WorldWideScience

Sample records for excess flu vaccine

  1. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ... of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds ...

  2. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose vials ...

  3. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  4. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  5. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  6. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  7. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  8. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  9. Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... allergic conditions. How is the safety of flu vaccines in pregnant women monitored? CDC and FDA conduct ...

  10. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  11. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can spread through that community. How do flu vaccines work? Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in ...

  12. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  13. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials conducted ...

  14. Recent Flu Shot Shouldn't Prevent Vaccination During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167523.html Recent Flu Shot Shouldn't Prevent Vaccination During Pregnancy Study ... women and newborns are particularly vulnerable to the flu and its complications, guidelines recommend a flu shot ...

  15. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Improving the flu vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health: NLM update Transcript Improving the flu vaccine : 11/13/2017 To use the sharing features ... are committed to developing a more effective flu vaccine, explains an interesting news article recently published in ...

  16. Personal Stories: Why Flu Vaccination Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, moving personal stories help inform parents about the dangers of flu to children and the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 12/8/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  17. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  18. Implementation of Flu (Influenza) Vaccination into Armenian Armed Forces Pre-Emptive Vaccination Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT IMPLEMENTATION OF FLU (INFLUENZA) VACCINATION INTO ARMENIAN ARMED...DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPLEMENTATION OF FLU (INFLUENZA) VACCINATION INTO ARMENIAN ARMED FORCES PRE-EMPTIVE...Service of the Armed Forces conducts flu vaccinations . The flu is always highly prevalent in the Armenian Armed Forces personnel morbidity ranking. An

  19. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  20. Freshman Flu Vaccination Behavior and Intention During a Nonpandemic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Kendra L; Norrenberns, Ryan; Turner, J Austin; Kunerth, Allison

    2017-09-01

    To examine predictors of flu vaccination and vaccination intention among college freshmen during a nonpandemic influenza season using the health belief model (HBM). A total of 184 college freshmen at a single institution participated in a mixed-mode (paper or online) survey in October-November 2015. Flu vaccination and intention to vaccinate were predicted using binomial logistic regression on HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and availability), prior flu vaccination history, family and peer reference behaviors, and demographics. Overall, 31.5% of participants received the seasonal flu vaccine by mid-November, and 25% intended to receive it. In full models, history of past flu vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.55-24.49) was significant for vaccination while availability (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.32-3.01) and family intention (aOR = 250.59; 95% CI = 3.77 to >999) were positively associated with intent to vaccinate. Significant confounding by past behavior and family intentions existed for both outcomes. Past flu vaccination behavior and family member intentions to vaccinate were better predictors of annual flu vaccination behavior and intention than HBM constructs among college freshmen. College campuses may enhance flu vaccine coverage by highlighting benefits and availability to students and families.

  1. Continue to Vaccinate Patients and Staff Against the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-08

    This podcast is a reminder to health care providers about the importance of annual flu vaccination—it’s not too late! Health care providers should get their flu vaccine and continue offering and encouraging flu vaccination among their staff, colleagues, and patients.  Created: 2/8/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  2. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  3. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  4. [Miller Fisher syndrome, internal and external ophthalmoplegia after flu vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Marchite, C I; Buznego-Suárez, L; Fagúndez-Vargas, M A; Méndez-Llatas, M; Pozo-Martos, P

    2008-07-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is the most frequent variant of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome. It is characterised by the classic triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. We present a case of a patient who developed these clinical findings 5 days after flu vaccination. Miller Fisher Syndrome is an unusual condition seen in ophthalmologic clinical practice. Although respiratory and digestive infections have been reported as antecedent infectious agents in MFS, it has not previously been described in relation to the flu vaccine.

  5. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. ...

  6. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No, flu vaccines do not cause flu. Flu vaccine protects your child from flu illness. However, flu shots can sometimes ... will take about 2 weeks after getting his vaccine for your child to build protection against flu. Why does my ...

  7. Vaksin Polivalen Untuk Mencegah Penyakit Flu Burung (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.

  8. Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but thousands of people with the flu develop pneumonia or a brain infection. They need to stay ... weakened immune system Possible Complications Complications may include: Pneumonia Encephalitis (infection of the brain) Meningitis Seizures When ...

  9. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  10. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  11. ‘Tis the Season for Flu Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-12-10

    Flu season typically runs from late fall through early spring. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa Grohskopf discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu.  Created: 12/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/10/2015.

  12. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data.

  13. Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2005-12-30

    Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection.

  14. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians.

  15. [The seasonal flu vaccination among caregivers in geriatric units: Up-to-date].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contal, E; Putot, A; Dipanda, M; Perrin, S; Asgassou, S; Sordet-Guépet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2016-12-01

    Flu vaccinations for healthcare professionals seems to be one of the most effective preventive actions in the face of a disease that carries a high risk of a potentially serious nosocomial epidemic in a geriatric environment. The aim of this study was to take stock of the flu vaccination status among caregivers in the geriatric units and to understand the reasons for their reluctance to be vaccinated, in order to put forward proposals to improve vaccination coverage. A literature search of articles published since 2000 in the area of geriatrics, infectious diseases or pneumology was mainly conducted on PubMed using the keywords "caregivers", "elderly", "flu", "influenza", "nosocomial" and "vaccination". After reading all abstracts in English or French and ruling out irrelevant articles, only 64 relevant articles have been listed in bibliography section. Despite official recommendations, the literature reveals insufficient vaccination coverage of healthcare personnel at both the national and international level. Vaccination coverage seems to be lower among younger female non-medical staff. The factors that determine the likelihood of vaccination are the wish to protect one's self, one's family and patients/residents, as well as the experience of earlier bouts of flu. Factors that oppose vaccination are complex and related to the fear of side effects, the use of other preventive measures, the feeling that vaccination is ineffective, poor understanding of the disease and the vaccine, forgetfulness and problems of organization. Campaigns to promote vaccination that target healthcare professionals must be multidimensional and very incentive. The pedagogical message must be centered on the benefits to the individual and adjusted to socio-professional categories. Mobile strategies in the different departments to encourage staff are a pragmatic solution to this challenge. The referring doctor has an essential role to play, as does the occupational doctor in association

  16. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  17. Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  18. Exploring racial influences on flu vaccine attitudes and behavior: Results of a national survey of White and African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Jamison, Amelia; Freimuth, Vicki S; An, Ji; Hancock, Gregory R; Musa, Donald

    2017-02-22

    Racial disparities in adult flu vaccination rates persist with African Americans falling below Whites in vaccine acceptance. Although the literature has examined traditional variables including barriers, access, attitudes, among others, there has been virtually no examination of the extent to which racial factors including racial consciousness, fairness, and discrimination may affect vaccine attitudes and behaviors. We contracted with GfK to conduct an online, nationally representative survey with 819 African American and 838 White respondents. Measures included risk perception, trust, vaccine attitudes, hesitancy and confidence, novel measures on racial factors, and vaccine behavior. There were significant racial differences in vaccine attitudes, risk perception, trust, hesitancy and confidence. For both groups, racial fairness had stronger direct effects on the vaccine-related variables with more positive coefficients associated with more positive vaccine attitudes. Racial consciousness in a health care setting emerged as a more powerful influence on attitudes and beliefs, particularly for African Americans, with higher scores on racial consciousness associated with lower trust in the vaccine and the vaccine process, higher perceived vaccine risk, less knowledge of flu vaccine, greater vaccine hesitancy, and less confidence in the flu vaccine. The effect of racial fairness on vaccine behavior was mediated by trust in the flu vaccine for African Americans only (i.e., higher racial fairness increased trust in the vaccine process and thus the probability of getting a flu vaccine). The effect of racial consciousness and discrimination for African Americans on vaccine uptake was mediated by perceived vaccine risk and flu vaccine knowledge. Racial factors can be a useful new tool for understanding and addressing attitudes toward the flu vaccine and actual vaccine behavior. These new concepts can facilitate more effective tailored and targeted vaccine communications

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccination against ... the flu. Protect Indian Country by Getting Your Flu Vaccine A flu vaccine not only protects you ...

  1. Factors associated with acceptance of pandemic flu vaccine by healthcare professionals in Spain, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Villa, Tania; Molina, Antonio J; Torner, Nuria; Castilla, Jesus; Astray, Jenaro; García-Gutiérrez, Susana; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus reached pandemic level in Spain in 2009, prompting a national vaccination campaign. To avoid transmission to patients, healthcare professionals' vaccination against pandemic influenza is crucial. The main objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the failure by healthcare professionals to accept the pandemic vaccination in 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of healthcare professionals in seven of Spain's autonomous regions. A questionnaire was used to collect information about personal and professional details, the respondents' flu vaccination status in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons (seasonal and pandemic vaccines), and their knowledge and attitudes. A total of 1,661 professionals completed the survey. In the 2009-2010 season, 38.2% had both the seasonal and the pandemic vaccine, 22.1% had had only the seasonal, and 4.7% only the pandemic vaccine. The strongest predictor of not receiving the pandemic vaccine was not having had seasonal vaccinations in that year or the previous year. Those who had not received the pandemic vaccine were more often female; nurses; under 45; denied contact with at-risk groups; and had negative beliefs about the vaccine effectiveness and little concern for getting the disease, being infected at work, or passing it on to patients. It would be prudent to direct preventive campaigns not only at individuals at risk of catching flu but also at health professionals with a negative view of flu vaccine, with a particular focus on nurses, who have a key role in recommending flu vaccine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal RE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Rizal,1,* Rishi P Mediratta,1,* James Xie,1 Swetha Kambhampati,1 Kelsey Hills-Evans,1 Tamara Montacute,1 Michael Zhang,1 Catherine Zaw,2 Jimmy He,2 Magali Sanchez,2 Lauren Pischel1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful service-learning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. Keywords: immunizations, vaccine delivery, vaccinations 

  3. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You What Cancer Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Flu! Get a Flu Vaccine and Take Preventive Actions ...

  4. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p vaccine being ineffective, the flu vaccine being poorly understood by science, and the flu vaccine causing harm. Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  5. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  6. Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation.

  7. GET POKED: Comparing an Incentive-Based Flu Campaign with Vaccinate-or-Mask Policies to Boost Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Seema; Lorv, Bailey; Henseleit, Susanne; Iroanyah, Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    The median influenza vaccination rate for Toronto acute care facilities in 2013/14 was only 44%, well below the target rate of 90%. While many Toronto hospitals adopted a vaccinate-or-mask policy, Trillium Health Partners (THP) opted to create a multimodal incentives-based flu campaign entitled GET POKED. This campaign, which required significant additional resourcing, only increased our vaccination rate by 10%. While having some modest success, we believe it is unlikely that non-policy based interventions will efficiently and sustainably raise flu vaccine rates. Vaccinate-or-mask policies, while having some inherent challenges, may be worth exploring as part of THP's larger flu-prevention strategy.

  8. An academic-community partnership to address the flu vaccination rates of the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sharon Elizabeth; Sexton, Elizabeth Hilliard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot research study was to explore the beliefs and barriers to flu vaccination from a sample homeless population in a small metropolitan community. In a collaborative academic-community partnership of a university undergraduate nursing education program, a local health department, and nonprofit agencies, a social marketing education program was developed by nursing students which included surveying the homeless for perceptions regarding flu vaccinations. There were a total of 87 homeless subjects that were surveyed. The measurements were obtained from various questions regarding flu vaccinations on a Qualtrics survey examining the barriers, beliefs, and practices of the homeless population. The focus addressed health disparities and barriers with nursing students serving as the catalyst to reach the homeless in an educational service-learning project. This project demonstrated a positive impact in meeting health care needs of homeless persons as the rate of flu vaccination was doubled from the previous year at one community day shelter. Nursing students developed their ability to impact a hard-to-reach population with positive changes in their attitudes by increased understanding of the health needs of the homeless.

  9. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  10. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  11. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2001. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  12. Note from the CERN Medical Service. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  13. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  14. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  15. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylvain Weisz

    2002-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2002. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  16. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the Russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  17. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  18. Monitoring adverse events of vaccines against Mexican flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, E P; van Grootheest, A C

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, a vaccination campaign against Influenza A (H1N1) was started in the Netherlands. The accelerated registration procedure of the vaccines used in this campaign and the use of these vaccines on a large scale indicated a need for real-time safety monitoring. This article looks at the

  19. NOTE FROM THE CERN MEDICAL SERVICE - FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  20. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccination without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccination can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  1. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATIONs

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetics and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  2. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccine can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  3. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccine can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  4. Note from the CERN Medical Service - Flu vaccinations

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetics and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  5. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATIONs

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 2.00 p.m. and 4.00 p.m.). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetes and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  6. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    .... The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided...

  7. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF FLU VACCINE PREVENTION FOR CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Belousov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinicalaeconomical analysis includes all possible treatament expenditures and possible profit from vaccinating chiladren and teenagers versus flue. It shoes that mass vaccination of children and teenagers will lead to lower disease incidence and mortality during epidemical rising of the disease and proavide significant economical effect both because of direct medaical expenses and because of collateral expenses. Collateral expenses are the main source of loss for the state of Russia from child and teenager flue and sars. Vaccination brings sick leaves and lost time payments down by 57%, expenses for treataing flue and sars together with their complications by 52%. In the Russian society total child and teenager vaccination appears as more profitable, for insurance companies as well. in this case insurance companies will be able to benefit from indirect medaical profit and, most probably, won't be needing state subsidizing for conducting total vaccination against flue of all citizens aged under 14. Antiaflue vaccination is feasible both in terms of clinical results and economic feasibility.Key words: pharmaeconomics, flue, sars, children, teenagers, vaccine prevention.

  8. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  9. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  10. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  11. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: what is the concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-01-01

    Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called "atypical infection". These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.

  12. Flu in 15: a novel 15-minute education program to promote acceptance of the influenza vaccine among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteri, Matthew J; Radu, Charlotte; Huq, Fawzia; Wiglesworth, Aileen; Durso, Samuel C; Bellantoni, Michele

    2010-09-01

    A performance improvement project was undertaken to increase health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccination acceptance rates in the long-term care setting by using a novel 15-minute education intervention called the "Flu in 15." As a core principle, we taught that more Americans die from complications of influenza than hepatitis B, yet there remains individual reluctance and barriers to achieve high acceptance rates of influenza vaccination among HCWs. During chance encounters we offered the Flu in 15 in-service to all HCWs at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Care Center including certified nursing assistants (also called geriatric nursing assistants), registered nurses, registered dieticians, environment staff, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, respiratory therapists, social workers, and administrators. Of the 106 of 347 HCWs who participated in the Flu in 15 in-service, 58 were by chance encounters selected to be surveyed based on convenience. We surveyed 68 of 241 HCWs who did not attend the Flu in 15 in-service as a comparison. Of the 58 participants who were asked if the in-service helped them understand why a flu vaccine is needed yearly, we found that 15% responded "tremendously," 48% "a lot," 26% "some," 7% "a little," and 2% "no." We had 24% report that the program was effective in changing their behavior to accept the flu vaccination for the first time. We found that 49% responded that the in-service was effective in either changing their behavior to accept the flu vaccination for the first time or reaccept it if recently declined in previous years. With respect to motivation, 42% of the certified nursing assistants stated that the in-service made them think more about returning to school to get a license in some area of health care. Although not cause and effect, we observed an increase in the HCW acceptance rate of the influenza vaccine from 65% in 2006-2007 to 73% in 2007-2008. We noticed a decreased trend in patient deaths

  13. The Impact of Patient's Socio-Demographic Characterictics, Comorbidities and Attitudes on Flu Vaccination Uptake in Family Practice Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravos, Andrej; Kračun, Lucija; Kravos, Klara; Iljaž, Rade

    2015-09-01

    In Slovenia, the role of family physicians in primary care and preventive procedures is very important. Influenza vaccination rates in Slovenia are low. The reasons for low vaccination rates in Slovenia were not clear. We suppose that patient's beliefs and attitudes are important factors. We assessed patients' opinions regarding the acceptance of flu vaccination by their family physicians and their beliefs and attitudes about flu and vaccination. The aim was to check out factors that influence the decision to take the vaccine in family physician offices. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, observational study in the Styria region in Slovenia. We included patients from seven family physicians during regular office visits. They filled in a questionnaire about their general demographic data and attitudes regarding influenza and vaccination. The main outcome was the decision to be vaccinated. The logistic regression model identified five predictors for influenza vaccination, namely: heart disease, previous vaccination, an agreement with the beliefs 'the vaccination is an efficient measure to prevent influenza', 'after the vaccination there are usually no important side effects' and 'the vaccination is also recommended for a healthy adult person'. The belief that vaccinations harm the immune system is negatively associated with vaccination. Patients' beliefs are an important factor to decide for vaccination or not. Family physician teams should discuss with patients their beliefs and concerns about vaccination.

  14. VACCINATION AGAINST FLU, PNEUMOCOCCAL, MENINGOCOCCAL AND HIB INFECTION OF THE SICKLY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This manual for doctors contains modern information about the spread of pneumotropic infections, their participation in the pathogenesis of acute diseases among children, possibilities for their prevention and treatment. Special detailed description is given to the methods of immune prevention, including specific one. The authors indicate all the registered and to be registered in russia russian and foreign vaccines, methods of their injection, possible unfavourable events. especially interesting are the authors' information on application of vaccines against flu, pneumococcal, meningococcal and hemophilic infections, bacterial vaccines, including those among the sickly children. On November 22, 2005, the manual was approved at the session of the scientific council of scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences.

  15. Synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) stimulates cell mediated immunity in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled Phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelos, Olga; Robinson, Stuart; Stoloff, Gregory A; Caparrós-Wanderley, Wilson

    2012-06-29

    Current Influenza vaccines elicit antibody mediated prophylactic immunity targeted to viral capsid antigens. Despite their global use these vaccines must be administered yearly to the population, cannot be manufactured until the circulating viral strain(s) have been identified and have limited efficacy. A need remains for Influenza vaccines addressing these issues and here we report the results of a Phase Ib trial of a novel synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) targeting T cell responses to NP, M1 and M2. Forty-eight healthy males aged 18-40 were recruited for this single-centre, randomised, double blind study. Volunteers received one single low (250 μg) or high (500 μg) dose of FLU-v, either alone or adjuvanted. Safety, tolerability and basic immunogenicity (IgG and IFN-γ responses) parameters were assessed pre-vaccination and for 21 days post-vaccination. FLU-v was found to be safe and well tolerated with no vaccine associated severe adverse events. Dose-dependent IFN-γ responses >2-fold the pre-vaccination level were detected in 80% and 100% of volunteers receiving, respectively, the low and high dose adjuvanted FLU-v formulations. No formulation tested induced any significant FLU-v antibody response. FLU-v is safe and induces a vaccine-specific cellular immunity. Cellular immune responses are historically known to control and mitigate infection and illness during natural infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  17. Benefits of pharmacist-led flu vaccination services in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkdale, C L; Nebout, G; Megerlin, F; Thornley, T

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of excess winter deaths and increased hospital admissions. There is a high level of economic burden associated with the infection. Although vaccination targets have been set to tackle this international issue, many countries struggle to reach these coverage targets for their at-risk populations using traditional delivery methods. Traditional providers include family doctors and nurses; however, pharmacist-led influenza vaccination has become a more commonly utilised aid to support vaccination targets. Community pharmacies are convenient and widely accessible and evaluations consistently demonstrate that patients are satisfied with pharmacist-led vaccinations. Allowing community pharmacists to administer influenza vaccination as an alternative option for delivery helps to increase the coverage rate of vaccination. In addition, commissioning community pharmacists to provide this service has been shown to contribute to achieving targets for those at-risk. Pharmacist-led influenza vaccination services can create value for payors and reduce pressure on health systems. This review aims to demonstrate the success of pharmacy-led influenza vaccinations, and the impact it has had in driving up immunisation rates within other countries. Experiences of countries such as England, Portugal and the United States provide evidence to demonstrate the benefit to both the patient and the health system. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  19. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  20. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT be ... What is live, attenuated influenza vaccine-LAIV (nasal spray)?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children younger ...

  1. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune...... responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using amodular...... framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability.The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B...

  2. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-29

    The 2009-10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be

  3. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  4. Your child and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ... have concerns about mercury, all of the routine vaccines are also ... TO PROTECT MY CHILD FROM THE FLU? Everyone who comes in close ...

  5. [Factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated against pandemic flu A/H1N1 in the adult population of the Health Department of Elche (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, J; Caballero, P; Nolasco, A; Montagud, E

    2012-01-01

    To assess, in the general population, the information sources, attitudes and willingness to be vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in 2009. We carried out a cross sectional study between 25th November and 30th December 2009, through face to face interviews with a random sample (826) of adults resident in the Health Department of Elche (Spain). Respondents reported that television (57%) and the family doctor (47.9%) were their main sources of information about vaccinations. Eighty-two point two percent had a good opinion of vaccinations, 30.5% perceived A/H1N1 to be more severe than seasonal flu, with a higher rate among older and less educated people. Twenty-five point four percent of respondents were concerned about contracting it, especially among the less educated. Forty-two point one percent expressed their willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal flu. Eighteen point four percent intended to be vaccinated against A/H1N1. The bias towards vaccination increases with age and in the case of A/H1N1 decreases among more educated people. The family doctor was the main source of information when people wanted to be immunized against seasonal flu (OR = 1.43) and A/H1N1 (OR = 2.47). Low acceptance of the pandemic vaccination and low perceived severity of influenza A/H1N1. Previous vaccination experience with seasonal flu creates a predisposition to immunization against A/H1N1. Although the media were the leading source of information during this period, the family doctor's influence on their decision to be vaccinated was significant.

  6. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... Liquid Medicine Safely for more information.​ Prevention & Treatment: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  7. Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166897.html Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch? Early results look promising for ... TUESDAY, June 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental flu vaccine patch with dissolving microneedles appears safe and ...

  8. Attitudes of the medical students from two Czech universities to pandemic flu A (H1N1) 2009 and to influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomáskov, Hana; Bohácová, Sylva; Slachtová, Hana

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the approach of students to vaccination against seasonal influenza, how they perceived risk associated with influenza pandemic, and whether the pandemic influenced their approach to vaccination against seasonal flu. Data collection was conducted through an anonymous questionnaire survey. Distribution and collection of questionnaires took place from November to December 2010 at the medical faculties of two universities. Out of the total 360 distributed questionnaires, 343 were filled. The qualitative data were analysed using chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-sample t-test were used for the evaluation of quantitative data. Statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% in STATA 10. The proportion of students regularly vaccinated against seasonal flu was low (4%). Students rated the risk of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 as relatively low and an interest in vaccination did not increase even during the pandemic and consequently only 5% expressed their interest to get vaccinated during the pandemic. However, only 3% of respondents were vaccinated at the time of vaccine availability. In the following year, only 5% of respondents planned to get vaccinated against seasonal influenza. The results of the questionnaire study indicate that young people have not perceived vaccination against influenza as an important anti-epidemic measure and their opinion have not changed even during the outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in 2009.

