te and Na.sub.2 Te/Te as the electrolyte. The oxidation of (poly) sulfide, (poly)selenide or (poly)telluride species occurs at the irradiated anode, and reduction of polysulfide, polyselenide or polytelluride species occurs at the dark Pt cathode of the photoelectrochemical cell. Optical to electrical energy conversion efficiencies approaching 15% at selected frequencies have been observed in some cells. The wavelength for the onset of photocurrent corresponds to the band gap of the particular anode material used in the cell.

  20. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  1. Understanding energy efficient lighting as an outcome of dynamics of social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2017-01-01

    In policy-making, reducing energy consumption from lighting is largely treated as a matter of optimizing products. However, since lighting is a highly cultural and socio-material phenomenon, this article argues that current ways of using light cannot be attributed to the properties of the light s...

  2. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet

  3. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  4. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    Expansion of wind power is an important element in Danish climate change abatement policy. Starting from a high penetration of approx 20% however, momentary excess production will become an important issue in the future. Through energy systems analyses using the EnergyPLAN model and economic...... analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  5. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncaglia Enrica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2 accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are

  6. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2) accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are discussed. PMID:21481232

  7. Energy-saving modification on outdoor lighting in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Bo

    2010-01-01

    The outdoor lighting in the nuclear power plant don't automatically shut down,and cause lights to be long-light. It is proposed to install light-control switches in the electric circuit in order to achieve automatic control. The original outdoor lighting circuit uses the circuit breaker for over-current protection and short circuit fault protection, and use remote circuit breaker to manually operate the lamp on and off.Each circuit branch installs a light-control switch, and set the threshold of 100 lux for the light-control switch. When the natural illumination meet the minimum illumination requirement (> 100lux), the lights shut down the power.When natural illumination doesn't meet the lighting requirement (<100lux), the lighting automatically close.After the modification, it is resolved the outdoor lighting easily becoming a long light,and save energy. (authors)

  8. Focusing of light energy inside a scattering medium by controlling the time-gated multiple light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungwon; Lee, Ye-Ryoung; Choi, Wonjun; Kang, Sungsam; Hong, Jin Hee; Park, Jin-Sung; Lim, Yong-Sik; Park, Hong-Gyu; Choi, Wonshik

    2018-05-01

    The efficient delivery of light energy is a prerequisite for the non-invasive imaging and stimulating of target objects embedded deep within a scattering medium. However, the injected waves experience random diffusion by multiple light scattering, and only a small fraction reaches the target object. Here, we present a method to counteract wave diffusion and to focus multiple-scattered waves at the deeply embedded target. To realize this, we experimentally inject light into the reflection eigenchannels of a specific flight time to preferably enhance the intensity of those multiple-scattered waves that have interacted with the target object. For targets that are too deep to be visible by optical imaging, we demonstrate a more than tenfold enhancement in light energy delivery in comparison with ordinary wave diffusion cases. This work will lay a foundation to enhance the working depth of imaging, sensing and light stimulation.

  9. Savings in Cooling Energy with a Thermal Management System for LED Lighting in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED lighting should be considered for lighting efficiency enhancement, however, waste heat from light-emitting diode (LED lighting increases the internal cooling load during the summer season. In order to solve this problem we propose a thermal management system for light-emitting diode (LED lighting with a heat exchanger module integrated with the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to move the lighting’s waste heat outdoors. An experiment was carried out to investigate the thermal effects in a test chamber and the heat exchange rate between the heat sink and the duct air. The heat generated by the light-emitting diode (LED lighting was calculated as 78.1% of light-emitting diode (LED input power and the heat exchange rate of the lighting heat exchange module was estimated to be between 86.5% and 98.1% according to the light-emitting diode (LED input power and the flow rate of air passing the heat sink. As a result, the average light-emitting diode (LED lighting heat contribution rate for internal heat gain was determined as 0.05; this value was used to calculate the heating and cooling energy demand of the office building through an energy simulation program. In the simulation results, the cooling energy demand was reduced by 19.2% compared with the case of conventionally installed light-emitting diode (LED lighting.

  10. Light emitting diodes for today's energy conscious world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanier, J

    2000-10-01

    The role played by light emitting diodes in back lighting, decorative illumination, emergency lighting, and automated signage are described as indicators of the many benefits and advantages of LED technology. The basic principles underlying the functioning of LEDs are explained, including the reasons behind their high efficiency in applications requiring colour. The difference between wattage and lumens is clarified; wattage refers to power consumption, whereas lumens measure brightness or light output, the measure most significant in the case of LEDs.

  11. Energy efficient lighting design for Venlo type greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Zonneveldt, L.; Sools, F.

    2005-01-01

    TNO has developed a Radiance software model to calculate the light distribution in the greenhouse using raytracing methods, suitable for daylight and artificial lighting. The model is based on a 3d CAD model. The objective is to maximize the efficiency of the artificial lighting system (the amount

  12. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large p T in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-p T electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high p T with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the p T range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  13. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Serdivan (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO{sub 2} emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO{sub 2} emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m{sup 2} room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  14. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  15. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  16. High-energy X-ray measurements of structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogenously deformed Zr-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.T.; Kramer, M.J.; Besser, M.F.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have used high-energy X-ray scattering to measure the structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogeneously deformed Zr-based metallic glass alloy. The scattering results show that bond length anisotropy is present in the samples following isothermal tensile creep deformation. The average atomic bond length in the direction parallel to the tensile loading axis is larger than that in the direction normal to the loading axis. The magnitude of the bond length anisotropy is found to be dependent on the gradient of macroscopic plastic strain along the gauge length. Furthermore, the scattering results show that the excess free volume also increases with increasing macroscopic plastic strain. Results from differential scanning calorimetry analysis of free volume variations along the gauge length of the creep samples are consistent with results from the X-ray scattering experiments

  17. Energy efficient lighting design for Venlo type greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.; Zonneveldt, L.; Sools, F.

    2006-01-01

    TNO has developed a Radiance software model to calculate the light distribution in the greenhouse using raytracing methods, suitable for daylight and artificial lighting. The model is based on a 3D CAD (Computer aided design) model. The objective is to maximize the efficiency of the artificial

  18. Superconductors with excess quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.

    1981-01-01

    This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data

  19. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF programs at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy

  20. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy. (author)

  1. Evaluating an emergent behaviour algorithm in JCSP for energy conservation in lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Syed, Aly; Kerridge, J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of the light bulb, artificial light is accompanying people all around the world every day and night. As the light bulb itself evolved a lot through years, light control systems are still switch-based and require users to make most of the decisions about its behaviour. This pap...... presents an algorithm for emergent behaviour in a lighting system to achieve stable, user defined light level, while saving energy. The algorithm employs a parallel design and was tested using JCSP. © 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved....

  2. Shining light on radiation detection and energy transfer : Triazole ligands used for detection of radiation and lanthanide binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Some substances, fluorophores, absorb light and then emit that light again as fluorescence. Apart from absorption of light, some of these substances can also emit light after having absorbed energy from radiation. A substance which can absorb radiation and emit the energy as light is called a

  3. Final report for EDI energy conservation with diode light; Slutrapport for EDI energibesparelser med diodelys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project has been to develop technological knowledge and a competence platform for utilization of new light emitting diode technology for general lighting purposes. Furthermore the project has aimed at developing a 3 W light diode bulb to replace 15-20 W filament bulbs and halogen spotlights, and thereby demonstrating a large energy conservation potential in the use of LED technology for lighting purposes. (BA)

  4. 76 FR 47178 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0041] RIN 1904-AC50 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... (``DOE'' or the ``Department'') is currently evaluating energy efficiency test procedures for luminaires...

  5. 78 FR 43197 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ER13-1922-000; ER13-1929-000; ER13-1932-000; NJ13-11-000] Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Compliance Filings Take notice that on July 10, 2013, Duke Energy...

  6. Effect of light energy density on conversion degree and hardness of dual-cured resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Martin, Airton Abrāo; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different light energy densities on conversion degree (CD) and Knoop hardness number (KHN) of RelyX ARC (RLX) resin cement. After manipulation according to the manufacturer's instructions, RLX was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 mm x 5 mm) and covered with a Mylar strip. The tip of the light-curing unit (LCU) was positioned in contact with the Mylar surface. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) LCUs with light densities of 10, 20 and 30 J/cm2 were used to light-cure the specimens. After light curing, the specimens were stored dry in lightproof containers at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours, the CD was analyzed by FT-Raman and, after an additional 24-hours, samples were submitted to Knoop hardness testing. The data of the CD (%) and KHN were submitted to two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). QTH and LED were effective light curing units. For QTH, there were no differences among the light energy densities for CD or KHN. For LED, there was a significant reduction in CD with the light energy density set at 10 J/cm2. KHN was not influenced by the light-curing unit and by its light energy density.

  7. Nuclear structure studies with low-energy light ions: fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in low and medium energy nuclear physics have been dominated by heavy-ion induced reactions for last five decades. Heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions have enriched our knowledge of the structural evolutions and intricacies of reaction dynamics of the nuclear many-body systems. However, the emergence and rise of heavy-ion physics have seen a general decline in studies with low- and medium-energy light-ion beams. The harsh reality of dwindling number of low-energy light ion facilities adversely affect research in nuclear physics. Very low-energy and high current light-ion facilities immediately conjures up in our minds the studies in nuclear astrophysics. Measurements of light-ion capture cross sections and astrophysical S factors are the major themes of research at most of the light-ion facilities. However, the importance low energy light-ion beams is multifarious. A variety of measurements providing vital support and inputs to heavy-ion research can only be carried out at the low-energy, light-ion facilities. Light-ion beams are also useful for generation of mono-energetic neutron beams. In this talk I will draw from some of our recent measurements to show the importance of light-ion beams in nuclear astrophysics and also in applied nuclear physics. (author)

  8. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  9. Interior LED Lighting Technology. Navy Energy Technology Validation (Techval) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    usually on most of the time. • Consider replacing existing CFL, high-intensity discharge (HID), or halogen lamp light fixtures/ lamps with LED fixtures... lamps . What is the Technology? An LED is a semiconductor-diode that emits light when power is applied. A driver is used, much as a ballast, to...available in integrated luminaires that can be used to replace existing luminaires. LEDs are also available as direct replacement lamps for many

  10. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  11. Intensification of anaerobic digestion efficiency with use of mechanical excess sludge disintegration in the context of increased energy production in wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żubrowska-Sudoł Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical sludge disintegration for enhancing full scale anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. Batch disintegration tests and lab dewatering tests were also performed aiming at determining the release of organic compounds and assessing the impact of disintegration of excess sludge before the fermentation process of mixed sludge on the dewaterability of post-fermented sludge, respectively. In the study a disc disintegrator driven by a motor with a power of 30 kW, revolutions n = 2950 rpm has been used. It was shown that with increase of energy consumed in the disintegration, the increased amounts of organic compounds were released from the sludge. It was also documented that the introduction of the excess sludge disintegration prior to fermentation tank, resulted in a significant increase in biogas production (by an average of 33.9% and in increase in volatile total solids reduction in the fermented sludge (by an average of 22.7%. Moreover, the obtained results indicate the possibility of obtaining a higher degree of sludge dewatering, which was subjected to anaerobic stabilization with using disintegrated excess sludge.

  12. Intensification of anaerobic digestion efficiency with use of mechanical excess sludge disintegration in the context of increased energy production in wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żubrowska-Sudoł, Monika; Podedworna, Jolanta; Bisak, Agnieszka; Sytek-Szmeichel, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Piotr; Garlicka, Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical sludge disintegration for enhancing full scale anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. Batch disintegration tests and lab dewatering tests were also performed aiming at determining the release of organic compounds and assessing the impact of disintegration of excess sludge before the fermentation process of mixed sludge on the dewaterability of post-fermented sludge, respectively. In the study a disc disintegrator driven by a motor with a power of 30 kW, revolutions n = 2950 rpm has been used. It was shown that with increase of energy consumed in the disintegration, the increased amounts of organic compounds were released from the sludge. It was also documented that the introduction of the excess sludge disintegration prior to fermentation tank, resulted in a significant increase in biogas production (by an average of 33.9%) and in increase in volatile total solids reduction in the fermented sludge (by an average of 22.7%). Moreover, the obtained results indicate the possibility of obtaining a higher degree of sludge dewatering, which was subjected to anaerobic stabilization with using disintegrated excess sludge.

  13. Activity coefficients and excess Gibbs' free energy of some binary mixtures formed by p-cresol at 95.23 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, T.E. Vittal [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Venkanna, N. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Kumar, Y. Naveen [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Ashok, K. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Sirisha, N.M. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Prasad, D.H.L. [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)]. E-mail: dasika@iict.res.in

    2007-07-15

    Bubble point temperatures at 95.23 kPa, over the entire composition range are measured for the binary mixtures formed by p-cresol with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and o- , m- , and p-xylenes, making use of a Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. Liquid phase mole fraction (x {sub 1}) versus bubble point temperature (T) measurements are found to be well represented by the Wilson model. The optimum Wilson parameters are used to calculate the vapor phase composition, activity coefficients, and excess Gibbs free energy. The results are discussed.

  14. New rules of thumb maximizing energy efficiency in street lighting with discharge lamps: The general equations for lighting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-García, A.; Gómez-Lorente, D.; Espín, A.; Rabaza, O.

    2016-06-01

    New relationships between energy efficiency, illuminance uniformity, spacing and mounting height in public lighting installations were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs generated with a widely used software application for lighting design. These new relationships greatly facilitate the calculation of basic lighting installation parameters. The results obtained are also based on maximal energy efficiency and illuminance uniformity as a premise, which are not included in more conventional methods. However, these factors are crucial since they ensure the sustainability of the installations. This research formulated, applied and analysed these new equations. The results of this study highlight their usefulness in rapid planning and urban planning in developing countries or areas affected by natural disasters where engineering facilities and computer applications for this purpose are often unavailable.

  15. Energy efficiency of lighting systems in residential buildings; Energieeffizienzsteigerung der Beleuchtungstechnik in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeger, Andreas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Elektrotechnisches Inst.; Wittig, Michael; Schlosser, Roman; Wuerfel, Matthias [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2011-07-01

    Due to political demands such as the law of an eco-friendly-design of Energy Using Products (EBPG), the production and thus the long-term use of conventional light bulbs is no longer possible within the European Union. Energy saving light bulbs are preferred as replacement for those bulbs. However, these lighting systems have unfavourable properties for certain areas of applications, such as low luminance during the heating phase or a low lifetime if used under strongly fluctuating stress. Therefore, using conventional light bulbs in stairwells, their properties are of great disadvantage. The paper examines possible applications for LED lighting systems (Light Emitting Diode), meeting the standards. Investigations of possible on-demand switching or dimming of LED lighting have been executed with the help of presence or movement sensors and by using smart grids such as the KNX-compliant components. Furthermore, technical requirements, economic viability and energetic advantages and disadvantages of separate DC power networks for the operating of the LED lights have been tested. Since energy storage increased in rental buildings, the storage system DC supply can be used for DC power of such consumers. In this way, the AC and the rectifier losses can be avoided and thus the energy efficiency of lighting can be increased in rental buildings. To implement the project a model of a staircase has been created by using the simulation software DIALux. Furthermore the given lighting conditions have been measured in the stairwell. Thus, the staircase model yields comparative results. (orig.)

  16. National award for energy-efficient town lighting. Compilation of energy-efficient town lighting techniques; Bundeswettbewerb Energieeffiziente Stadtbeleuchtung. Sammlung energieeffizienter Techniken fuer die Stadtbeleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piller, Sabine; Huebner, Vanessa; Barbre, Felix; Schaefer, Moritz [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-11

    The national award for innovative urban lighting was initiated by the Federal Environmental Office. The resulting publication presents innovative techniques for urban lighting. While it is not a complete market survey, it provides an outline of modern, energy-efficient and environment-friendly technologies that are commercially available. Most systems are also available at comparatively low cost. For more information, interested users should refer to http://www.bmu.de/klimaschutzinitiative/aktuell/41708.php. (orig./AKB)

  17. Study on light and thermal energy of illumination device for plant factory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A.; Moriuchi, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of illumination devices on the yield of crops cultivated in a plant factory, it is necessary to measure the actual cultivation environmental factors related to the plant growth and understand the distribution ratio of light and thermal energy to the electrical energy injected into the illumination device. Based on cultivation results, we found that light intensity greatly affected the growth of plant weight. Regarding the selection of illumination device, its spectral components also affected the morphological change. Lighting experiments using a high frequency (Hf) fluorescent lamp and a light emitting diode (LED) bulb were performed. A certain difference was found in the distribution ratio of light energy to electrical energy between Hf and LED. It was showed that by placing the safety equipment or internal circuits outside the cultivated site, the air conditioning load could be reduced.

  18. Evaluation and Optimization of a Traditional North-Light Roof on Industrial Plant Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaenssens, Sigrid [Form-Finding Lab, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Hao Liu [Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wahed, Miriam [Form-Finding Lab, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Qianchuan Zhao [Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Increasingly strict energy policies, rising energy prices, and a desire for a positive corporate image currently serve as incentives for multinational corporations to reduce their plants’ energy consumption. This paper quantitatively investigates and discusses the value of a traditional north-light roof using a complete building energy simulation and optimization framework. The findings indicate that the north-light system yields positive building energy performance for several climate zones, including: (i) Humid Subtropical; (ii) Semiarid Continental; (iii) Mediterranean; and (iv) Subtropical Highland. In the Subtropical Highland climate zone, for example, the building energy consumption of a north-light roof is up to 54% less than that of a conventional flat roof. Based on these positive findings, this paper further presents an optimization framework that alters the north-light roof shape to further improve its energy performance. To quantitatively guarantee a high probability of finding satisfactory designs while reducing the computational processing time, ordinal optimization is introduced into the scheme. The Subtropical Highland case study shows further energy building consumption reduction of 26% for an optimized north-light roof shape. The presented evaluation and optimization framework could be used in designing a plant with integrated north-lights roof that aim at energy efficiency while maintaining environmental occupant comfort levels.

  19. Thermodynamic description of the Al–Mg–Si system using a new formulation for the temperature dependence of the excess Gibbs energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ying; Du, Yong; Zhang, Lijun; Yuan, Xiaoming; Kaptay, George

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An exponential formulation to describe ternary excess Gibbs energy is proposed. ► Theoretical analysis is performed to verify stability of phase using new formulation. ► Al–Mg–Si system and its boundary binaries have been assessed by the new formulation. ► Present calculations for Al–Mg–Si system are more reasonable than previous ones. - Abstract: An exponential formulation was proposed to replace the linear interaction parameter in the Redlich–Kister (R–K) polynomial for the excess Gibbs energy of ternary solution phase. The theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed new exponential formulation can not only avoid the artificial miscibility gap at high temperatures but also describe the ternary system well. A thermodynamic description for the Al–Mg–Si system and its boundary binaries was then performed by using both R–K linear and exponential formulations. The inverted miscibility gaps occurring in the Mg–Si and the Al–Mg–Si systems at high temperatures due to the use of R–K linear polynomials are avoided by using the new formulation. Besides, the thermodynamic properties predicted with the new formulation confirm the general thermodynamic belief that the solution phase approaches to the ideal solution at infinite temperatures, which cannot be described with the traditional R–K linear polynomials.

  20. Excessive regulatory control of the Internal Market in energy must be prevented; EU-Ueberregulierung der Energiemaerkte verhindern.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse-Geuking, W. [CDU e.V., Berlin (Germany). Wirtschaftsrat; Veba Oel AG, Duesseldorf (Germany); Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Brief discussion of aspects of the Greenbook of the European Commission on ensured continuity of energy supply. (orig./CB) [German] Inhalt: Versorgungssicherheit nicht durch steigende Energieimporte gefaehrdet - Politische Stabilisierung der Energiepreise schlaegt fehl - Neue buerokratische Regulierungsinstitutionen fuer Strom und Gas verhindern - Hoechstsaetze fuer steuerliche Belastung in der EU notwendig - Bestehendes Instrumentarium fuer Versorgungssicherung und Umweltschutz ausreichend. (orig./CB)

  1. Electron, photons, and molecules: Storing energy from light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular charge separation has important potential for photochemical energy storage. Its efficiency can be enhanced by principals which maximize the rates of the electron transfer steps which separate charge and minimize those which recombine high-energy charge pairs to lose stored energy. Dramatic scientific progress in understanding these principals has occurred since the founding of DOE and its predecessor agency ERDA. While additional knowledge in needed in broad areas of molecular electron transfer, some key areas of knowledge hold particular promise for the possibility of moving this area from science toward technology capable of contributing to the nation`s energy economy.

  2. The impact of clerestory lights on energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Dalibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings are among major energy consumers, whose energy efficiency is rather low. Clerestory windows are responsible for a large portion of energy losses from the buildings. The energy efficiency of buildings can greatly be improved by upgrading clerestory and other windows. This paper focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigations on how this can be performed in an old school building in the town of Bor in eastern part of Serbia. For that purpose a modern measuring technique has been applied to identify the existing status, and to compare theoretical and actual conditions.

  3. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  4. Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study$-$ PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Karsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    First report in a study of the efficiency of connected lighting systems. The report summarizes the results of an exploratory study investigating power losses in Ethernet cables used between PoE switches and luminaires in PoE connected lighting systems. Testing was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Connected Lighting Test Bed in September 2017. The results were analyzed to explore the impact of cable selection on PoE lighting system energy efficiency, as well as the effectiveness of guidelines recently introduced by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C137 Lighting Systems Committee.

  5. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  6. Wireless sensor and actuator networks for lighting energy efficiency and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yao-Jung

    Buildings consume more than one third of the primary energy generated in the U.S., and lighting alone accounts for approximately 30% of the energy usage in commercial buildings. As the largest electricity consumer of all building electrical systems, lighting harbors the greatest potential for energy savings in the commercial sector. Fifty percent of current energy consumption could be reduced with energy-efficient lighting management strategies. While commercial products do exist, they are poorly received due to exorbitant retrofitting cost and unsatisfactory performance. As a result, most commercial buildings, especially legacy buildings, have not taken advantage of the opportunity to generate savings from lighting. The emergence of wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) technologies presents an alternative that circumvents costly rewiring and promises better performance than existing commercial lighting systems. The goal of this dissertation research is to develop a framework for wireless-networked lighting systems with increased cost effectiveness, energy efficiency, and user satisfaction. This research is realized through both theoretical developments and implementations. The theoretical research aims at developing techniques for harnessing WSAN technologies to lighting hardware and control strategies. Leveraging redundancy, a sensor validation and fusion algorithm is developed for extracting pertinent lighting information from the disturbance-prone desktop-mounted photosensors. An adaptive sensing strategy optimizes the timing of data acquisition and power-hungry wireless transmission of sensory feedback in real-time lighting control. Exploiting the individual addressability of wireless-enabled luminaires, a lighting optimization algorithm is developed to create the optimal lighting that minimizes energy usage while satisfying occupants' diverse lighting preferences. The wireless-networked lighting system was implemented and tested in a number of real

  7. Wind energy development in the light of Danish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.

    1991-01-01

    Wind energy will undoubtedly play a significant role in the future energy supply being a nonpolluting energy source, which on a technical basis has proved to be an economically feasible and thus a realistic alternative to traditional power production. This conclusion may be drawn from Danish experiences where energy planning comprises a visible contribution from wind energy. Since 1976 more than 3200 wind turbine units have been installed in Denmark, representing a capacity of roughly 340 MW out of a grid capacity of 8,000 MW. These units are all grid-connected and the unit sizes range from 55 kW to 450 kW. The installed wind energy capacity represents a substantial development of technologies for wind energy utilization during the last 15 years, involving participation from many sides: research institutes, electric utilities, the national energy administration, and private industry. The development has implied a considerable improvement of the technical and economic performance of wind turbines along with increased reliability and durability. The successful development has been strongly supported by comprehensive government programmes, i.e. establishment of a national wind energy research programme, establishment of the Riso Test Station for Windmills and a subsidy scheme for private turbine owners. The improved economic performance is partly the result of a development in rotor size of commercially available wind turbines. In 1981 the largest commercial wind turbine size in Denmark was 55 kW, while today it is close to 500 kW. In the same period the average energy production per installed unit capacity almost doubled, due to enhanced aerodynamic rotor design, increased tower height and improved overall design and production methods. (author) 7 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  8. Programmable lighting control: do-it-yourself energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    At C-E Power Systems, an operating group of Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT, the lighting and HVAC in six of 24 buildings are now under microprocessor control, and the necessary equipment to convert two additional buildings before the year end has been ordered. The initial analysis of the economic benefits of a /100,000 investment for the first six buildings showed the system will pay for itself in electricity savings in 30 months or less. In the programmable lighting system, a microprocessor-based central controller is /left double quote/softwired/right double quote/ to a single-chip microcomputer-based local transceiver. The data line provides a high integrity communications channel carrying multiplex commands from the central controllers as well as status and switch override message from the remote transceivers. The controller has the capacity to direct as many as 500 transceivers controlling 8,000 relays.

