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Sample records for excellent oxidation resistance

  1. KTA 625 alloy tube with excellent corrosion resistance and heat resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazuo; Kadonaga, Toshiki; Kikuma, Seiji.

    1982-01-01

    The problems when seamless tubes are produced by using nickel base 625 alloy (61Ni-22Cr-9Mo-Cb) which is known as a corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloyF were examined, and the confirmation experiment was carried out on its corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Various difficulties have been experienced in the tube making owing to the characteristics due to the chemical composition, but they were able to be solved by the repeated experiments. As for the characteristics of the product, the corrosion resistance was excellent particularly in the environment containing high temperature, high concentration chloride, and also the heat resistance was excellent in the wide temperature range from normal temperature to 1000 deg C. From these facts, the wide fields of application are expected for these alloy tubes, including the evaporation and concentration equipment for radioactive wastes in atomic energy field. Expecting the increase of demand hereafter, Kobe Steel Ltd. examined the problems when seamless tubes are produced from the 625 alloy by Ugine Sejournet process. The aptitude for tube production such as the chemical composition, production process and the product characteristics, the corrosion resistance against chloride, hydrogen sulfide, polythionic and other acids,F the high temperature strength and oxidation resistance are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Fabrication and excellent conductive performance of antimony-doped tin oxide-coated diatomite with porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yucheng; Yan Jing; Meng Qi; Wang Jinshu; Dai Hongxing

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-coated diatomite with porous structures are fabricated using the co-precipitation method. The porous ATO-coated diatomite material shows excellent conductive performance. Highlights: ► Sb-doped SnO 2 (ATO)-coated diatomite materials with porous structures are prepared. ► Sn/Sb ratio, ATO coating amount, pH value, and temperature influence resistivity. ► Porous ATO-coated diatomite materials show excellent conductive performance. ► The lowest resistivity of the porous ATO-coated diatomite sample is 10 Ω cm. - Abstract: Diatomite materials coated with antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) were prepared by the co-precipitation method, and characterized by means of the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption–desorption measurement. It was shown that the coated ATO possessed a tetragonal rutile crystal structure, and the ATO-coated diatomite materials had a multi-pore (micro- meso-, and macropores) architecture. The porous ATO-coated diatomite materials exhibited excellent electrical conductive behaviors. The best conductive performance (volume resistivity = 10 Ω cm) was achieved for the sample that was prepared under the conditions of Sn/Sb molar ratio = 5.2, Sn/Sb coating amount = 45 wt%, pH = 1.0, and reaction temperature = 50 °C. Such a conductive porous material is useful for the applications in physical and chemical fields.

  3. Oxidation resistance coating for niobium base structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaru, T.; Shobu, K.; Kim, J.H.; Hirai, H.; Hanada, S.

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation behavior of Al-rich Mo(Si,Al) 2 base alloys, which is a candidate material for the oxidation resistance coating on Nb base structural composites, were investigated by thermogravimetry. The Mo(Si,Al) 2 base alloys containing Mo 5 (Si,Al) 3 up to about 10 vol% exhibits excellent oxidation resistance at temperatures ranging from 780 to 1580 K, particularly at 1580 K due to continuous Al 2 O 3 layer development. To evaluate the applicability of the Mo(Si,Al) 2 base coating, plasma spraying on Nb base composites were undertaken. However, interface reaction layer was found to form during the following heat treatment. Preparation of Mo(Si,Al) 2 /Al 2 O 3 /Nb layered structures via powder metallurgical process was attempted to preclude diffusion reaction between coating and substrate. (orig.)