  9. VACCINE IMMUNIZATION FOR PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL, HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE AND FLU AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN, WHO OFTEN SUFFER FROM PERSISTENT HETEROSPECIFIC INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF THE BRONCHOPULMONARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Ilienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among serious diseases of the lower respiratory tract a special place is taken by pneumonias and chronic infectious respiratory diseases caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB. The research purpose is to determine the effectiveness of vaccine combined application to treat sickly children, who often suffer from persistent infectious pathology of the respiratory tract, for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease. 110 children aged between 3 and 12 have been vaccinated. The first part of research implied children vaccination by means of Actahib and Pneumo 23 vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France, the second one consisted in immunization of children with the same pathology by means of Pneumo 23, Actahib and Vaxigrip vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France. The researches established that within a year after HIB and Pneumo 23 vaccination the frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract acerbations reduced by 2,3 times on average; likewise, the number of system antimicrobial dosage reduced by 7,4 times along with the total duration of dosage; the carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 3,7 times, H. influenzae — by 3,9 times. In the course of application of three vaccines, the frequency of persistent heat erospecific infectious bronchopulmonary pathology acerbations reduced by 3,3 times. The carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 2,5 times, H. influenzae — by 4,1 times. Thus, vaccine immunization to treat for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease in various combinations may be recoma mended for wider application to reduce the frequency and severity of heat erospecific infectious respiratory diseases among sickly children, who often suffer from various illnesses.Key words: children with recurrent diseases, vaccination, prevention, flu, H. Influenzae, S. pneumoniae.

  10. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... What is inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age may need two ...

  11. Understanding Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems to ...

  12. Communicating to increase public uptake of pandemic flu vaccination in the UK: Which messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Fiona; Marcu, Afrodita; Godinho, Cristina A; Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-06-14

    Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive measure against influenza transmission, yet vaccination rates during the 2009/10 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic were low across the world, with the majority of people declining to receive the vaccine. Despite extensive research on the predictors of uptake of influenza vaccination, little research has focused on testing the effectiveness of evidence and theory-based messages. To examine the persuasiveness of messages promoting vaccination and antiviral use either as health-enhancing or as risk-reducing, as well as messages which conveyed evidence-based information about the costs and benefits of vaccination, or which applied anticipated regret as a motivator for vaccine uptake. We conducted 11 focus groups with forty-one members of the general population in England including young and older adults, those with lower education, parents, and those with elevated health risk. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factual, evidence-based messages were well received with participants finding them the most convincing and useful, particularly where they gave cost-benefit comparisons. Health-enhancing messages were received with scepticism and concern that the messages were not honest about the potential lack of safety of vaccination. In contrast, risk-reduction messages were perceived as being more balanced and credible. Messages aiming to elicit feelings of anticipated regret for not getting vaccinated were generally perceived as patronising and unprofessional. Vaccination messages should be kept brief, but convey balanced, evidence-based information, and be transparent in their communication of potential side-effects. The general public seem to prefer messages that are factual and emphasise the costs and benefits of vaccination, particularly with regards to vaccine safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Wolfberry, or goji berry, has been shown to improve immune response including enhanced antibody production in response to vaccination in the aged; however, it is not known if this effect of wolfberry would tran...

  14. A novel M2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs.

  15. Flu vaccination in elite athletes: A survey among Serie A soccer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Odone, Anna; Miduri, Alessia; Cella, Paola; Pasquarella, Cesira; Gozzini, Armando; Tamburrino, Pasquale; Castellacci, Enrico

    2016-09-13

    Scant data is available on immunization policies and practices among professional athletes. Following up on a recent review on the topic, we conducted a survey among Italian Serie A soccer teams during the influenza season 2015-16, to explore vaccination practices and attitudes as well as influenza vaccine uptake. The survey covered a sample of over 600 professional athletes from 20 teams and was carried out in collaboration with the Italian Association of Physicians of Professional Football Teams (L.A.M.I.CA.). For each team, the head of the medical staff was interviewed (structured telephone interviews, 100% response rate). Seasonal influenza vaccine was actively offered in 75% of Serie A teams with a median coverage rate of 40% (range 0%-100%). Vaccines are often administered after matches or training sessions. We report vaccine hesitancy associated with fear of adverse events, poor communication and other selected determinants. Vaccination in elite athletes, if correctly managed, represents a powerful, cost-effective and long lasting preventive tool. In times where vaccines are losing public confidence, our findings are a useful basis to inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of interventions to promote prevention in sports medicine.

  16. [Burden of influenza virus type B and mismatch with the flu vaccine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiros-Bouza, Jose Ma; Pérez-Rubio, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the 80s two lineages of type B viruses are co - circulating in the world. Antigenic differences between them are important and it leads to lack of cross-reactivity. The impact on the burden of disease due to influenza B virus, poor foresight in estimating which of the two lineages of B viruses circulate in the season, and the consequent lack of immunity in case of including the wrong strain make that the availability of the quadrivalent vaccine is very useful. The aim of this paper is to analyze the past influenza seasons in Spain to assess the burden of disease, divergence between the vaccine strain and the circulating B and viral characteristics associated with type B in each seasonal epidemic. Review of all reports issued by the Influenza Surveillance System in Spain since the 2003-2004 season to 2012-2013. Over the past influenza seasons, although type A was present mostly, circulation of influenza B virus in each season was observed, even being co - dominant in some of them. In a high number of seasons the divergence between the vaccine strain and the circulating strain lineage has been observed The protective effect of influenza vaccine has varied depending on the type / subtype of influenza virus studied. The vaccine effectiveness against influenza infection by influenza B virus has varied greatly depending on the season analyzed.

  17. Birth outcomes for Australian mother-infant pairs who received an influenza vaccine during pregnancy, 2012-2014: The FluMum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Lisa; Andrews, Ross M; Lambert, Stephen B; Viney, Kerri A; Wood, Nicholas; Perrett, Kirsten P; Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2017-03-07

    In Australia, influenza vaccination is recommended for all women who will be pregnant during the influenza season. Vaccine safety and effectiveness are key concerns and influencers of uptake for both vaccine providers and families. We assessed the safety of receiving an influenza vaccination during any trimester of pregnancy with respect to preterm births and infant birthweight. We conducted a nested retrospective cohort study of 'FluMum' participants (2012-2014). Our primary exposure of interest was influenza vaccination during pregnancy. The primary outcomes of interest were infant birthweight and weeks' gestation at birth for live singleton infants. Analyses included comparisons of these birth outcomes by vaccination status and trimester of pregnancy an influenza vaccine was given. We calculated means, proportions, and relative risks and performed multivariable logistic regression for potential confounding factors. In the 7126 mother-infant pairs enrolled in this study, mean maternal age at infant birth was 31.7years. Influenza vaccine uptake in pregnancy was 34%. Most mothers with a known date of vaccination received a vaccine in the second trimester (51%). Those mothers with a co-morbidity or risk factor were 13% more likely to have influenza vaccine during pregnancy compared to other mothers (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.24, p=0.007). Mean weeks' gestation at birth was 38.7 for the vaccinated and 38.8 for the unvaccinated group (p=0.051). Infants in the vaccinated group weighed 15g less in birthweight compared to the unvaccinated infants (95% CI -12.8 to 42.2, p=0.29). Results arising from this large Australian cohort study are reassuring with respect to two critical safety outcomes; preterm births and low infant birthweights. Studies examining a broader range of birth outcomes following influenza vaccination during pregnancy are required, particularly now that maternal vaccination in pregnancy has expanded to include pertussis as well as influenza. Copyright

  18. Flu Preparations Underscore Schools' Key Role in Vaccinations: Research Confirms Exemptions Lead to Higher Disease Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each school year, the school-nurse coordinator for the 3,000-student Ashland, Oregon, district plans a "parent's night" around the topic of vaccinations for the safety and health of children. That is only the beginning of the school-nurse coordinator's contact with parents who are skeptical about the necessity of…

  19. Assessment of H1N1 influenza: A swine flu vaccination in Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess H1N1 vaccination in the Kumasi metropolis of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Questionnaires on the subject were administered to 504 individuals compris-ing of 254 health personnel and 250 from the general public (in a cross-sectional survey) after an initial interview of 1,686 individuals.

  20. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances the protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaogang; Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Smith, Donald; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-02-01

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin(323-339)-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function.

  1. VACCINATION AGAINST FLU, PNEUMOCOCCAL, MENINGOCOCCAL AND HIB INFECTION OF THE SICKLY CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    L.S. Namazova; V. K. Tatochenko; S.G. Aleksina; M.G. Galitskaya; Z.A. Izvol'skaya; M.V. Fedoseenko; N.I. Voznesenskaya

    2007-01-01

    This manual for doctors contains modern information about the spread of pneumotropic infections, their participation in the pathogenesis of acute diseases among children, possibilities for their prevention and treatment. Special detailed description is given to the methods of immune prevention, including specific one. The authors indicate all the registered and to be registered in russia russian and foreign vaccines, methods of their injection, possible unfavourable events. especially interes...

  2. Vaccine Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... list . Showing availability for 25,354 locations. Influenza Vaccine Recommended for everyone greater than or equal to ... which one may be right for you! Flu Vaccines Protects again influenza, commonly called flu, a respiratory ...

  3. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  4. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  5. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  6. FluView National Flu Activity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FluView National Flu Activity Map is a complementary widget to the state-by-state flu map widget introduced in the 2007-2008 flu season. This interactive map...

  7. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  8. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  9. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating Influenza (Flu) Information for People at High Risk for Flu Complications Do you have Asthma, Diabetes, or Chronic Heart Disease? ... risk of serious illness if you get the flu. Asthma, diabetes and chronic heart disease were among ...

  10. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  11. Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  12. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. The Underrecognized Burden of Influenza in Young Children. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 355:31-4 American Indian and Alaskan Native children These children are more likely to have severe ...

  13. Seasonal flu vaccination in Dutch at-risk populations was not affected by A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Mulder, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Heijnen, M.L.A.; Campbell, S.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    We read with interest the recent paper by Maurer and colleagues describing the attitudes toward seasonal and H1N1 vaccination and vaccination uptake among US adults (Maurer et al., 2010). They found the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake as considerably lower than seasonal vaccine uptake, which

  14. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they get a flu shot. What types of vaccine should my child receive and how many doses? Children with or ... with chronic health conditions, get a seasonal flu vaccine. Additional Information & Resources: Preventing the Flu: Resources for Parents & Child Care Providers Preventing the Spread of Illness in ...

  15. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  16. Health and social care workers: don't risk flu infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet explains why health and social care workers should receive the new flu vaccine. It provides a range of information, including how to get vaccinated, how the vaccine works, how effective it is and possible side effects.

  17. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  18. OHS Helps Protect Employees During Flu Season | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu season is in full swing, bringing a host of symptoms like congestion, coughs, fever, chills, muscle aches, and fatigue. To help NCI at Frederick employees stay healthy this year, Occupational Health Services (OHS) is offering two types of flu vaccines for free.

  19. Fighting flu: military pathology, vaccines, and the conflicted identity of the 1918-19 pandemic in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresalier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the decisive role of British military medicine in shaping official approaches to the 1918 influenza pandemic. It contends that British approaches were defined through a system of military pathology, which had been established by the War Office as part of the mobilization of medicine for the First World War. Relying on the bacteriological laboratory for the identification and control of pathogenic agents, military pathology delivered therapeutic and preventive measures against a range of battlefield diseases, and military and civilian authorities trusted that it could do the same with influenza. This article traces how it shaped efforts to establish the etiology of the pandemic and to produce a general influenza vaccine. It highlights the challenges involved in both strategies. Understanding the central role of military pathology helps make sense of the nature, direction, scale, and limitations of medical mobilization against the pandemic in Britain and the authority accorded to specific medical bodies for elaborating and coordinating strategies. Crucially, it demands that we rethink the relationship between the war and pandemic as one about the social organization of medical knowledge and institutions.

  20. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). Increasing Flu Vaccination Rates among Healthcare Workers Position statements from professional organizations, mandatory influenza vaccination policies, and many helpful ...

  1. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  2. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  3. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  5. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  6. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak.

  7. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of different doses and formulations of a broad spectrum influenza vaccine (FLU-v) developed by SEEK: study protocol for a single-center, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical phase IIb trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Eva; Pleguezuelos, Olga; Liu, Heng; Fernandez, Ana; Bannister, Robin; Stoloff, Gregory; Oftung, Fredrik; Norley, Stephen; Huckriede, Anke; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hak, Eelko

    2017-04-04

    Current influenza vaccines, based on antibodies against surface antigens, are unable to provide protection against newly emerging virus strains which differ from the vaccine strains. Therefore the population has to be re-vaccinated annually. It is thus important to develop vaccines which induce protective immunity to a broad spectrum of influenza viruses. This trial is designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of FLU-v, a vaccine composed of four synthetic peptides with conserved epitopes from influenza A and B strains expected to elicit both cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity providing protection against a broad spectrum of influenza viruses. In a single-center, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase IIb trial, 222 healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years will be randomized (2:2:1:1) to receive two injections of a suspension of 500 μg FLU-v in saline (arm 1), one dose of emulsified 500 μg FLU-v in Montanide ISA-51 and water for injection (WFI) followed by one saline dose (arm 2), two saline doses (arm 3), or one dose of Montanide ISA-51 and WFI emulsion followed by one saline dose (arm 4). All injections will be given subcutaneously. Primary endpoints are safety and FLU-v induced CMI, evaluated by cytokine production by antigen specific T cell populations (flow-cytometry and ELISA). Secondary outcomes are measurements of antibody responses (ELISA and multiplex), whereas exploratory outcomes include clinical efficacy and additional CMI assays (ELISpot) to show cross-reactivity. Broadly protective influenza vaccines able to provide protection against multiple strains of influenza are urgently needed. FLU-v is a promising vaccine which has shown to trigger the cell-mediated immune response. The dosages and formulations tested in this current trial are also estimated to induce antibody response. Therefore, both cellular and humoral immune responses will be evaluated. EudraCT number 2015-001932-38 ; retrospectively registered

  8. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Every year, the flu spreads across college campuses nationwide. Close living quarters, ...

  9. [Relation between the level of knowledge and the rate of vaccination against the flu virus among the staff of the Clermont-Ferrand University hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, F; Kelly, C; Biat, I; Provost, D; Baud, O; Laurichesse, H; Chamoux, A

    2008-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine how much staff at the Clermont-Ferrand university hospital, France, knew about influenza and its relation with the vaccinal rate. The other aim was to develop better-targeted information campaigns and prevention policy in the work place. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to the 7601 salaried staff of the hospital in May 2005. The staff was asked to give details on socioprofessional characteristics, vaccinal status, and knowledge about the influenza virus (mode of transmission, contagiousness, measures of prevention, populations affected, mortality, vaccination schedule, and vaccination target populations). Multiple-choice questions on knowledge of influenza were scored according to the answer given. The response rate was 26.5%. The 2011 completed questionnaires were representative of the working staff. They showed a positive correlation between the rate of vaccination and knowledge of influenza, with a 0.98 coefficient. They also showed that the staff was very largely unaware of population groups most at risk for influenza (1% of correct answers). Primary prevention campaigns will only be effective if the target population has a better awareness of the issues involved. This study highlights the areas in which knowledge was heterogeneous or inadequate, and the information that could be decisive in increasing vaccinal coverage among staff. This information should focus on modes of transmission, contagiousness, mortality, and above all on populations at risk.

  10. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  11. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  12. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  13. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  14. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  15. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be contagious?I’m pregnant. Is there any danger to my baby from the flu?Will steam ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staff AboutSupport UsCopyright & ...

  16. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  17. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  18. Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Pandemic Other Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... flu season. What is Fluzone High-Dose influenza vaccine? Fluzone High-Dose is an influenza vaccine, manufactured ...

  19. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  20. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  1. Flu season and trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of us who are practicing medicine know that we are in a very active flu season. This was brought home to me when last week trying to admit a patient to the hospital from the office. She was a bone marrow transplant patient who had severe diarrhea and dehydration probably secondary to C. difficile. Hospital admissions said the patient had to be sent to the Emergency Room because the hospital was full due to the flu epidemic. Nationwide there has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations due to influenza over the past week from 13.7 to 22.7 per 100,000 (1. Influenza A(H3N2 has been the most common form of influenza reported this season. These viruses are often linked to more severe illness, especially in children and people age 65 years and older. Fortunately, the CDC also says that the flu cases may be peaking. However, at ...

  2. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  3. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Aaron TL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.

  4. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnant? You Need a Flu Shot! Information for pregnant women Because you are pregnant, CDC and your ob- ... more likely to get severely ill from flu. Pregnant women who get flu are at high risk of ...

  5. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Neto, Felix; Myers, Lynn B

    2009-10-06

    The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by

  6. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine In high risk and healthy children Inmunogenicidad y tolerancia de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza en niños en alto riesgo y en controles sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Avila Aguero

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe® in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza- related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP. The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications.Se realizó un estudio clínico abierto para evaluar la inmunogenícidad y la seguridad de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza, Imovax Gripe®, en 154 niños entre 6 y 36 meses de edad con alto riesgo de complicaciones ligadas a la influenza, y en un grupo de referencia de 64 niños sanos. El estudio fue

  7. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  9. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  10. Flu & You: Preventive Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventive Steps Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... for infants should be vaccinated instead. Take everyday preventive actions to stop the spread of germs. Try ...

  11. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  12. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Populations Antiviral Guidance Reference Material Guidance: Antiviral and Obstetric Health Care Antiviral Drug Supply Infection Control Guidelines ... associated with neural tube defects and other adverse outcomes for a developing baby. The Flu Shot is ...

  13. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  14. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  15. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  16. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  17. Knowledge and Perceptions of Influenza Vaccinations Among College Students in Vietnam and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Influenza is a significant worldwide public health issue. Knowledge and perceptions regarding the flu vaccination are associated with whether individuals obtain the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine how such perceptions were related to knowledge and self-efficacy regarding influenza and the flu vaccination in Vietnam and the US. Methods College students (n=932 in Vietnam (n=495 and the US (n=437 completed a self-administered survey regarding knowledge and perceptions of influenza vaccinations in September and October 2016. Results Vietnamese participants reported significantly lower levels of awareness about flu risk, higher levels of negative attitudes toward flu vaccination, lower levels of knowledge about the flu and vaccination, and lower levels of self-efficacy than US participants. Higher levels of flu and flu vaccination knowledge and self-efficacy regarding general responsible health practices were associated with lower levels of negative perceptions of flu risk and attitudes toward vaccination. At the same time, self-efficacy regarding responsible health practices was associated with higher levels of awareness of flu risk and lower levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Self-efficacy regarding exercise was associated with lower levels of perceptions of flu risk and higher levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Conclusions Vietnam could benefit from influenza education based on this comparison with the US. In both countries, knowledge and self-efficacy were found to be important factors influencing perceptions of influenza risk and vaccination.

  18. Determinants of healthcare provider recommendations for influenza vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Villacorta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: ACIP priority groups experienced higher rates of recommendations compared to non-ACIP groups. Racial differences in HCP recommendations cannot explain racial disparities in flu vaccination rates.

  19. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  20. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion) IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S™) in healthy Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, A H; Mittal, R; Patel, P M; Jarsaniya, D H; Pawar, P R

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥ 60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥ 15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen) dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (± 2) days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) and chi-square test and student's t-test applied for significance testing. 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥ 60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥ 1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072). Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179). A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (Ppopulation.

  1. flu, a metastable gene controlling surface properties of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, B

    1980-01-01

    flu, a gene of Escherichia coli K-12, was discovered and mapped between his and shiA. It is shown that flu is a metastable gene that changes frequently between the flu+ and flu states. flu+ variants give stable homogeneous suspensions, are piliated, and form glossy colonies. flu variants aggregate, fluff and sediment from suspensions, are nonpiliated, and form frizzy colonies. flu+ and flu variants can be isolated from most strains. Implications of these observations are discussed, and it is ...

  2. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  3. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... similar to outbreaks in humans. How many swine flu viruses are there? Like influenza viruses in humans ...

  4. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... Compartir Staphylococcus aureus , often referred to simply as “staph,” are bacteria commonly carried on the skin or ...

  5. Making Vaccine Messaging Stick: Perceived Causal Instability as a Barrier to Effective Vaccine Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Graham N

    2017-08-01

    Health officials often face challenges in communicating the risks associated with not vaccinating, where persuasive messages can fail to elicit desired responses. However, the mechanisms behind these failures have not been fully ascertained. To address this gap, an experiment (N = 163) tested the differences between loss-framed messages-one emphasizing the consequence of not receiving a flu vaccine; the other emphasizing the consequence of receiving the flu vaccine. Despite an identical consequence (i.e., Guillain-Barre syndrome), the message highlighting the consequence of not receiving the flu vaccine produced lower negative affect scores as compared to the message highlighting the consequence of receiving the flu vaccine. Mediation analyses suggest that one reason for this difference is due to non-vaccination being perceived as temporary and reversible, whereas vaccination is perceived as being permanent. Implications on health communication and future research are discussed.

  6. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  7. [How do we catch flu? Beliefs in France in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, P; Gautier, A; Verger, P; Raude, J; Constant, A; Beck, F

    2015-02-01

    Our goals were to describe beliefs held by French people concerning the contagiosity of influenza and analyze the relationship of these beliefs with vaccination against seasonal flu. A subsample (4749 people aged 15-79) of the Health Barometer 2010 responded to questions dealing with influenza. Responses were analyzed using clustering analysis and logistic regression. Overall, observed beliefs were quite good, but also socially differentiated. 'False' beliefs were more frequent among people with a lower socioeconomic status. Those who overestimated the contagiosity of influenza were less likely to have been vaccinated against seasonal influenza in 2008. The beliefs analyzed here were associated with vaccination behaviors. 'False' beliefs may be difficult to change as they are nevertheless coherent. These beliefs also exhibit social inequalities that should be taken into account when determining preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction (early recognition) of emerging flu strain clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.

  9. Swine flu- a serious pandeMic threat | Rachna | IMTU Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review focuses on pathogenesis, transmission, role of pigs as reservoirs, diagnosis, symptoms and compares swine fl u with common cold. The outbreak of swine fl u in India, its possible impact in other countries as well as pandemic preparedness plans, vaccines as a preventive measure of swine flu infection ...

  10. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  11. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  12. Standard regulation of obligatory immunoprevention of flu in a control system of incidence of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Zobov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the interconnected provisions of the federal legislation and regulations of federal executive authorities regulating a question of obligatory immunization of health workers against flu in aspect of legal consequences of refusal of her are considered. The analysis of the existing regulations and materials of jurisprudence concerning carrying out obligatory vaccination of health workers against flu is carried out. By results of the analysis it is shown that today a problematic issue is absence of the accurate standardly consolidated criteria of reference of these or those categories of medical personnel to group of the subjects of obligatory immunization performing works with sick infectious diseases and, respectively, against flu. It doesn’t allow the management of the medical organizations to differentiate specifically mentioned professions and positions owing to what the requirement about obligatory carrying out preventive inoculations against flu of those health workers whose obligatory vaccination isn’t provided actually is compulsion to vaccination. Therefore, the subsequent discharge from work in case of refusal it работни from carrying out an inoculation strikes at his rights (as in this case, for example, time of discharge isn’t subject to payment and inclusion in the length of service granting the right for the annual paid vacation and is illegal.It is offered to accept as such criterion the labor function fixed by the statutory act of authorized federal executive authority for concrete positions of employees of the medical organizations providing performance of work with sick infectious diseases. The recommendations to heads of the medical organizations concerning the publication of local acts on the organization of vaccinal prevention of flu and adoption of administrative decisions after written refusals of vaccination are provided.

  13. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  14. The 2014 French health campaign reminds us that “flu must be taken seriously”

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The fact is that 5-10% of the global adult population and 20-30% of children worldwide catch the flu every year. The illness can lead to hospitalisation and death, mainly in people who are considered high-risk (infants, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses). According to the WHO, every year, flu epidemics are responsible for approximately three to five million cases of serious illness and for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. Safe and effective vaccines are available and have been used for more than 60 years. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccinat...