  9. An Improved Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System in Light Rail Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A single-objective optimization energy management strategy (EMS for an onboard hybrid energy storage system (HESS for light rail (LR vehicles is proposed. The HESS uses batteries and supercapacitors (SCs. The main objective of the proposed optimization is to reduce the battery and SC losses while maintaining the SC state of charge (SOC within specific limits based on the distance between consecutive LR stations. To do this, a series of optimized SOC limits is used to prevent the SC from becoming exhausted prematurely instead of the standard SC SOC penalty term in the cost function. Meanwhile, a rule-based EMS (RB-EMS is used to give the SCs charging priority over the batteries when the vehicle is braking. Moreover, a simplified method for the optimization is proposed to reduce the computational burden. Simulation and experimental results for the proposed EMS and a standard SC SOC penalty-based cost function optimization are provided to evaluate losses. As a result, it is shown that the proposed EMS, compared with standard SC SOC penalty-based cost function optimization, decreases losses and prevents the SOC from reach the discharging limits.

  10. The traces of anisotropic dark energy in light of Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Hollenstein, Lukas, E-mail: wilmar.cardona@unige.ch, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@zhaw.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [IAS Institute of Applied Simulation, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Grüental, PO Box, 8820 Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    We study a dark energy model with non-zero anisotropic stress, either linked to the dark energy density or to the dark matter density. We compute approximate solutions that allow to characterise the behaviour of the dark energy model and to assess the stability of the perturbations. We also determine the current limits on such an anisotropic stress from the cosmic microwave background data by the Planck satellite, and derive the corresponding constraints on the modified growth parameters like the growth index, the effective Newton's constant and the gravitational slip.

  11. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  12. Proposed energy conservation contingency plan: emergency restrictions on advertising lighting. Authorities, need, rationale, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The emergency restrictions on advertising lighting proposed in Energy Conservation Contingency Plan No. 5 of 1977 are presented. A statement is given on the need for rationale and operation of the Contingency Plan.

  13. Resource Allocation for Outdoor Visible Light Communications with Energy Harvesting Capabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology that can support high data rate services for outdoor mass gathering night events while permitting energy harvesting. In this paper, a VLC system is considered where a transmitter sends data

  14. Long-Range Energy Propagation in Nanometer Arrays of Light Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalantet, Maryana; Escalante Marun, M.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Zhao, Yiping; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C. Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first observation of long-range transport of excitation energy within a biomimetic molecular nanoarray constructed from LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Fluorescence microscopy of the emission of light after local excitation with a diffraction-limited light beam

  15. Conversion and conservation of light energy in a photosynthetic microbial mat ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najjar, A.A.; De Beer, D.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    approach uses microscale measurements of the rates of heat dissipation, gross photosynthesis and light absorption in the system, and a model describing light propagation and conversion in a scattering-absorbing medium. The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis...

  16. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371685117

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  17. Assessment of Coulomb shifts in nucleon scattering resonances on light nuclei at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, N.Zh.; Uzakova, Zh.; Abdanova, L.

    2003-01-01

    The assessments of the Coulomb forces contribution to position and width of the resonances at nucleons scattering on light nuclei within low energy field are given. In particular the shifts of resonances in amplitudes arising in the processes protons scattering on light nuclei relatively neutrons scattering resonance characteristics on these nuclei are considered

  18. Visible Light Photocatalysis of [2+2] Styrene Cycloadditions via Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2012-01-01

    Hip to be square: Styrenes participate in [2+2] cycloadditions upon irradiation with visible light in the presence of an iridium(III) polypyridyl complex. In contrast to previous reports of visible light photoredox catalysis, the mechanism of this process involves photosensitization by energy transfer and not electron transfer. PMID:22965321

  19. India : Energy-Efficient Street Lighting--Implementation and Financing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a clear need for energy-efficient (EE) technologies that can be applicable in the municipal street lighting sector. The objective of this manual is to support the preparation and implementation of street lighting projects in India, using performance contracting and other public private partnership-based delivery approaches. This manual draws upon global best practices, inclu...

  20. Potential sustainable energy source: Pheroid™ with incorporated light harvesting materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available the main pigments, Chl a and b attributed main peaks around 435 nm (Chl b) and 680 nm (Chl a) respectively, as well as shoulders around 590 nm and 620 nm. Other pigments were also present, with carotenoids possibly attributing a peak...] Ruban, A.V., Horton, P., Robert, B., Resonance raman spectroscopy of the Photosystem II light- harvesting complex of green plants: A comparison of trimeric and aggregated states, Biochemistry 34, 2333 – 2337 (1995). [6] Haferkamp, S., Haase, W...

  1. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  2. Study on light output and energy resolution of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Yue Ke; Sun Zhiyu

    2010-01-01

    The light output and energy resolution of PbWO 4 crystal are studied with different wrapping materials and methods. The Wrapping condition was optimized by analyzing the experimental data to gain higher light output and better energy resolution. A GEANT4-based package has been developed to simulate the corresponding features of PbWO 4 crystal, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental data. (authors)

  3. The renewable energy household lighting for Chibayish inhabitant’s in Iraq★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Furat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable and clean energy is one of the major goals for global sustainable development. Lighting is a major aspect of human energy consumption and access to quality lighting is one of the most important indicators of human development. Like other countries around the world, the Iraqi government has realized the importance of climate change and the necessity for clean energy which has led them to officially ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in January 2008. However, it is challenging to implement a clean and renewable energy lighting system for a small community like Chibayish in the Iraqi marshes. The Chibayish unique house building technique of man-made islands (floating baskets, results that these floating houses are not connected to the Iraqi national grid. The villagers in Chibayish require artificial light for their indoor living areas after dark and also for night fishing, which is a common practice. In this research study, various renewable energy resources have been examined in order to identify the most locally practical renewable energy technology for household lighting needs. The solar irradiance profile in the area showed the viability of solar energy in comparison to other renewable energy sources considered within these specific environmental conditions. An analysis carried out using HOMER Pro simulator shows that the solar photovoltaic is an affordable and reliable option for this community.

  4. Performance of the mixed LED light quality on the growth and energy efficiency of Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ruixin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2018-06-01

    The effect of mixed light quality with red, blue, and green LED lamps on the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied, so as to lay the theoretical and technical basis for establishing a photo-bioreactor lighting system for application in space. Meanwhile, indexes, like morphology, growth rate, photosynthetic pigment compositions, energy efficiency, and main nutritional components, were measured respectively. The results showed that the blue light combined with red light could decrease the tightness of filament, and the effect of green light was opposite. The combination of blue light or green light with red light induced the filaments to get shorter in length. The 8R2B treatment could promote the growth of Arthrospira platensis significantly, and its dry weight reached 1.36 g L -1 , which was 25.93% higher than the control. What's more, 8R2B treatment had the highest contents of carbohydrate and lipid, while 8R2G was rich in protein. 8R0.5G1.5B had the highest efficiency of biomass production, which was 161.53 mg L -1  kW -1  h -1 . Therefore, the combination of red and blue light is more conducive to the growth of Arthrospira platensis, and a higher biomass production and energy utilization efficiency can be achieved simultaneously under the mixed light quality with the ratio of 8R0.5G1.5B.

  5. Photoelectron spectrum of valence anions of uracil and first-principles calculations of excess electron binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachorz, Rafał A; Klopper, Wim; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2008-08-07

    The photoelectron spectrum (PES) of the uracil anion is reported and discussed from the perspective of quantum chemical calculations of the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the anions of various tautomers of uracil. The PES peak maximum is found at an electron binding energy of 2.4 eV, and the width of the main feature suggests that the parent anions are in a valence rather than a dipole-bound state. The canonical tautomer as well as four tautomers that result from proton transfer from an NH group to a C atom were investigated computationally. At the Hartree-Fock and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory levels, the adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) and the VDE have been converged to the limit of a complete basis set to within +/-1 meV. Post-MP2 electron-correlation effects have been determined at the coupled-cluster level of theory including single, double, and noniterative triple excitations. The quantum chemical calculations suggest that the most stable valence anion of uracil is the anion of a tautomer that results from a proton transfer from N1H to C5. It is characterized by an AEA of 135 meV and a VDE of 1.38 eV. The peak maximum is as much as 1 eV larger, however, and the photoelectron intensity is only very weak at 1.38 eV. The PES does not lend support either to the valence anion of the canonical tautomer, which is the second most stable anion, and whose VDE is computed at about 0.60 eV. Agreement between the peak maximum and the computed VDE is only found for the third most stable tautomer, which shows an AEA of approximately -0.1 eV and a VDE of 2.58 eV. This tautomer results from a proton transfer from N3H to C5. The results illustrate that the characteristics of biomolecular anions are highly dependent on their tautomeric form. If indeed the third most stable anion is observed in the experiment, then it remains an open question why and how this species is formed under the given conditions.

  6. Monte Carlo and Lambertian light guide models of the light output from scintillation crystals at megavoltage energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. Amin; Harris, Emma J.; Seco, Joao

    2006-01-01

    A new model of the light output from single-crystal scintillators in megavoltage energy x-ray beams has been developed, based on the concept of a Lambertian light guide model (LLG). This was evaluated in comparison with a Monte Carlo (MC) model of optical photon transport, previously developed and reported in the literature, which was used as a gold standard. The LLG model was developed to enable optimization of scintillator detector design. In both models the dose deposition and light propagation were decoupled, the scintillators were cuboids, split into a series of cells as a function of depth, with Lambertian side and entrance faces, and a specular exit face. The signal in a sensor placed 1 and 1000 mm beyond the exit face was calculated. Cesium iodide (CSI) crystals of 1.5 and 3 mm square cross section and 1, 5, and 10 mm depth were modeled. Both models were also used to determine detector signal and optical gain factor as a function of CsI scintillator thickness, from 2 to 10 mm. Results showed a variation in light output with position of dose deposition of a factor of up to approximately 5, for long, thin scintillators (such as 10x1.5x1.5 mm 3 ). For short, fat scintillators (such as 1x3x3 mm 3 ) the light output was more uniform with depth. MC and LLG generally agreed to within 5%. Results for a sensor distance of 1 mm showed an increase in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face, while a distance of 1000 mm showed a decrease in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face. For a sensor distance of 1 mm, the ratio of signal for a 10 mm scintillator to that for a 2 mm scintillator was 1.98, whereas for the 1000 mm distance the ratio was 3.00. The ratio of quantum efficiency (QE) between 10 and 2 mm thicknesses was 4.62. We conclude that these models may be used for detector optimization, with the light guide model suitable for parametric study

  7. Vapour pressure and excess Gibbs free energy of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane at temperature of 182.33K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.Q.; Ferreira, A.G.M.; Fonseca, I.M.A.; Senra, A.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The vapour pressure of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane was measured at T=182.33K covering most of the composition range. The excess Gibbs free energy of these mixtures has been derived from the measurements made. For the equimolar mixtures G m E (x 1 =0.5)=(835.5+/-5.8)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 2 H 6 ) (820.1+/-2.4)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 3 H 8 ), and (818.6+/-0.9)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+n-C 4 H 10 ). The binary mixtures of H 2 S with ethane and with propane exhibit azeotropes, but that with n-butane does not

  8. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  9. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  10. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  11. Future indoor light and associated energy consumption based on professionals' visions: A practice- and network-oriented analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Borup, Mads; Rosales-Carreón, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Through the insight and visions of Danish lighting experts, this manuscript investigates relationships between future lighting technologies and practices and the expected impacts on energy and lighting consumption. The light-emitting diode (LED) will be the dominant technology of the future smart...... light systems. Though, energy efficiency is expected to improve, new market players will appear and new lighting opportunites will be exploited that, in turn, will increase the demand for light. A rebound effect is expected. The overall impact on the future consumption of energy is uncertain, so we...

  12. Supernova light-curve fitters and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-24

    We show that when a procedure is made to remove the tension between a supernova Ia (SN Ia) data set and observations from BAO and CMB, there might be the case where the same SN Ia set built with two different light-curve fitters behaves as two separate and distinct supernova sets, and the tension found by some authors between supernova sets actually could be due to tension or inconsistency between fitters. We also show that the information of the fitter used in an SN Ia data set could be relevant to determine whether phantom type models are favored or not when such a set is combined with the BAO/CMB joint parameter.

  13. Isobar excitations and low energy spectra of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the possible influence of inner excitations of nucleons into the Δ(3,3)-resonance on the low lying spectra of light nuclei like 12 C and 16 O. Before we can study the effect of such exotic configurations one has to perform a reliable investigation within the normal nuclear model, which is based on a microscopic theory. This is achieved by performing RPA (Random Phase Approximation) calculations using a realistic residual interaction derived from the Brueckner G-matrix. An efficient parametrisation of the residual interaction is introduced and the reliability of the more phenomenological parametrisations which are generally used is discussed. Within such realistic calculations, the isobar effects are small. (orig.) [de

  14. Supernova light-curve fitters and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R.

    2011-01-01

    We show that when a procedure is made to remove the tension between a supernova Ia (SN Ia) data set and observations from BAO and CMB, there might be the case where the same SN Ia set built with two different light-curve fitters behaves as two separate and distinct supernova sets, and the tension found by some authors between supernova sets actually could be due to tension or inconsistency between fitters. We also show that the information of the fitter used in an SN Ia data set could be relevant to determine whether phantom type models are favored or not when such a set is combined with the BAO/CMB joint parameter.

  15. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshka, E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  16. Casimir force, excess free energy and C-function in O(n) systems with long-range interactions in the n → ∞ limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Dantchev, D.M.

    2004-06-01

    We present exact results on the behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force and the excess free energy and the C-function in the framework of the d-dimensional spherical model with a power law long-range interaction decaying at large distances r as r -d- σ, where σ c , as well as for T > Tc and T c . The universal finite-size scaling function governing the behavior of the force in the critical region is derived and its asymptotics are investigated. While in the critical and under -d -d-, critical region the force is of the order of L -d , for T > T c it decays as L -dσ , where L is the thickness of the film. We consider both the case of a finite system that has no phase transition of its own, when d - σ when one observes a dimensional crossover from d to a d - 1 dimensional critical behavior. The behavior of the force along the phase coexistence line for a magnetic field H = 0 and T c . is also derived. We have proven analytically that the excess free energy is always negative ad monotonically increasing function of T and H, while the C-function is always non-negative and monotonically decreasing function of T and H. For the Casimir force we have demonstrated that for any σ > it is everywhere negative, i.e. an attraction between the surfaces bounding the system is to be observed. At T = T c the force is an increasing function of T for σ > 1 and a decreasing one for σ c is always achieved at some H ≠ 0 . (author)

  17. Lighting and energy performance for an office using high frequency dimming controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Wong, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial lighting is one of the major electricity consuming items in many non-domestic buildings. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating daylight in architectural and building designs to reduce the electricity use and enhance greener building developments. This paper presents field measurements for a fully air conditioned open plan office using a photoelectric dimming system. Electric lighting load, indoor illuminance levels and daylight availability were systematically measured and analyzed. The general features and characteristics of the results such as electric lighting energy savings and transmitted daylight illuminance in the forms of frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distributions are presented. Daylighting theories and regression models have been developed and discussed. It has been found that energy savings in electric lighting were over 30% using the high frequency dimming controls. The results from the study would be useful and applicable to other office spaces with similar architectural layouts and daylight linked lighting control systems

  18. Green light from the government to boost nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The British government backs the project of building about 10 new nuclear power plants. The main reason is that renewable energies appear to be insufficiently advanced, in technical terms, to rely solely on them for the production of electricity. The British government has warned that the operators will have to pay entirely the dismantlement costs of these new nuclear plants and a fair part of the cost of the management of radioactive wastes they generate. (A.C.)

  19. Dynamical dark energy vs. Λ = const in light of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà Peracaula, Joan; de Cruz Pérez, Javier; Gómez-Valent, Adrià

    2018-02-01

    After about two decades of the first observational papers confirming the accelerated expansion of the universe, we are still facing the question whether the cause of it is a rigid cosmological constant Λ-term or a mildly evolving dynamical dark energy (DDE). While studies focusing mainly on CMB measurements do not perceive signs of physics beyond the ΛCDM, in this work we show that if we take a large string SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+CMB of modern cosmological observations, in which not only the CMB but also a rich sample of large-scale structure formation data are included, one can extract ∼3.3σ signs of DDE using a simple XCDM parameterization. These signs can be enhanced up to near 3.8σ in the context of the running vacuum model (RVM), in which the vacuum energy density is in interaction with dark matter. Recently, the RVM has been shown to provide an efficient and economical solution to the σ8 -tension, which is one of the intriguing phenomenological problems that has not been possible to solve within the ΛCDM so far. This fact contributes to strengthen the possibility that dynamical vacuum energy, or in general DDE, could be presently favored by the observations.

  20. Determining the phonon energy of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yoichi; Michimata, Junichi; Watanabe, Shota; Katano, Satoshi; Inaoka, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) light emission spectra of isolated single Ag nanoparticles lying on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The STM light emission spectra exhibited two types of spectral structures (step-like and periodic). Comparisons of the observed structures and theoretical predictions indicate that the phonon energy of the ZO mode of HOPG [M. Mohr et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035439 (2007)] can be determined from the energy difference between the cutoff of STM light emission and the step in the former structure, and from the period of the latter structure. Since the role of the Ag nanoparticles does not depend on the substrate materials, this method will enable the phonon energies of various materials to be measured by STM light emission spectroscopy. The spatial resolution is comparable to the lateral size of the individual Ag nanoparticles (that is, a few nm).

  1. Making it not too obvious. The effect of ambient light feedback on space heating energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, S.; Merkus, B.; Ham, J.; Midden, C. [Human-Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Earlier research investigating persuasive technology - technology designed to influence human behavior or attitude - indicates that persuasive technology can stimulate energy efficient behavior. However, most applications of persuasive technology need people's focal attention to be successful, and people may often not have these cognitive resources available. The current research investigates a form of persuasive technology that is less obvious and easier to process: ambient lighting as persuasive technology. In an experimental study, participants could conserve energy while setting temperatures on a central heating panel and receive feedback about their energy consumption in each task. We tested the effect of feedback through a lamp that gradually changed color dependent on energy consumption and compared these effects to more widely used factual feedback. Half of the participants received lighting feedback, and half of the participants received numerical feedback. To investigate whether ambient feedback is easier to process than numerical feedback, half of the participants performed a cognitive load task in addition to the focal task. Results indicated that feedback through lighting has stronger persuasive effects than numerical feedback. Furthermore, ambient lighting feedback seemed easier to process than numerical feedback because cognitive load interfered with processing numerical feedback, but not with processing lighting feedback. Implications for theory and design of energy consumption feedback systems, persuasive lighting, and (ambient) persuasive technology are discussed.

  2. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  3. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.B.C.; Newsham, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national

  4. Energy efficient lighting in the residences of staff of the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CFL) as an energy-efficient lighting system. The results of the study show that even though academics in the university have received information about the use of CFLs as a way of saving energy, very few show interest in their use. It is inferred ...

  5. Towards low energy mobility using light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Sergeant, Peter; Hofman, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Electrical vehicles are seriously considered today. However their energy needs depend seriously on the way how they are designed, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical utility vehicle, it can differ from 1kWh to more than 20kWh/100km. One can look at the problem if it is better to use compressed natural gas in a vehicle directly or is it better to make electricity first and use that electricity in an electric vehicle. A special attention is given to the development of ultra-ligh...

  6. Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Ji, Yun; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-12-01

    Here the first photometric study of road-lighting white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) integrated with semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is reported enabling higher luminance than conventional light sources, specifically in mesopic vision regimes essential to street lighting. Investigating over 100 million designs uncovers that quality road-lighting QD-WLEDs, with a color quality scale and color rendering index ≥85, enables 13-35% higher mesopic luminance than the sources commonly used in street lighting. Furthermore, these QD-WLEDs were shown to be electrically more efficient than conventional sources with power conversion efficiencies ≥16-29%. Considering this fact, an experimental proof-of-concept QD-WLED was demonstrated, which is the first account of QD based color conversion custom designed for street lighting applications. The obtained white LED achieved the targeted mesopic luminance levels in accordance with the road lighting standards of the USA and the UK. These results indicate that road-lighting QD-WLEDs are strongly promising for energy-saving quality road lighting.

  7. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  8. Energy transfer in light-adapted photosynthetic membranes: from active to saturated photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassioli, Francesca; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Scheuring, Simon; Sturgis, James N; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-11-04

    In bacterial photosynthesis light-harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1 absorb sunlight energy and deliver it to reaction centers (RCs) with extraordinarily high efficiency. Submolecular resolution images have revealed that both the LH2:LH1 ratio, and the architecture of the photosynthetic membrane itself, adapt to light intensity. We investigate the functional implications of structural adaptations in the energy transfer performance in natural in vivo low- and high-light-adapted membrane architectures of Rhodospirillum photometricum. A model is presented to describe excitation migration across the full range of light intensities that cover states from active photosynthesis, where all RCs are available for charge separation, to saturated photosynthesis where all RCs are unavailable. Our study outlines three key findings. First, there is a critical light-energy density, below which the low-light adapted membrane is more efficient at absorbing photons and generating a charge separation at RCs, than the high-light-adapted membrane. Second, connectivity of core complexes is similar in both membranes, suggesting that, despite different growth conditions, a preferred transfer pathway is through core-core contacts. Third, there may be minimal subareas on the membrane which, containing the same LH2:LH1 ratio, behave as minimal functional units as far as excitation transfer efficiency is concerned.

  9. GPC Light Shaper for energy efficient laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    The biggest use of lasers is in materials processing. In manufacturing, lasers are used for cutting, drilling, marking and other machining processes. Similarly, lasers are important in microfabrication processes such as photolithography, direct laser writing, or ablation. Lasers are advantageous...... with steep, well defined edges that would further increase laser cutting precision or allow “single shot” laser engraving of arbitrary 2D profiles, as opposed to point scanning [3,4]. Instead of lossy approaches, GPC beam shaping is achieved with simplified, binary phase-only optics [5] that redistributes...... because they do not wear out, have no physical contact with the processed material, avoid heating or warping effects, and are generally more precise. Since lasers are easier to adapt to different optimized shapes, they can be even more precise and energy efficient for materials processing. The cost...