  4. Fabrication and excellent conductive performance of antimony-doped tin oxide-coated diatomite with porous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Yucheng, E-mail: ychengdu@bjut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan Jing; Meng Qi; Wang Jinshu [Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Dai Hongxing, E-mail: hxdai@bjut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Graphical abstract: Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-coated diatomite with porous structures are fabricated using the co-precipitation method. The porous ATO-coated diatomite material shows excellent conductive performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO)-coated diatomite materials with porous structures are prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sn/Sb ratio, ATO coating amount, pH value, and temperature influence resistivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous ATO-coated diatomite materials show excellent conductive performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest resistivity of the porous ATO-coated diatomite sample is 10 {Omega} cm. - Abstract: Diatomite materials coated with antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) were prepared by the co-precipitation method, and characterized by means of the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement. It was shown that the coated ATO possessed a tetragonal rutile crystal structure, and the ATO-coated diatomite materials had a multi-pore (micro- meso-, and macropores) architecture. The porous ATO-coated diatomite materials exhibited excellent electrical conductive behaviors. The best conductive performance (volume resistivity = 10 {Omega} cm) was achieved for the sample that was prepared under the conditions of Sn/Sb molar ratio = 5.2, Sn/Sb coating amount = 45 wt%, pH = 1.0, and reaction temperature = 50 Degree-Sign C. Such a conductive porous material is useful for the applications in physical and chemical fields.

  5. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the thermal stabilization property of the treated silk fabrics was also investigated. The results show that the treated silk fabrics have excellent flame retardancy, thermal stability, smoke suppression, and ultraviolet resistance simultaneously.

  6. Enhanced oxidation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composites by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Long; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xueting; Wu, Songsong; Wen, Guangwu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • C f /LAS composites exhibit enhanced oxidation resistance by boron doping. • Boron doping is beneficial to the improvement of graphitization degree of carbon fibers. • Graphitization of carbon fibers together with the decrease of viscosity of LAS matrix is responsible to the enhancement of oxidation resistance of C f /LAS composites. - Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate matrix composites (C f /LAS) modified with boron doping were fabricated and oxidized for 1 h in static air. Weight loss, residual strength and microstructure were analyzed. The results indicate that boron doping has a remarkable effect on improving the oxidation resistance for C f /LAS. The synergism of low viscosity of LAS matrix at high temperature and formation of graphite crystals on the surface of carbon fibers, is responsible for excellent oxidation resistance of the boron doped C f /LAS.

  7. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  8. EFFECT OF La2O3 ON HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION RESISTANCE OF ELECTROSPARK DEPOSITED Ni-BASED COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    YUXIN GAO; JIAN YI; ZHIGANG FANG; HU CHENG

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation tests of electrospark deposited Ni-based coatings without and with 2.5 wt.% La2O3 were conducted at 960°C in air for 100 h. The oxidation kinetic of the coatings was studied by testing the weight gain. The phase structures and morphologies of the oxidized coatings were investigated by XRD and SEM. The experimental results show that the coatings with 2.5 wt.% La2O3 exhibits excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance including low oxidation rate and improved spallation resist...

  9. Effect of ternary additions on the oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA

    1995-01-01

    Refractory intermetallic silicides are receiving increasing consideration for use as high temperature structural materials. Ti 5 Si 3 -based compositions are attractive due to their ability to incorporate a variety of interstitial ternary additions. These ternary additions present a unique opportunity to potentially tailor physical properties. Previous experimental work has shown that these additions significantly increase the otherwise poor oxidation resistance of undoped Ti 5 Si 3 above 700 C. Recent experimental work by the authors on the oxidation of small atom doped Ti 5 Si 3 is discussed. Interstitial additions of boron, carbon, and oxygen substantially improve the isothermal oxidation resistance of Ti 5 Si 3 at 1,000 C. In contrast, added nitrogen does not provide significant improvement. Even up to 1,306 C, interstitial oxygen imparts excellent oxidation resistance with a mass gain of 1.1 mg/cm 2 after 240 hours

  10. Stainless steel welding method with excellent nitric acid corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Yukinobu; Inazumi, Toru; Hyakubo, Tamako; Masamura, Katsumi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a welding method for a stainless steel used in a circumstance being in contact with a highly oxidizing nitric acid solution such as nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, upon welding 316 type austenite steel containing Mo while giving excellent nitric acid resistance. A method of TIG welding using a filler metal having a composition of C, Si, Mn, P, S, Ni, Cr, Mo and Cu somewhat different from a stainless steel mother material in which C, Si, Mn, P, S, Ni, Cr and Mo are specified comprises a step of TIG-welding the surface of the mother material and a step of TIG-welding the rear face of the mother material, in which the welding conditions for the rear face of the mother material are such that the distance between the surface of the outermost welding metal layer on the side of the surface of the mother material and the bottom of the groove is not less than 5mm, and an amount of welding heat is made constant. As a result, even if the method is used in a circumstance being in contact with a highly corrosive solution such as nitric acid, corrosion resistance is not degraded. (N.H.)