  15. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  16. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  17. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. ...

  18. 75 FR 2049 - National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Influenza Vaccination Week. I encourage all Americans to observe this week by getting the H1N1 flu vaccine... Proclamation 8472--National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0...;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8472 of January 8, 2010 National Influenza Vaccination Week...

  19. Vaccines for Your Children: Protect Your Child at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the 6 month shots, side effects, flu vaccine, and child care requirements. 7 to 11 Months Learn about ... vaccines before college. Adoption and Vaccines Learn about vaccines for international adoption, domestic adoption, ... Protect Your Child Home Pregnancy Birth 1 to 2 months 4 ...

  20. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are at High Risk of Developing Complications from ...

  1. Excessive somnolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  2. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  3. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  4. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  5. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  6. Flu Shot Falls Short More Often for Obese People: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166544.html Flu Shot Falls Short More Often for Obese People: ... 2017 TUESDAY, June 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot is the best way to avoid getting ...

  7. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Treatment depends on which you have. ...

  8. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000250.htm Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... Nasal congestion Sneezing Sore throat Cough Headache The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and ...

  9. Seasonal influenza vaccination of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The elderly are at increased risk of the complications of seasonal influenza. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended. However, two systematic reviews published by the Cochrane collaboration have highlighted a number of outstanding issues. This article examines whether annual influenza vaccination of the elderly and their regular contacts is still supported by the available scientific evidence. The randomised trials included in one of the Cochrane reviews suggest that influenza vaccination reduces the incidence of flu-like syndromes and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the elderly. There are no robust randomised trials specifically designed to assess whether vaccination of the elderly prevents influenza complications. Two case-control studies showed a statistical correlation between vaccination and a lower risk of death from influenza complications. Cohort studies have also shown that complications are less frequent when the vaccine strains correspond to circulating strains. Because of a patient selection bias, non-randomised studies seem to overestimate the efficacy of vaccination. Three randomised trials showed that vaccination of care home staff reduced mortality among elderly residents during seasonal flu epidemics. No such effect was observed in another trial, possibly because a large proportion (32%) of staff in the control institutions had also been vaccinated. In practice, influenza vaccination of the elderly with risk factors for complications is justified, especially for care home residents, their regular contacts and healthcare workers. Seasonal flu vaccination of healthy people over 65 provides limited benefit but its harm-benefit balance remains favourable. More studies of routine influenza vaccination of the elderly are needed.

  10. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lun, Aaron Tl; Wong, Jason Wh; Downard, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    ... pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible...

  11. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Confident Kids Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A en español ¿Es un ... cough, and high fever — could it be the flu that's been going around? Or just a common ...

  12. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  13. Updates on Influenza Vaccination in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela J P; Grohskopf, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all children 6 months of age and older who do not have contraindications. This article provides an overview of information concerning burden of influenza among children in the United States; US-licensed influenza vaccines; vaccine immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety; and recent updates relevant to use of these vaccines in pediatric populations. Influenza antiviral medications are discussed. Details concerning vaccine-related topics may be found in the current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for use of influenza vaccines (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html). Additional information on influenza antivirals is located at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/index.htm. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Influenza Vaccination Beliefs and Practices in Elderly Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikin, Sharon; Scott, Vanessa; Shea, Steven; LaRussa, Philip; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2017-07-10

    The majority of influenza related deaths and hospitalizations occur among individuals ≥65 years, yet the national influenza vaccination rate for this group is 63% and is lower in the Hispanic population. Previous studies have described negative predictors of vaccination; however, there is a knowledge gap of how influenza vaccine-specific beliefs affect vaccination rates. We examined the relationship between influenza vaccine health beliefs and vaccination behaviors in a cross sectional sample of 200 primarily Hispanic patients aged ≥65 years in an academic general internal medicine clinic. Participants were asked about perceptions of influenza vaccine effectiveness and safety. Interview responses regarding influenza vaccine concerns were evaluated qualitatively with conventional content analysis. Logistic regression evaluated associations between beliefs and self-reported vaccination the previous year, adjusted for age, gender, and language. Of those approached to complete the questionnaire, 88% participated. Self-reported influenza vaccination rate during the study year was 75%. Only 46.5% endorsed the belief that influenza vaccine is very effective and 47% that it is very safe. Many stated specific concerns about flu vaccine including that it causes side effects/adverse outcomes, is not effective, vaccine components are harmful, and vaccination is not necessary. Belief that the flu shot causes the flu and concern for variability of the flu shot were associated with reduced odds of vaccination (aOR 0.19, 95% CI [0.05, 0.83] and 0.06 [0.006, 0.63] respectively). The patient-perceived distinction between cold, flu, and other symptoms warrants further exploration. This information can be used to develop targeted communication to promote vaccination.

  15. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection.

  16. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create?

  17. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  18. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  19. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  20. Hypersensitivity reaction to human papillomavirus vaccine due to polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiu, Iuliana; Geuna, Massimo; Heffler, Enrico; Rolla, Giovanni

    2012-05-08

    A 17-year-old girl reported generalised urticaria, eyelid angioedema, rhino-conjunctivitis, dyspnoea and wheezing 1 h after third intramuscular administration of quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine (Gardasil). She was treated with antihistamine, and corticosteroids with prompt relief of rhinitis and dyspnoea, while urticaria and angioedema lasted 24 h. Intradermal test with Gardasil, which contains polysorbate 80 (PS80), resulted positive, while skin tests with the bivalent vaccine were negative. Prick test performed with PS80 resulted positive in the patient and negative in ten healthy controls. The CD203 basophil activation test result was negative for PS80 at all the tested dilutions and specific IgE was not found. As flu vaccine was recommended, the authors skin tested two flu vaccine, one containing PS80 (Fluarix, GSK), which resulted positive and another flu vaccine with no adjuvant or preservative (Vaxigrip, Sanofi Pasteur MSD), which gave negative results. The patient then received Vaxigrip without adverse reactions.

  1. L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: may oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-05-01

    compounds, and suggest important interactions between neutrophills and carnosine related compounds in the host response to viruses and bacteria. Carnosine and anserine were also found to reduce apoptosis of human neutrophils. In this way these histidine-containing compounds can modulate the Influenza virus release from neutrophills and reduce virus dissemination through the body of the organism. This review points the ability of therapeutic control of Influenza viral infections associated with modulation by oral nonhydrolized forms of carnosine and related histidine-containg compounds of PMN apoptosis which may be involved at least in part in the pathophysiology of the disease in animals and humans. The data presented in this article, overall, may have implications for global influenza surveillance and planning for pandemic influenza therapeutic prevention with oral forms of non-hydrolized natural L-carnosine as a suitable alternative to the conventional vaccination for various flu ailments.

  2. "Beauty contest" indicator of cognitive ability and free riding strategies. Results from a scenario experiment about pandemic flu immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnerstrand, Björn

    2017-03-01

    High immunization coverage rates are desirable in order to reduce total morbidity and mortality rates, but it may also provide an incentive for herd immunity free riding strategies. The aim of this paper was to investigate the link between cognitive ability and vaccination intention in a hypothetical scenario experiment about Avian Flu immunization. A between-subject scenario experiment was utilized to examine the willingness to undergo vaccination when the vaccination coverage was proclaimed to be 36, 62 and 88%. Respondents were later assigned to a "Beauty contest" experiment, an experimental game commonly used to investigate individual's cognitive ability. Results show that there was a significant negative effect of the proclaimed vaccination uptake among others on the vaccination intention. However, there were no significant association between the "Beauty contest" indicator of cognitive ability and the use of herd immunity free riding strategies.

  3. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  4. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  5. Flu vaccine may arrive too late / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti arstid süüdistavad riiki liigses passiivsuses seagripivaktsiini hankimisel. Tartu ülikooli kliinikumi infektsiooniteenistuse juht doktor Matti Maimets arvab, et seagripi epideemia jõuab Eestisse jaanuaris

  6. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  7. Third-Person Effect and Pandemic Flu: The Role of Severity, Self-Efficacy Method Mentions, and Message Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunmin; Park, Sun-A

    2016-12-01

    Within the context of a pandemic flu, this experiment investigated whether source (government officials or physicians), severity condition (high or low), and mention of self-efficacy method (mention present or absent) in H1N1 health news affected participants' (a) perception of media influence on self and others and (b) intentions to get vaccinated. Results found support for third-person effects, and the magnitude of the effects grew with social distance. Main effect of source, as well as interaction effects among the independent variables on third-person effect and vaccination intentions, were also found.

  8. Vaccination: Who Should Do It, Who Should Not and Who Should Take Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get sick Caring for Someone Sick Schools, Businesses & Travelers Schools & Childcare Providers Information for Schools Guidance ... flu vaccine is best for you and your family. All persons aged 6 months and older are ...

  9. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  10. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  11. EDITORIAL Avian Flu Pandemic Threat: Why is Ethiopia considered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Many zoonotic diseases have affected human beings with serious impact. Among those pandemic flu originated from birds have caused millions of human deaths at different times. The so called Spanish flu that caused about 50 million people worldwide in 1918-19 is the most devastating. That pandemic was refereed as.

  12. PRODUCTION OF HYBRID RECOMBINANT PROTEIN Flu-Chim, CONTAINING INFLUENZA VIRUSES A AND B MAJOR EPITOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dukhovlinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus is highly contagious diseases of people, birds and mammals. Approximately 250 000– 500 000 deaths are caused by influenza epidemics worldwide yearly, and the death number may be up to millions in a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Reverse genetics techniques can speed up the generation of seed viruses and new mathematical modelling methods improve vaccine strain selection. Using vaccines based on recombinant proteins, we avoid the risks associated with the introduction of the virus into the body, even inactivated. In this paper, we have got a highly purified recombinant fusion protein composed of fragments of the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses A and B. As adjuvant we used components of flagellin. We used the most immunogenic and conserved areas of hemagglutinin H1, H3, H5 and B, which cause the formation of specific antibodies which can cross-react with homologous epitopes among the various strains of influenza A and B. Vaccine efficacy is increased by using multiple epitopes of various proteins. The aim of this study was to clone and express the hybrid recombinant protein Flu-Chim, containing immunogenic epitopes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, A/H5N1 and B fused with fragments of flagellin in Escherichia coli expression system and its subsequent purification. During the study was created high-yield E. coli strain, which produces the recombinant protein Flu-Chim, selected the optimal protocol of induction of the gene encoding the protein. The protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography. The

  13. Lessons from the past: familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-29

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21-50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatality proportion was 2.8%, and peak excess mortality was 162/100,000/week. Fatality proportions were highest among infants, young adults, and the elderly. A genealogical database was used to study relatedness and relative risk (RR) of the fatal influenza victims and relatives of their unaffected mates. The significance of these RR computations was assessed by drawing samples randomly from the genealogical database matched for age, sex, and geographical distribution. Familial aggregation of fatalities was seen, with RRs for death ranging from 3.75 for first-degree relatives (P flu was similar within families of patients who succumbed to the illness and within families of their mates who survived. Our data do not provide conclusive evidence for the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to the Spanish flu.

  14. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  15. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G J; Potts, H W W; Michie, S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the association between levels of worry about the possibility of catching swine flu and the volume of media reporting about it; the role of psychological factors in predicting likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; and the role of media coverage and advertising in predicting other swine flu-related behaviours. Data from a series of random-digit-dial telephone surveys were analysed. A time series analysis tested the association between levels of worry and the volume of media reporting on the start day of each survey. Cross-sectional regression analyses assessed the relationships between likely vaccine uptake or behaviour and predictor variables. Thirty-six surveys were run at, on average, weekly intervals across the UK between 1 May 2009 and 10 January 2010. Five surveys (run between 14 August and 13 September) were used to assess likely vaccine uptake. Five surveys (1-17 May) provided data relating to other behaviours. Between 1047 and 1173 people aged 16 years or over took part in each survey: 5175 participants provided data about their likely uptake of the swine flu vaccine; 5419 participants provided data relating to other behaviours. All participants were asked to state how worried they were about the possibility of personally catching swine flu. Subsets were asked how likely they were to take up a swine flu vaccination if offered it and whether they had recently carried tissues with them, bought sanitising hand gel, avoided using public transport or had been to see a general practitioner, visited a hospital or called NHS Direct for a flu-related reason. The percentage of 'very' or 'fairly' worried participants fluctuated between 9.6% and 32.9%. This figure was associated with the volume of media reporting, even after adjusting for the changing severity of the outbreak [chi2(1) = 6.6, p = 0.010, coefficient for log-transformed data = 2.6]. However, this effect only occurred during the UK's first summer wave of swine flu. In total, 56.1% of

  16. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  17. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  18. Strategi Pesan Promosi Kesehatan Cegah Flu Burung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Widiastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza health disaster has attacked many countries in the world, includes Indonesia. An effort have been done by government through Health Department RI publish health promotion communication on public services advertising (PSA version “Cegah Flu Burung dengan B3K”. In a way to criticize this PSA is used theoretical framework social construction of reality and health promotion. This research use descriptive qualitative method, whereas data is collected with literature review from television PSA, and data analysis technique is used framing analysis from Zhondang Pan and Gerald M. Kosicki. Based on research finding has been found that avian influenza prevention health promotion message not yet “enabling” (ability people to act healthy life, but it only “desiring” (willingness. From this we can say that health promotion still prioritize in giving information, whereas message toward new attitude and behavior changes through learning process still not visible.

  19. BFluenza: A Proteomic Database on Bird Flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as "bird flu" has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory diseases in humans. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza type A is a threat to veterinary and human health. The BFluenza is a relational database which is solely devoted to proteomic information of H5N1 subtype. Bfluenza has novel features including computed physico-chemical properties data of H5N1 viral proteins, modeled structures of viral proteins, data of protein coordinates, experimental details, molecular description and bibliographic reference. The database also contains nucleotide and their decoded protein sequences data. The database can be searched in various modes by setting search options. The structure of viral protein could be visualized by JMol viewer or by Discovery Studio. The database is available for free at http://www.bfluenza.info.

  20. Universal influenza vaccines: a realistic option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R D; Altenburg, A F; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2016-12-01

    The extensive antigenic drift displayed by seasonal influenza viruses and the risk of pandemics caused by newly emerging antigenically distinct influenza A viruses of novel subtypes has raised considerable interest in the development of so-called universal influenza vaccines. We review options for the development of universal flu vaccines and discuss progress that has been made recently. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  2. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: English (US) ... her eyes, nose, or mouth. 6. Practice other good health habits. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces at ...

  3. Sharp claims new technology can combat bird flu virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

      Tests byjapanese electronics maker Sharp Corp. have found an air-purifier using plasmacluster ion technology was 99 percent effective in killing off the bird flu virus in a controlled environment, a company spokeswoman said...

  4. Swine flu panic shows how little we really care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    I have to confess that when the first reports of swine flu started circulating, I did have a strong sense of déjà vu - after all, we've been here before. Back in 2003, the world was under threat from another potentially lethal virus that began in an economically deprived part of the world among animal stocks and briefly (according to some anyway) threatened to turn into a global pandemic--Avian flu.

  5. “Beauty contest” indicator of cognitive ability and free riding strategies. Results from a scenario experiment about pandemic flu immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Rönnerstrand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High immunization coverage rates are desirable in order to reduce total morbidity and mortality rates, but it may also provide an incentive for herd immunity free riding strategies. The aim of this paper was to investigate the link between cognitive ability and vaccination intention in a hypothetical scenario experiment about Avian Flu immunization. A between-subject scenario experiment was utilized to examine the willingness to undergo vaccination when the vaccination coverage was proclaimed to be 36, 62 and 88%. Respondents were later assigned to a “Beauty contest” experiment, an experimental game commonly used to investigate individual's cognitive ability. Results show that there was a significant negative effect of the proclaimed vaccination uptake among others on the vaccination intention. However, there were no significant association between the “Beauty contest” indicator of cognitive ability and the use of herd immunity free riding strategies.

  6. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, P; Alicino, C; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Orsi, A; Sasso, L

    2016-05-17

    Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements 'flu vaccine is safe', 'HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu' and 'HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year'. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and customise any future promotion campaigns to overcome identified

  7. Cross reactivity of serum antibody responses elicited by DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens from H1N1 subtype influenza vaccines in the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Iman; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, ten H1 subtype influenza vaccines have been recommended for global seasonal flu vaccination. Some of them were used only for one year before being replaced by another H1 flu vaccine while others may be used for up to seven years. While the selection of a new seasonal flu vaccine was based on the escape of a new emerging virus that was not effectively protected by the existing flu formulation, there is limited information on the magnitude and breadth of cross reactivity among H1 subtype virus circulation over a long period. In the current study, HA-expressing DNA vaccines were constructed to express individual HA antigens from H1 subtype vaccines used in the past 30 y. Rabbits naïve to HA antibody responses were immunized with these HA DNA vaccines and the cross reactivity of these sera against HA antigen and related H1 viruses in the same period was studied. Our data indicate that the level of cross reactivity was different for different viral isolates and the key mutations responsible for the cross reactivity may involve only a limited number of residues. Our results provide useful information for the development of improved seasonal vaccines than can achieve broad protection against viruses within the same H1 subtype.

  8. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  9. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  10. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Bilcke

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to (1 describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2 assess influential background characteristics, and (3 formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever, a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  11. EVALUATION OF OIL BASED AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE (H5NI PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ADJUVANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. NISAR, ANWARUL-HAQ, S. NOOR AND Z. J. GILL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu vaccine from H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus was prepared with two concentrations of adjuvant (Montanide ISA 70MVG. Two vaccines (I and II were prepared containing 50 and 60% Montanide, respectively. Immune response of both the vaccines as single, as well as booster, dose was evaluated in layer birds through haemagglutination inhibition test. Single dose of both vaccines showed poor immune response, while booster dose gave better response with both the vaccines. However, the vaccine prepared with 60% Montanide provided better immune response compared with the vaccine containing 50% montanide.

  12. It's a Tough Flu Season for Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, but new canine virus can make your pet 'sick as a dog' To use the sharing features on this page, ... so the main reason for not vaccinating your pet is the cost, Parrish said. Dubovi advises dog owners to assess for themselves what risk their ...

  13. Heterosubtypic cross-protection induced by whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine in mice: influence of the route of vaccine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Natalija; de Haan, Aalzen; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Huckriede, Anke; Wilschut, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Development of influenza vaccines capable of inducing broad protection against different virus subtypes is necessary given the ever-changing viral genetic landscape. Previously, we showed that vaccination with whole inactivated virus (WIV) induces heterosubtypic protection against lethal virus infection in mice. Whole inactivated virus-induced cross-protection was found to be mediated primarily by flu-specific CD8+ T cells. As it has been demonstrated that the route of vaccine administration strongly influences both the quantity and quality of vaccine-induced immunity, in this study, we determined which route of WIV administration induces optimal heterosubtypic cross-protection. We compared the magnitude of the immune response and heterosubtypic protection against lethal A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) infection after subcutaneous (SC), intramuscular (IM), and intranasal (IN) vaccination with A/NIBRG-14 (H5N1) WIV. Subcutaneous and IM administration was superior to IN administration of influenza WIV in terms of flu-specific CD8+ T-cell induction and protection of mice against lethal heterosubtypic challenge. Surprisingly, despite the very low flu-specific CD8+ T-cell responses detected in IN-vaccinated mice, these animals were partially protected, most likely due to cross-reactive IgA antibodies. The results of this study show that the magnitude of WIV-induced flu-specific CD8+ T-cell activity depends on the applied vaccination route. We conclude that parenteral administration of WIV vaccine, in particular IM injection, is superior to IN vaccine delivery for the induction of heterosubtypic cross-protection and generally appears to elicit stronger immune responses than mucosal vaccination with WIV. © 2013 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Durando, P; Alicino, C; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Orsi, A; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between ...

  15. Optimal Allocation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Depends on Age, Risk and Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, S.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Lugner, A.K.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    The limited production capacity for vaccines raises the question what the best strategy is for allocating the vaccine to mitigate an influenza pandemic. We developed an age-structured model for spread of an influenza pandemic and validated it against observations from the Asian flu pandemic. Two

  16. Titer on chip: new analytical tool for influenza vaccine potency determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Kuck

    Full Text Available Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA. The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  17. High-Dose Flu Shot May Help Nursing Home Residents Avoid Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167348.html High-Dose Flu Shot May Help Nursing Home Residents Avoid Hospital ... July 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nobody wants the flu, but it can prove deadly for frail residents ...

  18. CTL epitopes for influenza A including the H5N1 bird flu; genome-, pathogen-, and HLA-wide screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.J.; Lamberth, K.; Harndahl, M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to perform a global screening for new immunogenic HLA class I (HLA-I) restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes of potential utility as candidates of influenza A-virus diagnostics and vaccines. We used predictions of antigen processing and presentation...... in a biochemical assay and for influenza-specific, HLA-1-restricted CTL responses in an IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay. Eighty-nine peptides could be confirmed as HLA-1 binders, and 13 could be confirmed as CTL targets. The 13 epitopes, are highly conserved among human influenza A pathogens, and all of these epitopes...... are present in the emerging bird flu isolates. Our study demonstrates that present technology enables a fast global screening for T cell immune epitopes of potential diagnostics and vaccine interest. This technology includes immuno-bioinformatics predictors with the capacity to perform fast genome-, pathogen...

  19. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, Dennis L; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J; Longini, Jr, Ira M

    2010-01-01

    ..., FluTE. FluTE is an individual-based model capable of simulating the spread of influenza across major metropolitan areas or the continental United States. The model's structure is based on previously published work [3,6], but FluTE incorporates a more sophisticated natural history of influenza, more realistic intervention strategies, and ...

  20. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  1. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  2. Progress in Brucella vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Xinghong; SKYBERG, Jerod A.; CAO, Ling; CLAPP, Beata; THORNBURG, Theresa; PASCUAL, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp. are zoonotic, facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause animal and human disease. Animal disease results in abortion of fetuses; in humans, it manifests flu-like symptoms with an undulant fever, with osteoarthritis as a common complication of infection. Antibiotic regimens for human brucellosis patients may last several months and are not always completely effective. While there are no vaccines for humans, several licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in livestock. The performance of these animal vaccines is dependent upon the host species, dose, and route of immunization. Newly engineered live vaccines, lacking well-defined virulence factors, retain low residual virulence, are highly protective, and may someday replace currently used animal vaccines. These also have possible human applications. Moreover, due to their enhanced safety and efficacy in animal models, subunit vaccines for brucellosis show great promise for their application in livestock and humans. This review summarizes the progress of brucellosis vaccine development and presents an overview of candidate vaccines. PMID:23730309

  3. Post Flu Shot Confusion – think ADEM!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjunda Murthy Jyoti Prabha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Caucasian man with hypertension and diabetes presented with left arm weakness and headache for one day. He had an influenza vaccination 10 days prior to presentation. Computed tomography (CT of the head showed a possible right MCA stroke. The next day he developed left hemiplegia. A repeat CT of the head exhibited a “mass like” effect in the right hemisphere. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the head showed a diffuse area of abnormal signals, involving both hemispheres, and diffuse white matter changes. His CSF showed WBC 4/mm3, RBC 1/mm3, glucose 97 mg/dl, and protein 96 mg/dl. He continued to deteriorate, developed encephalopathy, and had to be intubated. A repeat MRI of the head demonstrated extensive bilateral, poorly marginated white matter, and some grey matter involvement characteristic of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. He failed to respond to methylprednisolone 1 gram daily and was started on plasma exchange daily for 10 days. He started to improve after the second session. After five months he was essentially normal and had returned to work. This case demonstrates that routine vaccination can have important complications.