  10. Light energy management in peach: utilization, photoprotection , photodamage and recovery. Maximizing light absorption in orchard is not always the best solution

    OpenAIRE

    Losciale, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    The relation between the intercepted light and orchard productivity was considered linear, although this dependence seems to be more subordinate to planting system rather than light intensity. At whole plant level not always the increase of irradiance determines productivity improvement. One of the reasons can be the plant intrinsic un-efficiency in using energy. Generally in full light only the 5 – 10% of the total incoming energy is allocated to net photosynthesis. Therefore preserving or i...

  11. Energy savings by implementation of light quality LED lighting. Final report; Implementering af energibesparelser ved benyttelse af hoejkvalitets LED belysning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Thorseth, A.; Poulsen, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The project developed two new LED light sources and systems, emphasising the potential of LED technology for energy savings and lighting quality. A LED light source for display case lighting, replacing incandescent lamps, was successfully installed in the Treasury at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, Denmark, and it was decided to extend the solution in 2010. Electricity savings of 74% were achieved. LED light sources replacing halogen bulbs in cooker hoods reduce electricity consumption by 69% and ensure even lighting of the entire working surface with about 500 lux at all cooking areas. Furthermore, a new LED optics system was patented. (ln)

  12. The energy distribution and the recent light history of X Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Viotti, R.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent UVBRI and near-infrared photometry of X Per, the optical counterpart of 3U 0352 + 30, is used to derive the physical parameters of the Be star and of the circumstellar envelope. A stellar radius of 4.9 R (sun) and a luminosity of 2.1 x 10 4 L (sun), 1 mag fainter than for a main sequence BO star, are derived for the primary. The colour excess is Esub(B-V) 12 cm -3 . The infrared excess is absent during the stage of lower luminosity (1974 to 75). The intrinsic energy distribution of the Be star is also anomalous with a variable Balmer excess. It is suggested that the long-term photometric history of X Per is the result of a size variation of the atmospheric envelope of the Be star which probably affects both the X-ray emission and the infrared excess. Wind accretion on to a nearby compact companion (neutron star) might be responsible for the X-ray emission. A mass loss of about 10 -9 M(sun) yr -1 is thus derived for the Be star. (author)

  13. The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Salvadori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy, the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolute compatibility with the historical and artistic value of the building and they show short payback times, variable between 4 and 34 months, allowing a reduction of the electrical energy consumption for the artificial indoor and outdoor lighting variable from 1.1 MWh/year to 39.0 MWh/year. The followed methodology and the evaluation results described in the paper, although based on a case study, can be extended to numerous historical buildings used as public offices, a recurring situation in the centres of Italian historical cities.

  14. A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.

  15. Effects of concentrate type and chromium propionate on insulin sensitivity, productive and reproductive parameters of lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Pardelli, U; Rodrigues, R O; Corrá, F N; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity parameters, milk production and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy, and receiving in a 2×2 factorial arrangement design: (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n=13) or citrus pulp (PLP; n=13), and (2) supplemented (n=14) or not (n=12) with 2.5 g/day of chromium (Cr)-propionate. During the experiment (day 0 to 182), 26 multiparous, non-pregnant, lactating Gir×Holstein cows (initial days in milk=80±2) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily requirements of net energy for lactation. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded weekly. Milk production was recorded daily and milk samples collected weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly before the morning concentrate feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on days -3, 60, 120 and 180. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on days -1, 82 and 162. No treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.25) for BW and BCS change during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, concentrations of serum insulin and glucose, as well as insulin : glucose ratio were similar among treatments (P⩾0.19), whereas CRN had less (Pinsulin : glucose ratio. Serum insulin concentrations were less (P=0.04) in CRN supplemented with Cr-propionate compared with non-supplemented CRN (8.2 v. 13.5 µIU/ml, respectively; SEM=1.7), whereas Cr-propionate supplementation did not impact (P=0.70) serum insulin within PLP cows. Milk production, milk fat and solid concentrations were similar (P⩾0.48) between treatments. However, CRN had greater (Pdairy cows consuming excessive energy did not improve insulin sensitivity, milk production and reproductive outcomes, whereas Cr-propionate supplementation only enhanced insulin sensitivity in cows receiving a

  16. Controlling light-use by Rhodobacter capsulatus continuous cultures in a flat-panel photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, S.; Douma, R.D.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The main bottleneck in scale-up of phototrophic fermentation is the low efficiency of light energy conversion to the desired product, which is caused by an excessive dissipation of light energy to heat. The photoheterotrophic formation of hydrogen from acetate and light energy by the microorganism

  17. Efficient and versatile light. LEDs save energy and open up manifold possibilities of design; Effizientes und vielseitiges Licht. LEDs sparen Energie und eroeffnen zahlreiche Designmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, Michael [OSRAM Opto Semicondutors GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Marketing und Business Development

    2010-07-01

    Light bulbs leave the European market step by step. These conventional light sources are too inefficient in the private and conventional sector. There are a lot of alternatives to light bulbs. But no technology will be able to save as much energy as light emitting diodes (LED) in the future. Today, these LEDs meet us in most different applications. Continuously new areas of application are opened up in order to reduce the power requirement clearly for the production of artificial light. Apart from energy conservation diodes also enable untold possibilities. In the future, light can be still more flexibly used owing to LED. LEDs are ideal light sources for planners and designers.

  18. Lighting and cooling energy consumption in an open-plan office using solar film coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Wong, S.L.; Tsang, Ernest K.W.

    2008-01-01

    In subtropical Hong Kong, solar heat gain via glazing contributes to a significant proportion of the building envelope cooling load. The principal fenestration design includes eliminating direct sunlight and reducing cooling requirements. Daylighting is an effective approach to allow a flexible building facade design strategy, and to enhance an energy-efficient and green building development. This paper studies the lighting and cooling energy performances for a fully air-conditioned open-plan office when solar control films together with daylight-linked lighting controls are being used. Measurements were undertaken at two stages including the electricity expenditures for the office using photoelectric dimming controls only (first stage) and together with the solar control film coatings on the windows (second stage). Electric lighting and cooling energy consumption, transmitted daylight illuminance and solar radiation were systematically recorded and analysed. The measured data were also used for conducting and validating the building energy simulations. The findings showed that the solar film coatings coupled with lighting dimming controls cut down 21.2% electric lighting and 6.9% cooling energy consumption for the open-plan office

  19. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  20. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  1. Energy transfer and clustering of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in reconstituted lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewa, Takehisa; Sumino, Ayumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Noji, Tomoyasu; Nango, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes were reconstituted into lipid membranes. ► Energy transfers between light-harvesting complexes were examined. ► Atomic force microscopy indicated cluster formation of light-harvesting complexes. ► Efficient energy transfer was observed for the clustered complexes in the membranes. - Abstract: In purple photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) and light harvesting/reaction centre core complex (LH1-RC) play the key roles of capturing and transferring light energy and subsequent charge separation. These photosynthetic apparatuses form a supramolecular assembly; however, how the assembly influences the efficiency of energy conversion is not yet clear. We addressed this issue by evaluating the energy transfer in reconstituted photosynthetic protein complexes LH2 and LH1-RC and studying the structures and the membrane environment of the LH2/LH1-RC assemblies, which had been embedded into various lipid bilayers. Thus, LH2 and LH1-RC from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 were reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PG/cardiolipin (CL). Efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC was observed in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that LH2 and LH1-RC were heterogeneously distributed to form clusters in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. The results indicated that the phospholipid species influenced the cluster formation of LH2 and LH1-RC as well as the energy transfer efficiency

  2. Energy transfer and clustering of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in reconstituted lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewa, Takehisa, E-mail: takedewa@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sumino, Ayumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Noji, Tomoyasu [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nango, Mamoru, E-mail: nango@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes were reconstituted into lipid membranes. ► Energy transfers between light-harvesting complexes were examined. ► Atomic force microscopy indicated cluster formation of light-harvesting complexes. ► Efficient energy transfer was observed for the clustered complexes in the membranes. - Abstract: In purple photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) and light harvesting/reaction centre core complex (LH1-RC) play the key roles of capturing and transferring light energy and subsequent charge separation. These photosynthetic apparatuses form a supramolecular assembly; however, how the assembly influences the efficiency of energy conversion is not yet clear. We addressed this issue by evaluating the energy transfer in reconstituted photosynthetic protein complexes LH2 and LH1-RC and studying the structures and the membrane environment of the LH2/LH1-RC assemblies, which had been embedded into various lipid bilayers. Thus, LH2 and LH1-RC from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 were reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PG/cardiolipin (CL). Efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC was observed in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that LH2 and LH1-RC were heterogeneously distributed to form clusters in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. The results indicated that the phospholipid species influenced the cluster formation of LH2 and LH1-RC as well as the energy transfer efficiency.

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganandran, G. S. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Rismanchi, B.; Chong, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment. PMID:25133258

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  5. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  6. Concentrating solar power: a sustainable and renewable way to get energy from solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Solar light irradiating the Earth is a great sustainable and renewable power source. In concentrating solar power plants, mirrors are used to redirect the solar light toward a small area where a receiver captures and converts it into thermal-energy which can be stored. ENEA has been developing the parabolic-trough Italian technology, as well as several facilities for the component characterization. The paper reports on some of those which are purely optical instruments [it

  7. Optical meta-atom for localization of light with quantized energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannebère, Sylvain; Silveirinha, Mário G

    2015-10-30

    The capacity to confine light into a small region of space is of paramount importance in many areas of modern science. Here we suggest a mechanism to store a quantized 'bit' of light--with a very precise amount of energy--in an open core-shell plasmonic structure ('meta-atom') with a nonlinear optical response. Notwithstanding the trapped light state is embedded in the radiation continuum, its lifetime is not limited by the radiation loss. Interestingly, it is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear response and volume plasmons enables breaking fundamental reciprocity restrictions, and coupling very efficiently an external light source to the meta-atom. The collision of an incident optical pulse with the meta-atom may be used to release the trapped light 'bit'.

  8. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  9. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  10. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  11. The DarkLight Experiment: A Precision Search for New Physics at Low Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Balewski, J.; Bernauer, J.; Bessuille, J.; Corliss, R.; Cowan, R.; Epstein, C.; Fisher, P.; Hasell, D.; Ihloff, E.; Kahn, Y.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Steadman, S.; Thaler, J.; Tschalaer, C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the current status of the DarkLight experiment at Jefferson Laboratory. DarkLight is motivated by the possibility that a dark photon in the mass range 10 to 100 MeV/c$^2$ could couple the dark sector to the Standard Model. DarkLight will precisely measure electron proton scattering using the 100 MeV electron beam of intensity 5 mA at the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovering linac incident on a windowless gas target of molecular hydrogen. The complete final state including scatte...

  12. High Performance and Energy Efficient Traffic Light Controller Design Using FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Sujeet; Shrivastav, Vivek Kumar; Sharma, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    and then we have analyzed power consumption for traffic light controller on different FPGA. Leakage power is in range of 97.5-99% of total power consumption by traffic light controller on Virtex-7 FPGA. Signal power, clock power and IOs power are almost negligible. Power dissipation is measured on XPOWER......In this work, Verilog is used as hardware description language for implementation of traffic light controller. It shows Red, Green and Yellow color at a predefined interval. Technology scaling is used as energy efficient technique. We have used 90nm, 65nm, 40nm and 28nm technology based FPGA...

  13. Energy audit: A case study to reduce lighting cost for an industrial site

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzobo, O

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available were done using lux meter. 2. Data Analysis: Detailed analysis of collected data was done from the database that was generated. This forms the baseline case which is used later to quantify any energy cost savings achieved as a result of recommended... in the plant and selected offices were measured during day time by using a lux/light meter. Measurements were taken at a number of points and averaged. For offices the light levels were also determined with the lights OFF and window-blinds fully open...

  14. Evaluation of energy efficiency in street lighting: model proposition considering climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Caruzzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impacts of climate variability on efficient electricity consumption in street lighting in Brazil. The Climate Demand Method (CDM was applied, and the energy savings achieved by Brazil’s National Efficient Street Lighting Program (ReLuz in 2005 were calculated, considering the monthly climatology of sunshine duration, disaggregated by county in Brazil. The total energy savings in street lighting in 2005 were estimated at 63 GWh/year or 1.39% higher than the value determined by ReLuz/Eletrobrás and there was a 15 MW reduction in demand in Brazil, considering the nearly 393,000 points in ReLuz served in 2005. The results indicate that, besides the difference in latitude, climate variability in different county increases the daily usage of street lighting up to 19%. Furthermore, Brazil’s large size means that seasonality patterns in energy savings are not homogeneous, and there is a correlation between the monthly variability in sunshine duration and the latitude of mesoregions. The CDM was also shown to be suitable for ranking mesoregions with the highest levels of energy saving lighting.

  15. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  16. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  18. Multireference excitation energies for bacteriochlorophylls A within light harvesting system 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anda, Andre; Hansen, Thorsten; De Vico, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria is one of the most popular antenna complexes used to study Nature's way of collecting and channeling solar energy. The dynamics of the absorbed energy is probed by ultrafast spectroscopy. Simulation of these experiments relies on fitting a range...... bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We find that the excitation energies vary among the bacteriochlorophyll monomers and that they are regulated by the curvature of the macrocycle ring and the dihedral angle of an acetyl moiety. Increasing the curvature lifts the ground state energy, which causes a red shift...

  19. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  1. Fragment formation in GeV-energy proton and light heavy-ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Haga, M.; Haseno, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated similarities and differences among the fragment formation processes in GeV-energy light-ion and light heavy-ion induced reactions. We have newly measured inclusive and exclusive energy spectra of intermediate mass fragments (3 ≤ Z ≤ 30; IMFs) for 8-GeV 16 O and 20 Ne and 12-GeV 20 Ne induced target multifragmentations (TMFs) in order to compare them with those previously measured for 8- and 12-GeV proton induced TMFs. We fond noticeable difference in their spectrum shapes and magnitudes but all of them clearly indicate the existence of sideward-peaked components, indicating fragment formations are mainly dictated not by a incident energy per nucleon but by a total energy of the projectile. (author)

  2. Influence of the variation potential on photosynthetic flows of light energy and electrons in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhova, Ekaterina; Mudrilov, Maxim; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    Local damage (mainly burning, heating, and mechanical wounding) induces propagation of electrical signals, namely, variation potentials, which are important signals during the life of plants that regulate different physiological processes, including photosynthesis. It is known that the variation potential decreases the rate of CO 2 assimilation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; however, its influence on light reactions has been poorly investigated. The aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the variation potential on the light energy flow that is absorbed, trapped and dissipated per active reaction centre in photosystem II and on the flow of electrons through the chloroplast electron transport chain. We analysed chlorophyll fluorescence in pea leaves using JIP-test and PAM-fluorometry; we also investigated delayed fluorescence. The electrical signals were registered using extracellular electrodes. We showed that the burning-induced variation potential stimulated a nonphotochemical loss of energy in photosystem II under dark conditions. It was also shown that the variation potential gradually increased the flow of light energy absorbed, trapped and dissipated by photosystem II. These changes were likely caused by an increase in the fraction of absorbed light distributed to photosystem II. In addition, the variation potential induced a transient increase in electron flow through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Some probable mechanisms for the influence of the variation potential on the light reactions of photosynthesis (including the potential role of intracellular pH decrease) are discussed in the work.

  3. Light and energy - solar cells in transparent facades. Final report; Lys og energi - solceller i transparente facader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The overall purpose with the project 'LIGHT AND ENERGY - solar cells in transparent facades' is to demonstrate and disseminate the potentials for the application of light-filtering solar cells as multi-functional components, which meets the architectural objectives while contributing to a good indoor climate, a suitable quality of lighting indoor and at the same time produces electricity. The project was divided into six activities. The first activity 'zooms in' on the light-filtering solar cells on the market today. The following activities gradually 'zoom out' from the solar cell itself to the building component and ends up in the facade and the room behind. This order - which largely reflects the chronological development of the project - is repeated in the final project report to ensure the best possible overview. The characterisation in the different activities has been a combination of technical measurements, simulations, calculations and a thorough architectural evaluation of solar cell component, facade and room for attain an overall, interprofessional evaluation of the solar cell panels. It is important to stress that the basis of the project is the solar cell products available on the market today and In the near future. The possibilities and ideas have been evaluated and documented using mock-ups in 1:1 scale since the individual components have completely other qualities when they are integrated in a facade - the platform of this project. These models in full scale are a possibility to register and experience the character of the light inside out and under different light settings. It has been important to think of the solar cell filter as a part of the architecture instead of a replacement for windows and actively use the light-filtering features as a possibility in new facade designs - a filter which in combination with the completely transparent glass and completely light-blocking materials opens up for new possibilities

  4. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaie, Samareh; Vaas, Lea A I; Rosberg, Anna Karin; Windstam, Sofia T; Karlsson, Maria E; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Khalil, Sammar; Wohanka, Walter; Alsanius, Beatrix W

    2017-01-01

    Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm) and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm) LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA). The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  5. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samareh Gharaie

    Full Text Available Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA. The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  6. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized #betta#-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10 7 s - 1 ) of background-free polarized #betta# rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (δE = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV #betta# rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the #betta#-ray energy up to 700 MeV

  7. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  8. Lighting standards updated. Energy consumption in new standards; Verlichtingsnormen gewijzigd. Energiegebruik in nieuwe normen verwerkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, R. [Professional Lighting Designers' Association PLDA, Guetersloh (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For the illumination of workplaces, a new version of the standard NEN-EN 12464-1 (Light and illumination. Lighting for workplaces. Part 1. Indoor workplaces) has been published. Also the Dutch standard NEN 3087 on visual ergonomics is completely revised . Furthermore, the guideline NPR 3437 (Ergonomics. Visual aspects of tinted glazing in the work environment) is repealed. Finally, NEN 2916 is replace by NEN 7120, a standard on energy consumption of lighting in relation to the energy performance of buildings. [Dutch] Voor de verlichting van werkplekken is een nieuwe versie van NEN-EN 12464-1 verschenen (Licht en verlichting. Werkplekverlichting. Deel 1. Werkplekken binnen). Ook is de Nederlandse norm NEN 3087 over visuele ergonomie geheel herzien. Verder is de Praktijkrichtlijn NPR 3437 (Ergonomie. Visuele aspecten van getinte beglazing in de werkomgeving) ingetrokken en is NEN 2916 vervangen door NEN 7120, een norm over het energiegebruik van verlichting in relatie tot de energieprestatie van gebouwen.

  9. Annual report 2007 - CPFL Energy - Light and Power Company from Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the balance of the economic, social, environmental performance of the Sao Paulo Light and Power Company (CPFL), during the year of 2007 as follows: highlights of 2007; profile of the CPFL Energy group; corporative performance; strategy of the company; performance in 2007 (the best year of the company); social responsibility

  10. Replacement policy of residential lighting optimized for cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixi; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Saitou, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Accounting for 10% of the electricity consumption in the US, artificial lighting represents one of the easiest ways to cut household energy bills and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by upgrading to energy-efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and light emitting diodes (LED). However, given the high initial cost and rapidly improving trajectory of solid-state lighting today, estimating the right time to switch over to LEDs from a cost, primary energy, and GHG emissions perspective is not a straightforward problem. This is an optimal replacement problem that depends on many determinants, including how often the lamp is used, the state of the initial lamp, and the trajectories of lighting technology and of electricity generation. In this paper, multiple replacement scenarios of a 60 watt-equivalent A19 lamp are analyzed and for each scenario, a few replacement policies are recommended. For example, at an average use of 3 hr day-1 (US average), it may be optimal both economically and energetically to delay the adoption of LEDs until 2020 with the use of CFLs, whereas purchasing LEDs today may be optimal in terms of GHG emissions. In contrast, incandescent and halogen lamps should be replaced immediately. Based on expected LED improvement, upgrading LED lamps before the end of their rated lifetime may provide cost and environmental savings over time by taking advantage of the higher energy efficiency of newer models.

  11. Investigating Students' Mental Models about the Quantization of Light, Energy, and Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Nilüfer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Sakir

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a multiphase study examining students' mental models about the quantization of physical observables--light, energy, and angular momentum. Thirty-one second-year physics and physics education college students who were taking a modern physics course participated in the study. The qualitative analysis of data revealed…

  12. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Compact Fluorescent Lamp and Common Light Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushevsk, Atanas; Rendevski, Stojan

    2016-01-01

    For acquainting the students of applied physics and students of teaching physics with the concept of energy efficiency, electrical and spectral characteristics of two widely used lamps--integrated fluorescence lamp and common light bulb have been investigated. Characterization of the lamps has been done by measuring the spectral irradiance and…

  13. Residual Energy Harvesting from Light Transients Using Hematite as an Intrinsic Photocapacitor in a Symmetrical Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Burgert; van Leeuwen, Nicole; Xie, Mengying; Adamaki, Vana; Bowen, Chris R.; de Araujo, Moises A.; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Cameron, Petra J.; Marken, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Hematite as a sustainable photoabsorber material offers a band gap close to 2 eV and photoanode characteristics, but usually requires additional catalysts to enhance surface redox chemistry during steady state light energy harvesting for water splitting. Here, for a highly doped hematite film,

  14. Observation of Resonant Behavior in the Energy Velocity of Diffused Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, R.; Garcia, P. D.; Blanco, A.; Lopez, C.; Bertolotti, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Martin, M. D.; Vina, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate Mie resonances mediated transport of light in randomly arranged, monodisperse dielectric spheres packed at high filling fractions. By means of both static and dynamic optical experiments we show resonant behavior in the key transport parameters and, in particular, we find that the energy transport velocity, which is lower than the group velocity, also displays a resonant behavior

  15. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aries, Myriam B.C.; Newsham, Guy R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national electricity use of around 0.5%, as a result of residential lighting reduction. Several studies have demonstrated effects of this size based on more complex simulations or on measured data. However, there are just as many studies that suggest no effect, and some studies suggest overall energy penalties, particularly if gasoline consumption is accounted for. There is general consensus that DST does contribute to an evening reduction in peak demand for electricity, though this may be offset by an increase in the morning. Nevertheless, the basic patterns of energy use, and the energy efficiency of buildings and equipment have changed since many of these studies were conducted. Therefore, we recommend that future energy policy decisions regarding changes to DST be preceded by high-quality research based on detailed analysis of prevailing energy use, and behaviours and systems that affect energy use. This would be timely, given the extension to DST underway in North America in 2007

  16. Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers

  17. Organic light-emitting diodes for lighting: High color quality by controlling energy transfer processes in host-guest-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, Caroline; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Exciton generation and transfer processes in a multilayer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) are studied in order to realize OLEDs with warm white color coordinates and high color-rendering index (CRI). We investigate a host-guest-system containing four phosphorescent emitters and two matrix materials with different transport properties. We show, by time-resolved spectroscopy, that an energy back-transfer from the blue emitter to the matrix materials occurs, which can be used to transport excitons to the other emitter molecules. Furthermore, we investigate the excitonic and electronic transfer processes by designing suitable emission layer stacks. As a result, we obtain an OLED with Commission Internationale de lÉclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.444;0.409), a CRI of 82, and a spectrum independent of the applied current. The OLED shows an external quantum efficiency of 10% and a luminous efficacy of 17.4 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2.