  11. Sulfidation/oxidation resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a nickel-base, high chromium alloy. It is characterized by excellent resistance to sulfidation and oxidation at elevated temperatures as high as 2000 degrees F. (1093 degrees C.) and higher, a stress-rupture life of about 200 hours or more at a temperature at least as high as 1800 degrees F. (990:0083 degrees C.) and under a stress of 2000 psi, good tensile strength and good ductility both at room and elevated temperature. The alloy consists essentially of about 27 to 35% chromium, about 2.5 to 5% aluminum, about 2.5 to about 6% iron, 0.5 to 2.5% columbium, up to 0.1% carbon, up to 1% each of titanium and zirconium, up to 0.05% cerium, up to 0.05% yttrium, up to 1% silicon, up to 1% manganese, and the balance nickel

  12. High temperature oxidation resistant cermet compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Cermet compositions are designed to provide high temperature resistant refractory coatings on stainless steel or molybdenum substrates. A ceramic mixture of chromium oxide and aluminum oxide form a coating of chromium oxide as an oxidation barrier around the metal particles, to provide oxidation resistance for the metal particles.

  13. Pt nanoparticles embedded on reduced graphite oxide with excellent electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Gengan, E-mail: saravanan3che@gmail.com [Central University of Tamil Nadu, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvarur, 610101 (India); Mohan, Subramanian, E-mail: sanjnamohan@yahoo.com [EMFT Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Tamilnadu, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: RGO/Nano Pt: This study explore the electrocatalytic oxidation performance of reduced graphite oxide (RGO) anchored with nano Pt. This graphene composite reveal superior electrooxidation performance that is associated with the flexible RGO matrix and the uniform distribution of Pt particles, which enhances surface area, fast electron transfer, uniform particle size distribution; consequently, the RGO matrix provides more stability to Pt particles during electrooxidation process. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Greener electrochemical method applied to prepare well-dispersed Pt-rGO. • Pt-rGO large surface area excellent charge transfer better catalytic activity. • Low-cost highly efficient carbon-based electrodes for direct formic acid fuel cell. • rGO an excellent support to anchor Pt nanoparticles on its surface. • Pt-rGO distinctly enhanced current density towards formic acid electrooxidation. - Abstract: Economically viable electrochemical approach has been developed for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles through electrodeposition technique on the surface of Reduced Graphite Oxide (RGO). Pt nanoparticles embedded Reduced Graphite Oxide on Glassy Carbon Electrode are employed (Pt-rGO/GCE) for electrooxidation of formic acid. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows that reduced graphite oxide act as an excellent support to anchor the Pt nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry results confirmed that Pt-rGO/GCE enhanced current density as many folds than that of bare platinum electrode for electrooxidation of formic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for Pt-graphene composites illustrate that peaks at 69.15 and 23° for Pt (220) and graphene carbon (002) respectively. {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of the electrochemically reduced graphite oxide resonance contains only one peak at 133 ppm which retains graphitic sp{sup 2} carbon and does not contain any oxygenated carbon and the carbonyl

  14. Improvement of low temperature oxidation resistance in MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites; Sankabutsu no fukugoka ni yoru MoSi{sub 2} zairyo no teion sanka tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W.; Uchiyama, T. [Riken Corp., Saitama (Japan)

    1999-11-15

    MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites using fine aluminosilicate powder (< 0.2{mu}m) have demonstrated excellent low temperature oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance. These properties strongly depend on microstructural morphology and are obtained in composites that network-structures of both phases of MoSi{sub 2} and oxides are developed, i.e., in composites with oxides of 20 {approx} 40 vol. %. When one phase is independently dispersed in the other phase, on the other hand, problems of low temperature oxidation and thermal shock occur. The low temperature oxidation problem occurs in the composites with oxides less than 15 vol. % and the thermal shock problem occurs in the composites with oxides more than 50 vol. %. These results will contribute to material design approaches for high temperature structural applications of MoSi{sub 2}. (author)