  4. Too Late for a Flu Shot (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly and are at risk for developing Reye syndrome if they get the flu caregivers or household contacts of anyone in a high- ... currently recommended. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (a rare condition that affects the immune system ...

  5. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission | Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird flu (Avian influenza) is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. These viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. The world at large never considered it a serious threat to mankind until ...

  6. Colds and flu – an overview of the management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: colds, flu, rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, influenza, upper respiratory tract infections, herbal medicine, antivirals, .... the nose, removing bacterial products, and improving sinonasal function. Nasal irrigations can be used prior to the administration of topical therapies to ensure true sinus distribution1, 10.

  7. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  8. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  9. Editorial Avian flu pandemic threat: why is Ethiopia considered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Avian flu pandemic threat: why is Ethiopia considered at risk. Yemane Berhane, Admas Tefera. Abstract. No Abstract. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  10. Pandemics and networks : The case of the Mexican flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The recent widespread of the new Mexican flu and SARS show the high dependency on contemporary traveling patterns. The air transport network is recognized as an important channel of epidemic propagation for different diseases. In order to predict epidemic spreading and the influence of protection

  11. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  12. Flu Shots, Mammogram, and the Perception of Probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carman, K.G.; Kooreman, P.

    2010-01-01

    We study individuals’ decisions to decline or accept preventive health care interventions such as flu shots and mammograms. In particular, we analyze the role of perceptions of the effectiveness of the intervention, by eliciting individuals' subjective probabilities of sickness and survival, with

  13. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  14. Don't Get, Don't Spread: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the seasonal flu and spreading it to others.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  15. Outbreak of a New Strain of Flu at a Fair

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-28

    Dr. Karen Wong, an EIS officer with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, discusses her study about flu outbreaks at agricultural fairs.  Created: 2/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  16. Influenza Vaccination for the Pediatric Patient: A Focus on the New Intranasal, Cold-Adapted, Live Attenuated Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jennifer M.; Reilly, Joan C.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2004-01-01

    FluMist is the first live attenuated, cold-adapted intranasal influenza vaccine (LAIV) approved for the prevention of influenza A and B. Clinical trials have shown that annual vaccination with LAIV is effective for the prevention of influenza. LAIV appears well tolerated in healthy patients 5–49 years of age. The most common adverse events are abdominal pain, chills, cough, diarrhea, headache, irritability, lethargy, muscle aches, otitis media, rhinitis, sinusitis, sore throat, and vomiting. ...

  17. Bacterium-like Particles for efficient immune stimulation of existing vaccines and new subunit vaccines in mucosal applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija eVan Braeckel-Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of a mucosal vaccine critically depends on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle derived from bacteria in mucosal subunit vaccines. The non-living particles, designated Bacterium-like Particles (BLPs are based on the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine.

  18. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  19. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Carlos; Matos, Sérgio

    2014-05-07

    Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p<0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results.

  20. Development of an influenza virus vaccine using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system : implications for pandemic preparedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, M.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key word Influenza, rHA, vaccine, baculovirus, insect cells, production, pandemic preparedness Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious, acute viral respiratory disease that occurs seasonally in most parts of the world and is caused by influenza viruses. Influenza vaccination is an effective

  1. Live attenuated influenza vaccine enhances colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; McCullers, Jonathan A; Klugman, Keith P

    2014-02-18

    Community interactions at mucosal surfaces between viruses, like influenza virus, and respiratory bacterial pathogens are important contributors toward pathogenesis of bacterial disease. What has not been considered is the natural extension of these interactions to live attenuated immunizations, and in particular, live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). Using a mouse-adapted LAIV against influenza A (H3N2) virus carrying the same mutations as the human FluMist vaccine, we find that LAIV vaccination reverses normal bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx and significantly increases bacterial carriage densities of the clinically important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 19F and 7F) and Staphylococcus aureus (strains Newman and Wright) within the upper respiratory tract of mice. Vaccination with LAIV also resulted in 2- to 5-fold increases in mean durations of bacterial carriage. Furthermore, we show that the increases in carriage density and duration were nearly identical in all aspects to changes in bacterial colonizing dynamics following infection with wild-type (WT) influenza virus. Importantly, LAIV, unlike WT influenza viruses, had no effect on severe bacterial disease or mortality within the lower respiratory tract. Our findings are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that vaccination with a live attenuated viral vaccine can directly modulate colonizing dynamics of important and unrelated human bacterial pathogens, and does so in a manner highly analogous to that seen following wild-type virus infection. Following infection with an influenza virus, infected or recently recovered individuals become transiently susceptible to excess bacterial infections, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Indeed, in the absence of preexisting comorbidities, bacterial infections are a leading cause of severe disease during influenza epidemics. While this synergy has been known and is well studied, what

  2. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  3. The effect of gamma-irradiation conditions on the immunogenicity of whole-inactivated Influenza A virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon C; Lau, Josyane; Singleton, Eve V; Babb, Rachelle; Davies, Justin; Hirst, Timothy R; McColl, Shaun R; Paton, James C; Alsharifi, Mohammed

    2017-02-15

    Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL). Thus, we investigated the effect of irradiation conditions, including high irradiation doses, on the immunogenicity of γ-Flu. Our data confirm that irradiation at low temperatures (using dry-ice) is associated with reduced damage to viral structure compared with irradiation at room temperature. In addition, a single intranasal vaccination with γ-Flu irradiated on dry-ice with either 25 or 50kGy induced seroconversion and provided complete protection against lethal Influenza A challenge. Considering that low temperature is expected to reduce the protein damage associated with exposure to high irradiation doses, we titrated the vaccine dose to verify the efficacy of 50kGy γ-Flu. Our data demonstrate that exposure to 50kGy on dry-ice is associated with limited effect on vaccine immunogenicity, apparent only when using very low vaccine doses. Overall, our data highlight the immunogenicity of influenza virus irradiated at 50kGy for induction of high titre antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses. This suggests these conditions are suitable for development of γ-Flu vaccines based on highly pathogenic Influenza A viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Universal paid leave increases influenza vaccinations among employees in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Wang, Yang; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-05-01

    We predict the impact of paid leave in increasing influenza vaccinations for employees, thus decreasing workdays lost and healthcare visits resulting from infection. Nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. We examined working adults aged 18 and above (N=51,471). Logistic regression measured the association of paid leave with flu vaccination. We predicted the impact on labor and healthcare markets if universal paid leave were provided. The proportion of workers receiving vaccination annually was higher for those with paid leave versus without paid leave (34.0% vs. 21.0%, Pvaccination increased with paid leave vs. without paid leave (OR=1.42, CI: 1.31-1.53). Universal paid leave is predicted to increase vaccinations by 1.6 million, resulting in 63.8 thousand fewer absences from work and 18.2 thousand fewer healthcare visits for the flu annually. Our study suggests that employees without paid leave are significantly less likely to have had a flu vaccination. Expanding paid leave could substantially increase flu vaccination, resulting in fewer workdays lost to influenza and savings in healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  6. Explanations for Not Receiving the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: An Ontario Canada Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lum, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence of the importance of the seasonal influenza vaccine for both individual and population health, only a third of the Ontario population received the vaccine in 2013/2014. The objective of this study was to identify why Ontarians are not getting the seasonal influenza vaccine. Written responses to the question "Why didn't you get the seasonal flu vaccine in the last flu season?" were deductively analyzed using the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy. Inductive coding was also conducted to identify explanations that fall outside of the present model and may be unique to the seasonal influenza vaccine. Data were collected between August and early September, 2014 through a survey in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. Overall, 91.4% of responses could be explained using the conceptual model and specifically relate to perceived importance of vaccination (46.8%), moral convictions (19.4%), and past experiences with vaccinations services (14.5%). Notably, explanations related to healthcare professional attitudes, risk perceptions and trust, and subjective norms were identified to a much lesser extent than those discussed above. The remaining 8.6% of responses cannot be explained by the model because they do not relate to hesitancy. Our data contribute to the minimal body of Canadian research investigating low uptake of the seasonal flu vaccine, adding to an evidence-base upon which to inform promotional campaigns. Our data also highlight the utility of the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy for the design and analysis of research investigating seasonal flu vaccine refusal or delay.

  7. Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS) for clinical detection of influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason B; Prasad, Priya A; Coffin, Susan E; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-10-01

    Validated clinical scales, such as the Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), have not been used to differentiate influenza (FLU) from other respiratory viruses. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an influenza-like infection from 2008 to 2010. Subjects were children aged 0 to 19 years who had a venipuncture and respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and CARIFS items were assessed during the ED visit; comparisons were made between FLU and non-FLU subjects. The 203 subjects had median age 30.5 months; 61.6% were male. Comorbid conditions (51.2%) were common. FLU was identified in 26.6%, and were older than non-FLU patients (69.7 vs 47.9 months, P = .02). Demographic, household factors, and mean CARIFS score did not differ between FLU (33.7), and non-FLU (32.0) (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI: -2.0 to 5.2) groups. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  9. Current recommendations for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Chang, Jia-Kan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection and an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Most people infected with the JE virus (JEV) are asymptomatic or seemingly suffer from a nonspecific, flu-like illness; in others, JE can cause illness ranging from fever and headache to severe encephalitis. Although it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, and vaccination programs have proven most effective in preventing and diminishing the burden of disease. Such JE vaccines have been available for decades with four types of JE vaccines-live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine (JE-MB), inactivated Vero cell culture vaccine (JE-VC), and live attenuated chimeric vaccine (IMOJEV)-and are currently used in most countries. In some Asian countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Thailand, immunization programs have been conducted for children and so the ongoing incidence of JE has declined considerably in recent decades. Until quite recently, the primary JE vaccine in use internationally has been the JE-MB, which is now commonly replaced by cell culture-based vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Novel Isoprene Sensor for a Flu Virus Breath Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelagia-Irene Gouma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and nitric oxide (NO. These may be used as biomarkers to detect the disease. A portable 3-sensor array microsystem-based tool that can potentially detect flu infection biomarkers is described here. Whether used in connection with in-vitro cell culture studies or as a single exhale breathalyzer, this device may be used to provide a rapid and non-invasive screening method for flu and other virus-based epidemics.

  11. Amantadine: the journey from fighting flu to treating Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubsher, G; Haider, M; Okun, M S

    2012-04-03

    To explore how amantadine transitioned from an anti-flu drug to antiparkinsonian agent. A review of the historical literature on the use of amantadine from 1966 to the present was performed. Amantadine was originally introduced and utilized as an antiviral medication. A single patient noticed relief in her Parkinson disease (PD) symptoms after taking amantadine for a flu infection, and this observation sparked an interest, and several important studies that eventually led to a new drug indication. Amantadine has over the years fallen out of favor as a drug to address influenza infection; however, it has become part of the arsenal utilized for early symptomatic treatment of PD, as well an option for treating dyskinesia.

  12. Targeting a metabolic pathway to fight the flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergeling, Yvonne; Ludwig, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Our antiviral arsenal to fight influenza viruses is limited and we need novel anti-flu drugs. Recently, cellular drug targets came into focus and omics analysis were instrumental to suggest candidate factors. In this issue of The FEBS Journal, Kainov and colleagues used transcriptome data to investigate virus-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism that may serve as immunomodulatory approach against viruses. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  14. Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-29

    CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses how the use of masks and other protective gear impacted whether workers dealing with an outbreak of bird flu in England became sick. The paper is published in the January 2009 issue of CDC’s journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 12/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2008.

  15. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  16. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98).

  17. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC data as flu activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patwardhan

    Full Text Available The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011 was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94. The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98.

  18. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccines: A Multinational Self-Controlled Case Series in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Jeanne P.; Olberg, Henning K.; de Vries, Corinne S.; Sammon, Cormac; Andrews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Par; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; van der Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart C.; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Methods A self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1–4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI). Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. Results Three hundred and three (303) GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99) were exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria). The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2–5.5), based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2–3.1) after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom) we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month) to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8), which is the main finding. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule

  19. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccines: a multinational self-controlled case series in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Romio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1pdm09 immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A self-controlled case series (SCCS analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1-4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI. Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. RESULTS: Three hundred and three (303 GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99 were exposed to A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria. The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.2-5.5, based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.1 after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.2 when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8, which is the main finding. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with

  20. [Mexican flu: public reaction to news coverage measured using an internet panel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bults, Marloes; Beaujean, Desirée J M A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the reaction of the general public on the information regarding the Mexican flu. Online panel interview. From April 30 to May 4 2009, 572 people filled out an online questionnaire. 88% of the respondents had sufficient general knowledge about the Mexican flu. This information was mostly acquired by watching television (69%). More information was desired regarding the symptoms of the flu and those personal measures that could be taken to avoid infection.

  1. Prevention of excess gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Truesdale, K P; Wang, C-H; Cai, J

    2009-11-01

    Obesity prevention trials are designed to promote healthy weight. The success of these trials is often assessed using one of three metrics--means, incidence or prevalence. In this study, we point out conceptual shortcomings of these metrics and introduce an alternative that we call 'excess gain'. A mathematical demonstration using simulated data shows a scenario in which the statistical power of excess gain compares favorably with that of incidence and prevalence. Prevention of excess gain communicates an easily understood public health message that is applicable to all individuals regardless of weight status.

  2. [Adherence to the H1N1 vaccination recommendation in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    In September 2009, the German "Standing Committee for Vaccination" (STIKO) recommended the H1N1 influenza vaccination to all patients with chronic diseases. We investigated the adherence to this recommendation in patients with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Special attention was paid to arguments for vaccination refusal. In an explorative multicenter study we asked adult patients to answer a questionnaire about their participation in the H1N1 vaccination campaign, their arguments for and against this vaccination and disease specific parameters. Out of 1389 participating patients, 226 (16 %) received the H1N1 vaccination. Among patients who were vaccinated against the seasonal flu as well as patients who were treated with anti-TNF-treatment and members of the German Crohn's and Colitis Association, the participation rates were significantly higher (32 %, 26 %, 25 %, respectively). The main argument against the H1N1 vaccination was fear of side effects (59 %). However, 77 % of all vaccinated patients judged the vaccine as very well tolerated. The non-adherence to general vaccination recommendations against tetanus and seasonal flu was also high (25 % and 66 %, respectively). Only a minority of patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis had adhered to the official recommendation concerning vaccination against H1N1. In order to reach higher acceptance, further vaccination campaigns must focus on the safety of the recommended vaccine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  4. Determinants of Non-Vaccination against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Pregnant Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Romain; Le Ray, Camille; Charlier, Caroline; Avenell, Carolyn; Truster, Van; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Skalli, Dounia; Ville, Yves; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2011-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 8...

  5. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  6. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1, formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0. The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1 has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8 and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1. By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  8. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  9. Evaluation of In Vitro Cross-Reactivity to Avian H5N1 and Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Following Prime Boost Regimens of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    of influenza. Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasally administered vaccine, designed to induce an immune response resembling...or the Department of Immunology and Medicine, AFRIMS, Bangkok. Clinical Methods Vaccine administration. The vaccines used were FluMistH intranasal ... Pediatr Infect Dis 17: 206-212. 5. Verrier F, Burda S, Belshe R, Duliege AM, Excler JL, et al. (2000) A human immunodeficiency virus prime-boost

  10. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  11. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  12. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); B-W. Huang (Bing-Wen); H-I. Kuo (Hsiao-I); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares the impacts of SARS and human deaths arising from Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia. The effects of SARS and human deaths from Avian Flu will be compared directly according to human deaths. The nature of the short run and long run relationship is

  14. Ethnic differences in susceptibilities to A(H1N1) flu: An epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current A(H1N1) flu has showed sub-population dependent susceptibility and fatality as early as April and May of 2009 in its first wave of spreading. After the pandemic outbreak spreads globally for more than seven months, the subpopulation dependence of this flu, including ethnicity, age and gender selectivity, has ...

  15. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  16. Who Takes Advantage of Free Flu Shots? Examining the Effects of an Expansion in Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carman, K.G.; Mosca, I.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the high risk of costly complications (including death) and the externalities of contagious diseases, many countries provide free flu shots to certain populations free of charge. This paper examines the expansion of the free flu shot program in the Netherlands. This program expanded in

  17. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  18. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past ? | Yadav | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. Key words: Swine ...

  19. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  20. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  1. Colds and flu – an overview of the management | Ismail | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common cold and flu are two very different viruses that share very similar symptoms. The common cold is a self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection and it is caused by the rhinovirus, coronavirus or the adenovirus. It usually resolves within 7-10 days. The flu is caused by the influenza virus and usually presents with ...

  2. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  3. Vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  4. Passive immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 by swine flu parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nitish; Aggarwal, Pushkar

    2009-12-15

    The general population is concerned about the probable devastating effects of pandemic H1N1 2009. Based upon the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, scientific publications and theories, the idea of swine flu parties to achieve passive immunity against pandemic H1N1 2009 has been proposed. Public health officials have asked the general public not to resort to this method. However, no concrete evidence of the reasoning behind the recommendation has been given. In this paper, we have dynamically modeled the effect of swine flu parties on the immunity achieved and associated mortality for a period of two years. The simulations show that the public should not organize or participate in swine flu parties as they will likely increase swine flu-associated mortality.

  5. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  6. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  7. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  8. Postmarketing safety surveillance of trivalent recombinant influenza vaccine: Reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Moro, Pedro L; Cano, Maria; Jankosky, Christopher

    2017-10-09

    On January 16, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine (RIV3) (Spodoptera frugiperda cell line; Flublok), which is the first completely egg-free flu vaccine licensed in the United States. To improve our understanding of the safety profile of this vaccine, we reviewed and summarized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following RIV3. Through June 30, 2016, VAERS received 88 reports. Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, were the most common type of adverse event. Based on medical review, 10 cases met the Brighton Collaboration case definition of anaphylaxis, 21 reports described allergic reactions other than anaphylaxis, and 11 reports described signs and symptoms that suggested hypersensitivity. Other adverse events included injection site reactions, fatigue, myalgia, headache, and fever. The occurrence of anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions in some individuals may reflect an underlying predisposition to atopy that may manifest itself after an exposure to any drug or vaccine, and it does not necessarily suggest a causal relationship with the unique constituents that are specific to the vaccine product administered. Further research may elucidate the mechanism of allergic reactions following influenza vaccination: it is possible that egg proteins and influenza hemagglutinin play little or no role. Vaccination remains the single best defense against influenza and its complications. The information summarized here may enable policy makers, health officials, clinicians, and patients to make a more informed decision regarding vaccination strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  10. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  11. Is influenza vaccination in asthma helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueving, Herman J; Thomas, Siep; Wouden, Johannes C van der

    2005-02-01

    Influenza infections are frequently involved in asthma exacerbations. During influenza epidemics substantial excess morbidity due to respiratory tract complications is reported in all age categories as well as excess mortality among the elderly. Vaccines are available for protection against influenza. Worldwide, vaccination is advised and considered a quality point for asthma care. However, the protective effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma is still disputed. In order to establish the current state of affairs we reviewed the recent literature on the protective effect of influenza vaccination and its usefulness in patients with asthma. Several studies were found addressing influenza and the protective aspects of vaccination. They discussed the incidence, the adverse effects of vaccination, the coverage of influenza vaccination among patients with asthma and the effectiveness of the vaccine. Influenza vaccination can safely be used in patients with asthma. Allegations that vaccination could provoke asthma exacerbations are convincingly invalidated by previous and recent research. Although patients with asthma are one of the major target groups for immunization, vaccine coverage in all age categories remains low. So far, no unequivocal beneficial effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma was found in observational and experimental studies in the sense of reduction of asthma exacerbations and other complications. Recent studies confirm these negative findings. More long-term randomized, placebo-controlled studies, focusing on influenza- proven illness in patients with asthma, are needed to address the question of how helpful influenza vaccination is in these patients.

  12. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  13. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  14. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  15. Determinants of non-vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Freund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were randomly included between October 12, 2009 and February 3, 2010, with the aim to study characteristics of pandemic influenza during pregnancy. At inclusion, socio-demographic, medical, obstetrical factors and those associated with a higher risk of flu exposition and disease-spreading were systematically collected. Pandemic flu vaccine uptake was checked until delivery. 555 (62.9% women did not get vaccinated. Determinants associated with non-vaccination in a multivariate logistic regression were: geographic origin (Sub-Saharan African origin, adjusted Odd Ratio aOR = 5.4[2.3-12.7], North African origin, aOR = 2.5[1.3-4.7] and Asian origin, aOR = 2.1[1.7-2.6] compared to French and European origin and socio-professional categories (farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, aOR = 2.3[2.0-2.6], intermediate professionals, aOR = 1.3[1.0-1.6], employees and manual workers, aOR = 2.5[1.4-4.4] compared to managers and intellectual professionals. The probability of not receiving pandemic flu vaccine was lower among women vaccinated against seasonal flu in the previous 5 years (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8] and among those who stopped smoking before or early during pregnancy (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]. Number of children less than 18 years old living at home, work in contact with children or in healthcare area, or professional contact with the public, were not associated with a higher vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this cohort of pregnant women, vaccine coverage against pandemic

  16. Determinants of non-vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Romain; Le Ray, Camille; Charlier, Caroline; Avenell, Carolyn; Truster, Van; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Skalli, Dounia; Ville, Yves; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2011-01-01

    In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were randomly included between October 12, 2009 and February 3, 2010, with the aim to study characteristics of pandemic influenza during pregnancy. At inclusion, socio-demographic, medical, obstetrical factors and those associated with a higher risk of flu exposition and disease-spreading were systematically collected. Pandemic flu vaccine uptake was checked until delivery. 555 (62.9%) women did not get vaccinated. Determinants associated with non-vaccination in a multivariate logistic regression were: geographic origin (Sub-Saharan African origin, adjusted Odd Ratio aOR = 5.4[2.3-12.7], North African origin, aOR = 2.5[1.3-4.7] and Asian origin, aOR = 2.1[1.7-2.6] compared to French and European origin) and socio-professional categories (farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, aOR = 2.3[2.0-2.6], intermediate professionals, aOR = 1.3[1.0-1.6], employees and manual workers, aOR = 2.5[1.4-4.4] compared to managers and intellectual professionals). The probability of not receiving pandemic flu vaccine was lower among women vaccinated against seasonal flu in the previous 5 years (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]) and among those who stopped smoking before or early during pregnancy (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]). Number of children less than 18 years old living at home, work in contact with children or in healthcare area, or professional contact with the public, were not associated with a higher vaccine uptake. In this cohort of pregnant women, vaccine coverage against pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 flu was low, particularly in immigrant women and those having a low socio

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  18. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  19. Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  20. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  1. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  2. Mefloquine (Lariam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  3. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  4. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  5. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  6. Military Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  7. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses Influenza (Flu) Influenza (Flu) Home About Flu Vaccination Prevent Flu Treatment Tools & Materials For Health Professionals Pandemic Flu Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Index Tobacco ...