  18. Energy transfer in purple bacterial photosynthetic units from cells grown in various light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gardiner, Alastair T; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J

    2018-05-03

    Three photosynthetic membranes, called intra-cytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), from wild-type and the ∆pucBA abce mutant of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rps. palustris were investigated using optical spectroscopy. The ICMs contain identical light-harvesting complex 1-reaction centers (LH1-RC) but have various spectral forms of light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2). Spectroscopic studies involving steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and femtosecond time-resolved absorption at room temperature and at 77 K focused on inter-protein excitation energy transfer. The studies investigated how energy transfer is affected by altered spectral features of the LH2 complexes as those develop under growth at different light conditions. The study shows that LH1 → LH2 excitation energy transfer is strongly affected if the LH2 complex alters its spectroscopic signature. The LH1 → LH2 excitation energy transfer rate modeled with the Förster mechanism and kinetic simulations of transient absorption of the ICMs demonstrated that the transfer rate will be 2-3 times larger for ICMs accumulating LH2 complexes with the classical B800-850 spectral signature (grown in high light) compared to the ICMs from the same strain grown in low light. For the ICMs from the ∆pucBA abce mutant, in which the B850 band of the LH2 complex is blue-shifted and almost degenerate with the B800 band, the LH1 → LH2 excitation energy transfer was not observed nor predicted by calculations.

  19. Analysis on Zero Energy Consumption Strategy for Office Buildings Lighting in Lianyungang Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the energy-saving environmental protection has aroused the people’s high concern, and set off a new application practice in China. By analyzing the advantages of the illumination condition in Lianyungang area and combining the content and form of office space, the author puts forward a series of ways and means of energy saving in office building lighting, in order to provide a way for reference to the goal of building Zero energy consumption in the office space environment under the background of green architecture.

  20. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  1. Fabrication of Scalable Indoor Light Energy Harvester and Study for Agricultural IoT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M; Nakamura, A; Kunii, A; Kusano, K; Futagawa, M

    2015-01-01

    A scalable indoor light energy harvester was fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and printing hybrid technology and evaluated for agricultural IoT applications under different environmental input power density conditions, such as outdoor farming under the sun, greenhouse farming under scattered lighting, and a plant factory under LEDs. We fabricated and evaluated a dye- sensitized-type solar cell (DSC) as a low cost and “scalable” optical harvester device. We developed a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less process with a honeycomb metal mesh substrate fabricated by MEMS technology. In terms of the electrical and optical properties, we achieved scalable harvester output power by cell area sizing. Second, we evaluated the dependence of the input power scalable characteristics on the input light intensity, spectrum distribution, and light inlet direction angle, because harvested environmental input power is unstable. The TiO 2 fabrication relied on nanoimprint technology, which was designed for optical optimization and fabrication, and we confirmed that the harvesters are robust to a variety of environments. Finally, we studied optical energy harvesting applications for agricultural IoT systems. These scalable indoor light harvesters could be used in many applications and situations in smart agriculture. (paper)

  2. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  3. Fabrication of Scalable Indoor Light Energy Harvester and Study for Agricultural IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Nakamura, A.; Kunii, A.; Kusano, K.; Futagawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A scalable indoor light energy harvester was fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and printing hybrid technology and evaluated for agricultural IoT applications under different environmental input power density conditions, such as outdoor farming under the sun, greenhouse farming under scattered lighting, and a plant factory under LEDs. We fabricated and evaluated a dye- sensitized-type solar cell (DSC) as a low cost and “scalable” optical harvester device. We developed a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less process with a honeycomb metal mesh substrate fabricated by MEMS technology. In terms of the electrical and optical properties, we achieved scalable harvester output power by cell area sizing. Second, we evaluated the dependence of the input power scalable characteristics on the input light intensity, spectrum distribution, and light inlet direction angle, because harvested environmental input power is unstable. The TiO2 fabrication relied on nanoimprint technology, which was designed for optical optimization and fabrication, and we confirmed that the harvesters are robust to a variety of environments. Finally, we studied optical energy harvesting applications for agricultural IoT systems. These scalable indoor light harvesters could be used in many applications and situations in smart agriculture.

  4. The light element formation: a signature of high energy nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Meneguzzi, M.; Reeves, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light elements D, 6 Li, 9 Be, 10 B and 11 B (and possibly also 7 Li) are not produced by the general nucleosynthetic processes occurring in stars. They appear to be synthesized by high energy processes occuring either during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the interstellar medium or in supernovae envelopes. These formation processes are discussed. It is emphasized that the most coherent scenario regarding the formation of the light elements is obtained by taking also into account the nuclear processes which may have occurred during hot phases of the early Universe (Big Bang). Implications on chemical evolution of galaxies and on cosmology are briefly recalled. (Auth.)

  5. High-speed Light Peak optical link for high energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.X. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, F. [FOCI Fiber Optic Comm., Inc., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Deng, B. [Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei (China); Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Hou, J. [FOCI Fiber Optic Comm., Inc., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hou, S., E-mail: suen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.; Liu, T. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Teng, P.K. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.H. [National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Xu, T. [Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Optical links provide high speed data transmission with low mass fibers favorable for applications in high energy experiments. We report investigation of a compact Light Peak optical engine designed for data transmission at 4.8 Gbps. The module is assembled with bare die VCSEL, PIN diodes and a control IC aligned within a prism receptacle for light coupling to fiber ferrule. Radiation damage in the receptacle was examined with {sup 60}Co gamma ray. Radiation induced single event effects in the optical engine were studied with protons, neutrons and X-ray tests.

  6. Regulation of Light Energy Utilization and Distribution of Photosynthesis in Five Subtropical Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2007-01-01

    The adaptations and responses of photosynthesis to long- and short-term growth light gradient treatments were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ.,Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. With diurnal changes in sunlight and air temperature, the de-epoxidation state and lutein content in the five woody plants under three light intensifies first increased and then decreased during the day. However,maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm; where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS) Ⅱ (ΦPSII) of the species examined changed in the opposite manner, with those in plants grown under 100% natural light changing the most. After long-term treatment (21 months), anti-oxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·)-scavenging capacity) and utilization of excitation energy showed differences in modulation by different light intensities. It was shown that A.acuminatissima and C. concinna, as dominant species in the late succession stage of a subtropical forest in Dinghu mountain, South China, were better able to adapt to different light environments. However, P. massoniana, the pioneer species of this forest, exhibited less adaptation to Iow light intensity and was definitely eliminated by the forest successlon process.

  7. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2014-06-15

    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  8. Self-reverse-biased solar panel optical receiver for simultaneous visible light communication and energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Ho; Yang, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-10-31

    We propose a self-reverse-biased solar panel optical receiver for energy harvesting and visible light communication. Since the solar panel converts an optical component into an electrical component, it provides both energy harvesting and communication. The signal component can be separated from the direct current component, and these components are used for communication and energy harvesting. We employed a self-reverse-biased receiver circuit to improve the communication and energy harvesting performance. The reverse bias on the solar panel improves the responsivity and response time. The proposed system achieved 17.05 mbps discrete multitone transmission with a bit error rate of 1.1 x 10-3 and enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency.

  9. Transport theory applied to hadron and light fragment production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, B.; Malfliet, R.; Mies, S.; Zwermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    Foundations of the transport theory for studying K + , K - , π - and light fragment production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies are given. Inclusive production of protons, K + and π - in the Ne+NaF reaction at 400 MeV and 21 GeV/nucleon is consdered, their differential cross sections are caculated. Differential cross sections of K - and π - production in Si+Si → K + +X and Ne+NaF → π - +X reactions at the energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon, their energy dependence are estimated. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data is graphically presented. The model of the transport theory is shown to successfully reproduce inclusive spectra of different particles (p, d, π, K + , K - ) in a wide energy range of incident particles (from 400 MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon). This approach can be generalized for lower energies by generating a mean nuclear potentiasl field

  10. New light on an old problem: Reflections on barriers and enablers of distributed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szatow, Anthony; Quezada, George; Lilley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint article, New light on an Old Problem, aims to stimulate thought and discussion on pathways to rapid emission reduction trajectories. It considers briefly the history of the Australian energy system and recent attempts to support emerging, distributed energy supply systems, before exploring the importance of new energy supply models and how they may emerge organically, ahead of further policy and regulatory shifts in Australia. The article is shaped by extensive primary research, literature review and engagement with policy makers, industry and community organisations, energy market institutions, colleagues and others over a period of four years. It outlines how new business models may reduce emissions ahead of policy and regulation, and the importance of keeping an open mind when considering ‘barriers’ to distributed energy. We hope this article will spark interest and dialogue with colleagues who may be experiencing and grappling with similar challenges. - Research highlights: ► We discuss documented barriers to distributed energy. ► We draw on socio-technical system literature and our research experience to outline a possible solution to distributed energy barriers. ► We describe a hypothetical energy service business model, led by the property sector, as a catalyst for energy market change. ► We outline reasons for our confidence in this property sector led energy services model.

  11. Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.A.; Williams, D.L.; Reister, R.

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is focused on enabling the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. Decisions on life extension will be made by commercial power plant owners - the information provided by the research and development activities in the LWRS Program will reduce the uncertainty (and therefore the risk) associated with making those decisions. The LWRS Program encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables. (author)

  12. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  13. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  14. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  15. Application of low-cost Gallium Arsenide light-emitting-diodes as kerma dosemeter and fluence monitor for high-energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Simrock, S.; Khachan, J.; Rybka, D.; Romaniuk, R.

    2007-01-01

    Displacement damage (DD) caused by fast neutrons in unbiased Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diodes (LED) resulted in a reduction of the light output. On the other hand, a similar type of LED irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source up to a dose level in excess of 1.0 kGy (1.0 x 10 5 rad) was found to show no significant drop of the light emission. This phenomenon was used to develop a low cost passive fluence monitor and kinetic energy released per unit mass dosemeter for accelerator-produced neutrons. These LED-dosemeters were used to assess the integrated fluence of photoneutrons, which were contaminated with a strong Bremsstrahlung gamma-background generated by the 730 MeV superconducting electron linac driving the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron. The applications of GaAs LED as a routine neutron fluence monitor and DD precursor for the electronic components located in high-energy accelerator environment are highlighted. (authors)

  16. The low energy frontier: searches for ultra-light particles beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years theoretical studies and astrophysical observations have confirmed that unknown constituents of our universe like dark matter may find its explanation not only at large-scale experiments at highest energies, but could also show up at the opposite energy scale. In many laboratories world-wide searches for axions, axion-like particles, hidden photons, chameleons or other so-called WISPs with masses below the eV scale are ongoing. Examples at DESY are the experiments ALPS ("Any Light Particle Search") and SHIPS ("Solar HIdden Photon Search"). At CERN CAST and OSQAR take data. In all these experiments new particles could manifest themselves in a very spectacular manner. Light would apparently shine through thickest walls. The results of a first generation of laboratory and astrophysics experiments will be summarized and plans for future enterprises be discussed

  17. Conversion of visible light to electrical energy - Stable cadmium selenide photoelectrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Ellis, A. B.; Kaiser, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Stabilization of n-type CdSe to photoanodic dissolution is reported. The stabilization is accomplished by the competitive oxidation of S(--) or S(n)(--) at the CdSe photoanode in an electrochemical cell. Such stabilized cells are shown to sustain the conversion of low energy (not less than 1.7 eV) visible light to electricity with good efficiency and no deterioration of the CdSe photoelectrode or of the electrolyte. The electrolyte undergoes no net chemical change because the oxidation occurring at the photoelectrode is reversed at the cathode. Conversion of monochromatic light at 633 nm to electricity is shown to be up to approximately 9% efficient with output potentials of approximately 0.4 V. Conversion of solar energy to electricity is estimated to be approximately 2% efficient.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  19. Fusion of light ion systems at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Howard, W.M.; Cusson, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental fusion cross sections for light ion systems at energies below the Coulomb barrier become available in greater and greater number, and provide a stringent test of the macroscopic and microscopic physics involved in models of heavy-ion reactions. Measurements and predictions of the fusion cross sections for 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 16 O and 16 O + 16 O are also of major importance in astrophysics. (orig.) [de

  20. Production of light fragments in hA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1988-12-01

    Production of fast relativistic light fragments in hA collisions at high energies is considered. Direct coalescence of produced nucleons into fragments is shown to be the main mechanism for fragment production. The influence of the nuclear field is small and is not described by the well-known Butler-Pearson formulas. The coalescence coefficient strongly depends on the angle and on the behaviour of the fragment wave function at small internucleon distances. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  1. Effects of a power and photon energy of incident light on near-field etching properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, T.; Saito, H.; Nishioka, K.; Leuschel, B.; Soppera, O.; Nobusada, K.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a near-field etching technique for realizing an ultra-flat surfaces of various materials and structures. To elucidate the near-field etching properties, we have investigated the effects of power and the photon energy of the incident light. First, we established theoretically that an optical near-field with photon energy lower than the absorption edge of the molecules can induce molecular vibrations. We used nanodiamonds to study the power dependence of the near-field etching properties. From the topological changes of the nanodiamonds, we confirmed the linear-dependence of the etching volume with the incident power. Furthermore, we studied the photon energy dependence using TiO2 nanostriped structures, which revealed that a lower photon energy results in a lower etching rate.

  2. Calculated energy distributions for light 0.25--18-keV ions scattered from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Harms, A.A.; Karapetsas, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Scattered energy distributions are calculated for light ions incident on Nb and Mo surfaces of interest for controlled nulcear fusion reactors. The scattered energy is found to vary as a function of the reflection coefficient between a multiple-collision limit at low energies and a single-collision Rutherford scattering limit at high energies. High-energy peaking of the scattered particle distributions is also found for low incident energies

  3. High energy gain in three-dimensional simulations of light sail acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgattoni, A., E-mail: andrea.sgattoni@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, u.o.s. “Adriano Gozzini,” Pisa (Italy); Sinigardi, S. [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, u.o.s. “Adriano Gozzini,” Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); INFN sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Macchi, A. [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, u.o.s. “Adriano Gozzini,” Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-25

    The dynamics of radiation pressure acceleration in the relativistic light sail regime are analysed by means of large scale, three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Differently to other mechanisms, the 3D dynamics leads to faster and higher energy gain than in 1D or 2D geometry. This effect is caused by the local decrease of the target density due to transverse expansion leading to a “lighter sail.” However, the rarefaction of the target leads to an earlier transition to transparency limiting the energy gain. A transverse instability leads to a structured and inhomogeneous ion distribution.

  4. Phosphorescence as a probe of exciton formation and energy transfer in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Segal, M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of highly efficient phosphorescent molecules has approximately quadrupled the quantum efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). By harnessing triplet as well as singlet excitons, efficient molecular phosphorescence has also enabled novel studies of exciton physics in organic semiconductors. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in understanding exciton formation and energy transfer using phosphorescent molecular probes. Particular emphasis is given to two topics of current interest: energy transfer in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, and quantifying the formation ratio of singlet to triplet excitons in small-molecular weight materials and polymers. (orig.)

  5. High energy gain in three-dimensional simulations of light sail acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgattoni, A.; Sinigardi, S.; Macchi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of radiation pressure acceleration in the relativistic light sail regime are analysed by means of large scale, three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Differently to other mechanisms, the 3D dynamics leads to faster and higher energy gain than in 1D or 2D geometry. This effect is caused by the local decrease of the target density due to transverse expansion leading to a “lighter sail.” However, the rarefaction of the target leads to an earlier transition to transparency limiting the energy gain. A transverse instability leads to a structured and inhomogeneous ion distribution.

  6. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  7. Application of users’ light-switch stochastic models to dynamic energy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camisassi, V.; Fabi, V.; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2015-01-01

    deterministic inputs, due to the uncertain nature of human behaviour. In this paper, new stochastic models of users’ interaction with artificial lighting systems are developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE. They were developed from field measurements in an office building in Prague......The design of an innovative building should include building overall energy flows estimation. They are principally related to main six influencing factors (IEA-ECB Annex 53): climate, building envelope and equipment, operation and maintenance, occupant behaviour and indoor environment conditions...

  8. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  9. The health risks associated with energy efficient fluorescent, LEDs, and artificial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Allen

    2014-09-01

    With the phasing out of incandescent lamps in many countries, the introduction of new LED based light sources and luminaries sometimes raise the question of whether the spectral characteristics of the LED and other energy savings Fluorescent lights including the popular CFLs are suitable to replace the traditional incandescent lamps. These concerns are sometimes raised particularly for radiation emissions in the UV and Blue parts of the spectrum. This paper aims to address such concerns for the common `white light' sources typically used in household and other general lighting used in the work place. Recent studies have shown that women working the night shift have an increased probability of developing breast cancer. We like to report on the findings of many studies done by medical professionals, in particular the recent announcement of AMA in the US and many studies conducted in the UK, as well as the European community to increase public awareness on the long term health risks of the optical and opto-biological effects on the human health caused by artificial lighting.

  10. Energy efficient lighting and controls at North Lanarkshire Council: Good practice case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The Sir Matt Busby Sports Complex is an important local facility for the people of Bellshill, North Lanarkshire. The sports and leisure complex, a North Lanarkshire Council property, offers a combination of indoor and outdoor sporting facilities including a floodlit synthetic football pitch and a comprehensive mix of swimming, sauna, gym and sports hall facilities. The electrical demand imposed by lighting for any business can be very significant, constituting up to 30% of the electrical power consumption. At the Sir Matt Busby Sports Complex a combination of new efficient light fittings and controls has improved lighting levels, reduced overall energy consumption by nearly 10% and provided substantial cost savings. The Carbon Trust has assisted the Council by identifying and prioritising energy saving opportunities and providing a prioritised implementation plan. This partnership arrangement and the Council's access to UK Pound 930,000 of 'spend to save' funding, provided by the Scottish Executive, has allowed the rapid implementation of energy efficiency measures. (GB)

  11. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Aliprantis, Dionysios C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  12. Energy efficiency effect on the public street lighting by using LED light replacement and kwh-meter installation at DKI Jakarta Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmono, Panggih; Deendarlianto; Widyaparaga, Adhika

    2018-05-01

    Public street lighting consumes large energy for the public interest, but many street lights still do not use energy-saving technologies. In 2014, Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta operated 179,305 units of street lights. Of the number of installed armature, 92 % of them or 166,441 units are HPS (High-Pressure Sodium) armatures which are inefficient. In 2016, the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta cut down the energy used for street lighting, by implementing the programs of kWh-meter installation in every street lighting panel and use energy-saving lamps equipped with the smart system. The Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta is registered with 6,399 customer IDs in PLN (State Owned Electric Company), and gradually carried out the kWh Meter installation and changes to the contract. The program to use energy-saving lights done by replacing the HPS armature that is not energy efficient to LED armature which is known to be energy efficient. Until the end of 2016, the number of armatures that has been replaced was 89,417 units. The research results on 25 samples of PLN customer IDs and the replacement of 2,162 units armature, showed that the energy efficiency through kWh meter installation and armature replacement reduce the power consumption from 330,414 kWh to 71,278 kWh or by 78.43%. Generally, there was a decrease in the value of electricity bill compared to the before the replacement. The program of kWh-meter installations and replacement of the armature has a payback period of 2.66 years.

  13. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  14. Engineering Designed Proteins for Light Capture, Energy Transfer, and Emissive Sensing In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Joshua A.

    Proteins that are used for photosynthetic light harvesting and biological signaling are critical to life. These types of proteins act as scaffolds that hold small, sometimes metal-containing organic molecules in precise locations for light absorption and successive use. For signaling proteins, this energy can be used to induce a photoisomerization of the small molecule that can turn on or off a signaling cascade that controls the physiology of an organism. Alternatively, photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins funnel this energy in a directional manner towards a charge separating catalytic component that can change this light energy into chemical energy. The protein environment also serves to tune the photophysical properties of the small molecules. This is seen extensively with the linear tetrapyrroles that are used in both photosynthetic and signaling proteins. Many efforts have been made to harness these natural proteins for societal use, including improving photophysical properties and interfacing capabilities with manmade catalytic components. Several methods of achieving improvement have entailed structurally guided mutation and directed evolution. However, these methods all have their limitations due to the inherent complexity and fragility of the natural proteins. This work presents an alternative more robust method to natural proteins. My thesis states: that man-made proteins, known as maquettes, employing basic rules of protein folding, can be designed to become light harvesting and signaling proteins that can be assembled fully in vivo providing an alternative, robust, and versatile platform for meeting the diverse array of societal "green chemistry" and biomedical needs. This in vivo assembly is carried out by interacting with cyanobacterial protein and pigment machinery, both as stand-alone units and as protein fusions with natural antenna complexes. Additionally, this work offers insight for fast and tight binding of circular and linear tetrapyrroles

  15. Block level energy planning for domestic lighting - a multi-objective fuzzy linear programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, C. [Indian Inst. of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata (India); Chattopadhyay, R.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Rural Development Centre

    2004-09-01

    Creating provisions for domestic lighting is important for rural development. Its significance in rural economy is unquestionable since some activities, like literacy, education and manufacture of craft items and other cottage products are largely dependent on domestic lighting facilities for their progress and prosperity. Thus, in rural energy planning, domestic lighting remains a key sector for allocation of investments. For rational allocation, decision makers need alternative strategies for identifying adequate and proper investment structure corresponding to appropriate sources and precise devices. The present study aims at designing a model of energy utilisation by developing a decision support frame for an optimised solution to the problem, taking into consideration four sources and six devices suitable for the study area, namely Narayangarh Block of Midnapore District in India. Since the data available from rural and unorganised sectors are often ill-defined and subjective in nature, many coefficients are fuzzy numbers, and hence several constraints appear to be fuzzy expressions. In this study, the energy allocation model is initiated with three separate objectives for optimisation, namely minimising the total cost, minimising the use of non-local sources of energy and maximising the overall efficiency of the system. Since each of the above objective-based solutions has relevance to the needs of the society and economy, it is necessary to build a model that makes a compromise among the three individual solutions. This multi-objective fuzzy linear programming (MOFLP) model, solved in a compromising decision support frame, seems to be a more rational alternative than single objective linear programming model in rural energy planning. (author)

  16. Recent development of organic light-emitting diode utilizing energy transfer from exciplex to phosphorescent emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Satoshi; Shitagaki, Satoko; Ohsawa, Nobuharu; Inoue, Hideko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Nowatari, Hiromi; Takahashi, Tatsuyoshi; Hamada, Takao; Watabe, Takeyoshi; Yamada, Yui; Mitsumori, Satomi

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) utilizing energy transfer from an excited complex (exciplex) comprising donor and acceptor molecules to a phosphorescent dopant. An exciplex has a very small energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states (S1 and T1). Thus, both S1 and T1 energies of the exciplex can be directly transferred to the T1 of the phosphorescent dopant by adjusting the emission energy of the exciplex to the absorption-edge energy of the dopant. Such an exciplex‒triplet energy transfer (ExTET) achieves high efficiency at low drive voltage because the electrical excitation energy of the exciplex approximates the T1 energy of the dopant. Furthermore, the efficiency of the reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) of the exciplex does not affect the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the ExTET OLED. The RISC of the exciplex is inhibited when the T1 energy of either donor or acceptor molecules is close to or lower than that of the exciplex itself. Even in this case, however, the ExTET OLED maintains its high efficiency because the T1 energy of each component of the exciplex or the T1 energy of the exciplex itself can be transferred to the dopant. We also varied the emission colors of ExTET OLEDs from sky-blue to red by introducing various phosphorescent dopants. These devices achieved high EQEs (≍30%), low drive voltages (≍3 V), and extremely long lifetimes (e.g., 1 million hours for the orange OLED) at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m2.