  15. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  16. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  17. Tungsten oxide thin films grown by thermal evaporation with high resistance to leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos; Pazinato, Julia C.O.; Freitas, Mauricio A. de; Radtke, Claudio; Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Dorneles, Lucio S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten oxides show different stoichiometries, crystal lattices and morphologies. These characteristics are important mainly when they are used as photocatalysts. In this work tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by thermal evaporation on (100) silicon substrates covered with gold and heated at 350 and 600 °C, with different deposition times. The stoichiometry of the films, morphology, crystal structure and resistance to leaching were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and O{sup 16} (α,α')O{sup 16} resonant nuclear reaction. Films obtained at higher temperatures show well-defined spherical nanometric structure; they are composed of WO{sub 3.1} and the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide was also observed. The major crystal structure observed is the hexagonal. Thin films obtained through thermal evaporation present resistance to leaching in aqueous media and excellent performance as photocatalysts, evaluated through the degradation of the methyl orange dye. (author)

  18. Improving the oxidation resistance and stability of Ag nanoparticles by coating with multilayered reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Bowen; Guo, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    A kind of coating nanostructure, Ag nanoparticles coated with multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated by employing a three-step reduction method in an orderly manner, which is significantly different from the conventional structures that are simply depositing or doping with Ag nanoparticles on RGO via chemical reduction. The as-prepared nanostructure is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SEAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the obtained Ag/RGO nanostructure is observed to be a perfect coating structure with well dispersed Ag particles, which is responsible for the remarkable oxidation resistance. The results of XPS spectra indicate the content of metallic Ag is far greater than that of Ag oxides despite of prolonged exposure to the air, which fully demonstrate the excellent stability of thus coating nanostructure.

  19. "A New Class of Creep Resistant Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohit Jain, Dr. Ganesh Skandan, Prof. Roger Cannon, Rutgers University

    2007-03-30

    Despite recent progress in the development of SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), their application in industrial gas turbines for distributed energy (DE) systems has been limited. The poor oxidation resistance of the non-oxide ceramics warrants the use of envrionmental barrier coatings (EBCs), which in turn lead to issues pertaining to life expectancy of the coatings. On the other hand, oxide/oxide CMCs are potential replacements, but their use has been limited until now due to the poor creep resistance at high temperatures, particularly above 1200 oC: the lack of a creep resistant matrix has been a major limiting factor. Using yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) as the matrix material system, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in oxide/oxide CMCs by introducing innovations in both the structure and composition of the matrix material, thereby leading to high temperature matrix creep properties not achieved until now. An array of YAG-based powders with a unique set of particle characteristics were produced in-house and sintered to full density and compressive creep data was obtained. Aided in part by the composition and the microstructure, the creep rates were found to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially. Even after accounting for porosity and a smaller matrix grain size in a practical CMC component, the YAG-based matrix material was found to creep slower than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially.

  20. SUS 321 HTB boiler tubing with fire grained internal surface resistant to steam-induced oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanero, Takahiro; Minami, Yuusuke; Kodera, Toshihide

    1981-01-01

    Considerable amount of scale is produced by high temperature steam on the austenitic stainless steel tubes used for the superheaters and reheaters of large boilers for power generation. The scale of outer layer separates off due to the thermal stress at the time of starting-up and stopping, and causes the blocking of pipes and the erosion of turbine blades. Following the increase of nuclear power generation, large boilers are used for medium load, accordingly it is expected that the troubles like these increase. In this paper, the manufacturing method and the properties of SUS 321 HTB with fine grain internal surface are reported, which was developed to reduce the rate of growth of scale and to prevent the separation of scale. In order to prevent the separation of scale from austenitic stainless steel tubes, the reduction of scale thickness, surface treatment such as chrome plating, the use of alloys with excellent oxidation resistance, the formation of chrome-rich film rapidly, the heat treatment of cold-worked tubes and so on were carried out. The nitrification of SUS 321 H steel brought about two-phase structure of the fine grain internal surface with excellent oxidation resistance and the rest of coarse grains with high creep strength. (Kako, I.)