  8. Attitudes and perceptions among the pediatric health care providers toward influenza vaccination in Qatar: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Ahmed; Khalifa, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Hatem; Almuslemani, Eman; Alhothi, Abdullah; Janahi, Mohamed

    2015-07-31

    Influenza is a communicable but preventable viral illness. Despite safe and effective vaccine availability, compliance rates are globally low. Neither local data on percentage of vaccination nor reasons for poor compliance among pediatric health providers are available in Qatar. To estimate the percentage of vaccinated health care providers at pediatrics department and know their perception and attitudes toward influenza vaccinations. Cross-sectional survey, conducted on 300 pediatrics healthcare professionals from January through April 2013 at the main tertiary teaching hospital in Qatar, included details of demographics, frequency, perceptions and suggestive ways to improve the compliance. From among 230 respondents, 90 physicians and 133 allied health care professionals participated in this survey. Our study showed that percentages of participants who received flu vaccination were 67.7% and those who did not receive vaccination were 32.3%. Allied HCPs (69%) are more likely to get the vaccine compared to the physicians (66%). flu vaccination was approximately 5 times likely to be higher in the age group more than 40 years (P=0.002) compared to age less than or equals 40 years. Overall 70% healthcare providers were willing to recommend immunization to colleagues and patients compared to 30%, who were not willing. The reasons for noncompliance included fear of side effects, contracting the flu, vaccine safety and lack of awareness about the effectiveness. In order to promote immunization, participants believe that use of evidence-based statement, participating in an educational campaign, provides no cost/on site campaigns and leadership support is the most practical interventions. In the present study, the vaccine coverage among pediatrics HCPs seems higher than previously reported rates. Despite their positive attitude toward influenza vaccination, low acceptance and misconceptions of seasonal influenza vaccination by pediatric HCPs may have a negative effect on

  9. OPPORTUNITIES FOR APPLICATION OF THE NEURAMINIDASE INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF THE FLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Belan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flu viruses cause yearly epidemics with the lesion of approximately 20% of population. during the increase of the flu sickness rate, it is necessary to take urgent anti epidemic and treatment steps aimed to reduce the spread of an infection as soon as possible and incorporating the application of the specific antiviral medications. The major aims for prescription of the specific antiviral medications in flu treatment are to reduce the duration and severity of the leading disease symptoms, risks of complications, as well as to prevent the lethal out comes. There were developed medications, effectively inhibiting the replication of B flu virus. At present, there are the 1st generation medications available — adamantane derivatives (amantadine and rimantadine and the 2nd generation medications — neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir. The fast increase of the flu virus resistance towards adamantanes determine the necessity of a wider application of neuraminidase inhibitors, which are highly effective in respect flu viruses of A and B, as well as avian flu virus (h5n1.Key words: neuraminidase inhibitors, adamantanes, oseltamivir, zanamivir, h3n2, h5n1.

  10. Awareness, perception and myths towards swine flu in school children of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Varsha; Singh, R K; Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    The deadly disease swine flu is, without a speck of doubt, causing a massive havoc among the common people of India and has created fear across the various strata of the society. The objective was to find out the awareness, perception, and myths of school going children of class 9 th to 12 th toward swine flu. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in two randomly selected (using random number table) senior secondary schools of Bareilly among 400 students of class 9 th to 12 th . A total of 200 students were selected from each school. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Almost all the students (97.75%) have heard about of swine flu and are aware of it as a disease entity. Fever was found to be the main symptom while coughing and sneezing were main way of spread of swine flu known to them. About 97% of the students mention use of mask as most effective way to prevent them from swine flu. Knowledge of availability of medicine was present in less than half of the students. TV was found to be the main source from which they get knowledge (79%), and they are trying to get knowledge (53.2%) of swine flu. Among them, 74% students were taking precaution against swine flu.

  11. Planning for avian flu disruptions on global operations: a DMAIC case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    The author aims to assess the spread of avian flu, its impact on businesses operating in the USA and overseas, and the measures required for corporate preparedness. Six Sigma DMAIC process is used to analyze avian flu's impact and how an epidemic could affect large US business operations worldwide. Wal-Mart and Dell Computers were chosen as one specializes in retail and the other manufacturing. The study identifies avian flu pandemic risks including failure modes on Wal-Mart and Dell Computers global operations. It reveals the factors that reinforce avian-flu pandemic's negative impact on company global supply chains. It also uncovers factors that balance avian-flu pandemic's impact on their global supply chains. Avian flu and its irregularity affect the research outcomes because its spread could fluctuate based on so many factors that could come into play. Further, the potential cost to manufacturers and other supply chain partners is relatively unknown. As a relatively new phenomenon, quantitative data were not available to determine immediate costs. In this decade, the avian influenza H5N1 virus has killed millions of poultry in Asia, Europe and Africa. This flu strain can infect and kill humans who come into contact with this virus. An avian influenza H5N1 outbreak could lead to a devastating effect on global food supply, business services and business operations. The study provides guidance on what global business operation managers can do to prepare for such events, as well as how avian flu progression to a pandemic can disrupt such operations. This study raises awareness about avian flu's impact on businesses and humans and also highlights the need to create contingency plans for corporate preparedness to avoid incurring losses.

  12. Educating on professional habits: attitudes of medical students towards diverse strategies for promoting influenza vaccination and factors associated with the intention to get vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Aldea, Marta; Bayas, José María; Trilla, Antoni

    2013-07-18

    Influenza vaccination coverage in medical students is usually low. Unlike health care workers, there is little information on the attitudes to and predictors of vaccination among medical students, and their attitudes towards institutional strategies for improving rates are unknown. This cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of three influenza vaccination promotional strategies (Web page, video and tri-fold brochure) on medical students' intention to get vaccinated and associated factors. A total of 538 medical students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire assessing the intention to get vaccinated after exposure to any of the promotional strategies. Sociodemographic data collected included: sex, age, university year, influenza risk group and cohabiting with member of a risk group. Four hundred twenty-one students answered the questionnaire, of whom 312 (74.1%) were female, 113 (26.8%) had done clinical rotations, and 111 (26.6%) reported intention to get the flu shot. Logistic regression showed the web group had a greater intention to get vaccinated than the reference group (OR: 2.42 95% CI: 1.16-5.03). Having done clinical rotations (OR: 2.55 95% CI: 1.36-4.38) and having received the shot in previous flu seasons (OR: 13.69 95% CI: 7.86-23.96) were independently associated with the intention to get vaccinated. Given that previous vaccination is a factor associated with the intention to get vaccinated, education on vaccination of health care workers should begin while they are students, thereby potentiating the habit. In addition, the intention to get vaccinated was greater during the clinical phase of the university career, suggesting this is a good time to introduce promotion strategies. Online promotional campaigns, such as a thematic Web to promote vaccination of health workers, could improve the intention to get vaccinated.

  13. Vaccination in Hajj: An Overview of the Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Saeednejad, Mina; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: About two million people annually travel to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj. The pilgrims may be at risk of exposure to communicable diseases in this mass gathering and their vaccination against contagious diseases can prevent many morbidities and mortalities. The aim of our study was to review the papers which evaluated effectiveness and compliance of the vaccines applied in Hajj. Methods: We used PubMed and Scopus to search international medical databases. The key words were as follows: Hajj, Haj, vaccine, vaccination, and immunization. The time interval of the search was from the beginning of 2010 to May 23, 2016. One hundred and thirty papers were extracted, and their contents were subsequently reviewed after title and abstract screenings. The original articles were included in the study and non-English articles were excluded from the study. Results: Considering the extracted papers, almost all pilgrims were vaccinated against meningococcal diseases. Using of influenza and pneumococcal vaccine rates were different among the pilgrims. The other vaccines have been taking according to specific conditions. Conclusions: The findings regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness are contradictory. A few studies confirmed the flu vaccine effectiveness while some others rejected its usefulness. Meningococcal immunization is an effective preventive tool with high compliance for Hajj pilgrims. Further investigations are recommended for the other vaccines. PMID:28105294

  14. Vaccination in Hajj: An Overview of the Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Saeednejad, Mina; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    About two million people annually travel to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj. The pilgrims may be at risk of exposure to communicable diseases in this mass gathering and their vaccination against contagious diseases can prevent many morbidities and mortalities. The aim of our study was to review the papers which evaluated effectiveness and compliance of the vaccines applied in Hajj. We used PubMed and Scopus to search international medical databases. The key words were as follows: Hajj, Haj, vaccine, vaccination, and immunization. The time interval of the search was from the beginning of 2010 to May 23, 2016. One hundred and thirty papers were extracted, and their contents were subsequently reviewed after title and abstract screenings. The original articles were included in the study and non-English articles were excluded from the study. Considering the extracted papers, almost all pilgrims were vaccinated against meningococcal diseases. Using of influenza and pneumococcal vaccine rates were different among the pilgrims. The other vaccines have been taking according to specific conditions. The findings regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness are contradictory. A few studies confirmed the flu vaccine effectiveness while some others rejected its usefulness. Meningococcal immunization is an effective preventive tool with high compliance for Hajj pilgrims. Further investigations are recommended for the other vaccines.

  15. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disc stars. VI. Extending the exozodiacal light survey with CHARA/JouFLU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, P. D.; Scott, N. J.; Mennesson, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bryden, G.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Ertel, S.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N. J.; Turner, N. H.

    2017-12-01

    We report the results of high-angular-resolution observations that search for exozodiacal light in a sample of main sequence stars and sub-giants. Using the "jouvence" of the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (JouFLU) at the center for high angular resolution astronomy (CHARA) telescope array, we have observed a total of 44 stars. Out of the 44 stars, 33 are new stars added to the initial, previously published survey of 42 stars performed at CHARA with the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR). Since the start of the survey extension, we have detected a K-band circumstellar excess for six new stars at the 1% level or higher, four of which are known or candidate binaries, and two for which the excess could be attributed to exozodiacal dust. We have also performed follow-up observations of 11 of the stars observed in the previously published survey and found generally consistent results. We do however detect a significantly larger excess on three of these follow-up targets: Altair, υ And and κ CrB. Interestingly, the last two are known exoplanet host stars. We perform a statistical analysis of the JouFLU and FLUOR samples combined, which yields an overall exozodi detection rate of . We also find that the K-band excess in FGK-type stars correlates with the existence of an outer reservoir of cold (≲100 K) dust at the 99% confidence level, while the same cannot be said for A-type stars.

  16. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  17. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Implications for Homeland Security in the New Millennium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkland, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    ... event. Studying the 1918 pandemic will assist modern day planners in mitigating the effects of pandemic flu and the contingency planning will have widespread applicability to other events, both natural...

  18. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Ravert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1 immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

  19. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  20. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Van der Auwera

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs, one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT, although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available.

  1. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available.

  2. Improved influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine induces robust B and T-cell responses and protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybayeva, Aigerim; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Sansyzbay, Abylai; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Tabynov, Kaissar

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety. The Flu-BA vaccine formulation had two additional proteins Omp19 and SOD, and administered thrice with 20% Montanide Gel01 adjuvant, simultaneously by both subcutaneous and conjunctival routes at 21 days intervals in pregnant sheep and goats. At 42 days post-vaccination (DPV) we detected antigen-specific IgG antibodies predominantly of IgG2a isotype but also IgG1, and also detected a strong lymphocyte recall response with IFN-γ production. Importantly, our candidate vaccine prevented abortion in 66.7% and 77.8% of pregnant sheep and goats, respectively. Furthermore, complete protection (absence of live B. melitensis 16M) was observed in 55.6% and 66.7% of challenged sheep and goats, and 72.7% and 90.0% of their fetuses (lambs/yeanlings), respectively. The severity of B. melitensis 16M infection in vaccinated sheep and goats and their fetuses (index of infection and rates of Brucella colonization in tissues) was significantly lower than in control groups. None of the protection parameters after vaccination with Flu-BA vaccine were statistically inferior to protection seen with the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine (protection against abortion and vaccination efficacy, alpha = 0.18-0.34, infection index, P = 0.37-0.77, Brucella colonization, P = 0.16 to P > 0.99). In conclusion, our improved Flu-BA vaccine formulation and delivery method were found safe and effective in protecting pregnant sheep and goats against adverse

  3. Workplace availability, risk group and perceived barriers predictive of 2016-17 influenza vaccine uptake in the United States: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Johnson, Riley E; Brown, Heidi E

    2017-10-13

    Seasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors that explained vaccine uptake. The survey was administered via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to United States residents in January 2017, using the Qualtrics platform. Using principal axis factor analysis, we reduced the 25 items theory-based psychological determinants into the primary constructs they measure if/when internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha >0.60). Logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors with reported vaccine behavior in the 2016-17 flu season. 1007 participants completed the survey, sex distribution was even, 67% had 25-44years of age, and 61% annual household income of $30-99 thousand United States dollars. About 25% had the flu shot offered at their workplace and 20% reported belonging to a group for whom the flu shot is recommended. Vaccine uptake was 31.5%. Eight predictors remained in the final adjusted model (R(2)=0.489), having the vaccine offered at the workplace, belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended, and higher perceived barriers were the strongest predictors of vaccine uptake, increasing (and decreasing in the case of barriers) the odds by >3-fold. Additionally, higher household income, higher perceived susceptibility and higher perceived benefits also independently predicted vaccine uptake. We found evidence that perceived barriers significantly impaired vaccine uptake to the same extent that having the vaccine offered at the workplace or belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended facilitated uptake. Ideally, a better understanding of drivers of

  4. Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, and pyrazinamide (Z. She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT.

  5. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctorMost kids have no problems with the polio vaccine. However, call your doctor if your child has any reaction after getting the vaccine. Call ... Tell the doctor when (day and time) your child received the vaccine. You also should file a Vaccine Adverse Event ...

  7. Repeated Vaccination Does Not Appear to Impact Upon Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalization With Confirmed Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen C; Macartney, Kristine K; Waterer, Grant W; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul M; Blyth, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for those at greatest risk of severe influenza infection. Recent reports of a negative impact of serial influenza vaccination on vaccine effectiveness (VE) raises concerns about the recommendation for annual influenza vaccines, particularly in persons at greatest risk. The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is an Australian hospital-based sentinel surveillance program. In this observational study, cases were defined as subjects aged >9 years admitted with influenza confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Controls were subjects with acute respiratory illness testing negative for influenza. Propensity scores were used to adjust for the likelihood of being vaccinated. VE was calculated as 1 - adjusted odds ratio of vaccination in cases compared with test-negative controls. Over 2010-2015, 6223 cases and 6505 controls were hospitalized with confirmed influenza and influenza test-negative acute respiratory illness, respectively. Following stratification by quintile of propensity score, site, and year, VE was estimated to be 43% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-49%) overall. VE was estimated to be 51% (95% CI, 45%-57%) in those vaccinated in both the current and previous season, compared with 33% (95% CI, 17%-47%) vaccinated in the current season only and 35% (95% CI, 21%-46%) in the previous season only. Similar results were observed for influenza A/H1N1, influenza A/H3N2, and influenza B strains. Vaccination in both the current and previous seasons was associated with a higher VE against hospitalization with influenza than vaccination in either single season. These findings reinforce current recommendations for annual influenza vaccination, particularly those at greatest risk of influenza disease.

  8. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-γ, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-γ, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed

  9. IMMUNOGENICITY OF ADJUVANT INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against

  10. Episodic Excessive Blinking in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Yasmin Poustchi; Simon, John W; Chaudhri, Imran; Zobal-Ratner, Jitka; Barry, Gerard P

    2016-01-01

    Many children present with excessive blinking. Categorization, associated conditions, and prognosis are controversial. All children with excessive blinking were reviewed, excluding those with known uveitis, glaucoma, or obvious eyelid abnormalities. Parents were telephoned for follow-up. No ocular pathology was identified in 31 of 34 children with excessive blinking (91%). Parents were able to report a specific cause of blinking in 7 (21%). In 24 of 34 (71%), parents reported complete resolution of excessive blinking. No new ophthalmologic diagnoses were uncovered on follow-up. Episodes of excessive blinking rarely indicate neurologic disorders and frequently resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. [Vaccinations in sports and recommendations for immunization against flu, hepatitis A and hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, N; Ken-Dror, A; Eliakim, A; Galatzkia, L; Morag, A; Mann, G; Volach, B; Asharov, J; Shoval, D

    2001-12-01

    Intensive physical training in elite athletes can have an adverse effect on the immune system, and can increase the susceptibility to infectious diseases. The insult to the immune system includes the cellular, humoral and phagocitic pathways. The increased incidence of viral infections (in particularly of the upper respiratory tract) occurs mainly during periods of intense exercise training and competitions due to the combination of physiological and psychological stress. Other factors that may contribute to the decreased immunity and increased susceptibility to infections include eating disorders and nutritional deficiencies, jet lag, sleep deprivation, and lack of proper hygiene in shared food and sleeping quarters. For elite athletes, even a mild viral infection can be devastating due to loss of important training hours and/or compromise of competitive performance. Therefore, in addition to the goal of improving the athletes performance, another important responsibility/obligation of the staff working with athletes (physicians, nutritionists, physiotherapists, and psychologists), is to emphasize preventive medicine and maintenance of good health. In this article we define athletes, and especially elite athletes, as a population at risk of various infections, and recommend immunization against hepatitis A and B and a yearly immunization against influenza.

  12. Assessment of vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei SUN,Jinhua LIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI has been implemented in China for a decade, however, the virus is still present in poultry. A series of recombinant vaccines, Re-1 to Re-7, have been developed and used, and Re-8 will also be used in clinical settings to prevent the prevailing flu strains. The question remains, when can China eradicate the disease? Here, we review the epidemiology of H5 HPAI along with the development, usage and problems of vaccines. Further suggestions for controlling the disease in China are provided.

  13. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help.

  14. Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: current evidence and selected national policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tippi K; Mangtani, Punam; Leese, Jane; Watson, John M; Pfeifer, Dina

    2008-01-01

    In several countries, pregnant women are recommended seasonal influenza vaccination and identified as a priority group for vaccination in the event of a pandemic. We review the evidence for the risks of influenza and the risks and benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Data on influenza vaccine safety in pregnancy are inadequate, but the few published studies report no serious side-effects in women or their infants, including no indication of harm from vaccination in the first trimester. National policies differ widely, mainly because of the limited data available, particularly on vaccination in the first trimester. The evidence of excess morbidity during seasonal influenza supports vaccinating healthy pregnant women in the second or third trimester and those with comorbidities in any trimester. The evidence of excess mortality in two previous influenza pandemics supports vaccinating in any trimester during a pandemic.

  15. The free vaccination policy of influenza in Beijing, China: The vaccine coverage and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Fang, Renfei; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Lei, Trudy; Xie, Zheng

    2016-04-19

    In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage, the coverage rate and reasons for non-vaccination need to be determined. In 2007, the Beijing Government published a policy providing free influenza vaccinations to elderly people living in Beijing who are older than 60. This study examines the vaccination coverage after the policy was carried out and factors influencing vaccination among the elderly in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through the use of questionnaires in 2013. A total of 1673 eligible participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Beijing using anonymous questionnaires in-person. They were surveyed to determine vaccination status and social demographic information. The influenza vaccination coverage was 38.7% among elderly people in Beijing in 2012. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was people thinking they did not need to have a flu shot. After controlling for age, gender, income, self-reported health status, and the acceptance of health promotion, the rate in rural areas was 2.566 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.801-3.655, Pvaccination uptake. Those whom received information through television, community boards, or doctors were more likely to get vaccinated compared to those who did not (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.403, Pvaccine coverage in Beijing is much lower than that of developed countries with similar policies. The rural-urban disparity in coverage rate (64.1% versus 33.5%), may be explained by differing health provision systems and personal attitudes toward free services due to socioeconomic factors. Methods for increasing vaccination levels include increasing the focus on primary care and health education programs, particularly recommendations from doctors, to the distinct target populations, especially with a focus on expanding these efforts in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Product Characteristics, Market Conditions and Contract Type: U.S. Department of Defense Use of Fixed-Price and Cost Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    of flu vaccines . Producing flu vaccines requires a substantial investment in scientific research (a highly specialized human skill) and specialized...laboratories and equipment. If the purchasing government finds that the flu vaccine it purchases does not meets its needs, then it cannot easily find...in which excessive risk is placed on the vendor, almost encouraging opportunistic behavior. The astute contract professional follows the FAR’s

  17. INFLUENZA AND PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION IN HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF EFFICACY, EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To asses flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in scientific literature about flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 23 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI = 6.2- 61% for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI = 23.2 – 63.3 % and 39.6 % (95% CI = 26%- 54.1% for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI = 19.7-51.2% for H1N1, 23% (95% CI = 16.6-31.5% for H3N2, 29% (95% CI = 21.3- 37% for B. Conclusion Despite low rate of response, flu and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines.

  18. Cell substrates for the production of viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrit, Françoise; Perugi, Fabien; Léon, Arnaud; Guéhenneux, Fabienne; Champion-Arnaud, Patrick; Lahmar, Mehdi; Schwamborn, Klaus

    2015-11-04

    Vaccines have been used for centuries to protect people and animals against infectious diseases. For vaccine production, it has become evident that cell culture technology can be considered as a key milestone and has been the result of decades of progress. The development and implementation of cell substrates have permitted massive and safe production of viral vaccines. The demand in new vaccines against emerging viral diseases, the increasing vaccine production volumes, and the stringent safety rules for manufacturing have made cell substrates mandatory viral vaccine producer factories. In this review, we focus on cell substrates for the production of vaccines against human viral diseases. Depending on the nature of the vaccine, choice of the cell substrate is critical. Each manufacturer intending to develop a new vaccine candidate should assess several cell substrates during the early development phase in order to select the most convenient for the application. First, as vaccine safety is quite naturally a central concern of Regulatory Agencies, the cell substrate has to answer the regulatory rules stringency. In addition, the cell substrate has to be competitive in terms of viral-specific production yields and manufacturing costs. No cell substrate, even the so-called "designer" cell lines, is able to fulfil all the requested criteria for all viral vaccines. Therefore, the availability of a variety of cell substrates for vaccine production is essential because it improves the chance to successfully respond to the current and future needs of vaccines linked to new emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (e.g. pandemic flu, Ebola, and Chikungunya outbreaks). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Localized Hyperuicbosis following BCG Vaccination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\lzgm'an jouma/of Paediatrics 2003;30:93. An eigl1t—month—0ld Turkish boy presented at theiFatih University. Pursaklar outpatient clinic with excessive hair on his left shoulder. The history was that 15 days after receiving BCGT vaccination at ...

  20. Vaccination against seasonal influenza: a reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    At this time every year, the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu.   We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (without the need for a prescription in France). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. - 12 p.m. and 2 p.m. - 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder: The...

  1. Vaccination against seasonal influenza: a reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    At this time every year the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu. We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (in France without the need for a prescription). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. and 12 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder: The Medical Se...

  2. Vaccination against seasonal influenza: a reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    At this time every year the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu.   We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (in France you don't need a prescription). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. and 12 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder:...

  3. Mitigating the looming vaccine crisis: production and delivery of plasmid-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkudon, Clarence M; Ho, Jenny; Danquah, Michael K

    2011-03-01

    The exponentially growing human population and the emergence of new diseases are clear indications that the world can no longer depend solely on conventional vaccine technologies and production schemes. The race to find a new vaccine technology is crucial to help speed up and complement the World Health Organization (WHO) disease elimination program. The ultimate goal is to uncover fast and efficient production schemes in the event of a pandemic, and also to effectively fight deadly diseases such as malaria, bird flu, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Plasmid DNA vaccines, if properly formulated, offer specific priming of the immune system and similar or even better prophylactic effects than conventional vaccines. This article discusses many of the critical issues that need to be considered when developing fast, effective, and reliable plasmid DNA vaccine manufacturing processes. Different modes of plasmid production via bacterial fermentation are compared. Plasmid purification by chromatography is specifically discussed as it is the most commercially viable bioprocess engineering technique for continuous purification of supercoiled plasmid DNA. Current techniques and progress covering the area of plasmid DNA vaccine design, formulation, and delivery are also put forward.