  17. Impact assessment of energy-efficient lighting in patients with lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L; Dawe, R; Ibbotson, S; Ferguson, J; Silburn, S; Moseley, H

    2014-03-01

    Patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) are often abnormally photosensitive. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure can not only induce cutaneous lesions but may also contribute to systemic flares and disease progression. Various forms of energy-efficient lighting have been shown to emit UV radiation. To determine the effects of these emissions on individuals with LE. This assessment investigated cutaneous responses to repeated exposures from three types of lighting: compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), light-emitting diode (LED) and energy-efficient halogen (EEH). The subjects were 15 patients with LE and a control group of five healthy volunteers. No cutaneous LE lesions were induced by any of the light sources. Delayed skin erythema was induced at the site of CFL irradiation in six of the 15 patients with LE and two of the five healthy subjects. Erythema was increased in severity and more persistent in patients with LE. One patient with LE produced a positive delayed erythema to the EEH. A single patient with LE produced immediate abnormal erythemal responses to the CFL, LED and EEH. Further investigation revealed that this patient also had solar urticaria. All other subjects had negative responses to LED exposure. Compact fluorescent lamps emit UV that can induce skin erythema in both individuals with LE and healthy individuals when situated in close proximity. However, this occurs to a greater extent and is more persistent in patients with LE. EEHs emit UVA that can induce erythema in patients with LE. LEDs provide a safer alternative light source without risk of UV exposure. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  19. Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism energy efficiency lighting projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built to assist the sampling plan for CDM projects. • The model minimises the total metering cost by the determination of optimal sample size. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is maintained. • The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM projects as well. - Abstract: Clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers are always interested in achieving required measurement accuracies with the least metering cost. In this paper, a metering cost minimisation model is proposed for the sampling plan of a specific CDM energy efficiency lighting project. The problem arises from the particular CDM sampling requirement of 90% confidence and 10% precision for the small-scale CDM energy efficiency projects, which is known as the 90/10 criterion. The 90/10 criterion can be met through solving the metering cost minimisation problem. All the lights in the project are classified into different groups according to uncertainties of the lighting energy consumption, which are characterised by their statistical coefficient of variance (CV). Samples from each group are randomly selected to install power meters. These meters include less expensive ones with less functionality and more expensive ones with greater functionality. The metering cost minimisation model will minimise the total metering cost through the determination of the optimal sample size at each group. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost objective. The optimal solution to the minimisation problem will therefore minimise the metering cost whilst meeting the 90/10 criterion, and this is verified by a case study. Relationships between the optimal metering cost and the population sizes of the groups, CV values and the meter equipment cost are further explored in three simulations. The metering cost minimisation model proposed for lighting systems is applicable to other CDM projects as

  20. The experience of the LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in low cost energy networks for rural electrification; A experiencia da LIGHT na implantacao de redes de baixo custo para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Fernando F; Andre, Oswaldo P [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows the experience of LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in planning and implementation of low cost energy networks in rural electrification. Were also showed guidelines for consumer`s orientation, viability of installations and wiring options. 4 figs., 16 tabs., 12 refs.

  1. Holidays in lights: Tracking cultural patterns in demand for energy services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Miguel O.; Stokes, Eleanor C.

    2015-06-01

    Successful climate change mitigation will involve not only technological innovation, but also innovation in how we understand the societal and individual behaviors that shape the demand for energy services. Traditionally, individual energy behaviors have been described as a function of utility optimization and behavioral economics, with price restructuring as the dominant policy lever. Previous research at the macro-level has identified economic activity, power generation and technology, and economic role as significant factors that shape energy use. However, most demand models lack basic contextual information on how dominant social phenomenon, the changing demographics of cities, and the sociocultural setting within which people operate, affect energy decisions and use patterns. Here we use high-quality Suomi-NPP VIIRS nighttime environmental products to: (1) observe aggregate human behavior through variations in energy service demand patterns during the Christmas and New Year's season and the Holy Month of Ramadan and (2) demonstrate that patterns in energy behaviors closely track sociocultural boundaries at the country, city, and district level. These findings indicate that energy decision making and demand is a sociocultural process as well as an economic process, often involving a combination of individual price-based incentives and societal-level factors. While nighttime satellite imagery has been used to map regional energy infrastructure distribution, tracking daily dynamic lighting demand at three major scales of urbanization is novel. This methodology can enrich research on the relative importance of drivers of energy demand and conservation behaviors at fine scales. Our initial results demonstrate the importance of seating energy demand frameworks in a social context.

  2. Holiday in Lights: Tracking Cultural Patterns in Demand for Energy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Stokes, Eleanor C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful climate change mitigation will involve not only technological innovation, but also innovation in how we understand the societal and individual behaviors that shape the demand for energy services. Traditionally, individual energy behaviors have been described as a function of utility optimization and behavioral economics, with price restructuring as the dominant policy lever. Previous research at the macro-level has identified economic activity, power generation and technology, and economic role as significant factors that shape energy use. However, most demand models lack basic contextual information on how dominant social phenomenon, the changing demographics of cities, and the sociocultural setting within which people operate, affect energy decisions and use patterns. Here we use high-quality Suomi-NPP VIIRS nighttime environmental products to: (1) observe aggregate human behavior through variations in energy service demand patterns during the Christmas and New Year's season and the Holy Month of Ramadan and (2) demonstrate that patterns in energy behaviors closely track sociocultural boundaries at the country, city, and district level. These findings indicate that energy decision making and demand is a sociocultural process as well as an economic process, often involving a combination of individual price-based incentives and societal-level factors. While nighttime satellite imagery has been used to map regional energy infrastructure distribution, tracking daily dynamic lighting demand at three major scales of urbanization is novel. This methodology can enrich research on the relative importance of drivers of energy demand and conservation behaviors at fine scales. Our initial results demonstrate the importance of seating energy demand frameworks in a social context.

  3. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  4. Can renewable energy turn Nigeria’s lights on? Briefing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, Chris

    2013-01-15

    Around 70 million Nigerians have no access to grid electricity. Reliable night-time lighting for households, for refrigeration, and affordable power for businesses would change many lives, and renewable energy has the potential to do this. But for solar power, hydropower and wind energy to be made available on a significant scale, government policy needs to change. Affordable loans to finance development and market growth for a range of installations, including solar thermal power, which shows major long-term potential for northern Nigeria, are essential. And government and non-government organisations must implement a strategy to increase understanding among individual consumers, business people and policymakers about the benefits of renewable energy.

  5. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies

  6. Energy down converting organic fluorophore functionalized mesoporous silica hybrids for monolith-coated light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Börgardts

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of organic fluorophores in mesoporous silica matrices for usage as energy down converting phosphors without employing inorganic transition or rare earth metals is reported in this article. Triethoxysilylpropyl-substituted derivatives of the blue emitting perylene, green emitting benzofurazane, and red emitting Nile red were synthesized and applied in the synthesis of mesoporous hybrid materials by postsynthetic grafting to commercially available MCM-41. These individually dye-functionalized hybrid materials are mixed in variable ratios to furnish a powder capable of emitting white light with CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.33 and an external quantum yield of 4.6% upon irradiation at 410 nm. Furthermore, as a proof of concept two different device setups of commercially available UV light emitting diodes, are coated with silica monoliths containing the three triethoxysilylpropyl-substituted fluorophore derivatives. These coatings are able to convert the emitted UV light into light with correlated color temperatures of very cold white (41100 K, 10700 K as well as a greenish white emission with correlated color temperatures of about 5500 K.

  7. Light energy attenuation through orthodontic ceramic brackets at different irradiation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Tiu, Szu Hui; McGuinness, Niall J P; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the total light energy (TLE) transmission through three types of ceramic brackets with, bracket alone and with the addition of orthodontic adhesive, at different exposure durations, and to compare the microhardness of the cured adhesive. Three different makes of ceramic brackets, Pure Sapphire(M), Clarity™ ADVANCED(P) and Dual Ceramic(P) were used. Eighteen specimens of each make were prepared and allocated to three groups (n = 6). MARC(®)-resin calibrator was used to determine the light curing unit (LCU) tip irradiance (mW/cm(2)) and TLE (J/cm(2)) transmitted through the ceramic brackets, and through ceramic bracket plus Transbond™ XT Light Cure Adhesive, for 5, 10 and 20 s. Vickers-hardness values at the bottom of the cured adhesive were determined. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); P = 0.05. TLE transmission rose significantly among all samples with increasing exposure durations. TLE reaching the adhesive- enamel interface was less than 10 J/cm(2), and through monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets was significantly different (P brackets. Clinicians are advised to measure the tip irradiance of their LCUs and increase curing time beyond 5 s. Orthodontic clinicians should understand the type of light curing device and the orthodontic adhesive used in their practice.

  8. Multi-sources model and control algorithm of an energy management system for light electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Azidin, F.A.; Mohamed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An energy management system (EMS) is developed for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. ► The battery, FC, SC, EMS, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are modeled and designed for the system. ► State-based logic control algorithms provide an efficient and feasible multi-source EMS for light electric vehicles. ► Vehicle’s speed and power are closely matched with the ECE-47 driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. ► Sources of energy changeover occurred at 50% of the battery state of charge level in heavy load conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents the multi-sources energy models and ruled based feedback control algorithm of an energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicle (LEV), i.e., scooters. The multiple sources of energy, such as a battery, fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC), EMS and power controller, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are designed and modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The developed control strategies continuously support the EMS of the multiple sources of energy for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and compared with that of the ECE-47 test drive cycle in terms of vehicle speed and load power. The results show that the designed vehicle’s speed and load power closely match those of the ECE-47 test driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. This study’s results suggest that the proposed control algorithm provides an efficient and feasible EMS for LEV.

  9. An assessment of Turkey's nuclear energy policy in light of South Korea's nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which was once considered as the fuel of future and was abandoned after Chernobyl accident, has emerged recently in developed and developing countries as an option to combat climate change, to secure supply and to achieve sustainable development. Turkey, a developing country where most of the electricity is produced from fossil fuels and which has energy security problems, has adopted a new legislation giving financial incentives for nuclear power plant construction, along with a tender in 2008. However, the tender ended in a stalemate after the Council of State's decision in November 2009. An evaluation of Turkey's nuclear policy in light of South Korea's nuclear experience gives us an explanation as to why Turkey failed in the last tender. Basically it was due to lack of a long term nuclear energy policy that comprehends social, economical, technical and political aspects of nuclear energy. Thus, it is argued that Turkey can benefit from nuclear energy if it formulates a comprehensive nuclear energy plan clearly interwoven with its economic development plans, establishes a proper legal framework and has domestic industry participation in nuclear technology development.

  10. 75 FR 53963 - Notice of Baseline Filings: The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, Minnesota Energy Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-86-000, Docket No. PR10-87-000, Docket No. PR10-88- 000, Docket No. PR10-89-000, Docket No. PR10-90-000] Notice of Baseline Filings: The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation, Louisville Gas...

  11. Intensification of anaerobic digestion efficiency with use of mechanical excess sludge disintegration in the context of increased energy production in wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Żubrowska-Sudoł Monika; Podedworna Jolanta; Bisak Agnieszka; Sytek-Szmeichel Katarzyna; Krawczyk Piotr; Garlicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical sludge disintegration for enhancing full scale anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. Batch disintegration tests and lab dewatering tests were also performed aiming at determining the release of organic compounds and assessing the impact of disintegration of excess sludge before the fermentation process of mixed sludge on the dewaterability of post-fermented sludge, respectively. In the study a disc disintegrator driven by...

  12. Extra light and save energy in ideal winter-light greenhouse : effect of condensation still being researched

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of companies, together with Wageningen UR, is developing a greenhouse that will maximise the amount of light entering between October and March. The goal is to achieve 10% extra yield during these months. The gain in light should come from a combination of various adjustments and

  13. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  14. Light vehicle energy efficiency programs and their impact on Brazilian CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, William; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of an energy efficiency program for light vehicles in Brazil on emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the main greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Several energy efficiency programs for light vehicles around the world are reviewed. The cases of Japan and Europe were selected for presentation here given their status as current and future world leaders in the control of passenger vehicle fuel consumption. The launching of the National Climate Change Plan and the pressure on the Brazilian car industry due to the world financial crisis make it a good time for the Brazilian government to implement such a program, and its various benefits are highlighted in this study. Three scenarios are established for Brazil covering the 2000-2030 period: the first with no efficiency goals, the second with the Japanese goals applied with a 10 years delay, and the third, with the Japanese goals applied with no delay. The consequences of a vehicular efficiency program and its middle and long-term effects on the consumption of energy and the CO 2 emissions are quantified and discussed. The simulation results indicate that efficiency goals may make an important contribution to reducing vehicular emissions and fuel consumption in Brazil, compared to a baseline scenario.

  15. Light vehicle energy efficiency programs and their impact on Brazilian CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, William; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Centro de Estudos Integrados sobre Meio Ambiente e Mudancas Climaticas, Centro Clima/COPPE/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I2000, sala 208, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper analyses the impact of an energy efficiency program for light vehicles in Brazil on emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the main greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Several energy efficiency programs for light vehicles around the world are reviewed. The cases of Japan and Europe were selected for presentation here given their status as current and future world leaders in the control of passenger vehicle fuel consumption. The launching of the National Climate Change Plan and the pressure on the Brazilian car industry due to the world financial crisis make it a good time for the Brazilian government to implement such a program, and its various benefits are highlighted in this study. Three scenarios are established for Brazil covering the 2000-2030 period: the first with no efficiency goals, the second with the Japanese goals applied with a 10 years delay, and the third, with the Japanese goals applied with no delay. The consequences of a vehicular efficiency program and its middle and long-term effects on the consumption of energy and the CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified and discussed. The simulation results indicate that efficiency goals may make an important contribution to reducing vehicular emissions and fuel consumption in Brazil, compared to a baseline scenario. (author)

  16. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R.; Bianchi, F.; Blumstengel, S.; Christodoulou, C.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kobin, B.; Moudgil, K.; Barlow, S.; Hecht, S.; Marder, S.R.; Henneberger, F.; Koch, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach. PMID:25872919

  17. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N

    2015-04-15

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.

  18. Energy dependence of acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectrum at mid-rapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN} = 19.6 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calder'on de la Barca S'anchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-11-01

    The acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectra, where the known hadronic sources have been subtracted from the inclusive dielectron mass spectra, are reported for the first time at mid-rapidity |yee | < 1 in minimum-bias Au +Au collisions at √{sNN} = 19.6 and 200 GeV. The excess mass spectra are consistently described by a model calculation with a broadened ρ spectral function for Mee < 1.1 GeV /c2. The integrated dielectron excess yield at √{sNN} = 19.6 GeV for 0.4 excess yield in central collisions is higher than that at √{sNN} = 17.3 GeV and increases from peripheral to central collisions. These measurements indicate that the lifetime of the hot, dense medium created in central Au +Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV is longer than those in peripheral collisions and at lower energies.

  19. Energy dependence of acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectrum at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at sNN=19.6 and 200 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectra, where the known hadronic sources have been subtracted from the inclusive dielectron mass spectra, are reported for the first time at mid-rapidity |yee|<1 in minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at sNN=19.6 and 200 GeV. The excess mass spectra are consistently described by a model calculation with a broadened ρ spectral function for Mee<1.1 GeV/c2. The integrated dielectron excess yield at sNN=19.6 GeV for 0.4excess yield in central collisions is higher than that at sNN=17.3 GeV and increases from peripheral to central collisions. These measurements indicate that the lifetime of the hot, dense medium created in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV is longer than those in peripheral collisions and at lower energies.

  20. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have this type are otherwise healthy. In medical terminology, the word “primary” means that the cause is not another medical condition. Secondary hyperhidrosis In medical terminology, “secondary” means that the excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) has ...

  1. Anisotropic light diffraction in crystals with a large acoustic-energy walk-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakshy, V. I.; Voloshin, A. S.; Molchanov, V. Ya.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of energy walk-off in an acoustic beam on the characteristic of anisotropic Bragg diffraction of light has been investigated by the example of paratellurite crystal. The angular and frequency characteristics of acousto-optic diffraction have been calculated in wide ranges of ultrasound frequencies and Bragg angles using the modified Raman-Nath equations. It is shown that the walk-off of an acoustic beam may change (either widen or narrow) significantly the frequency and angular ranges. The calculation results have been experimentally checked on an acousto-optic cell made of 10.5°-cut paratellurite crystal.

  2. Spatial distribution of fluorescent light emitted from neon and nitrogen excited by low energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ulrich, A.; Wieser, J.

    2006-01-01

    Side-view intensity profiles of fluorescent light were measured for neon and nitrogen excited with 12 keV electron beams at gas pressures from 250 to 1400 hPa. The intensity profiles were compared with theoretical profiles calculated using the CASINO program which performs Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering. It was assumed that the spatial distribution of fluorescent intensity is directly proportional to the spatial distribution of energy loss by primary electrons. The comparison shows good correlation of experimental data and the results of numeric simulations

  3. Porphyrin nanorods characterisation for an artificial light harvesting and energy transfer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mongwaketsi, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available s 1 0 h r s 1 3 h r s 1 5 h r s 1 8 h r s Porphyrin Nanorods Characterization for an Artificial Light Harvesting and Energy Transfer System Nametso Mongwaketsi1,2,3, Raymond Sparrow2, Bert Klumperman3, Malik Maaza1 1 NanoSciences Lab..., Materials Research Dept, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West, 7129, South Africa 2 CSIR Biosciences, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 3 Stellenbosch University, Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Private Bag X 1, Matieland, 7602...

  4. The high-energy x-ray diffraction and scattering beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Dina, G.; Kycia, S.

    2018-06-01

    The optical design for the high-energy x-ray diffraction and scattering beamline of the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian Light Source is described. The design is based on a single side-bounce silicon focusing monochromator that steers the central part of a high-field permanent magnet wiggler beam into the experimental station. Two different configurations are proposed: a higher energy resolution with vertical focusing and a lower energy resolution with horizontal and vertical focusing. The monochromator will have the possibility of mounting three crystals: one crystal optimized for 35 keV that focuses in the horizontal and vertical directions using reflection (1,1,1) and two other crystals both covering the energies above 40 keV: one with only vertical focusing and another one with horizontal and vertical focusing. The geometry of the last two monochromator crystals was optimized to use reflections (4,2,2) and (5,3,3) to cover the broad energy range from 40 to 95 keV.

  5. Use of Natural Light vs. Cold LED Lighting in Installations for the Recovery of Victims of Gender Violence: Impact on Energy Consumption and Victims’ Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Amorim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of lighting installations is a major challenge concerning Governments, productive sectors and individuals. However, the importance of accurate lighting in some areas, especially those related to Health and Wellbeing is so critical that the constraints of energy efficiency and sustainability are not always a priority. This situation has become more critical with the current boom in the application of non-visual effects of light to these areas. In this study, the effects oftwo different kinds of lighting on femalevictims of gender violence are compared and analyzed in terms of positive results and impact on energy consumption and sustainability. The lighting technologies used are integrated in facilities where these women carry out different activities aimed at their integration into daily life after their traumatic experiences. The results are expected to become a tool for professionals working with these collectives and for installation designers. In spite of the well-known effects of cold light, especially for tasks involving arousal, sleepiness and other critical variables, it is demonstrated that daylight, which is obviously cheaper from productive and environmental perspectives, is better for this application.

  6. Solar-energy production and energy-efficient lighting: photovoltaic devices and white-light-emitting diodes using poly(2,7-fluorene), poly(2,7-carbazole), and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Serge; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Leclerc, Mario

    2010-02-23

    World energy needs grow each year. To address global warming and climate changes the search for renewable energy sources with limited greenhouse gas emissions and the development of energy-efficient lighting devices are underway. This Review reports recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of conjugated polymers based on bridged phenylenes, namely, poly(2,7-fluorene)s, poly(2,7-carbazole)s, and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole)s, for applications in solar cells and white-light-emitting diodes. The main strategies and remaining challenges in the development of reliable and low-cost renewable sources of energy and energy-saving lighting devices are discussed.

  7. Energy cost unit of street and park lighting system with solar technology for a more friendly city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, E.; Nasution, F. S.; Fahmi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Street and park lighting system is part of a basic infrastructure need to be available in such a friendly city. Enough light will provide more comfort to citizens, especially at night since its function to illuminate roads and park environments around the covered area. The necessity to add more and more lighting around the city caused the rapid growth of the street and park lighting system while the power from PLN (national electricity company) is insufficient and the cost is getting higher. Therefore, it is necessary to consider other energy sources that are economical, environmentally friendly with good continuity. Indonesia, which located on the equator, have benefited from getting solar radiation throughout the year. This free solar radiation can be utilized as an energy source converted by solar cells to empower street and park lighting system. In this study, we planned the street and park lighting with solar technology as alternatives. It was found that for Kota Medan itself, an average solar radiation intensity of 3,454.17 Wh / m2 / day is available. By using prediction and projection method, it was calculated that the energy cost unit for this system was at Rp 3,455.19 per kWh. This cost was higher than normal energy cost unit but can answer the scarcity of energy availability for street and park lighting system

  8. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  9. The azimuthally anisotropic emission of unstable light nuclear in the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiyong; Jin Genming; Li Zuyu; Duan Limin; Dai Guangxi; Zhang Baoguo; Wu Heyu; Wen Wanxin; Qi Yujin; Luo Qingzheng

    1996-01-01

    The unstable light nuclei emitted in the interaction of 40 Ar on 197 Au have been detected at energy of 25 MeV/u by using particle-particle correlation measurement at small relative angle. Their in-plane and out-of-plane emission were measured for three bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter. The enhanced in-plane emission for mid-rapidity unstable nuclei is observed. This enhanced in-plane emission becomes stronger with increasing of impact parameter, but changes small with the mass of unstable nuclei. The in-plane enhancement decreases slightly with the energy of excited state of unstable nuclei. For projectile-like unstable nuclei, the in-plane emission dominates as expected

  10. Thermographic Mobile Mapping of Urban Environment for Lighting and Energy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lagüela López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of 3D models of buildings has been proved as a useful procedure for multiple applications related to energy, from energy rehabilitation management to design of heating systems, analysis of solar contribution to both heating and lighting of buildings. In a greater scale, 3D models of buildings can be used for the evaluation of heat islands, and the global thermal inertia of neighborhoods, which are essential knowledge for urban planning. This paper presents a complete methodology for the generation of 3D models of buildings at big-scale: neighborhoods, villages; including thermographic information as provider of information of the thermal behavior of the building elements and ensemble. The methodology involves sensor integration in a mobile unit for data acquisition, and data processing for the generation of the final thermographic 3D models of urban environment.

  11. Making use of the energy potential of hybrid heat production from excess green electricity; Energetische Potenziale hybrider Waermeerzeugung aus Oekostrom-Ueberangeboten nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmann, Lukas; Riegebauer, Philipp; Oesterwind, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Innovative Energiesysteme (ZIES), Duesseldorf (Germany); Muench, Wolfram [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Convert electricity to heat? Integration with the heat market opens up the option of using excess yields of electricity from renewable resources for hybrid provision of room heating, warm water and process steam. Environmental protection associations such as BUND e.V. (Association for Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation) are demanding a ban on conventional electric heating, but at the same time acknowledge the potential of plants that can flexibly switch between generating heat from fossil fuels and from electricity. Time for a paradigm change.