  1. Multilayer oxidation resistant coating for SiC coated carbon/carbon composites at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hejun; Jiao Gengsheng; Li Kezhi; Wang Chuang

    2008-01-01

    To prevent carbon/carbon (C/C) composites from oxidation, a multilayer coating based on molybdenum disilicide and titanium disilicide was formed using a two-step pack cementation technique in argon atmosphere. XRD and SEM analysis showed that the internal coating was a bond SiC layer that acts as a buffer layer, and that the external multilayer coating formed in the two-step pack cementation was composed of two MoSi 2 -TiSi 2 -SiC layers. This coating, which is characterized by excellent thermal shock resistance, could effectively protect the composites from exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere at 1773 K for 79 h. The oxidation of the coated C/C composites was primarily due to the reaction of C/C matrix and oxygen diffusing through the penetrable cracks in the coating

  2. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given

  3. Corrosion behaviour of nanometre sized cerium oxide and titanium oxide incorporated aluminium in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Edwin, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion resistant aluminium incorporated with nano oxides of cerium and titanium. ► 0.2% nano CeO 2 and 0.05% nano TiO 2 showed increased corrosion resistance. ► Nano TiO 2 concentration influenced the optimum performance of the material. ► Comparison of Micro and nano CeO 2 and TiO 2 aluminium showed the latter is best. - Abstract: The study highlights the development of an aluminium matrix composite by incorporating mixture of nanometre sized cerium oxide and titanium oxide in pure aluminium and its corrosion resistance in marine environment. The mixed nanometre sized oxides incorporated aluminium exhibited improved microstructure and excellent corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance depends on the concentration of nanometre sized titanium oxide. Electrochemical characteristics improved several folds in nanometre sized mixed oxides incorporated aluminium than micrometre sized oxides incorporated aluminium.

  4. An Aurivillius Oxide Based Cathode with Excellent CO2 Tolerance for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinlong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Shao, Zongping

    2016-07-25

    The Aurivillius oxide Bi2 Sr2 Nb2 MnO12-δ (BSNM) was used as a cobalt-free cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). To the best of our knowledge, the BSNM oxide is the only alkaline-earth-containing cathode material with complete CO2 tolerance that has been reported thus far. BSNM not only shows favorable activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at intermediate temperatures but also exhibits a low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent structural stability, and good chemical compatibility with the electrolyte. These features highlight the potential of the new BSNM material as a highly promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest.

  6. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest

  7. Genome-wide association analysis of oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Weber

    Full Text Available Aerobic organisms are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress resistance is a quantitative trait with population variation attributable to the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal system to study the genetics of variation for resistance to oxidative stress.We used 167 wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel for a genome-wide association study of acute oxidative stress resistance to two oxidizing agents, paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite. We found significant genetic variation for both stressors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in oxidative stress resistance were often sex-specific and agent-dependent, with a small subset common for both sexes or treatments. Associated SNPs had moderately large effects, with an inverse relationship between effect size and allele frequency. Linear models with up to 12 SNPs explained 67-79% and 56-66% of the phenotypic variance for resistance to paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite, respectively. Many genes implicated were novel with no known role in oxidative stress resistance. Bioinformatics analyses revealed a cellular network comprising DNA metabolism and neuronal development, consistent with targets of oxidative stress-inducing agents. We confirmed associations of seven candidate genes associated with natural variation in oxidative stress resistance through mutational analysis.We identified novel candidate genes associated with variation in resistance to oxidative stress that have context-dependent effects. These results form the basis for future translational studies to identify oxidative stress susceptibility/resistance genes that are evolutionary conserved and might play a role in human disease.

  8. Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites with excellent decolorization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Lan, Bang; Diao, Guiqiang; He, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled in the presence of CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. The obtained CTAB-Al-MO with the basal spacing of 1.59 nm could be stable at 300 °C for 2 h and also possesses high total pore volumes (0.41 cm³ g −1 ) and high specific BET surface area (161 m 2 g −1 ), which is nine times larger than that of the pristine (19 m 2 g −1 ). Possible formation process for the highly thermal stable CTAB-Al-MO is proposed here. The decolorization experiments of methyl orange showed that the obtained CTAB-Al-MO exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment and the decolorization rate could reach 95% within 5 min. - Graphical Abstract: Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid LMO nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled by CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. Highlights: ► A two-step synthesis method was used to prepare the CTAB-Al-MO. ► The CTAB-Al-MO has the large basal spacing and high specific BET surface area. ► The thermal stability of the well-ordered CTAB-Al-MO could obviously improve. ► The CTAB-Al-MO exhibits excellent oxidation and absorption ability to remove organic pollutants.