  4. Psychological factors associated with uptake of the childhood influenza vaccine and perception of post-vaccination side-effects: A cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise E; Webster, Rebecca K; Weinman, John; Amlôt, Richard; Yiend, Jenny; Rubin, G James

    2017-04-04

    To identify predictors of: uptake of the childhood influenza vaccine in the 2015-2016 influenza season, parental perceptions of side-effects from the influenza vaccine and intention to vaccinate one's child for influenza in the 2016-2017 influenza season. Cross-sectional online survey. Data were collected in England shortly after the end of the 2015-2016 immunization campaign. 1001 parents or guardians of children aged between two and seven. Self-reported uptake of the childhood influenza vaccine in the 2015-2016 influenza season, perception of side-effects from the influenza vaccine and intention to vaccinate one's child in the 2016-2017 influenza season. Self-reported uptake of the childhood influenza vaccine was 52.8%. Factors strongly positively associated with uptake included the child having previously been vaccinated against influenza, perceiving the vaccine to be effective and perceiving the child to be susceptible to flu. Factors strongly negatively associated with uptake included perceiving the vaccine to be unsafe, to cause short-term side-effects or long-term health problems and believing that yearly vaccination may overload the immune system. Predictors of intended vaccine uptake in 2016-2017 were similar. Participants who perceived side-effects after the 2015-2016 vaccination reported being less likely to vaccinate their child next year. Side-effects were more likely to be reported in first-born children, by participants who knew another child who had side-effects, those who thought that the vaccine would interact with medication that the child was currently taking, and those who believed the vaccine causes short-term side-effects. Perceptions about the childhood influenza vaccine show strong associations with uptake, intended uptake and perception of side-effects. Attempts to improve uptake rates from their current low levels must address these perceptions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  6. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines: A multinational self-controlled case series in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Romio (Silvana); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); H.K. Olberg (Henning); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); C. Sammon (Cormac); N.J. Andrews (Nick); H. Svanström (Henrik); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); A. Hviid (Anders); M. Lapeyre-Mestre (Maryse); A. Sommet (Agnès); C. Saussier (Christel); A. Castot (Anne); H. Heijbel (Harald); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); P. Sparen (Pär); M. Mosseveld (Mees); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); T. Leino (Tuija); T. Kilpi (Terhi); J. Storsaeter (Jann); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following

  7. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines: A multinational self-controlled case series in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romio, Silvana; Weibel, Daniel; Dieleman, Jeanne; Olberg, Henning; Vries, Corinne; Sammon, Cormac; Anews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Pär; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09...

  8. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) New website and ...

  9. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to 60 died. Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, hospitalizations and emergency visits for rotavirus have dropped ...

  10. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  11. Barriers of Influenza Vaccination Intention and Behavior - A Systematic Review of Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy, 2005 - 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schmid

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to global efforts to reduce the burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Potential barriers of influenza vaccination need to be identified to inform interventions to raise awareness, influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake.This review aims to (1 identify relevant studies and extract individual barriers of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination for risk groups and the general public; and (2 map knowledge gaps in understanding influenza vaccine hesitancy to derive directions for further research and inform interventions in this area.Thirteen databases covering the areas of Medicine, Bioscience, Psychology, Sociology and Public Health were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2005 and 2016. Following the PRISMA approach, 470 articles were selected and analyzed for significant barriers to influenza vaccine uptake or intention. The barriers for different risk groups and flu types were clustered according to a conceptual framework based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and discussed using the 4C model of reasons for non-vaccination.Most studies were conducted in the American and European region. Health care personnel (HCP and the general public were the most studied populations, while parental decisions for children at high risk were under-represented. This study also identifies understudied concepts. A lack of confidence, inconvenience, calculation and complacency were identified to different extents as barriers to influenza vaccine uptake in risk groups.Many different psychological, contextual, sociodemographic and physical barriers that are specific to certain risk groups were identified. While most sociodemographic and physical variables may be significantly related to influenza vaccine hesitancy, they cannot be used to explain its emergence or intensity. Psychological determinants were meaningfully related to uptake and should therefore be measured in a valid

  12. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Kin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  13. Acceptability of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza vaccination by Essential Community Workers in 2010 Alicante (Spain), perceived seriousness and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Pablo; Tuells, José; Duro-Torrijos, José Luis; Nolasco, Andreu

    2013-11-01

    Describe acceptability of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza vaccination by Essential Community Workers (ECWs) from Alicante province (Spain) in January 2010. Evaluate the correlation with attitudes, beliefs, professional advice and information broadcasted by media. In this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 742 ECWs to assess their attitudes towards vaccination against the pandemic influenza strain. A multivariable regression model was made to adjust the Odds Ratios (ORs). Some ECWs reported having been vaccinated with seasonal vaccine, 21.5% (95%IC 18.6-24.9); only 15.4% (95%IC 12.8-18.4) with the pandemic one. ECWs vaccinated regularly against seasonal flu (OR 5.1; 95%IC 2.9-9.1), those who considered pandemic influenza as a severe or more serious disease than seasonal flu (OR 3.8; 95%IC 2.1-6.7) and those who never had doubts about vaccine safety (OR 3.7; 95%IC2.1-6.7) had a better acceptance of pandemic vaccine. Finally, 78.7% (95%IC 75.1-81.4) had doubts about pandemic vaccine's effectiveness. The vast amount of information provided by the media did not seem to be decisive to prevent doubts or to improve the acceptability of the vaccine in ECWs. Professional advice should be the focus of interest in future influenza vaccination campaigns. These results should be taken into account by health authorities. © 2013.

  14. Contraceptive Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnitsky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches to develop vaccines with contraceptive effect are being carried out since the 1920s. Since 1972, the contraceptive vaccines are one of the priority programs of the World Health Organization (WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Rockefeller Foundation participates in implementing the program. Openly declared objective of creating such vaccines — the regulation of the population in the Third World countries. There are currently three main directions of contraceptive vaccine design: 1 vaccines targeted at blocking the production of gametes; 2 impairing their function; 3 violating the fertilization process. Contraceptive vaccines for more than 10 years are widely used to reduce fertility and castration of wild and domestic animals. In the commercial realization there are veterinary vaccines Equity®, Improvac®, GonaCon®, Repro-BLOC (based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone; SpayVac™ and IVT-PZP® (based on zona pellucida antigens. Clinical studies have shown effective contraceptive action (in women of vaccines, in which human chorionic gonadotropin is used as an antigen. At the same time, there are found the side effects of such vaccines: for vaccines containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone as antigenic components — castration, impotence; for vaccines containing follicle stimulating hormone — oligospermia; zona pellucida antigens — irreversible oophoritis. This paper discusses approaches to detection of sterilizing components in vaccines intended for mass prevention of infectious diseases, not reported by manufacturers, and the consequences of their use. Hidden use of contraceptive vaccines, which already took place, can be detected: 1 by the presence of antibodies to their antigenic components (in unvaccinated by contraceptive vaccines people such antibodies do not exist, except infertility cases; 2 by change in the hormonal levels of the

  15. Comparison of Directigen Flu A+B with Real Time PCR in the Diagnosis of Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Janceska, Elizabeta; Mikik, Vladimir; Topuzovska, Irena Kondova; Milenkovik, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with influenza is the reason why physicians need rapid high-sensitivity influenza diagnostic tests that require no complex lab equipment and can be performed and interpreted within 15 min. The Aim of this study was to compare the rapid Directigen Flu A+B test with real time PCR for detection of influenza viruses in the Republic of Macedonia. One-hundred-eight respiratory samples (combined nose and throat swabs) were routinely collected for detection of influenza virus during influenza seasons. Forty-one patients were pediatric cases and 59 were adult. Their mean age was 23 years. The patients were allocated into 6 age groups: 0-4 yrs, 5-9 yrs, 10-14 yrs, 15-19 yrs, 20-64 yrs and > 65 yrs. Each sample was tested with Directigen Flu A+B and CDC real time PCR kit for detection and typisation/subtypisation of influenza according to the lab diagnostic protocol. Directigen Flu A+B identified influenza A virus in 20 (18.5%) samples and influenza B virus in two 2 (1.9%) samples. The high specificity (100%) and PPV of Directigen Flu A+B we found in our study shows that the positive results do not need to be confirmed. The overall sensitivity of Directigen Flu A+B is 35.1% for influenza A virus and 33.0% for influenza B virus. The sensitivity for influenza A is higher among children hospitalized (45.0%) and outpatients (40.0%) versus adults. Directigen Flu A+B has relatively low sensitivity for detection of influenza viruses in combined nose and throat swabs. Negative results must be confirmed.

  16. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  17. Rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Maureen; Bresee, Joseph S.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Glass, Roger I.

    2000-10-01

    The past few years have seen important developments in understanding the epidemiological and virological characteristics of rotaviruses, and rapid progress has been made in rotavirus vaccine development, but further challenges remain before a vaccine is introduced into widespread use. The licensure of the first rotavirus vaccine, a tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine, in the United States in 1998, marked a significant advance in preventing the morbidity associated with rotavirus diarrhea. The association between the tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine and intussusception has created significant hurdles as well as new opportunities to study the pathogenesis of rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine infection. Several other rotavirus vaccine candidates are in late stages of development, and results from trials have been encouraging.

  18. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  19. Barriers to influenza vaccine uptake in obese people in Italy: Changes 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Recanatini, Claudia; Ponzio, Elisa; Illuminati, Diego; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing flu-related complications. The aim of this study was to analyze influenza vaccine uptake (VU) in the Italian obese, before and after the introduction of obesity among the national recommendations, and to evaluate factors associated to VU. The comparison of two editions of the national survey carried out in 2004-2005, before the inclusion of obese people among the specific high risk categories for flu complications, and in 2013, reaching a sample of 21,857 persons who declared to have a BMI>30. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate potential independent predictors of influenza immunization. Influenza vaccination coverage was 27.16% in 2013, versus 31.61% in 2005. A significant reduction of VU was registered after the introduction of obesity among the high risk conditions, for which flu VU was recommended. Regression modeling, both in adults and in older people, confirmed that barriers to VU in 2013 were younger age, medium level of education, absence of chronic disease, smoking habit, and reporting no contacts with GPs during the previous 12months. Among those aged 65 or more, the role of regional policies was associated to VU. Immunization rates among young obese population are low, especially if not affected by comorbidities. Moreover, a reduction was registered in 2013 with respect to 2005. Flu vaccine uptake among the older population seems to be influenced by regional vaccination strategies. The development of novel strategy is warranted, especially among the young adults. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Should we fear "flu fear" itself? Effects of H1N1 influenza fear on ED use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, William M; Nelson, Douglas S; Schunk, Jeff E

    2012-02-01

    Surges in patient volumes compromise emergency departments' (EDs') ability to deliver care, as shown by the recent H1N1 influenza (flu) epidemic. Media reports are important in informing the public about health threats, but the effects of media-induced anxiety on ED volumes are unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of widespread public concern about flu on ED use. We reviewed ED data from an integrated health system operating 18 hospital EDs. We compared ED visits during three 1-week periods: (a) a period of heightened public concern regarding flu before the disease was present ("Fear Week"), (b) a subsequent period of active disease ("Flu Week"), and (c) a week before widespread concern ("Control Week"). Fear Week was identified from an analysis of statewide Google electronic searches for "swine flu" and from media announcements about flu. Flu Week was identified from statewide epidemiological data. Data were reviewed from 22 608 visits during the study periods. Fear Week (n = 7712) and Flu Week (n = 7687) were compared to Control Week (n = 7209). Fear Week showed a 7.0% increase in visits (95% confidence interval, 6-8). Pediatric visits increased by 19.7%, whereas adult visits increased by 1%. Flu Week showed an increase over Control Week of 6.6% (95% confidence interval, 6-7). Pediatric visits increased by 10.6%, whereas adult visits increased by 4.8%. At a time of heightened public concern regarding flu but little disease prevalence, EDs experienced substantial increases in patient volumes. These increases were significant and comparable to the increases experienced during the subsequent epidemic of actual disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment....

  2. Vaccine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered.

  3. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine contains Substantial and Unexpected Amounts of Defective Viral Genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Philip S; Easton, Andrew J; Dimmock, Nigel J

    2017-09-21

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist ® was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013-2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing showed that Fluenz™ vaccine contains unexpected and substantial amounts of DI RNA arising from both its influenza A and influenza B components, with 87 different DI RNA sequences identified. Flu A DI RNAs from segment 3 replaced the majority of the genomic full-length segment 3, thus compromising its infectivity. DI RNAs arise during vaccine production and non-infectious DI virus replaces infectious virus pro rata so that fewer doses of the vaccine can be made. Instead the vaccine carries a large amount of non-infectious but biologically active DI virus. The presence of DI RNAs could significantly reduce the multiplication in the respiratory tract of the vaccine leading to reduced immunizing efficacy and could also stimulate the host antiviral responses, further depressing vaccine multiplication. The role of DI viruses in the performance of this and other vaccines requires further investigation.

  4. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine contains Substantial and Unexpected Amounts of Defective Viral Genomic RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Gould

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist® was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013–2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing showed that Fluenz™ vaccine contains unexpected and substantial amounts of DI RNA arising from both its influenza A and influenza B components, with 87 different DI RNA sequences identified. Flu A DI RNAs from segment 3 replaced the majority of the genomic full-length segment 3, thus compromising its infectivity. DI RNAs arise during vaccine production and non-infectious DI virus replaces infectious virus pro rata so that fewer doses of the vaccine can be made. Instead the vaccine carries a large amount of non-infectious but biologically active DI virus. The presence of DI RNAs could significantly reduce the multiplication in the respiratory tract of the vaccine leading to reduced immunizing efficacy and could also stimulate the host antiviral responses, further depressing vaccine multiplication. The role of DI viruses in the performance of this and other vaccines requires further investigation.

  5. Influenza vaccination type, live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) versus inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), received by children, United States, 2011-12 through 2013-14 influenza seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine E; Santibanez, Tammy A; Zhai, Yusheng; Singleton, James A

    2015-09-22

    Influenza vaccines available for children in the United States include inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Objectives of this study were to quantify proportions of IIV and LAIV received by vaccinated children, and examine associations between vaccine type received and demographic characteristics. National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) parental reported data for the 2011-12 through 2013-14 influenza seasons were used to estimate proportions of vaccinated children 2-17 years who received IIV and LAIV. Tests of association between vaccination type and demographic variables were conducted using Wald chi-square tests and pair-wise comparison t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine variables independently associated with receipt of LAIV versus IIV. In the 2013-14 season, 33.3% of vaccinated children received LAIV, similar to the proportion in the 2011-12 (32.2%) and 2012-13 (32.1%) seasons. Across all seasons studied, the strongest observed association was between vaccination type and child's age, with children 2-8 years (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (95% confidence interval) [APR(95% CI)] 1.41(1.27-1.56), 1.46(1.34-1.59), and 1.50(1.38-1.63) for 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14) and 9-12 years (APR(95% CI) 1.37(1.23-1.54), 1.38(1.26-1.51), and 1.50(1.38-1.63) for 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14) being more likely to have received LAIV than children 13-17 years. Among those vaccinated, whites were more likely to have received LAIV compared with blacks (APR(95% CI) 1.19(1.05-1.35), 1.24(1.10-1.39), and 1.22(1.11-1.34) for 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14), and children living above poverty (annual income >$75,000) were more likely to have received LAIV than those living at or below poverty (APR(95% CI) 1.43(1.23-1.67), 1.13(1.02-1.26), and 1.16(1.06-1.28) for 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14). This study provides a baseline of the extent and patterns of LAIV uptake that can be used to measure the impact of

  6. Accurate PCR Detection of Influenza A/B and RSV Using the Cepheid Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay in Point-of-Care Settings: Comparison to Prodesse ProFlu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel M; Kline, Jennifer; May, Larissa S; Harnett, Glenn Eric; Gibson, Jane; Liang, Stephen Y; Rafique, Zubaid; Rodriguez, Carina A; McGann, Kevin M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Mayne, Donna; Phillips, David; Cohen, Jason

    2017-11-15

    The Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay is a fast, automated in vitro diagnostic test for qualitative detection and differentiation of influenza A, B, and RSV performed on the Cepheid GeneXpert Xpress System. The objective of this study was to establish performance characteristics of the Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ real-time RT-PCR assay (ProFlu+) for the detection of influenza A and B as well as RSV in a CLIA-waived (CW) setting. Overall, the assay, using fresh and frozen nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, demonstrated high concordance with ProFlu+ in the combined CW and non-CW settings with Positive Percent Agreements (PPA) (100%, 100%, 97.1%) and Negative Percent Agreements (NPA) (95.2%, 99.5%, 99.6%) for influenza A, B, and RSV, respectively. In conclusion, this multi-center study using the Cepheid Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities for Flu A, B, and RSV in ∼60 minutes for use at the point-of-care in the CW setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. The effects of a hot drink on nasal airflow and symptoms of common cold and flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanu, A; Eccles, R

    2008-12-01

    Hot drinks are a common treatment for common cold and flu but there are no studies reported in the scientific and clinical literature on this mode of treatment. This study investigated the effects of a hot fruit drink on objective and subjective measures of nasal airflow, and on subjective scores for common cold/flu symptoms in 30 subjects suffering from common cold/flu. The results demonstrate that the hot drink had no effect on objective measurement of nasal airflow but it did cause a significant improvement in subjective measures of nasal airflow. The hot drink provided immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness and tiredness, whereas the same drink at room temperature only provided relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing. The effects of the drinks are discussed in terms of a placebo effect and physiological effects on salivation and airway secretions. In conclusion the results support the folklore that a hot tasty drink is a beneficial treatment for relief of most symptoms of common cold and flu.

  8. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  9. The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    improves immunity to a particular disease. The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic Congressional Research Service 6 immunization ...recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices consistent with requirements and...or Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ).27 This report will follow the NRF terminology unless otherwise specified

  10. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  11. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  12. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  13. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  14. Long term serious olfactory loss in colds and/or flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro-Licer, Josep; Roura-Moreno, Jordi; Vizitiu, Anabella; González-Fernández, Adela; González-Ares, Josep Antón

    2013-01-01

    In the general population, we can find 2-3% of lifelong olfactory disorders (from hyposmia to anosmia). Two of the most frequent aetiologies are the common cold and flu. The aim of this study was to show the degree of long-term olfactory dysfunction caused by a cold or flu. This study was based on 240 patients, with olfactory loss caused only by flu or a cold. We excluded all patients with concomitant illness (66 patients), the rest of patients (n=174) consisted of 51 men (29.3%) and 123 women (70.7%). They all underwent olfactometry study (i and v cranial nerve) and a nasal sinus computed tomography scan, as well as magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results were compared with a control group (n=120). Very significant differences in levels of olfactory impairment for the olfactory nerve (P<.00001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) were confirmed. People that suffer olfactory dysfunction for more than 6 months, from flu or a cold, present serious impairment of olfactory abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. The bird flu campaign in Kwara state of Nigeria: a critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The graphic encoding choices employed to communicate development messages to target audiences during the Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) campaign in Kwara State, Nigeria, is loaded with several types of uncertainty that potentially hindered its communication efficacy and invariably the achievement of the overall desired ...

  16. Comparison of Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC and BioFire FilmArray for Detection of Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrenbrock, Mark G; Matushek, Scott; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Tesic, Vera; Beavis, Kathleen G; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2016-07-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC was compared to the FilmArray respiratory panel for detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using 128 nasopharyngeal swabs. Positive agreements were 100% for Flu A and RSV and 92.3% for Flu B. The Xpert may be useful in clinical situations when extensive testing is not required and may serve an important role in laboratories already performing broader respiratory panel testing. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Prospective and Retrospective Evaluation of the Performance of the FDA-Approved Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, Sophie; Thonen-Kerr, Elizabeth; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2017-11-08

    Rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viruses is important in patient care and in guiding therapy and infection prevention policy. Rapid viral antigen assays are simple to perform and provide results within 15 to 30 minutes but are limited by their modest-to-moderate sensitivity. Molecular assays are more sensitive and specific but require more technical time and expertise and are more expensive. We verified the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay prospectively, using patient respiratory samples from the 2014-2015 respiratory season, and, retrospectively, with frozen patient samples from the previous respiratory season. A total of 60 specimens were assayed on the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay and by the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. The sensitivity of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC for Flu A was 100% (23/23), for Flu B, 80% (8/10), and for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 94.1% (16/17), compared to the reference assay (GenMark). The specificity was 100%. Eight specimens were positive for viruses other than Flu A/B or RSV, and this did not interfere with detection of targets in the Xpert assay. We demonstrated that the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC was comparable to the more comprehensive molecular respiratory assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillot, Romain; Rash, Nicola L; Garrett, Dion; Prowse-Davis, Leah; Montesso, Fernando; Cullinane, Ann; Lemaitre, Laurent; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Wittreck, Sonia; Dancer, Agnes

    2016-11-25

    Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift.

  19. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  20. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Alan; Tillinghast, J; Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual...... mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough...

  1. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  2. A signal detection method for temporal variation of adverse effect with vaccine adverse event reporting system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Huang, Jing; Ellenberg, Susan S; Hennessy, Sean; Tao, Cui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-05

    To identify safety signals by manual review of individual report in large surveillance databases is time consuming; such an approach is very unlikely to reveal complex relationships between medications and adverse events. Since the late 1990s, efforts have been made to develop data mining tools to systematically and automatically search for safety signals in surveillance databases. Influenza vaccines present special challenges to safety surveillance because the vaccine changes every year in response to the influenza strains predicted to be prevalent that year. Therefore, it may be expected that reporting rates of adverse events following flu vaccines (number of reports for a specific vaccine-event combination/number of reports for all vaccine-event combinations) may vary substantially across reporting years. Current surveillance methods seldom consider these variations in signal detection, and reports from different years are typically collapsed together to conduct safety analyses. However, merging reports from different years ignores the potential heterogeneity of reporting rates across years and may miss important safety signals. Reports of adverse events between years 1990 to 2013 were extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database and formatted into a three-dimensional data array with types of vaccine, groups of adverse events and reporting time as the three dimensions. We propose a random effects model to test the heterogeneity of reporting rates for a given vaccine-event combination across reporting years. The proposed method provides a rigorous statistical procedure to detect differences of reporting rates among years. We also introduce a new visualization tool to summarize the result of the proposed method when applied to multiple vaccine-adverse event combinations. We applied the proposed method to detect safety signals of FLU3, an influenza vaccine containing three flu strains, in the VAERS database. We showed that it had high

  3. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreign. Most preventive vaccines, including those aimed at cancer-causing viruses ( hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus ), stimulate the ... 9 through 25 for the prevention of cervical cancer caused by HPV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. Chronic HBV infection can lead to ...