  12. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  13. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Sabatini, Randy; Walters, Grant; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Li, Yiying; Fan, James Z.; Tan, Hairen; Pan, Jun; Yuan, Mingjian; Bakr, Osman; Lu, Zhenghong; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  14. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na

    2017-05-10

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  15. Application specific dimensioning of energy storage systems for light rail vehicles; Betriebsspezifische Auslegung von Energiespeichern fuer Strassenbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausner, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme IVI, Dresden (Germany). Abt. fuer Emissionsfreie Antriebe und Energiespeicher; Lehnert, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme IVI, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The insertion of electric energy storage systems to obtain a decreasing energy and power demand of trams and light rail vehicles can occur as stationary or mobile construction. For the dimensioning of a mobile energy storage system the objective of the application has to be fixed. At the practical example of the tram in Dresden the dimensioning with the goal energy saving is demonstrated. (orig.)

  16. On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Lj; Skoric, M.M.; Ishiguro, S.; Sato, T.

    2002-11-01

    Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave (ω p ). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)

  17. Photoemission spectroscopy study on interfacial energy level alignments in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn; Tang, Jian-Xin, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The interface energetics of tandem OLEDs is overviewed. • Energy level alignment in CGLs is addressed via photoemission spectroscopy. • The n-type doping effect with cesium compounds is discussed. • Hole injection barrier is dependent on oxygen vacancies in transition metal oxides. • Device lifetime of tandem OLEDs is sensitive to interfacial stability of CGLs. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a tandem structure offer a highly attractive option for the applications of next-generation flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to the extremely high brightness and efficiency along with the long operational lifetime. In general, reliable information about interface energetics of the charge generation layers (CGLs), which plays the central role in charge generation and carrier injection into the stacked emission units, is highly desirable and advantageous for interface engineering and the performance optimization of tandem OLEDs. In this review, our recent studies on tandem OLEDs are overviewed, especially from interface energetics perspective via photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic structures of various transition metal oxide (TMO)-based CGLs and their role in charge generation process are reviewed, addressing the n-type doping impact of organic layers in CGLs, thermal annealing-induced oxygen vacancy in TMOs, and the interfacial stability of CGLs on the device operational lifetime. The resulting energy level alignments are summarized in correspondence with tandem OLED performance.

  18. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  19. Multifunctional Device based on phosphor-piezoelectric PZT: lighting, speaking, and mechanical energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghoon; Kang, Taewook; Lee, Wunho; Afandi, Mohammad M; Ryu, Jongho; Kim, Jongsu

    2018-01-10

    We demonstrated the tri-functional device based on all powder-processing methods by using ZnS powder as phosphor layer and piezoelectric material as dielectric layer. The fabricated device generated the electroluminescent (EL) light from phosphor and the sound from piezoelectric sheet under a supply of external electric power, and additionally harvested the reverse-piezoelectric energy to be converted into EL light. Under sinusoidal applied voltage, EL luminances were exponentially increased with a maximum luminous efficiency of 1.3 lm/W at 40 V and 1,000 Hz, and sound pressure levels (SPLs) were linearly increased. The EL luminances were linearly dependent on applied frequency while the SPLs showed the parabolic increase behavior below 1,000 Hz and then the flat response. The temperature dependence on EL luminances and SPLs was demonstrated; the former was drastically increased and the latter was slightly decreased with the increase of temperature. Finally, as an energy harvesting application, the piezoelectric-induced electroluminescence effect was demonstrated by applying only mechanical pressure to the device without any external electric power.

  20. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena

    2017-11-01

    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  1. Conversion of light-energy into molecular strain in the photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P; Kaila, Ville R I

    2016-01-28

    The Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) is a light-driven photoreceptor, responsible for the phototaxis of halophilic bacteria. Recently, a new short-lived intermediate (pR0) was characterized in the PYP photocycle using combined time-resolved X-ray crystallography and density functional theory calculations. The pR0 species was identified as a highly contorted cis-intermediate, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with protein residues. Here we show by hybrid quantum mechanics/classical mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations, and first-principles calculations of optical properties, that the optical shifts in the early steps of the PYP photocycle originate from the conversion of light energy into molecular strain, stored in the pR0 state, and its relaxation in subsequent reaction steps. Our calculations quantitatively reproduce experimental data, which enables us to identify molecular origins of the optical shifts. Our combined approach suggests that the short-lived pR0 intermediate stores ∼1/3 of the photon energy as molecular strain, thus providing the thermodynamic driving force for later conformational changes in the protein.

  2. Artificial Light at Night Reduces Daily Energy Expenditure in Breeding Great Tits (Parus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk A. M. H. Welbers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and colors. In birds, effects of ALAN on activity levels are reported for several species and, hence, their daily energy expenditure (DEE may be affected. DEE is a potent mediator of life-history trade-offs and fitness and thus an important aspect to consider when examining the potential long-term ecological effects of ALAN. Previous work has suggested that birds exposed to ALAN show higher levels of provisioning and nocturnal activity, suggesting that white ALAN increases DEE. Other factors regulating DEE, such as provisioning behavior and food availability, might also respond to ALAN and thus indirectly affect DEE. We tested the hypothesis that ALAN increases DEE using an experimental setup where four previously unlit transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as a control treatment. This setup was replicated in eight locations across the Netherlands. We measured DEE of our focal species, the great tit (Parus major, using a novel doubly labeled water technique that uses breath rather than blood samples. Contrary to our expectations, birds feeding their offspring under white and green ALAN showed lower DEE compared to birds in the control dark treatment. Differences in chick provisioning activity did not explain this result, as neither visit rates nor daily activity timing was affected by light treatment. However, food availability under white and green light was much higher compared to red light and the dark control. This difference strongly suggests that the lower DEE under white and green ALAN sites is a consequence of higher food availability in these treatments. This result shows that there can be positive

  3. Neutron energy spectra produced by α-bombardment of light elements in thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the work, presented in this thesis, is to determine energy spectra of neutrons produced by α-particle bombardment of thick targets containing light elements. These spectra are required for nuclear waste management. The set-up of the neutron spectrometer is described, and its calibration discussed. Absolute efficiencies were determined at various neutron energies, using monoenergetic neutrons produced with the Van de Graaff accelerator in pulsed mode. The additional calibration of the neutron spectrometer as proton-recoil spectrometer was carried out primarily for future applications in measurements where no pulsed neutron source is available or the neutron flux density is too low. The basis for an accurate uncertainty analysis is made by the determination of the covariance matrix for the uncertainties in the efficiencies. The determination of the neutron energy spectra from time-of-flight and from proton-recoil measurements is described. A comparison of the results obtained from the two different types of measurements is made. The experimentally determined spectra were compared with spectra calculated from stopping powers and theoretically determined cross sections. These cross sections were calculated from optical model parameters and level parameters using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Measurements were carried out on thick targets of silicon, aluminium, magnesium, carbon, boron nitride, calcium fluoride, aluminium oxide, silicon oxide and uranium oxide at four different α-particle energies. (Auth.)

  4. Extension of Light-Harvesting Ability of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) through Ultrafast Energy Transfer from Covalently Attached Artificial Chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Yusuke; Noji, Tomoyasu; Katayama, Tetsuro; Mizutani, Naoto; Komori, Daisuke; Nango, Mamoru; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Yutaka; Dewa, Takehisa

    2015-10-14

    Introducing appropriate artificial components into natural biological systems could enrich the original functionality. To expand the available wavelength range of photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila 10050), artificial fluorescent dye (Alexa Fluor 647: A647) was covalently attached to N- and C-terminal Lys residues in LH2 α-polypeptides with a molar ratio of A647/LH2 ≃ 9/1. Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopies revealed that intracomplex energy transfer from A647 to intrinsic chromophores of LH2 (B850) occurs in a multiexponential manner, with time constants varying from 440 fs to 23 ps through direct and B800-mediated indirect pathways. Kinetic analyses suggested that B800 chromophores mediate faster energy transfer, and the mechanism was interpretable in terms of Förster theory. This study demonstrates that a simple attachment of external chromophores with a flexible linkage can enhance the light harvesting activity of LH2 without affecting inherent functions of energy transfer, and can achieve energy transfer in the subpicosecond range. Addition of external chromophores, thus, represents a useful methodology for construction of advanced hybrid light-harvesting systems that afford solar energy in the broad spectrum.

  5. A simple and accurate model for the design of public lighting with energy efficiency functions based on regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Ovidio; Gómez-Lorente, Daniel; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Peña-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, new relationships between the energy efficiency of street lighting systems, street width, and luminaire height were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs, generated with a software application widely used for lighting design. The result was a quadratic polynomial that perfectly fit the relationships obtained and whose coefficients characterize each type of luminaire. This greatly simplifies the design of lighting facilities because it only uses one equation, but at the same time, takes all necessary variables into account. The procedure maximized the energy efficiency of the street lighting systems, as far as conditions allowed, and greatly facilitated the calculation of the parameters of a basic lighting installation, according to CIE (International Commission on Illumination) recommendations. - Highlights: • New parameter relationships for efficient public lighting design were obtained. • A second-order polynomial simplifies the design of the lighting facilities using only one equation. • The procedure guarantees the maximization of energy efficiency of street lighting systems. • The results have been successfully tested with a well-known and reliable free software.

  6. An economic perspective on the reliability of lighting systems in building with highly efficient energy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, F.; Lieto Vollaro, A. de; Ferraro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper design of efficient lighting systems. • The reliability and durability of the light sources. • Maintenance of lighting systems. • Quality standards of LED lamps. • Optimum economic choice of light sources. - Abstract: The performance of lighting system must be calculated in order to determine the energy requirements of the building. In the normative [EN 12464-1] are established lighting requirements which have effects on energy needs. The European standard [EN 15193] provides guidance on that evaluation. The easiest way to comply with reduction of energy requirements leads to the replacement of traditional lamps with LED ones, but if we calculate also the reliability parameters, the economic return is not guaranteed. Using bibliographic data, we have compared lighting’s results for a museum (LED lamps versus CFL and halogen lamps). The objective function of the study is to optimize the energy consumption of lighting systems, but at the same time to assess the reliability (MTTF of the lamps) of these systems. Without accurate information about this last parameters, the right choice of the lamps cannot be done successfully

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of retrofit of high-intensity discharge factory lighting with energy-saving alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, D.J. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 1530 W. Tremont St, Allentown, PA 18102 (United States); Woodbury, K.A. [Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, The University of Alabama, 290 Hardaway Hall, Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Due to increased concern about overall energy costs and the appearance of efficient and inexpensive lighting system alternatives, factories and plants with high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting are forced to consider retrofit with more modern, energy-efficient lighting. The decision is complicated from an economic perspective, and there is a lack of information readily available on the topic. This study provides an analysis of the replacement by retrofit of common probe-start metal halide and high-pressure sodium industrial lighting systems. Retrofit options considered include the more recent pulse-start metal halide lamps and a range of T5 high output and T8 fluorescent lamp configurations. Recent data on lighting system pricing, labor and energy costs, and time required for tasks are reported. The results generated include savings, payback period, and net present value for many retrofit options, as well as the change in energy consumption, carbon footprint, and lumen output for each retrofit. Effects of varying rate of return and daily duration of operation are considered. Based on change in lumen output, payback period, net present value, and comparison of lighting quality, one or two options are recommended from the overall retrofit options considered. A fluorescent retrofit is recommended for each of the HID initial scenarios considered. The payback period is no more than 3 years in any recommended case. The focus of this study is on the potential energy and cost savings, and some proposed solutions may, or may not, be acceptable due to lack of illuminance uniformity.

  8. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  9. A code to determine the energy distribution, the incident energy and the flux of a beam of light ions into a stack of foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.; Romo, A.S.M.A.; Frosch, W.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The stacked-foil technique is one of the most used methods to obtain excitation functions of nuclear reactions using light ions as projectiles. The purpose of this program is the calculation of the energy of the beam in the stack, as well as to obtain the incident energy and the flux of the beam by using monitor excitation functions. (orig.)

  10. Bounds on an Energy-Dependent and Observer-Independent Speed of Light from Violations of Locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    We show that models with deformations of special relativity that have an energy-dependent speed of light have nonlocal effects. The requirement that the arising nonlocality is not in conflict with known particle physics allows us to derive strong bounds on deformations of special relativity and rule out a modification to first order in energy over the Planck mass.

  11. Daylight for energy-saving lamps. Recognizing with lighting sources free of charge; Tageslicht vor Energiesparlampen. Kostenlos verfuegbare Lichtquellen einplanen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Holger

    2010-07-01

    With saving energy in the lighting, politics, economics and private households set on compact fluorescent lamps, so called energy-saving lamps. A more economical and pollution free alternative is the increased use of daylight, which is free of charge and felt more pleasant by humans.

  12. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  13. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  14. Ultrafast Nonradiative Decay and Excitation Energy Transfer by Carotenoids in Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen

    This dissertation investigates the photophysical and structural dynamics that allow carotenoids to serve as efficient excitation energy transfer donor to chlorophyll acceptors in photosynthetic light harvesting proteins. Femtosecond transient grating spectroscopy with optical heterodyne detection has been employed to follow the nonradiative decay pathways of carotenoids and excitation energy transfer to chlorophylls. It was found that the optically prepared S2 (11Bu+) state of beta-carotene decays in 12 fs fs to populate an intermediate electronic state, Sx, which then decays nonradiatively to the S 1 state. The ultrafast rise of the dispersion component of the heterodyne transient grating signal reports the formation of Sx intermediate since the rise of the dispersion signal is controlled by the loss of stimulated emission from the S2 state. These findings were extended to studies of peridinin, a carbonyl substituted carotenoid that serves as a photosynthetic light-harvesting chromophore in dinoflagellates. Numerical simulations using nonlinear response formalism and the multimode Brownian oscillator model assigned the Sx intermediate to a torsionally distorted structure evolving on the S2 potential surface. The decay of the Sx state is promoted by large amplitude out-of-plane torsional motions and is significantly retarded by solvent friction owing to the development of an intramolecular charge transfer character in peridinin. The slowing of the nonradiative decay allows the Sx state to transfer significant portion of the excitation energy to chlorophyll a acceptors in the peridinin-chlorophyll a protein. The results of heterodyne transient grating study on peridinin-chlorophyll a protein suggests two distinct energy transfer channels from peridinin to chlorophyll a: a 30 fs process involving quantum coherence and delocalized peridinin-Chl states and an incoherent, 2.5 ps process involving the distorted S2 state of peridinin. The torsional evolution on the S2

  15. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  16. Cross section ratio and angular distributions of the reaction p + d → {sup 3}He + η at 48.8 MeV and 59.8 MeV excess energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Redmer, C.F.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Nuclear Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Hodana, M.; Jany, A.; Jany, B.R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Ozerianska, I.; Podkopal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G.J. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Tuebingen (Germany); Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Goslawski, P.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Passfeld, A.; Taeschner, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Bhatt, H.; Lalwani, K.; Varma, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroeher, H.; Wurm, P.; Zurek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Coderre, D.; Ritman, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (Germany); Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentralinstitut fuer Engineering, Elektronik und Analytik, Juelich (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Krapp, M.; Zink, A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Fedorets, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foehl, K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Goswami, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Grigoryev, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, Aachen (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energiy Physics, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Klos, B.; Stephan, E.; Weglorz, W. [University of Silesia, August Chelkowski Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Mikirtychiants, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (DE); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Leningrad district (RU); Pyszniak, A. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (SE); Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (PL); Roy, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (IN); Sawant, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai, Maharashtra (IN); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Serdyuk, V. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Moscow region (RU); Sopov, V. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP); Yurev, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Moscow region (RU); Zabierowski, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Lodz (PL); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY Collaboration

    2014-06-15

    We present new data for angular distributions and on the cross section ratio of the p+d → {sup 3}He + η reaction at excess energies of Q = 48.8 MeV and Q = 59.8 MeV. The data have been obtained at the WASA-at-COSY experiment (Forschungszentrum Juelich) using a proton beam and a deuterium pellet target. While the shape of obtained angular distributions show only a slow variation with the energy, the new results indicate a distinct and unexpected total cross section fluctuation between Q = 20 MeV and Q = 60 MeV, which might indicate the variation of the production mechanism within this energy interval. (orig.)

  17. Cross section ratio and angular distributions of the reaction p + d → 3He + η at 48.8 MeV and 59.8 MeV excess energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Redmer, C.F.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P.; Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Hodana, M.; Jany, A.; Jany, B.R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Ozerianska, I.; Podkopal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G.J.; Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Goslawski, P.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Passfeld, A.; Taeschner, A.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bhatt, H.; Lalwani, K.; Varma, R.; Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroeher, H.; Wurm, P.; Zurek, M.; Coderre, D.; Ritman, J.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P.; Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Krapp, M.; Zink, A.; Fedorets, P.; Foehl, K.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Klos, B.; Stephan, E.; Weglorz, W.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Pyszniak, A.; Roy, A.; Sawant, S.; Serdyuk, V.; Sopov, V.; Yamamoto, A.; Yurev, L.; Zabierowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present new data for angular distributions and on the cross section ratio of the p+d → 3 He + η reaction at excess energies of Q = 48.8 MeV and Q = 59.8 MeV. The data have been obtained at the WASA-at-COSY experiment (Forschungszentrum Juelich) using a proton beam and a deuterium pellet target. While the shape of obtained angular distributions show only a slow variation with the energy, the new results indicate a distinct and unexpected total cross section fluctuation between Q = 20 MeV and Q = 60 MeV, which might indicate the variation of the production mechanism within this energy interval. (orig.)

  18. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  19. Reduced energy consumption by massive thermoelectric waste heat recovery in light duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetto, D.; Vidiella, G.

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the EC funded HEATRECAR project is to reduce the energy consumption and curb CO2 emissions of vehicles by massively harvesting electrical energy from the exhaust system and re-use this energy to supply electrical components within the vehicle or to feed the power train of hybrid electrical vehicles. HEATRECAR is targeting light duty trucks and focuses on the development and the optimization of a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) including heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and DC/DC converter. The main objective of the project is to design, optimize and produce a prototype system to be tested on a 2.3l diesel truck. The base case is a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) producing 1 KWel at 130 km/h. We present the system design and estimated output power from benchmark Bi2Te3 modules. We discuss key drivers for the optimization of the thermal-to-electric efficiency, such as materials, thermo-mechanical aspects and integration.

  20. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  1. Characterizing high-energy light curves of Fermi/Lat GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, Jarred [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A systematic analysis of the light curves of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRBs) with redshift and detected at high-energy (> 100 MeV) by Fermi/LAT has never been done before our work, because there were only a handful of detections. Now we have 20 of those, which we can use to characterize the GRBs in their rest frame. We compared a characteristic decay times Tc of GRBs with redshifts using the new “Pass 8” data, and used a Crystal Ball function to parametrize GRB characteristics. An unexpected anti-correlation between Tc and the peak flux was observed. This means that brighter peaked GRBs have shorter durations. There is also no correlation between the Tc and the decay index, which makes the anti-correlation with brightness more clear. This results appears to be consistent with the External Shock model, which is one of the competing hypothesis on the origin of the high-energy emission. We did not observe any bimodality, which is seen in GRBs at lower energies.

  2. Resource Allocation for Outdoor Visible Light Communications with Energy Harvesting Capabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2018-01-25

    Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology that can support high data rate services for outdoor mass gathering night events while permitting energy harvesting. In this paper, a VLC system is considered where a transmitter sends data to multiple users with energy harvesting capabilities. This multi-user VLC scenario can be supported using time division multiple access (TDMA). The achievable rates using TDMA are expressed in terms of the allocated resources per user, represented by average optical intensity and time slots. This allocation is to be optimized in order to maximize the average spectral efficiency while meeting power and quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. Herein, QoS is defined as a worst-case guaranteed rate and a minimum harvested energy. To solve this optimization, the optimality conditions are first derived. Then, an efficient algorithm is developed based on the derived conditions, and its near-optimality is verified through several numerical evaluations. The obtained performance is also compared to lower-complexity algorithms, thus reflecting the performance-complexity trade-off of these algorithms.

  3. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  4. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  5. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3+/Tb3+/Eu3+: ZnB glasses generating white light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S

    2017-03-15

    A promising energy transfer (Tm 3+ →Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II) x -[O(-II)] y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ : ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 ), green (547nm: 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ) and red (616nm: 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 ) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb 3+ in ET from Tm 3+ →Eu 3+ was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ ) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy transfer dynamics from individual semiconductor nanoantennae to dye molecules with implication to light-harvesting nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guangcun; Hu, Mingjun; Yan, Ze; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals can be used as nanoscale optical antennae to photoexcite individual dye molecules in an ensemble via energy transfer mechanism. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. Herein we investigate the effect of the average donor-acceptor spacing on the time-resolved fluorescence intensity and dynamics of single donor-acceptor pairs with the dye acceptor concentration decreasing by using quantum Monte-Carlo simulation of FRET dynamics. Our results validated that the spatial disorder controlling the microscopic energy transfer rates accounts for the scatter in donor fluorescence lifetimes and intensities, which provides a new design guideline for artificial light-harvesting nanosystems.

  7. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  8. Improvement of energy efficiency and quality of street lighting in South Italy as an action of Sustainable Energy Action Plans. The case study of Comiso (RG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, Marco; Bonomolo, Marina; Ciulla, Giuseppina; Galatioto, Alessandra; Lo Brano, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Existing street lighting systems, in most of South Italy cities, are often inefficient due to the obsolescence of lamps and luminaires and of ineffective light control systems unable to implement efficient on-off and dimming strategies. Energy efficiency improvement, in street lighting systems, is often one of the key actions to be adopted by Public Administration in their Sustainable Energy Action Plan in the framework of the “Covenant of Majors” activities. As a task of FACTOR 20 project, a set of planning options has been analysed and proposed. Particularly, street lighting efficiency projects have been studied for representative case studies. A detailed survey of the public lighting systems, in Comiso, allowed represent current performance figures such us installed power, luminance and illuminance levels in roads categories, electricity consumption, switching and dimming schedules. A project of system upgrade has been elaborated. To do this, many lighting simulations, energy and economic assessments in three scenarios have been performed. The obtained results show that high improvements of the lighting quality are foreseeable together with large energy and economic saving. An economic sensitivity analysis, has shown how the performance can change. The proposed methodology can be applied in many similar South Italy cities. - Highlights: • Retrofit actions in urban lighting systems of typical South Italy cities are studied. • A methodology for the comparison of baseline and design scenarios is presented. • An analysis of energy and economic savings of different scenarios is performed. • A sensitivity analysis of payback times is presented for different costs of LED and kWhe.

  9. Chemiosmotic Energy Conservation in Dinoroseobacter shibae: Proton Translocation Driven by Aerobic Respiration, Denitrification, and Photosynthetic Light Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kirchhoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dinoroseobacter shibae is an aerobic anoxygenic phototroph and able to utilize light energy to support its aerobic energy metabolism. Since the cells can also grow anaerobically with nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptor, we were interested in how the cells profit from photosynthesis during denitrification and what the steps of chemiosmotic energy conservation are. Therefore, we conducted proton translocation experiments and compared O2-, NO3-, and NO2- respiration during different light regimes and in the dark. We used wild type cells and transposon mutants with knocked-out nitrate- and nitrite- reductase genes (napA and nirS, as well as a mutant (ppsR impaired in bacteriochlorophyll a synthesis. Light had a positive impact on proton translocation, independent of the type of terminal electron acceptor present. In the absence of an electron acceptor, however, light did not stimulate proton translocation. The light-driven add-on to proton translocation was about 1.4 H+/e- for O2 respiration and about 1.1 H+/e- for NO3- and NO2-. We could see that the chemiosmotic energy conservation during aerobic respiration involved proton translocation, mediated by the NADH dehydrogenase, the cytochrome bc1 complex, and the cytochrome c oxidase. During denitrification the last proton translocation step of the electron transport was missing, resulting in a lower H+/e- ratio during anoxia. Furthermore, we studied the type of light-harvesting and found that the cells were able to channel light from the green–blue spectrum most efficiently, while red light has only minor impact. This fits well with the depth profiles for D. shibae abundance in the ocean and the penetration depth of light with different wavelengths into the water column.

  10. Analysis and prediction of daylighting and energy performance in atrium spaces using daylight-linked lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Stanley K.H.; Li, Danny H.W.; Lee, Eric W.M.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Daylight-linked lighting control and energy performance for atrium is studied. ► Field measurement of automatic dimming control shows 93% energy saving. ► Field measurement of manual on–off control shows 95% energy saving. ► Atrium illuminance is correlated with daylight factor for energy saving prediction. - Abstract: In subtropical Hong Kong, a certain amount of electricity is used to create visually comfortable interior spaces through electric lighting, which is the second major electricity-consuming item in commercial buildings, accounting for 20–30% of total electricity use. The burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation has many adverse effects on the environment. Daylighting is an important and useful strategy for enhancing visual comfort and reducing the need for the electricity consumed by light fittings. The rational use of daylight through tools such as photoelectric lighting controls can effectively reduce buildings’ electricity consumption and the related pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. Daylighting design techniques are often best demonstrated via field measurements that provide reliable operational and energy performance data for establishing design guidelines. An atrium provides an environmentally controlled indoor public space that introduces daylight into the hearts of large buildings. In circulation areas such as corridors, people expect the way ahead to be sufficiently lit and daylight-linked lighting controls can deliver excellent energy savings. This paper presents the daylighting and energy performance of an atrium space using daylight-linked lighting controls. The cost, energy and environmental issues related to various daylight illuminances are estimated and design implications are discussed

  11. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  12. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed.

    In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.

  13. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed. In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.

  14. A SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT CONTROL OF SUPPLEMENTARY LIGHTING IN GREENHOUSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    of 2009 – 2010 showed 25 percent savings with no negative effect on plant quality. To accelerate the impact of our approach, we chose to use Software Product Line Engineering, as it enables a greater variety of related software tools to be created faster. We have created a web-based analysis tool, Dyna...... preserving production quality. This paper presents a novel approach addressing this issue. We use weather forecasts and electricity prices to compute cost- and energy-efficient supplementary light plans that achieve the required plant growth defined by the grower. Experiments performed during the winter...... of these two tools is described together with the lessons learned from using Software Product Line Engineering in the domain of greenhouse software development....

  15. Detection of ultraviolet Cherenkov light from high energy cosmic ray atmospheric showers: A field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Sartori, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a test with a prototype apparatus aimed to detect the ultraviolet Cherenkov light in the wavelenght range 2000-2300A, emitted by high energy cosmic ray showers. The system consists of a gas proportional chamber, with TMAE vapour as the photosensitive element, placed on the focal plane of a 1.5 m diameter parabolic mirror. The test was done during the summer of 1989 with cosmic ray showers seen in coincidence with the EAS-TOP experiment, an extended atmospheric shower charged particle array now being exploited at Campo Imperatore, 1900 m above sea level, on top of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory of INFN. The results were positive and show that a full scale ultraviolet Cherenkov experiment with good sensitivity, angular resolution and virtually no background from moonlight or even daylight can be envisaged. (orig.)

  16. High energy QCD at NLO: from light-cone wave function to JIMWLK evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Mulian, Yair [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-17

    Soft components of the light cone wave-function of a fast moving projectile hadron is computed in perturbation theory to the third order in QCD coupling constant. At this order, the Fock space of the soft modes consists of one-gluon, two-gluon, and a quark-antiquark states. The hard component of the wave-function acts as a non-Abelian background field for the soft modes and is represented by a valence charge distribution that accounts for non-linear density effects in the projectile. When scattered off a dense target, the diagonal element of the S-matrix reveals the Hamiltonian of high energy evolution, the JIMWLK Hamiltonian. This way we provide a new direct derivation of the JIMWLK Hamiltonian at the Next-to-Leading Order.

  17. High-energy elastic recoil detection heavy ions for light element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goppelt-Langer, P.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Naramoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of light and medium heavy elements in not homogeneous solids is a severe problem in ion beam analysis. Heavy elements can be detected by the well established Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). In a homogeneous host material most impurities can be easily analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Some isotopes ( 3 He, 6 Li, 10 B) can be measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using thermal neutrons inducing (n, p) or (n, α) reactions. Others can be detected by energetic ion beams by nuclear reactions (e.g. 15 N( 1 H, αγ) 12 C for analysis of hydrogen). A high content of H, D or T can be also determined by elastic recoil detection using an energetic He beam. The latter technique has been developed to a universal method for detection of light and heavy elements in any target, using a high energetic heavy ion beam and a detector system, which is able to identify the recoils and delivers energy and position of the particles. (author)

  18. Studies of energy levels and lifetimes in neutral and ionized light atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huldt, S.

    1980-05-01

    The spectrum of singly ionized Titanium has been analysed by photographic spectral recordings of the light from a hollow- cathod. 1240 classified lines in the region 1200 A - 11000 A and 202 term values are reported. Lifetimes of the 3p 5 5p levels in neutral Argon have been measured by the High-frequency-Deflection technique considering the trapping of radiation from the excited 3p 5 4s level. Energy levels and lifetimes of excited states have been studied with the beam-foil method for selected ions in the atomic number range 7 - 30. Influence of transition probabilities caused by hyper-fine interaction for low members of the Helium iso-electronic sequence i verified. The oscillator strength for the inter-combination transition ls 2 1S 0 -1s3p 3 p 1 is measured in Beryllium-like Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine. Accurate determinations of lifetimes for some of the lowest excited levels in Si I - Si IV and Zn II are reported. A large fraction of circularly polarized light is seen in the 0 VI n=6-7 hydrogenic transition when a 4 MeV beam of oxygen was passed through a tilted carbon foil. (author)

  19. Development of a Vsible-Light-Active Film for Direct Solar Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Audrey

    We conceived of a two-compartment photocatalytic assembly for direct storage of solar energy as chemical potential. Our approach was to maintain reductant and oxidant in separate compartments and develop a visible light (wavelength >400nm) photo-active film to effect an uphill photoreaction between compartments. A proton exchange membrane was included in the assembly to complete the electrical circuit. Towards obtaining a working prototype of the assembly, we developed a freeze-drying method to adhere visible-light photoactive nanoparticles to a self- standing, non-porous and conductive indium tin oxide-polyvinylidene difluoride (ITO-PVDF) support film, developed in-house. We explored the possibility of employing an iron-rich metal oxide as the photocatalytic component of the film and several were explored utilizing the sodium tartrate-assisted photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Although the Fe2O3-coated TiO2 nanoparticles were active for photoreduction, the initial reaction rate was modest and was slowed by substantial deactivation, making it unsuitable as a photo-active material for the composite film. A complete, two-compartment assembly was prepared using cadmium sulfide (CdS) and preliminarily examined for the Cr(VI) probe reaction, however, no catalytic activity was observed. To identify the reason(s) for this observation, further testing of the apparatus and the composite film is required.

  20. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Brune, D.

    1973-01-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  1. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-07-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  2. Advanced light water reactors: an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to safety and reliability, a common mission for the international nuclear industry in the 21. century will be ensure affordable electricity. At the Westinghouse Electric Corporation believe our advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design gives us the opportunity to provide the safest, most reliable, lowest cost, most competitive generation method possible for use by nations and utilities worldwide. While the safety and reliability aspects of the ALWR can be proven tangibly and are well-documented, questions have been raised about the technology's ability to work within the world's selling price range for electricity generation. For our industry's financial stability, and especially for the stability of the world's future power needs, Westinghouse has done extensive work on this issue and we are convinced we can meet the competitive challenge. We believe the ALWR can be an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix. This paper will define the competitive challenge that is being addressed by the industry and then analyze three specific areas: capital costs, operating costs, and financing costs. The hidden advantage of nuclear power in responding to these challenges will be explored, and a strong case will be made asserting that the advanced light water reactor will be able to compete in international markets with viable production costs. (authors)

  3. Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Zhu, Xiaolong; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong

    2017-01-01

    Slow light has been widely utilized to obtain enhanced nonlinearities, enhanced spontaneous emissions and increased phase shifts owing to its ability to promote light–matter interactions. By incorporating a graphene on a slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguide, here we experimentally demonstrate an energy-efficient graphene microheater with a tuning efficiency of 1.07 nmmW−1 and power consumption per free spectral range of 3.99 mW. The rise and decay times (10–90%) are only 750 and 525 ns, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the fastest reported response times for microheaters in silicon photonics. The corresponding figure of merit of the device is 2.543 nW s, one order of magnitude better than results reported in previous studies. The influence of the length and shape of the graphene heater to the tuning efficiency is further investigated, providing valuable guidelines for enhancing the tuning efficiency of the graphene microheater. PMID:28181531

  4. NorthernLights Transmission : bringing competitive cogen energy from the oil sands to west coast markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, M.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    NorthernLights Transmission is an initiative by TransCanada that proposes 2 major high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines to bring low cost, fossil fuelled and renewable generation from the Fort McMurray area to growing electricity markets in the Pacific Northwest, Nevada, Arizona and California. This presentation demonstrated why oil sands cogeneration, shipped via NorthernLights Transmission, is a very attractive resource for these markets. It was shown that the best generation resources are tied to natural resources such as coal, wind, oil sands cogeneration and hydro. Both the Pacific Northwest and California markets prefer low carbon dioxide generation. The proposed HVDC transmission lines would maximize the use of existing energy infrastructure corridors and rights-of-way where possible. This paper presented details of the proposed Celilo Project and the Inland Project, and noted that both are attractive from a technical and economic perspective. The transmission line for the Celilo project would originate in Fort McMurray and connect highly efficient cogeneration and other developing forms of generation to growing loads in the Pacific Northwest and northern California. The cogeneration plants will supply steam and electricity to northern Alberta's oil sands developments along with surplus electricity for export. tabs., figs

  5. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm 2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm 2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ E  = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency

  6. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L., E-mail: laura.cardani@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, 08544, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  7. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  8. Excitation energy transfer between Light-harvesting complex II and Photosystem I in reconstituted membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Parveen; Lingvay, Mónika; Kiss, Teréz; Deák, Róbert; Bóta, Attila; Ughy, Bettina; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H

    2016-04-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the major peripheral antenna of Photosystem II in plants, participates in several concerted mechanisms for regulation of the excitation energy and electron fluxes in thylakoid membranes. In part, these include interaction of LHCII with Photosystem I (PSI) enhancing the latter's absorption cross-section - for example in the well-known state 1 - state 2 transitions or as a long-term acclimation to high light. In this work we examined the capability of LHCII to deliver excitations to PSI in reconstituted membranes in vitro. Proteoliposomes with native plant thylakoid membrane lipids and different stoichiometric ratios of LHCII:PSI were reconstituted and studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence emission from LHCII was strongly decreased in PSI-LHCII membranes due to trapping of excitations by PSI. Kinetic modelling of the time-resolved fluorescence data revealed the existence of separate pools of LHCII distinguished by the time scale of energy transfer. A strongly coupled pool, equivalent to one LHCII trimer per PSI, transferred excitations to PSI with near-unity efficiency on a time scale of less than 10ps but extra LHCIIs also contributed significantly to the effective antenna size of PSI, which could be increased by up to 47% in membranes containing 3 LHCII trimers per PSI. The results demonstrate a remarkable competence of LHCII to increase the absorption cross-section of PSI, given the opportunity that the two types of complexes interact in the membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshchenko, D.G.; Storchak, V.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Cottrell, S.P.; Cox, S.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the μ + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (μ + e - ) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 -6 -10 -4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport processes are compared in: liquid and solid helium (where electron is localized in buble); liquid and solid neon (where electrons are delocalized in solid and the coexistence of localized and delocalized electrons states was found in liquid recently); liquid and solid argon (where electrons are delocalized in both phases); orientational glass systems (solid N 2 -Ar mixtures), where our results suggest that electrons are localized in orientational glass. This scaling from light to heavy rare gases enables us to reveal new features of excess electron localization on microscopic scale. Analysis of the experimental data makes it possible to formulate the following tendency of the muon end-of-track structure in condensed rare gases. The muon-self track interaction changes from the isolated pair (muon plus the nearest track electron) in helium to multi-pair (muon in the vicinity of tens track electrons and positive ions) in argon

  10. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for compact fluorescent lighting: Policy implications for energy efficiency promotion in Saint Lucia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis; Kolodinsky, Jane; Murray, Byron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines consumer willingness to pay for energy-saving compact fluorescent light bulbs using the results of a stated preferences study conducted in the Caribbean island nation of Saint Lucia. Geographic location, low income status, and age are found to affect willingness-to-pay for compact fluorescent lighting, while higher income status and other demographic variables appear to have minimal or no significant impacts. Energy efficiency knowledge is associated with increased willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient bulbs and with increased use of compact fluorescent lighting. Contrary to theoretical expectations, past purchase of compact fluorescent bulbs is found to have no impact on self-reported willingness to pay. We hypothesize that this null result is due to the recent emergence of low-cost, low-quality compact fluorescent bulbs in the Saint Lucian lighting market, which may be negatively influencing consumers' preferences and expectations regarding energy-efficient lighting. Findings support the argument that government-sponsored education and subsidy programs will likely result in increased use of energy-saving technologies in Saint Lucia. But such behavioral changes may not be sustained in the long run unless low quality bulbs – the “lemons” of the compact fluorescent lighting market – can be clearly identified by consumers. - Highlights: ▶ We model how knowledge, attitudes, and past purchase affect CFL adoption. ▶ Saint Lucian consumers have some knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward CFLs. ▶ Energy efficiency knowledge increases stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for CFLs. ▶ Past purchase does not increase WTP; low-quality ‘lemons’ may influence consumers. ▶ Policy can lower consumer risks in lighting markets where low quality bulbs exist.

  11. Assessment of color quality and energy effciency : new insights for modern lighting. Part I : color quality in general lighting applications. Part II : mesopic photometry and street lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    Cotutela Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya. La consulta íntegra de la tesi, inclosos els articles no comunicats públicament per drets d'autor, es pot realitzar, prèvia petició, a l'Arxiu de la UPC This dissertation is divided in two parts: The first one deal with two main characteristics of the light sources for general lighting: Color quality and luminous efficacy. The second one deals with technical aspects of the mesopic photometry appli...

  12. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jun; Sun Kewei; Zhao Yang; Lee, Chee Kong; Yu Yunjin; Cao Jianshu

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting (LH) systems in purple bacteria. It is found that the inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increase in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal an interesting role of dipolar interactions in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (4 ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement with previous studies. In a double-ring LH2 system, non-nearest neighbor interactions can induce symmetry breaking, which leads to global and local minima of the average trapping time in the presence of a non-zero dephasing rate, suggesting that environment dephasing helps preserve quantum coherent energy transfer when the perfect circular symmetry in the hypothetic system is broken. This study reveals that dipolar coupling between chromophores may play an important role in the high energy transfer efficiency in the LH systems of purple bacteria and many other natural photosynthetic systems.

  13. Excitonic energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jun; Sun Kewei; Zhao Yang; Lee, Chee Kong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Yunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Guangdong 518060 (China); Cao Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Two distinct approaches, the Frenkel-Dirac time-dependent variation and the Haken-Strobl model, are adopted to study energy transfer dynamics in single-ring and double-ring light-harvesting (LH) systems in purple bacteria. It is found that the inclusion of long-range dipolar interactions in the two methods results in significant increase in intra- or inter-ring exciton transfer efficiency. The dependence of exciton transfer efficiency on trapping positions on single rings of LH2 (B850) and LH1 is similar to that in toy models with nearest-neighbor coupling only. However, owing to the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of BChls and dipolar couplings, such dependence has been largely suppressed. In the studies of coupled-ring systems, both methods reveal an interesting role of dipolar interactions in increasing energy transfer efficiency by introducing multiple intra/inter-ring transfer paths. Importantly, the time scale (4 ps) of inter-ring exciton transfer obtained from polaron dynamics is in good agreement with previous studies. In a double-ring LH2 system, non-nearest neighbor interactions can induce symmetry breaking, which leads to global and local minima of the average trapping time in the presence of a non-zero dephasing rate, suggesting that environment dephasing helps preserve quantum coherent energy transfer when the perfect circular symmetry in the hypothetic system is broken. This study reveals that dipolar coupling between chromophores may play an important role in the high energy transfer efficiency in the LH systems of purple bacteria and many other natural photosynthetic systems.

  14. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Mills, Evan

    2010-11-06

    The Lumina Project and Lighting Africa conducted a full-scale field test involving a switch from kerosene to solar-LED lighting for commercial broiler chicken production at an off-grid farm in Kenya. The test achieved lower operating costs, produced substantially more light, improved the working environment, and had no adverse effect on yields. A strategy using conventional solar-fluorescent lighting also achieved comparable yields, but entailed a six-fold higher capital cost and significantly higher recurring battery replacement costs. Thanks to higher energy and optical efficiencies, the LED system provided approximately twice the illumination to the chicken-production area and yet drew less than half the power.At the study farm, 3000 chickens were grown in each of three identical houses under kerosene, fluorescent, and LED lighting configurations. Under baseline conditions, a yearly expenditure of 1,200 USD is required to illuminate the three houses with kerosene. The LED system eliminates this fuel use and expense with a corresponding simple payback time of 1.5 years, while the solar-fluorescent system has a payback time of 9.3 years. The corresponding reduction in fuel expenditure in both cases represents a 15percent increase in after-tax net income (revenues minus expenses) across the entire business operation. The differential cost-effectiveness between the LED and fluorescent systems would be substantially greater if the fluorescent system were upsized to provide the same light as the LED system. Providing light with the fluorescent or LED systems is also far more economical than connecting to the grid in this case. The estimated grid-connection cost at this facility is 1.7 million Kenya Schillings (approximately 21,250 USD), which is nearly six-times the cost of the fluorescent system and 35-times the cost of the LED system.The LED system also confers various non-energy benefits. The relative uniformity of LED lighting, compared to the fluorescent or

  15. Review of light-ion driver development for inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, H.; Hoppé, P.

    2001-05-01

    The concept of a light ion beam driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) is based on multi-terawatt, multi-megavolt pulsed power generators, two-stage ion acceleration and charge neutralised transport. In this paper we discuss the present status for each of these components and identify the main issues for research. Only modest extrapolations from presently available technologies seem necessary for the high voltage pulse generator. The greatest challenge of this approach is the accelerator, which will consist of two stages, the injector and the post-accelerator. Large progress has been made in understanding the physical phenomena occurring in the injector gap. This progress has become possible by new sophisticated diagnostics that allowed detailed temporally and spatially resolved measurements of field and particle densities in the acceleration gap and by relativistic fully electromagnetic PIC-simulation tools, that stimulated analytic models. The conclusions drawn from these studies, namely limiting the ion current density to small enhancements to reduce the beam divergence need still to be verified experimentally. Systematic experimental research on post-acceleration at high power and voltage must aim at a complete understanding of instabilities coupling from the injector to the post-accelerator and at limiting voltages and barriers for the extraction of unwanted ions from plasmas at the injection side. Ultimately the light ion approach requires rep-rateable large area ion sources with ion masses greater than 1 and particle energies around 30 MeV. Although different cleaning protocols were able to reduce the amount of parasitic ions in the Li beam from a LiF field emission source the achievements are still insufficient. A field of common interest between light and heavy ion beam driven fusion is beam transport from the accelerator to the target. Supposedly the most favourable concept for both approaches is self-pinched transport. Experimental evidence for self

  16. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  17. IMPROVED DARK ENERGY CONSTRAINTS FROM ∼100 NEW CfA SUPERNOVA TYPE Ia LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Blondin, Stephane; Jha, Saurabh; Kelly, Patrick L.; Rest, Armin

    2009-01-01

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013 +0.066 -0.068 (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R V = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R V = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 V = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R V ∼ 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2σ, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  18. Xenon lighting adjusted to plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koefferlein, M.; Doehring, T.; Payer, H.D.; Seidlitz, H.K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The high luminous flux and spectral properties of xenon lamps would provide an ideal luminary for plant lighting if not excess IR radiation poses several problems for an application: the required filter systems reduce the irradiance at spectral regions of particular importance for plant development. Most of the economical drawbacks of xenon lamps are related to the difficult handling of that excess IR energy. Furthermore, the temporal variation of the xenon output depending on the oscillations of the applied AC voltage has to be considered for the plant development. However, xenon lamps outperform other lighting systems with respect to spectral stability, immediate response, and maximum luminance. Therefore, despite considerable competition by other lighting techniques, xenon lamps provide a very useful tool for special purposes. In plant lighting however, they seem to play a less important role as other lamp and lighting developments can meet these particular requirements at lower costs.

  19. [LIGHT POLLUTION AS THE HYGIENIC PROBLEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A; Gerasev, V F; Deynego, V N

    2015-01-01

    Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept--to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.

  20. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  1. Albedo of low-energy light ions: case of anisotropic approximation of the collision integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, R.; Vukanic, J. . E-mail address of corresponding author: simovicr@vin.bg.ac.yu; Simovic, R.)

    2005-01-01

    For diffusion and slowing-down of low-energy light ions, the linear transport equation in the path length form was rederived taking into account a common anisotropic approximation of the collision integral. Assuming that the transport cross section depends only on the ion initial energy, the equation was Laplace-transformed over the relative path length and half-space albedo problem was considered by using the ordinary DPN technique. The Laplace-transformed reflection function was found in the lowest order of DPN flux approximation, and then was inverted analytically leading to the distribution of backscattered particles in the relative path-length. For the general power potential V(R)∞R -1/m the particle reflection coefficient was obtained as a series, while for the special case of the inverse square potential (m=1/2) this coefficient was determined in a compact form. The present approach was compared with the TRIM simulations of helium ion reflection, as well as with the Tilinin - Betz fitting formula and the MARLOWE simulations of proton reflection. (author)

  2. Coupled dark matter-dark energy in light of near Universe observations

    CERN Document Server

    Honorez, Laura Lopez; Mena, Olga; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological analysis based on currently available observations are unable to rule out a sizeable coupling among the dark energy and dark matter fluids. We explore a variety of coupled dark matter-dark energy models, which satisfy cosmic microwave background constraints, in light of low redshift and near universe observations. We illustrate the phenomenology of different classes of dark coupling models, paying particular attention in distinguishing between effects that appear only on the expansion history and those that appear in the growth of structure. We find that while a broad class of dark coupling models are effectively models where general relativity (GR) is modified --and thus can be probed by a combination of tests for the expansion history and the growth of structure--, there is a class of dark coupling models where gravity is still GR, but the growth of perturbations is, in principle modified. While this effect is small in the specific models we have considered, one should bear in mind that an inco...