  4. BCG Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vanessa; Liu, Jun; Behr, Marcel A

    2014-02-01

    BCG is the collective name for a family of live attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis that are currently used as the only vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). There are two major reasons for studying the genome of these organisms: (i) Because they are attenuated, BCG vaccines provide a window into Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence, and (ii) because they have provided protection in several clinical trials and case-control studies, BCG vaccines may shed light on properties required of a TB vaccine. Since the determination of the M. tuberculosis genome in 1998, the study of BCG vaccines has accelerated dramatically, offering data on the genomic differences between virulent M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and the vaccine strains. While these findings have been rewarding for the study of virulence, there is unfortunately less accrued knowledge about protection. In this chapter, we review briefly the history of BCG vaccines and then touch upon studies over the past two decades that help explain how BCG underwent attenuation, concluding with some more speculative comments as to how these vaccines might offer protection against TB.

  5. Risk perception and communication in vaccination decisions: a fuzzy-trace theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F

    2012-05-28

    The tenets of fuzzy-trace theory, along with prior research on risk perception and risk communication, are used to develop a process model of vaccination decisions in the era of Web 2.0. The theory characterizes these decisions in terms of background knowledge, dual mental representations (verbatim and gist), retrieval of values, and application of values to representations in context. Lack of knowledge interferes with the ability to extract the essential meaning, or gist, of vaccination messages. Prevention decisions have, by definition, a status quo option of "feeling okay." Psychological evidence from other prevention decisions, such as cancer screening, indicates that many people initially mentally represent their decision options in terms of simple, categorical gist: a choice between (a) a feeling-okay option (e.g., the unvaccinated status quo) versus (b) taking up preventive behavior that can have two potential categorical outcomes: feeling okay or not feeling okay. Hence, applying the same theoretical rules as used to explain framing effects and the Allais paradox, the decision to get a flu shot, for example, boils down to feeling okay (not sick) versus feeling okay (not sick) or not feeling okay (sick, side effects, or death). Because feeling okay is superior to not feeling okay (a retrieved value), this impoverished gist supports choosing not to have the flu vaccine. Anti-vaccination sources provide more coherent accounts of the gist of vaccination than official sources, filling a need to understand rare adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza vaccination coverage of Vaccine for Children (VFC)-entitled versus privately insured children, United States, 2011–2013☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Anup; Zhai, Yusheng; Santibanez, Tammy A.; Kahn, Katherine E.; Smith, Philip J.; Singleton, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program provides vaccines at no cost to children who are Medicaid-eligible, uninsured, American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), or underinsured and vaccinated at Federally Qualified Health Centers or Rural Health Clinics. The objective of this study was to compare influenza vaccination coverage of VFC-entitled to privately insured children in the United States, nationally, by state, and by selected socio-demographic variables. Methods Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) surveys were analyzed for the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 influenza seasons for households with children 6 months–17 years. VFC-entitlement and private insurance status were defined based upon questions asked of the parent during the telephone interview. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates of children VFC-entitled versus privately insured were compared by t-tests, both nationally and within state, and within selected socio-demographic variables. Results For both seasons studied, influenza coverage for VFC-entitled children did not significantly differ from coverage for privately insured children (2011–2012: 52.0% ± 1.9% versus 50.7% ± 1.2%; 2012–2013: 56.0% ± 1.6% versus 57.2% ± 1.2%). Among VFC-entitled children, uninsured children had lower coverage (2011–2012: 38.9% ± 4.7%; 2012–2013: 44.8% ± 3.5%) than Medicaid-eligible (2011–2012: 55.2% ± 2.1%; 2012–2013: 58.6% ± 1.9%) and AI/AN children (2011–2012: 54.4% ± 11.3%; 2012–2013: 54.6% ± 7.0%). Significant differences in vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled and privately insured children were observed within some subgroups of race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and living in a metropolitan statistical area principle city. Conclusions Although finding few differences in influenza vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled versus privately insured children was encouraging, nearly half of all children were not vaccinated for influenza and coverage was

  7. Influenza vaccination coverage of Vaccine for Children (VFC)-entitled versus privately insured children, United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Anup; Zhai, Yusheng; Santibanez, Tammy A; Kahn, Katherine E; Smith, Philip J; Singleton, James A

    2015-06-17

    The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program provides vaccines at no cost to children who are Medicaid-eligible, uninsured, American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), or underinsured and vaccinated at Federally Qualified Health Centers or Rural Health Clinics. The objective of this study was to compare influenza vaccination coverage of VFC-entitled to privately insured children in the United States, nationally, by state, and by selected socio-demographic variables. Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) surveys were analyzed for the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 influenza seasons for households with children 6 months-17 years. VFC-entitlement and private insurance status were defined based upon questions asked of the parent during the telephone interview. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates of children VFC-entitled versus privately insured were compared by t-tests, both nationally and within state, and within selected socio-demographic variables. For both seasons studied, influenza coverage for VFC-entitled children did not significantly differ from coverage for privately insured children (2011-2012: 52.0%±1.9% versus 50.7%±1.2%; 2012-2013: 56.0%±1.6% versus 57.2%±1.2%). Among VFC-entitled children, uninsured children had lower coverage (2011-2012: 38.9%±4.7%; 2012-2013: 44.8%±3.5%) than Medicaid-eligible (2011-2012: 55.2%±2.1%; 2012-2013: 58.6%±1.9%) and AI/AN children (2011-2012: 54.4%±11.3%; 2012-2013: 54.6%±7.0%). Significant differences in vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled and privately insured children were observed within some subgroups of race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and living in a metropolitan statistical area principle city. Although finding few differences in influenza vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled versus privately insured children was encouraging, nearly half of all children were not vaccinated for influenza and coverage was particularly low among uninsured children. Additional public health interventions

  8. Combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AG Skibinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.

  9. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  10. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  11. Crying - excessive (0-6 months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will check the infant's growth and development. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the baby has a bacterial infection. Alternative Names Infants - excessive crying; Well child - excessive crying ...

  12. Knowledge of influenza vaccination recommendation and early vaccination uptake during the 2015-16 season among adults aged ≥18years - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Srivastav, Anup; Santibanez, Tammy A; Christopher Stringer, M; Bostwick, Michael; Dever, Jill A; Stanley Kurtz, Marshica; Williams, Walter W

    2017-08-03

    Since 2010, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended that all persons aged ≥6months receive annual influenza vaccination. We analyzed data from the 2015 National Internet Flu Survey (NIFS), to assess knowledge and awareness of the influenza vaccination recommendation and early influenza vaccination coverage during the 2015-16 season among adults. Predictive marginals from a multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify factors independently associated with adults' knowledge and awareness of the vaccination recommendation and early vaccine uptake during the 2015-16 influenza season. Among the 3301 respondents aged ≥18years, 19.6% indicated knowing that influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6months. Of respondents, 62.3% indicated awareness that there was a recommendation for influenza vaccination, but did not indicate correct knowledge of the recommended age group. Overall, 39.9% of adults aged ≥18years reported having an influenza vaccination. Age 65years and older, being female, having a college or higher education, not being in work force, having annual household income ≥$75,000, reporting having received an influenza vaccination early in the 2015-16 season, having children aged ≤17years in the household, and having high-risk conditions were independently associated with a higher correct knowledge of the influenza vaccination recommendation. Approximately 1 in 5 had correct knowledge of the recommendation that all persons aged ≥6months should receive an influenza vaccination annually, with some socio-economic groups being even less aware. Clinic based education in combination with strategies known to increase uptake of recommended vaccines, such as patient reminder/recall systems and other healthcare system-based interventions are needed to improve vaccination, which could also improve awareness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A simple stochastic model with environmental transmission explains multi-year periodicity in outbreaks of avian flu

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, R.H; Jin, Z; Liu, Q.X; Van de Koppel, J; Alonso, D

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu...

  14. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines Print The meningococcal vaccines protect ...

  15. Association of IFITM3 rs12252 polymorphisms, BMI, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia with mild flu in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Eybpoosh, Sana; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Shokouhi Targhi, Hadiseh; Mazaheri, Vahideh; Farahmand, Behrokh

    2017-11-09

    IFITM3 has been suggested to be associated with infection in some ethnic groups. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are also important clinical conditions that can predispose individuals to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs12252 C polymorphism, BMI, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia with mild flu in an Iranian population. We conducted a case-control study, including 79 mild flu and 125 flu-negative individuals attending primary care centers of three provinces of Iran (i.e, Markazi, Semnan, and Zanjan). Pharyngeal swab specimens were collected from all participants, and were subjected to RNA and DNA extractions for Real-time PCR and PCR tests. All PCR products were then sequenced to find T/C polymorphisms in the rs12252 region. Data on demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were collected from participants' medical records available in the primary care centers. The data was analyzed using DNASIS (v. 2.5) and Stata (v.11) software. All participants were of Fars ethnic background. The allele frequency for rs12252-C was found to be 9.49% among cases and 2.40% among controls. Carriers of the rs12252 C allele (CT + CC genotypes) showed 5.92 folds increase in the risk of mild flu comparing to the T allele homozygotes (P value: 0.007). We also found a significant positive association between rs12252 C allele heterozygote and mild flu (OR: 7.62, P value: 0.008), but not in C allele homozygote group (OR: 2.71, P value: 0.406). Similarly, we did not find a significant association between mild flu and BMI (OR: 1.06, P value: 0.087), diabetes (OR: 0.61, P value: 0.392), and hypercholesterolemia (OR: 0.50, P value: 0.393) in multivariable logistic regression. This is the first study evaluating the association between rs12252 polymorphisms, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and BMI and susceptibility to mild flu in an Iranian population. Our results suggest a significant positive association between mild flu and rs12252 C

  16. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ...

  17. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  18. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  19. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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    Full Text Available ... spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ...

  20. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ...

  1. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause ... pregnancy and flu posters meningitis overview why vaccinate CDC and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono ...

  2. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  3. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  4. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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  5. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause ... pregnancy and flu posters meningitis overview why vaccinate CDC and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono ...

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of health professionals in relation to A/H1N1 influenza and its vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Picado, Amanda; Apiñaniz, Antxon; Ramos, Amaia Latorre; Miranda-Serrano, Erika; Cobos, Raquel; Parraza-Díez, Naiara; Amezua, Patricia; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Aizpuru, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the intention of health professionals, doctors and nurses, concerning whether or not to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus, and their perception of the severity of this pandemic compared with seasonal flu. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out based on an questionnaire e-mailed to health professionals in public healthcare centres in Vitoria between 6 and 16 November 2009; the percentage of respondents who wanted to be vaccinated and who perceived the pandemic flu to carry a high risk of death were calculated. Results A total of 115 people completed the questionnaire of whom 61.7% (n=71) were doctors and 38.3% (n=44) were nurses. Of these, 33.3% (n=23) of doctors and 13.6% (n=6) of nurses intended to be vaccinated (p=0.019). Even among those who considered themselves to be at a high risk, 70.6% (n=48) of doctors and 31.7% (n=13) of nurses participating in the study (p=0.001) planned to have the vaccination. Conclusions Most health professionals, and in particular nurses, had no intention to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus at the beginning of the vaccination campaign. PMID:22461846

  7. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  8. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development.

  9. Acute Demyelinating Events Following Vaccines: A Case-Centered Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Roger; Lewis, Edwin; Goddard, Kristin; Fireman, Bruce; Bakshi, Nandini; DeStefano, Frank; Gee, Julianne; Tseng, Hung Fu; Naleway, Allison L; Klein, Nicola P

    2016-12-01

     Case reports have suggested that vaccines may trigger transverse myelitis (TM) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), but the evidence for a causal association is inconclusive. We analyzed the association of immunization and subsequent development of TM or ADEM.  We identified all cases of TM and ADEM in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population. Using a case-centered method, we compared vaccination of each case to vaccination of all matched persons in the study population, who received the same type of vaccine, with respect to whether or not their vaccination occurred during a predetermined exposure interval. We calculated a risk difference (excess risk) of TM and ADEM for each vaccine.  Following nearly 64 million vaccine doses, only 7 cases of TM and 8 cases of ADEM were vaccinated during the primary exposure window 5-28 days prior to onset. For TM, there was no statistically significant increased risk of immunization. For ADEM, there was no statistically significant increased risk following any vaccine except for Tdap (adolescent and adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccine. Based on 2 exposed cases, the odds ratio for Tdap exposure 5-28 days prior to ADEM onset was 15.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-471.6; P = .04), and the estimated excess risk was 0.385 (95% CI, -.04 to 1.16) cases per million doses.  We found no association between TM and prior immunization. There was a possible association of ADEM with Tdap vaccine, but the excess risk is not likely to be more than 1.16 cases of ADEM per million vaccines administered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  12. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu)

    OpenAIRE

    Piermarco Aroldi; Simone Carlo; Fausto Colombo

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by ...

  13. Der Abbau von Fluorbenzol und seinen Homologen durch Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100

    OpenAIRE

    Strunk, Niko

    2007-01-01

    Der Stamm Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100 besitzt die unter den Bakterien äußerst selten zu findende Eigenschaft, Fluorbenzol als alleinige Kohlenstoff- und Energiequelle nutzen zu können. Außerdem kann der Stamm auch die anderen Monohalogenbenzole sowie Benzol und Toluol - als Reinstoff oder in beliebigen Mischungen - vollständig produktiv verwerten. In dieser Arbeit wurden ein Teil des Abbauweges sowie die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Stammes im Rahmen der biologischen Abluftreinigung erforscht. ...

  14. Barriers of Influenza Vaccination Intention and Behavior – A Systematic Review of Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy, 2005 – 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Philipp; Rauber, Dorothee; Betsch, Cornelia; Lidolt, Gianni; Denker, Marie-Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to global efforts to reduce the burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Potential barriers of influenza vaccination need to be identified to inform interventions to raise awareness, influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake. Objective This review aims to (1) identify relevant studies and extract individual barriers of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination for risk groups and the general public; and (2) map knowledge gaps in understanding influenza vaccine hesitancy to derive directions for further research and inform interventions in this area. Methods Thirteen databases covering the areas of Medicine, Bioscience, Psychology, Sociology and Public Health were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2005 and 2016. Following the PRISMA approach, 470 articles were selected and analyzed for significant barriers to influenza vaccine uptake or intention. The barriers for different risk groups and flu types were clustered according to a conceptual framework based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and discussed using the 4C model of reasons for non-vaccination. Results Most studies were conducted in the American and European region. Health care personnel (HCP) and the general public were the most studied populations, while parental decisions for children at high risk were under-represented. This study also identifies understudied concepts. A lack of confidence, inconvenience, calculation and complacency were identified to different extents as barriers to influenza vaccine uptake in risk groups. Conclusion Many different psychological, contextual, sociodemographic and physical barriers that are specific to certain risk groups were identified. While most sociodemographic and physical variables may be significantly related to influenza vaccine hesitancy, they cannot be used to explain its emergence or intensity. Psychological determinants were meaningfully related to uptake and should

  15. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  17. The performance of Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV and Cepheid Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC for the detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus in prospective patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Phillip; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Beavis, Kathleen G; Tesic, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The demand for rapid, accurate viral testing has increased the number of assays available for the detection of viral pathogens. One of the newest FDA cleared platforms is the Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV, which is a fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay used for detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We sought to compare the performance of Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV assay to the Cepheid Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid Flu and RSV testing. A series of consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens received in the clinical microbiology laboratory during peak influenza season at a major academic center in Chicago, IL, were prospectively tested, using both the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV and Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assays, side by side. Discrepant results were tested on the BioFire FilmArray(®) Respiratory Panel for resolution. A total of 143 consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens, obtained from patients ranging from six months to ninety-three years in age were received between January 1st, 2017 and March 21st, 2017. There was 96.6% agreement between the two assays for detection influenza A, 100% agreement for detection influenza B and RSV, and 98.9% agreement for negative results. The Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC performed with an average turn-around time of approximately 60min, compared to the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV of approximately 120min. Both assays were equally easy to perform, with a similar amount of hands-on technologist time for each platform. Overall, these results indicate that both tests are comparable in terms of result agreement and technical ease-of-use. The Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assay did produce results with less turn-around-time, approximately 60min quicker than the ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Infliximab and/or immunomodulators inhibit immune responses to trivalent influenza vaccination in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshie; Ohfuji, Satoko; Watanabe, Kenji; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kamata, Noriko; Sogawa, Mitsue; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hirota, Yoshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    Appropriate influenza vaccination is important for patients with inflammatory bowel disease under immunosuppressive therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of immunosuppressive therapy on the immune response to the trivalent influenza vaccine in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this cohort study, 91 participants received a single dose of influenza vaccine for the 2010/2011 season. Serum samples were collected at 3 different times (pre-vaccination, 3 weeks post-vaccination, and after flu season) to measure hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Immune responses were compared based on immunosuppressive therapy. Among the 88 subjects who completed the study, the influenza vaccine induced a more than 4-fold increase in the mean antibody level for all flu strains. The overall seroprotection proportion (post-vaccination titer ≥ 1:40) was 81% for H1N1, 61% for H3N2, and 86% for B. Treatment with an immunomodulator reduced the immune response to the H1N1 strain (OR=0.20, p=0.01), and treatment with infliximab reduced the immune response to the other strains (H3N2 strain: OR=0.37, p=0.02; B strain: OR=0.18, p=0.03). Combination therapy with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine and infliximab significantly inhibited the immune response to H1N1 (OR=0.056, p=0.02). Infliximab and/or immunomodulators inhibit immune responses to some strains of trivalent influenza vaccination in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. For optimization of the trivalent influenza vaccination for patients with adult inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunosuppressive agents, establishing an effective vaccination method is crucial. © 2013.

  19. [Cognitive, affective and behavioral changes in crisis: preventing swine flu infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Haruka; Oikawa, Masanori

    2010-10-01

    Calling attention to potential risks does not always lead to preventative actions. To investigate changes in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses towards potential risks, longitudinal studies targeting nonclinical samples of undergraduate students were conducted at 4 time points (April, May, June, and July 2009) during the outbreak of swine flu in 2009, which eventually developed in to a global pandemic. During the course of the study, the risk of swine flu infection for the seventy-nine participants became more and more self-relevant as the situation developed in the news and as their university was temporarily closed off. The results indicate that despite increasing knowledge about the swine flu, the level of anxiety showed steady decrease as the time went by. Similarly, despite the expanding infection around the globe, the level of preventative behavior remained low. Moreover, participants reported perceiving their own risk to be significantly lower than that of average undergraduate students at all time points. These findings indicate that even when potential risks are clearly communicated, too much information, saturated emotions, and optimistic bias may obstruct people from taking appropriate preventative actions.

  20. FLUed: A Novel Four-Layer Model for Simulating Epidemic Dynamics and Assessing Intervention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic, to the 2009 swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 pandemic, to the projected highly pathogenic avian influenza A event, emerging infectious diseases highlight the importance of computational epidemiology to assess potential intervention policies. Hence, an important and timely research goal is a general-purpose and extendable simulation model that integrates two major epidemiological factors—age group and population movement—and substantial amounts of demographic, geographic, and epidemiologic data. In this paper, we describe a model that we have named FLUed for Four-layer Universal Epidemic Dynamics that integrates complex daily commuting network data into multiple age-structured compartmental models. FLUed has four contact structures for simulating the epidemic dynamics of emerging infectious diseases, assessing the potential efficacies of various intervention policies, and identifying the potential impacts of spatial-temporal epidemic trends on specific populations. We used data from the seasonal influenza A and 2009 swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 epidemics to validate model reliability and suitability and to assess the potential impacts of intervention policies and variation in initial outbreak areas for novel/seasonal influenza A in Taiwan. We believe that the FLUed model represents an effective tool for public health agencies responsible for initiating early responses to potential pandemics.

  1. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. PMID:25130674

  2. Rotavirus, vaccine failure or diagnostic error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lacort, Monica; Collado, Susana; Díez-Gandía, Ana; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2016-11-21

    Immunochromatography (ICG) is highly used in clinical settings for rotavirus (RV) diagnosis. The specificity of the tests differs by brand type and is not 100%, therefore its use when the prevalence of the disease is low (i.e. in vaccinated children) may result in a proportion of false positive diagnoses. In some areas, vaccine effectiveness studies or surveillance is done using ICG. Our objective was to estimate the validity of ICG test in vaccinated children, and estimate the number of false positive results in the Valencian Region of Spain, where all RV infections are diagnosed using ICG and are not confirmed by PCR. Population based registries were used to identify all results from the RV antigen tests performed between January 2008 and June 2012 in children under 37months. Hospitalization and vaccination status of the patients were obtained by linking different databases through a unique identification number. The Positive Predictive Value of the ICG test depending on the vaccination status of the child, hospitalization and the rotavirus season was estimated by a Bayesian model of latent classes. Of the 48,833 tests with valid results, 9429 were done in vaccinated children, and of those 3963 (42%) during the rotavirus season. The prevalence of positive results in vaccinated varied from 2.9 to 21.4% of the tests depending on the hospitalization and seasonality. The estimated PPV also varied from 27.1 to 84.6% when stratified by these two parameters. Globally it is calculated that approximately 267 out of the 520 (51.3%) positives in vaccinated children were false positive tests. The large percentage of false positives, due to an excessive number of tests in vaccinated and out of the RV season, if interpreted as vaccine failures, can cause a loss of confidence in the vaccine and lower the estimates of vaccine effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  4. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The Threat Preparedness Detection and Response Bioterrorism ... Revaccinees Examples of Major or “Take” Reactions to Smallpox Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Reaction Images Laboratory Personnel Specimen Collection ...

  5. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... of that vaccine. Tell the person giving the vaccines if your child has ever had a severe reaction after any ...

  6. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  7. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  8. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  9. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  10. Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas

  11. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2015-04-01

    A total of 281 clinical specimens (nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) were tested with the Xpert® Flu/RSV XC. The results were compared to those obtained with the real-time retro transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays routinely used in our laboratory. The Xpert® Flu/RSV XC showed sensitivity/specificity of 97.8%/100% and 97.9%/100% for flu and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  13. Does subsidy work? Price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccination among the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2009-08-01

    Subsidy for influenza vaccination is often provided to the elderly in order to encourage them to receive a flu shot in developed countries. However, its effect on uptake rate, i.e., price elasticity of demand, has not been well studied. Japan's decentralised vaccination programme allows observation of various pairs in price and uptake rate of flu shots among the elderly by the municipality from 2001/2002 to 2004/2005 season. We combine our sample survey data (n=281), which monitor price, subsidy and uptake rate, with published data on local characteristics in order to estimate price elasticity of demand with panel model. We find price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccine: nearly zero in nationwide, nearly zero in urban area, and -1.07 in rural area. The results question the rationale for subsidy, especially in urban area. There are cases where maintaining or increasing the level of subsidy is not an efficient allocation of finite health care resources. When organising a vaccination programme, health manager should be careful about the balance between subsidy and other efforts in order to encourage the elderly to receive shots with price elasticity in mind.

  14. Diphoton excess through dark mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Lefebvre, Michel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Pospelov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Zhong, Yi-Ming [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: gg→S→A{sup ′}A{sup ′}→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}) and qq̄→Z{sup ′}→sa→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}), where at the first step a heavy scalar, S, or vector, Z{sup ′}, resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, A{sup ′}, or (pseudo-)scalars, s and a. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of A{sup ′}, the suggested range of masses and mixing angles ϵ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.

  15. Impact of influenza vaccination on civilian aircrew illness and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixéu, Marias A G; Vespa, Glaucia N R; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Toniolo-Neto, João; Alves, Paulo M

    2002-09-01

    Approximately 10% of the general population worldwide acquires influenza infection every year. Airline crews run a particularly high risk of contracting influenza and influenza-like viruses because they come in contact with hundreds of potentially infected individuals every day. Respiratory diseases are the most frequent cause of absenteeism among flight crews in airline companies. Several studies have shown the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the workplace of healthy, working adults leading to increased productivity and lower absenteeism. We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on flight crews of an airline company in order to determine the safety and efficacy of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in reducing illness and absences from work. The 813 healthy members of a Brazilian airline company were randomly assigned to receive injections of either an influenza vaccine or a placebo, with a follow-up period of 7 mo after vaccination. Primary outcomes included influenza-like illness episodes and absenteeism from work due to such episodes. Demographic characteristics were similar in the two groups. No significant side-effects occurred in either group. Compared to the placebo group, individuals receiving the vaccine showed 39.5% fewer episodes of flu-like illness (p reduced absenteeism.

  16. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  17. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the narcolepsy patients (r = 0.819, p narcolepsy patients positive for HLA-DQB1*06:02. The possibility that TRIB2 is an autoantigen in narcolepsy remains to be clarified. We could verify autoantibody responses against TRIB2 which needs to be determined in larger patient cohorts and control populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009-10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2011-10-01

    A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media 'over-hyping' the swine flu pandemic. The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009-10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty.

  19. Galactooligosaccharide supplementation reduces stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction and days of cold or flu: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in healthy university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Christine; Davoodi-Semiromi, Yalda; Colee, James C; Culpepper, Tyler; Dahl, Wendy J; Mai, Volker; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi

    2011-01-01

    .... We examined whether supplementation with galactooligosaccharides reduced gastrointestinal dysfunction and the percentage of days with cold or flu in academically stressed undergraduate students...

  20. The influence of political ideology and trust on willingness to vaccinate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Baumgaertner

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing refusal of some parents to vaccinate children, public health strategies have focused on increasing knowledge and awareness based on a "knowledge-deficit" approach. However, decisions about vaccination are based on more than mere knowledge of risks, costs, and benefits. Individual decision making about vaccinating involves many other factors including those related to emotion, culture, religion, and socio-political context. In this paper, we use a nationally representative internet survey in the U.S. to investigate socio-political characteristics to assess attitudes about vaccination. In particular, we consider how political ideology and trust affect opinions about vaccinations for flu, pertussis, and measles. Our findings demonstrate that ideology has a direct effect on vaccine attitudes. In particular, conservative respondents are less likely to express pro-vaccination beliefs than other individuals. Furthermore, ideology also has an indirect effect on immunization propensity. The ideology variable predicts an indicator capturing trust in government medical experts, which in turn helps to explain individual-level variation with regards to attitudes about vaccine choice.

  1. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Djamshidian, Atbin; Evans, Andrew H; Loane, Clare M; Lees, Andrew J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Hoarding is seen in several psychiatric conditions, but has not been specifically assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates hoarding tendency amongst patients with PD, and its association with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICBs). We compare clinical features, measures of hoarding, impulse buying, self-control, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in 39 patients with PD with ICBs (PD + ICB), 61 patients with PD without ICBs (PD - ICB), and 50 healthy controls. A much higher proportion of PD + ICB (27.8%) than PD - ICB (3.5%) were hoarders (P = 0.001). 6% of healthy controls were hoarders. Compulsive shoppers scored higher than other varieties of ICB on excessive acquisition measures. Hoarding correlated positively with impulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, PD duration, and negatively with self-control measures. Using multivariate regression analyzes, the presence of ICBs and measures of impulsive buying were the only variables independently associated with hoarding in PD. The association of hoarding with other ICBs and low trait impulse control suggests that excessive hoarding is related to the spectrum of impulsive behaviors in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Association of provider recommendation and offer and influenza vaccination among adults aged ≥18 years - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Srivastav, Anup; Amaya, Ashley; Dever, Jill A; Roycroft, Jessica; Kurtz, Marshica Stanley; O'Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W

    2018-01-09

    Influenza vaccination has been recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months since 2010. Data from the 2016 National Internet Flu Survey were analyzed to assess provider vaccination recommendations and early influenza vaccination during the 2016-17 season among adults aged ≥18 years. Predictive marginals from a multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify factors independently associated with early vaccine uptake by provider vaccination recommendation status. Overall, 24.0% visited a provider who both recommended and offered influenza vaccination, 9.0% visited a provider who only recommended but did not offer, 25.1% visited a provider who neither recommended nor offered, and 41.9% did not visit a doctor from July 1 through date of interview. Adults who reported that a provider both recommended and offered vaccine had significantly higher vaccination coverage (66.6%) compared with those who reported that a provider only recommended but did not offer (48.4%), those who neither received recommendation nor offer (32.0%), and those who did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period (28.8%). Results of multivariable logistic regression indicated that having received a provider recommendation, with or without an offer for vaccination, was significantly associated with higher vaccination coverage after controlling for demographic and access-to-care factors. Provider recommendation was significantly associated with influenza vaccination. However, overall, 67.0% of adults did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period or did visit a doctor but did not receive a provider recommendation. Evidence-based strategies such as client reminder/recall, standing orders, provider reminders, or health systems interventions in combination should be undertaken to improve provider recommendation and influenza vaccination coverage. Other factors significantly associated with a higher level of influenza vaccination included age ≥50 years, being Hispanic

  3. Effect of mass media on influenza vaccine coverage in the season 2014/2015: a regional survey in Lazio, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, A; Gervasi, G; Ciabattini, M; Volpe, E; Spadea, A; Sgricia, S; Zaratti, L; Franco, E

    2015-08-05

    Adherence to vaccination program for Influenza virus is an important issue of Public Health in presence of many no-vaccine tendencies. The media event about some deaths, occurring after MF59 adjuvanted vaccine administration, has characterized the season 2014/15 vaccination program in Italy. Aim of the study is vaccination adherence assessment of the current season with regards to local health units (LHU) coordinators's perceptions in Lazio Region (IT). LHU coordinators's perceptions were collected from a questionnaire that was send via email to the all 12 LHU coordinators. The questionnaire was built with 4 questions concerning the impression about the vaccination adherence of elderly people in the current season. Data from questionnaire was compared with the official coverage rate obtained by the Regional Authority. Severe adverse events were collected by 1 LHU. All the 12 LHU coordinators answered to our questionnaire: 7/12 (50%) predicted a coverage rate of at least 50%; 3/12 (25%) referred a coverage rate around 40-45%; 2/12 (17%) predicted a reduction of 5-10% less than the previous season. Indeed, a mean 49.1% vaccination coverage in the elderly has been reported by the Regional Authority highlighting a reduction of 10% less than the 2013/14 season coverage. No severe adverse events were observed. In our survey an important effect of media event on anti-flu vaccination program adherence has been evidenced, with a failure in communication and joint management of Public Health Institutions in Italy about efficacy and safety information of flu vaccine. © Copyright by Pacini Editore SpA, Pisa, Italy.

  4. Rates of influenza vaccination in older adults and factors associated with vaccine use: A secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Heather

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in the older adult population. In Canada, vaccination rates remain suboptimal. We identified factors predictive of influenza vaccination, in order to determine which segments of the older adult population might be targeted to increase coverage in influenza vaccination programs. Methods The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA is a population-based national cohort study of 10263 older adults (≥ 65 conducted in 1991. We used data from the 5007 community-dwelling participants in the CSHA without dementia for whom self-reported influenza vaccination status is known. Results Of 5007 respondents, 2763 (55.2% reported having received an influenza vaccination within the previous 2 years. The largest predictive factors for flu vaccination included: being married (57.4 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0007, having attained a higher education (11.0 vs. 10.3 years, p While many other differences were statistically significant, most were small (e.g. mean age 75.1 vs. 74.6 years for immunized vs. unimmunized older adults, p = 0.006, higher Modified Mini Mental Status Examination score (89.9 vs. 89.1, p Residents of Ontario were more likely (64.6% to report vaccination (p Conclusions The vaccination rate in this sample, in whom influenza vaccination is indicated, was low (55.2%. Even in a publicly administered health care setting, influenza vaccination did not reach an important proportion of the elderly population. Whether these differences reflect patient preference or access remains to be determined.

  5. Hookworm vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemert, David J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-15

    Hookworm infection caused by the soil-transmitted nematodes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. Although not directly responsible for substantial mortality, it causes significant morbidity in the form of chronic anemia and protein malnutrition. Current global control efforts based on periodic mass anthelmintic administration are unsustainable, and new control strategies must be developed. This review describes progress in the development of vaccines against hookworm infection, including the preclinical and initial clinical testing of the N. americanus Ancylostoma Secreted Protein-2 Hookworm Vaccine. Plans call for eventual development of a vaccine that will combine at least 2 hookworm antigens--one targeting the larval stage of the life cycle and another targeting the adult worm living in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Mucosal vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  7. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pellegrino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems. METHODS: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed. RESULTS: We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely not [corrected] due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction.

  8. FluTyper-an algorithm for automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from high resolution mass spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwahn Alexander B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High resolution mass spectrometry has been employed to rapidly and accurately type and subtype influenza viruses. The detection of signature peptides with unique theoretical masses enables the unequivocal assignment of the type and subtype of a given strain. This analysis has, to date, required the manual inspection of mass spectra of whole virus and antigen digests. Results A computer algorithm, FluTyper, has been designed and implemented to achieve the automated analysis of MALDI mass spectra recorded for proteolytic digests of the whole influenza virus and antigens. FluTyper incorporates the use of established signature peptides and newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers for four common influenza antigens, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, and matrix protein 1, to type and subtype the influenza virus based on their detection within proteolytic peptide mass maps. Theoretical and experimental testing of the classifiers demonstrates their applicability at protein coverage rates normally achievable in mass mapping experiments. The application of FluTyper to whole virus and antigen digests of a range of different strains of the influenza virus is demonstrated. Conclusions FluTyper algorithm facilitates the rapid and automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from mass spectral data. The newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers increase the confidence of influenza virus subtyping, especially where signature peptides are not detected. FluTyper is expected to popularize the use of mass spectrometry to characterize influenza viruses.

  9. The effects of excessive humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  10. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cholera, hepatitis-B, and many more are in the process of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1 Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 679-683, December 2003 ...

  11. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  12. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  13. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  14. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  15. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on the dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in ...

  16. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. JouFLU: an upgraded FLUOR beam combiner at the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomé, E.; Scott, N.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Mollier, B.; Reess, J. M.; Chapron, F.; Buey, T.; Sevin, A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2012-07-01

    FLUOR, which has been operational on CHARA since 2002, is an infrared fiber beam combiner. The telescope array will soon be fitted with an adaptive optics system, which will enhance the interferometer performance. In this framework, FLUOR has been entirely redeveloped and will be able to measure visibilities with higher accuracy and better sensitivity. The technical upgrades consist of improving some existing systems and developing new features. The bench, which is now remotely operable, primarily offers spectral dispersion (long fringes scanning), a more sensitive camera and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mode. This paper presents the detailed opto-mechanical design of JouFLU (FLUOR rejuvenation), and the current instrument status.

  18. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  19. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  20. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  1. Value of post-licensure data on benefits and risks of vaccination to inform vaccine policy: The example of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Umesh D; Cortese, Margaret M; Payne, Daniel C; Lopman, Benjamin; Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E

    2015-11-27

    In 1999, the first rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn within a year of its introduction after it was linked with intussusception at a rate of ∼1 excess case per 10,000 vaccinated infants. While clinical trials of 60,000-70,000 infants of each of the two current live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1), did not find an association with intussusception, post-licensure studies have documented a risk in several high and middle income countries, at a rate of ∼1-6 excess cases per 100,000 vaccinated infants. However, considering this low risk against the large health benefits of vaccination that have been observed in many countries, including in countries with a documented vaccine-associated intussusception risk, policy makers and health organizations around the world continue to support the routine use of RV1 and RV5 in national infant immunization programs. Because the risk and benefit data from affluent settings may not be directly applicable to developing countries, further characterization of any associated intussusception risk following rotavirus vaccination as well as the health benefits of vaccination is desirable for low income settings. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  3. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  4. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chimerism in Myeloid Malignancies following Stem Cell Transplantation Using FluBu4 with and without Busulfan Pharmacokinetics versus BuCy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of precision medicine, the impact of personalized dosing of busulfan is not clear. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 78 patients with myeloid malignancies who received fludarabine and busulfan (FluBu4 with or without measuring Bu pharmacokinetics (Bu PK and those who received busulfan with cyclophosphamide (BuCy. Fifty-five patients received FluBu4, of whom 21 had Bu PK measured, and 23 patients received BuCy. Total donor cell chimerism showed that the percentage of patients maintaining 100% donor chimerism on day 100 was 66.7%, 38.2%, and 73.9% in the FluBu4 with PK, FluBu4 with no PK, and BuCy, respectively (P = .001. Patients who had decreasing donor chimerism by day 100 were 23.8%, 52.9%, and 26.1% in the FluBu4 with PK, FluBu4 with no PK, and BuCy, respectively (P = .04. Bu PK group had fewer patients with less than 95% donor chimerism on day 30, which was not statistically significant, 5% (FluBu4 PK, 31% (FluBu4 with no PK, and 21% (BuCy (P = .18. Survival distributions were not statistically significant (P = .11. Thus, personalized drug dosing can impact donor chimerism in myeloid malignancies. This will need to be examined in larger retrospective multicenter studies and prospective clinical trials.

  6. Sleepiness or excessive daytime somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Ethel Mitty; Flores, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is associated with age-related changes, environment, circadian rhythm or sleep pattern disorder, insomnia, medications, lifestyle factors, depression, pain, and illness. The notion of "sleep architecture" connotes a structure that describes the sleep cycle (i.e., stages) and wakefulness during a single sleep period-that is, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Circadian rhythms perform a variety of functions including regulation of the quality and distribution of the stages of sleep. Insomnia includes delayed sleep onset as well as premature wakening; sleep is nonrestorative. Comorbidities associated with insomnia are Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, delirium, depression, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, degenerative diseases of the neurological system, and sleep apnea. Continuous inadequate sleep affects cognitive function, physical performance, overall well-being, and quality of life. There is a greater risk of falls from insomnia than is the use of hypnotics to manage it. Sleep disruption among older adults is underrecognized and undertreated. Assessment using valid tools can be performed rapidly. There are a variety of treatment options, including sleep hygiene and pharmacological and alternative modalities.

  7. Positive and negative effects of social impact on evolutionary vaccination game in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Kurisaku, Takehiro

    2017-02-01

    Preventing infectious disease like flu from spreading to large communities is one of the most important issues for humans. One effective strategy is voluntary vaccination, however, there is always the temptation for people refusing to be vaccinated because once herd immunity is achieved, infection risk is greatly reduced. In this paper, we study the effect of social impact on the vaccination behavior resulting in preventing infectious disease in networks. The evolutionary simulation results show that the social impact has both positive and negative effects on the vaccination behavior. Especially, in heterogeneous networks, if the vaccination cost is low the behavior is more promoted than the case without social impact. In contrast, if the cost is high, the behavior is reduced compared to the case without social impact. Moreover, the vaccination behavior is effective in heterogeneous networks more than in homogeneous networks. This implies that the social impact puts people at risk in homogeneous networks. We also evaluate the results from the social cost related to the vaccination policy.

  8. Individual and collective considerations in public health: influenza vaccination in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, M

    2001-10-01

    Many nursing homes have an influenza vaccination policy in which it is assumed that express (proxy) consent is not necessary. Tacit consent procedures are more efficient if one aims at high vaccination rates. In this paper I focus on incompetent residents and proxy consent. Tacit proxy consent for vaccination implies a deviance of standard proxy consent requirements. I analyse several arguments that may possibly support such a deviance. The primary reason to offer influenza vaccination is that vaccinated persons have a significantly reduced risk of getting the flu. This reason however cannot support the assumption that each nursing home resident is 'better off' if she is vaccinated. Neither can it support tacit proxy consent policies. More promising are arguments that take the collective nature of infectious diseases into account. A potentially strong, but ultimately insufficient, argument for non-express consent is that vaccination contributes to prevention of harm to others. Other arguments emphasize the importance of group protection: herd immunity. I discuss three collective reasons for aiming at herd immunity: solidarity, a common interest in reducing the risk of illness, and a common interest in the prevention of an influenza outbreak. The latter argument appears to be most important. An outbreak is not just detrimental to the health of residents; it is detrimental to their everyday social life as well. Outbreaks can be seen as collective evil. My analysis shows that there are valid (though not necessarily sufficient) moral arguments for a tacit proxy consent policy.

  9. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... subject proposal. Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request...

  10. It'll only hurt a second? Microeconomic determinants of who gets flu shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, J

    1999-02-01

    Appreciating how the propensity to be immunized against the flu depends on individual characteristics and environments is essential for policies regarding influenza control to be formulated sensibly. To this point, the literature has offered little documentation on the determinants of influenza immunization. Beyond epidemiology, there are important economic issues that must be addressed to understand this form of preventive care. One concerns the relationship between labour supply and immunization propensity: While it is relatively costly (in terms of time costs) for workers to obtain immunizations, workers also have relatively more to lose from being ill with the flu. Another concern not generally appreciated is the extent to which individuals' perceived risks of infection may affect their propensities to be immunized. The paper also attempts to shed light on these issues. The analysis uses data from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey. Immunization propensity displays expected patterns by age and health status, while the results with respect to race, household structure, income and insurance are somewhat more surprising and/or novel. The estimated labour supply and perceived risk effects suggest that some aspects of the economics of preventive care generally not considered in empirical work are important and merit further consideration.

  11. O Carnaval, a peste e a 'espanhola' Carnival, the plague, and the Spanish flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto dos Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta algumas imagens (fotografias, pinturas relativas às epidemias de Peste e Gripe Espanhola. Procuramos demonstrar como fenômenos históricos analisados comparativamente revelam semelhanças em distintas formações sociais. Apesar das diferenças de tempo e espaço, existem manifestações simbólicas coletivas invariáveis nas epidemias. Por exemplo, em várias ocorrências de peste, gripe ou cólera, a associação entre doença e castigo divino está presente. De forma análoga, indivíduos de comportamento "suspeito" foram e são apontados como propagadores das enfermidades, sejam pobres, judeus, irlandeses ou negros.The article presents photographic and painted images related to epidemics of the plague and Spanish flu. Comparative analyses of this type of historical phenomena reveal similarities between diverse social formations. Despite differences in time and space, epidemics display certain invariable symbolic collective expressions. For example, disease and divine punishment have been linked during a number of plague, flu, or cholera epidemics. Similarly, individuals whose behavior is 'suspicious' have been accused of spreading illness - for instance, the poor, Jews, Irish, or blacks.

  12. Estimation of basic reproductive number of flu-like syndrome in a primary school in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran, similar to other countries, had faced H1N1 flu outbreak in 2009. In order to assess its transmission dynamic, we estimated its force of infection (β and basic reproductive number (R 0 . Methods: Within a middle size primary school in Iran, we actively followed students and detected flu-like syndrome among students and their families in the first three months of academic year; October through December 2009. We estimated the probability of disease transmission within families (β fitting random effects Poisson regression model. Moreover, R 0 within the school was computed based on the number of detected cases. Results: In 452 students, 204 influenza-like syndromes were detected. The estimated β within families was 0.10; increasing one infectious member within each family was associated with 30% increase in this number. The estimated R 0 for the first month was 1.21 (95% C.I.: 0.99, 1.47; corresponding numbers for the first two and first three months were 1.28 (95% C.I.: 1.05, 1.54 and 1.32 (95% C.I.: 1.11, 1.59, respectively. Conclusion: It seems that the dynamic transmission of H1N1 virus was more or less comparable with that in other seasonal species. Our findings showed that the virus mainly circulated among students within schools. In addition, it seems that the transmission rate within families was relatively high.

  13. Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravà Lucilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. Methods We conducted a search for "swine flu" accessing 3 of the most popular search engines through different proxy servers located in 4 English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, UK, USA. We explored each site resulting from the searches, up to 4 clicks starting from the search engine page, analyzing availability of World Health Organization recommendations for swine flu prevention. Results Information on hand cleaning was reported on 79% of the 147 websites analyzed; staying home when sick was reported on 77.5% of the websites; disposing tissues after sneezing on 75.5% of the websites. Availability of other recommendations was lower. The probability of finding preventative recommendations consistent with World Health Organization varied by country, type of website, and search engine. Conclusions Despite media coverage on H1N1 influenza, relevant information for prevention is not easily found on the web. Strategies to improve information delivery to the general public through this channel should be improved.

  14. [The Spanish flu in Iceland 1918. Lessons in medicine and history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Pandemic influenza has emerged 1-3 times each century. The pandemic in 1918, or the "Spanish flu" was caused by a novel influenza strain which caused the death of 21-50 million people world wide. Descriptions of the epidemic in Iceland give a detailed account on how and when the virus was introduced to the population of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, by the crew of two ships, "Botnía". and "Willemoes" on October 19th 1918. The spread of the illness was extremely rapid and peaked 3 weeks later. It caused significant morbidity and mortality among inhabitants of the southern and western part of Iceland. Within 6 weeks, close to 500 individuals had died, thereof more than 50% in Reykjavik. The attack rate in Reykjavik was at least 63% and the case fatality proportion was close to 2.6%. The age-specific mortality was highest among young children, people 20-40 years of age and the elderly. In addition, pregnant women had extremely poor prognosis (37% case fatality). Attempts to halt the spread of the epidemic to the northern and eastern parts of the island were successful. By identifying the individuals who died from the Spanish flu using historical data, it has recently been shown that genetic factors probably did not play a major role in the pathogenesis of fatal cases. These historical data can be used to assist in planning for new pandemics of influenza, which are believed to be inevitable.

  15. Register data suggest lower intelligence in men born the year after flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2009-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu, an influenza pandemic that haunted Europe during winter 1969 to 1970, was associated with reduced intelligence in adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the National Conscript Service. The sample comprised all registered boys born alive in single birth after 37 to 43 weeks' gestation during 1967 to 1973 (n = 205,634). Intelligence test scores, recorded at military conscription, were available for 182,913 individuals. The mean intelligence score increased from one birth year to another, except for a downturn in 1970. The birth year 1970 was inversely associated with intelligence score (-0.03 standard deviation [SD]; p intelligence score was significant only among men born in July (-0.04 SD; p = 0.049), August (-0.05 SD; p = 0.013), September (-0.09 SD; p intelligence scores of the men born 6 to 9 months after the epidemic were lower than the mean values for the men born in the same months a few years before or after. Early prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu may have interfered with fetal cerebral development and caused reduced intelligence in adulthood.

  16. Panblok-H1+advax H1N1/2009pdm vaccine: Insights into rapid development of a delta inulin adjuvanted recombinant pandemic influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Sajkov, Dimitar; Gordon, David; Cox, Manon M J; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2017-06-03

    Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm 'swine flu' pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome. Panblok-H1/Advax successfully induced neutralising antibodies against the pandemic strain, but also induced cross-neutralising antibodies in a subset of subjects against an H1N1 strain (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) derived from the 1918 Spanish flu, highlighting the possibility to use Advax to induce more broadly cross-protective antibody responses. Interestingly, the rHA from H1N1/2009pdm exhibited variants in the receptor binding domain that had a major impact on receptor binding and hemagglutination ability. We used an in silico structural modeling approach to better understand the unusual behavior of the novel hemagglutinin, thereby demonstrating the power of computational modeling approaches for rapid characterization of new pandemic viruses. While challenges remain in ensuring ultrafast vaccine access for the entire population in response to future pandemics, the adjuvanted recombinant Panblok-H1/Advax vaccine proved its utility during a real-life pandemic situation.

  17. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA (800) ...

  18. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  20. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in