  3. Influence of energy density of different light sources on Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Simonides; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Powers, John Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs) were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL), light-emitting diode (LED) and xenon plasma-arc (PAC) lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce). Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I) of each LCU and the irradiation time (T): 24 Jcm(-2) (I/2x2T), 24 Jcm(-2) (IxT) and 48 Jcm(-2) (Ix2T). Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus). Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10). Knoop hardness number (KHN) means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (alpha=5%). Application of 48 J.cm(-2) energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5+/-2.8) and HAL (50.9+/-3.7) produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05) than the control (44.7+/-3.8). LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  4. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  5. Industrial energy efficiency in light of climate change negotiations: Comparing major developing countries and the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phylipsen, D.; Price, L.; Worrell, E.; Blok, K.

    1999-01-01

    In light of the commitments accepted within the Framework Convention on Climate Change there is an increasing need for useful information on energy consumption and energy efficiency. Governments can use this information in designing policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prioritizing energy savings options. International comparison of energy efficiency can provide a benchmark against which a country's performance can be measured and policies can be evaluated. A methodology for international comparisons of industrial energy efficiency was developed by the International Network on Energy Demand analysis in the Industrial Sector. In this paper this methodology is used to analyze the energy efficiency of two energy-intensive industries in major developing countries. Energy consumption trends are shown for the steel and cement industry and an analysis is made of technologies used. In light of the Byrd-Hagel resolution, which states that the US will not ratify any climate treaty unless it also mandates commitments to limit greenhouse gas emissions for developing countries, the energy efficiency in the two sectors is compared to that of the US. The analysis shows that in the iron and steel sector South Korea and Brazil are more energy-efficient than the US, while Mexico has achieved a comparable energy efficiency level in recent years. For cement, South Korea, Brazil and Mexico are the most efficient countries analyzed. In recent years, China, and especially, India appear to have achieved energy efficiency levels, more or less comparable to that of the US. In light of data constraints, however, further analysis is required

  6. Research on natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries in Jinan under the perspective of energy-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-11-01

    The natural lighting design in the reading spaces of university libraries not only influences physical and mental health of readers but also concerns the energy consumption of the libraries. The scientific and rational design of natural lighting is the key to the design of energy saving for physical environment of the reading space. The paper elaborates the present situation and existed problems of natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries across Jinan region based on characteristics of light climate of Jinan region and concrete utilization of reading spaces in university libraries, and combining field measurement, survey, research and data analysis of reading spaces in Shandong Women’s University’s library. The paper, under the perspective of energy-efficiency, puts forward proposals to improve natural lighting in the reading spaces of university libraries from five aspects, such as adjustment of interior layout, optimization of outer windows design, employment of the reflector panel, design lighting windows on inner walls and utilization of adjustable sun shading facilities.

  7. Graphene oxide quantum dot-sensitized porous titanium dioxide microsphere: Visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on energy band engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Qi, Fuyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Hongfeng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Daliang; Song, Xi-Ming

    2017-07-15

    We report a novel graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD)-sensitized porous TiO 2 microsphere for efficient photoelectric conversion. Electro-chemical analysis along with the Mott-Schottky equation reveals conductivity type and energy band structure of the two semiconductors. Based on their energy band structures, visible light-induced electrons can transfer from the p-type GOQD to the n-type TiO 2 . Enhanced photocurrent and photocatalytic activity in visible light further confirm the enhanced separation of electrons and holes in the nanocomposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen Conifer Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, F.; Huner, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack ...

  9. The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast food selection: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2014-02-01

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.

  10. Teager-Kaiser Energy and Higher-Order Operators in White-Light Interference Microscopy for Surface Shape Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In white-light interference microscopy, measurement of surface shape generally requires peak extraction of the fringe function envelope. In this paper the Teager-Kaiser energy and higher-order energy operators are proposed for efficient extraction of the fringe envelope. These energy operators are compared in terms of precision, robustness to noise, and subsampling. Flexible energy operators, depending on order and lag parameters, can be obtained. Results show that smoothing and interpolation of envelope approximation using spline model performs better than Gaussian-based approach.

  11. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamura, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kenmotsu, T.

    2004-10-01

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H + , D + , T + , He + ) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D + ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy. (author)

  12. Empirical Study of How Traffic Intensity Detector Parameters Influence Dynamic Street Lighting Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Krakow, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of dynamic street lighting, which adjusts lighting levels to fulfill particular needs, leads to energy savings. These savings contribute to the overall lighting infrastructure maintenance cost. Yet another contribution is the cost of traffic intensity data. The data is read directly from sensor systems or intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. The more frequent the readings are, the more costly they become, because of hardware capabilities, data transfer and software license costs, among others. The paper investigates a relationship between the frequency of readings, in particular the averaging window size and step, and achieved energy savings. It is based on a simulation, taking into account a representative part of a city and traffic intensity data, which span over a period of one year. While the energy consumption reduction is simulated, all data, including each luminaire power setting, induction loop locations and street characteristics, come from a representative sample of the city of Krakow, Poland. Controlling the power settings complies with the lighting standard CEN/TR 13201. Analysis of the outcomes indicates that the shorter the window size or step are, the more energy saving that is available. In particular, for the previous standard CEN/TR 13201 2004, having the window size and step at 15 min results in 26.75% of energy saving, while reducing these values to 6 min provides 27%. Savings are more profound for the current standard (CEN/TR 13201 2014, assuming a 15 min size and step results in 47.43%, while having a 6 min size and step provides 47.69%. The results can serve as a guideline for identifying the economic viability of dynamic lighting control systems. Additionally, it can be observed that the current lighting standard provides far greater potential for dynamic control then the previous standard.

  13. Practical investigation for road lighting using renewable energy sources "Sizing and modelling of solar/wind hybrid system for road lighting application"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the Egyptian National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics.Presenting here the virtual simulation by using Matlab/Simulink & real-time implementation of road lighting system consists of 150 W photovoltaic cell, 420 W wind generator, 100 Ah acid gel battery and LED lighting luminar 30 W -12 VDC . Over three different stages; 1.Operating the system with PV only as power source, 2. Switching to Wind generator only configuration and 3.  Running the hybrid design with both PV & Wind power sources ; load characteristics and output real-time data will be recorded, evaluated ,compared  and validated against the virtual simulation generated by Matlab/Simulink model.The results of this research will be used to investigate the advantages of using a hybrid system to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions ,the efficiency of the proposed system as an alternative for the current conventional road lighting poles as well as the accuracy of the virtual model data in order to be used for future adaptation of the model for different geographical locations.

  14. THERMODYNAMIC DEPRESSION OF IONIZATION POTENTIALS IN NONIDEAL PLASMAS: GENERALIZED SELF-CONSISTENCY CRITERION AND A BACKWARD SCHEME FOR DERIVING THE EXCESS FREE ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and consistent prediction of thermodynamic properties is of great importance in high-energy density physics and in modeling stellar atmospheres and interiors as well. Modern descriptions of thermodynamic properties of such nonideal plasma systems are sophisticated and/or full of pitfalls that make it difficult, if not impossible, to reproduce. The use of the Saha equation modified at high densities by incorporating simple expressions for depression of ionization potentials is very convenient in that context. However, as it is commonly known, the incorporation of ad hoc or empirical expressions for the depression of ionization potentials in the Saha equation leads to thermodynamic inconsistencies. The problem of thermodynamic consistency of ionization potentials depression in nonideal plasmas is investigated and a criterion is derived, which shows immediately, whether a particular model for the ionization potential depression is self-consistent, that is, whether it can be directly related to a modification of the free-energy function, or not. A backward scheme is introduced which can be utilized to derive nonideality corrections to the free-energy function from formulas of ionization potentials depression derived from plasma microfields or in ad hoc or empirical fashion provided that the aforementioned self-consistency criterion is satisfied. The value and usefulness of such a backward method are pointed out and discussed. The above-mentioned criterion is applied to investigate the thermodynamic consistency of some historic models in the literature and an optional routine is introduced to recover their thermodynamic consistencies while maintaining the same functional dependence on the species densities as in the original models. Sample computational problems showing the effect of the proposed modifications on the computed plasma composition are worked out and presented.

  15. EU Energy Market Development in Light of Fulfilling Obligations from the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdarevic, N.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Paris Climate Agreement, the Union has set an ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent below the 1990 level until year 2050. The climate and energy frame of the EU defines goals for 2030 that include at least 40 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with the 1990 level, as well as achieving at least 27 percent share of RES in energy consumption for the entire Union and at least 27 percent improvement of energy efficiency. It is expected that the power sector will give a decisive contribution to decarbonization. It is estimated that, in order to fulfil such goals, the share of low-carbon technologies in energy mix will have to increase from the current 45 percent to 60 percent in 2020, through fulfilling the goal with the RES share, then to 75-80 percent in 2030 and eventually to almost 100 percent in 2050. The bulk of that share will be investments to RES with a variable production (wind and solar power plants; further on addressed as variable RES producers). For the fulfilment of said goals, a structural change of electricity generation sector will be necessary to achieve a significant level of decarbonization in 2030, which will have significant repercussions on the electricity market considering the participation of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. Therefore, it is necessary to start with the transition as soon as possible and to send signals about the vitality of lowering investments into high-carbon technologies to a minimum in the next two decades. In that context, this paper is dedicated to the restructure of electricity generation sector and the reform of electricity market with the purpose of achieving high share of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. After the introduction, the base setting of the Paris Agreement will be pointed out and its influence on the EU electricity market will be examined. After that, the achieved level of electricity market development in the

  16. Evaluation of signal energy calculation methods for a light-sharing SiPM-based PET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Industrial Spectrum Imaging, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Tianyu; Xu, Tianpeng; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Yu, E-mail: guyu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-03-11

    Signals of a light-sharing positron emission tomography (PET) detector are commonly multiplexed to three analog pulses (E, X, and Y) and then digitally sampled. From this procedure, the signal energy that are critical to detector performance are obtained. In this paper, different signal energy calculation strategies for a self-developed SiPM-based PET detector, including pulse height and different integration methods, are evaluated in terms of energy resolution and spread of the crystal response in the flood histogram using a root-mean-squared (RMS) index. Results show that integrations outperform the pulse height. Integration using the maximum derivative value of the pulse E as the landmark point and 28 integrated points (448 ns) has the best performance in these evaluated methods for our detector. Detector performance in terms of energy and position is improved with this integration method. The proposed methodology is expected to be applicable for other light-sharing PET detectors.

  17. Efficiency of light energy used by leaves situated in different levels of a sweet pepper canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, T.A.; Grashoff, C.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to make the most use of the available light in glasshouse crops, measurements of light penetration, leaf photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration were performed at five levels in a sweet paper canopy at two commercial farms, from July to November 2004. Light response curves of leaf

  18. Lighting performance and electrical energy consumption of a virtual window prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangkuto, R.A.; Wang, S.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Aries, M.B.C.; Loenen, van E.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the design and evaluation of a virtual window prototype, built using arrays of LED tiles to simulate the light as well as the view of a window. Arrays of white light LED fixtures with adjustable colour temperatures were incorporated to provide direct light into the test room.

  19. Color optimization of conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid white light emitting diodes by incomplete energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Lai, Chun-Feng; Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chiou, Wei-Yung; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2015-01-01

    By using the wavelength conversion method, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced by applying mixtures of polysiloxane and fluorescent polymers on InGaN based light emitting diodes. UV curable organic–inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index (1.561), compromised optical, thermal and mechanical properties was used as encapsulants. Red light emitting fluorescent FABD polymer (with 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F), anthracene (A) and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B), and 4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (D) repeating units) and green light emitting fluorescent FAB polymer were used as wavelength converters. The encapsulant/fluorescent polymer mixture and InGaN produce the white light by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. WLEDs with high color rendering index (CRI, about 93), and tunable correlated color temperature (CCT) properties can be produced by controlling the composition and chemical structures of encapsulating polymer and fluorescent polymer in hybrid materials, offering cool-white and neutral-white LEDs. - Highlights: • Highly efficient white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced. • Conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid WLEDs by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. • WLEDs with high color-rendering index and tunable correlated color temperature. • Polysiloxane encapsulant with superior optical, mechanical and thermal properties

  20. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for 'next-generation' x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop 'Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources' was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysis of the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions

  1. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  2. Three-Dimensional Hetero-Integration of Faceted GaN on Si Pillars for Efficient Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Chi Hwan; Cho, In Sun; Jang, Hanmin; Jeon, Min Soo; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2017-07-25

    An important pathway for cost-effective light energy conversion devices, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes, is to integrate III-V (e.g., GaN) materials on Si substrates. Such integration first necessitates growth of high crystalline III-V materials on Si, which has been the focus of many studies. However, the integration also requires that the final III-V/Si structure has a high light energy conversion efficiency. To accomplish these twin goals, we use single-crystalline microsized Si pillars as a seed layer to first grow faceted Si structures, which are then used for the heteroepitaxial growth of faceted GaN films. These faceted GaN films on Si have high crystallinity, and their threading dislocation density is similar to that of GaN grown on sapphire. In addition, the final faceted GaN/Si structure has great light absorption and extraction characteristics, leading to improved performance for GaN-on-Si light energy conversion devices.

  3. Coupled dark matter-dark energy in light of near universe observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorez, Laura Lopez; Reid, Beth A.; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Mena, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological analysis based on currently available observations are unable to rule out a sizeable coupling among the dark energy and dark matter fluids. We explore a variety of coupled dark matter-dark energy models, which satisfy cosmic microwave background constraints, in light of low redshift and near universe observations. We illustrate the phenomenology of different classes of dark coupling models, paying particular attention in distinguishing between effects that appear only on the expansion history and those that appear in the growth of structure. We find that while a broad class of dark coupling models are effectively models where general relativity (GR) is modified — and thus can be probed by a combination of tests for the expansion history and the growth of structure —, there is a class of dark coupling models where gravity is still GR, but the growth of perturbations is, in principle modified. While this effect is small in the specific models we have considered, one should bear in mind that an inconsistency between reconstructed expansion history and growth may not uniquely indicate deviations from GR. Our low redshift constraints arise from cosmic velocities, redshift space distortions and dark matter abundance in galaxy voids. We find that current data constrain the dimensionless coupling to be |ξ| < 0.2, but prospects from forthcoming data are for a significant improvement. Future, precise measurements of the Hubble constant, combined with high-precision constraints on the growth of structure, could provide the key to rule out dark coupling models which survive other tests. We shall exploit as well weak equivalence principle violation arguments, which have the potential to highly disfavour a broad family of coupled models

  4. Modelling the cosmic spectral energy distribution and extragalactic background light over all time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S. K.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Lagos, C. d. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a phenomological model of the cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) and the integrated galactic light (IGL) over all cosmic time. This model, based on an earlier model by Driver et al., attributes the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) to two processes - first, chaotic clump accretion and major mergers, resulting in the early-time formation of bulges and secondly, cold gas accretion, resulting in late-time disc formation. Under the assumption of a Universal Chabrier initial mass function, we combine the Bruzual & Charlot stellar libraries, the Charlot & Fall dust attenuation prescription and template spectra for emission by dust and active galactic nuclei to predict the CSED - pre- and post-dust attenuation - and the IGL throughout cosmic time. The phenomological model, as constructed, adopts a number of basic axioms and empirical results and has minimal free parameters. We compare the model output, as well as predictions from the semi-analytic model GALFORM to recent estimates of the CSED out to z = 1. By construction, our empirical model reproduces the full energy output of the Universe from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared extremely well. We use the model to derive predictions of the stellar and dust mass densities, again finding good agreement. We find that GALFORM predicts the CSED for z < 0.3 in good agreement with the observations. This agreement becomes increasingly poor towards z = 1, when the model CSED is ˜50 per cent fainter. The latter is consistent with the model underpredicting the CSFH. As a consequence, GALFORM predicts a ˜30 per cent fainter IGL.

  5. In pursuit of a light bulb and a smokeless kitchen : longitudinal analysis of the role of energy sector policies to alleviate rural energy poverty in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, S.

    2012-01-01

    After more than six decades of development planning, the majority of India’s population,especially those living in villages, continue to wait for access to energy forms that enable them to switch on an electric light bulb and to cook food on a clean stove in a smokeless kitchen. India is a country

  6. Highly efficient energy transfer from a carbonyl carotenoid to chlorophyll a in the main light harvesting complex of Chromera velia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durchan, Milan; Kesan, G.; Šlouf, M.; Fuciman, M.; Staleva, H.; Tichý, Josef; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1837, č. 10 (2014), s. 1748-1755 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1164; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Energy transfer * Light-harvesting * Carbonyl carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  7. Analysis of energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey (ENL). Energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charles-Andre; Teissier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the results of the French national housing survey (ENL, Enquete Nationale Logement) of 2013 which gives information on the housing stock and on tenure conditions for households in their primary residence. After a brief presentation of this source and of its limitations, this study aims at characterising households in a situation of energy poverty according to indicators defined by the ONPE (national observatory of energy poverty), and at assessing their dwelling conditions. It also aims at highlighting the different aspects of the phenomenon of energy poverty. Evolutions of indicators are considered on the 1996-2013 period, based on the survey results in 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2013. After a recall of the ONPE indicators, the authors discuss statistic results related to these indicators, try to assess the severity of the energy poverty phenomenon, and the impact of the 'energy check'. Social-economic characteristics of households are presented in a table and discussed, as well as housing characteristics, the case of social housing, some behavioural characteristics of households, financial supports for works and works performed by occupying owners. The next part comments evolutions of indicators, their continuities and deviations, by examining their sensitivity to energy prices, and their evolution in time. A synthesis of results is proposed and lessons learned are finally discussed. Appendices address various issues (factors influencing a statement of the cold, methodologies of calculation of indicators), and propose additional results, and values of indicators in time

  8. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  9. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  10. The Virtual Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the excesses around 750 GeV in the diphoton spectra to be the signal of a new heavy scalar decaying to photons, we point out the possibility of looking for correlated signals with virtual photons. In particular, we emphasize that the effective operator that generates the diphoton decay will also generate decays to two leptons and a photon, as well as to four leptons, independently of the new resonance couplings to $Z\\gamma$ and $ZZ$. Depending on the relative sizes of these effective couplings, we show that the virtual diphoton component can make up a sizable, and sometimes dominant, contribution to the total $2\\ell \\gamma$ and $4\\ell$ partial widths. We also discuss modifications to current experimental cuts in order to maximize the sensitivity to these virtual photon effects. Finally, we briefly comment on prospects for channels involving other Standard Model fermions as well as more exotic decay possibilities of the putative resonance.

  11. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  12. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  13. Science-based design of stable quantum dots for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohwer, Lauren E. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    II-VI quantum dots, such as CdSe and CdTe, are attractive as downconversion materials for solid-state lighting, because of their narrow linewidth, tunable emission. However, for these materials to have acceptable quantum yields (QYs) requires that they be coated with a II-VI shell material whose valence band offset serves to confine the hole to the core. Confinement prevents the hole from accessing surface traps that lead to nonradiative decay of the exciton. Examples of such hole-confined core/shell QDs include CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdS. Unfortunately, the shell can also cause problems due to lattice mismatch, which ranges from 4-6% for systems of interest. This lattice mismatch can create significant interface energies at the heterojunction and places the core under radial compression and the shell under tangential tension. At elevated temperatures (~240°C) interfacial diffusion can relax these stresses, as can surface reconstruction, which can expose the core, creating hole traps. But such high temperatures favor the hexagonal Wurtzite structure, which has lower QY than the cubic zinc blende structure, which can be synthesized at lower temperatures, ~140°C. In the absence of alloying the core/shell structure can become metastable, or even unstable, if the shell is too thick. This can cause result in an irregular shell or even island growth. But if the shell is too thin thermallyactivated transport of the hole to surface traps can occur. In our LDRD we have developed a fundamental atomistic modeling capability, based on Stillinger-Weber and Bond-Order potentials we developed for the entire II-VI class. These pseudo-potentials have enabled us to conduct large-scale atomistic simulations that have led to the computation of phase diagrams of II-VI QDs. These phase diagrams demonstrate that at elevated temperatures the zinc blende phase of CdTe with CdSe grown on it epitaxially becomes thermodynamically unstable due to alloying. This is accompanied by a loss of hole

  14. ATLAS Z Excess in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    Recently the ATLAS collaboration reported a 3 sigma excess in the search for the events containing a dilepton pair from a Z boson and large missing transverse energy. Although the excess is not sufficiently significant yet, it is quite tempting to explain this excess by a well-motivated model beyond the standard model. In this paper we study a possibility of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for this excess. Especially, we focus on the MSSM spectrum where the sfermions are heavier than the gauginos and Higgsinos. We show that the excess can be explained by the reasonable MSSM mass spectrum.

  15. Influence of energy density of different light sources on knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Piva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL, light-emitting diode (LED and xenon plasma-arc (PAC lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce. Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I of each LCU and the irradiation time (T: 24 Jcm-2 (I/2x2T, 24 Jcm-2 (IxT and 48 Jcm-2 (Ix2T. Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus. Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10. Knoop hardness number (KHN means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (a=5%. Application of 48 J.cm-2 energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5±2.8 and HAL (50.9±3.7 produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05 than the control (44.7±3.8. LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  16. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[CC-BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  17. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. L., E-mail: yilu.chang@mail.utoronto.ca; Gong, S., E-mail: sgong@chem.utoronto.ca; White, R.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zhenghong.lu@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wang, X.; Wang, S., E-mail: wangs@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yang, C. [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  18. Lieing light. The dark sides of the energy-saving lamp; Luegendes Licht. Die dunklen Seiten der Energiesparlampe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Thomas; Karstedt, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    To save world climate, the EU has decreeded by force all their citizens a saving energy lamp (SEL): light bulb is to be banished. Many don't feel happy about it. This book researches, wether for disaproval of the SEL there are objective reasons. Danger of mercury, unhealthy light, doubtful utilization for environment - resistance against it grow, discussions are still finished. The book will uncover discreet facts and initiate ideas. Because light is not equal light. Artificial lighting systems influence deeply our life, even we don't remark it. This is the book for a debate about a controversial light source. (orig./GL) [German] Um das Weltklima zu retten, hat die EU all ihren Buergern zwangsweise Sparlampenlicht verordnet: Die Gluehbirne wird verbannt. Vielen ist aber nicht wohl dabei. Ob es fuer die Ablehnung der Energiesparlampe auch objektive Gruende gibt, erforscht dieses Buch. Quecksilbergefahr, ungesundes Licht, zweifelhafter Nutzen fuer die Umwelt - die Proteste wachsen, die Diskussion ist noch laengst nicht beendet. Das Buch will verschwiegene Fakten aufdecken und Gedankenanstoesse geben. Denn Licht ist nicht gleich Licht. Kuenstliche Beleuchtung beeinflusst unser Leben tiefgreifend, selbst wenn wir das oft nicht merken. Dies ist das Buch zur Debatte ueber eine umstrittene Lichtquelle. (orig./GL)

  19. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  20. The energy saving potential of occupancy-based lighting control strategies in open-plan offices: the influence of occupancy patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, C.; van de Voort, T.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2018-01-01

    Occupancy-based lighting control strategies have been proven to be effective in diminishing offices’ energy consumption. These strategies have typically worked by controlling lighting at the room level but, recently, lighting systems have begun to be equipped with sensors on a more fine-grained