  9. Atomic Layer Deposited Oxide-Based Nanocomposite Structures with Embedded CoPtx Nanocrystals for Resistive Random Access Memory Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Guo; Cao, Zheng-Yi; Qian, Xu; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Da-Peng; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-02-22

    Al 2 O 3 - or HfO 2 -based nanocomposite structures with embedded CoPt x nanocrystals (NCs) on TiN-coated Si substrates have been prepared by combination of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. The impact of CoPt x NCs and their average size/density on the resistive switching properties has been explored. Compared to the control sample without CoPt x NCs, ALD-derived Pt/oxide/100 cycle-CoPt x NCs/TiN/SiO 2 /Si exhibits a typical bipolar, reliable, and reproducible resistive switching behavior, such as sharp distribution of RRAM parameters, smaller set/reset voltages, stable resistance ratio (≥10 2 ) of OFF/ON states, better switching endurance up to 10 4 cycles, and longer data retention over 10 5 s. The possible resistive switching mechanism based on nanocomposite structures of oxide/CoPt x NCs has been proposed. The dominant conduction mechanisms in low- and high-resistance states of oxide-based device units with embedded CoPt x NCs are Ohmic behavior and space-charge-limited current, respectively. The insertion of CoPt x NCs can effectively improve the formation of conducting filaments due to the CoPt x NC-enhanced electric field intensity. Besides excellent resistive switching performances, the nanocomposite structures also simultaneously present ferromagnetic property. This work provides a flexible pathway by combining PEALD and TALD compatible with state-of-the-art Si-based technology for multifunctional electronic devices applications containing RRAM.

  10. Laser beam joining of non-oxidic ceramics for ultra high temperature resistant joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, W.; Knorr, J.; Wolf, R.; Reinecke, A.M.; Rasper, R.

    2004-01-01

    The excellent technical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) ceramics, such as resistance to extreme temperatures, oxidation, mechanical wear, aggressive chemical substances and radioactive radiation and also its high thermal conductivity and good temperature-shock resistance, make these ceramics ideally suited for use in the field of nuclear technology. However, their practical use has been limited so far because of the unavailability of effective joining techniques for these ceramics, especially for high temperature applications. A new joining technology (CERALINK registered ) has been developed in a network project which allowed high temperature resistant and vacuum-tight joining of SiC or Si 3 N 4 ceramics. A power laser is used as heat source, which makes it possible to join ceramic components in free atmosphere in combination with a pure oxidic braze filler. As no furnace is necessary, there are no limitations on the component dimensions by the furnace-geometry. During the joining process, the heated area can be limited to the seam area so that this technology can also be used to encapsulate materials with a low melting point. The seam has a high mechanical strength, it is resistant to a wide range of chemicals and radiation and it is also vacuum-tight. The temperature resistance can be varied by variation of the braze filler composition - usually between 1,400 C and >1,600 C. Beside the optimum filler it is also important to select the suitable laser wavelength. The paper will demonstrate the influence of different wave lengths, i. e. various laser types, on the seam quality. Examples are chosen to illustrate the strengths and limitations of the new technology

  11. Oxidation resistance of nickel alloys at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyuvin, Yu.D.; Rogel'berg, I.L.; Ryabkina, M.M.; Plakushchaya, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The heat resistance properties of nickel alloys Ni-Cr-Si, Ni-Si-Al, Ni-Si-Mn and Ni-Al-Mn have been studied by the weight method during oxidation in air at 1000 deg and 1200 deg C. It is demonstrated that manganese reduces the heat resistance properties of Ni-Si and Ni-Al alloys, whilst the addition of over 3% aluminium enhances the heat resistance properties of Ni-Si (over 1.5%) alloys. The maximum heat resistance properties are shown by Ni-Si-Al and Ni-Cr-Si alloys with over 2% Si. These alloys offer 3 to 4 times better oxidation resistance as compared with pure nickel at 1000 deg C and 10 times at 1200 deg C

  12. High Velocity Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Resistance of Some ODS Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys were tested for cyclic, high velocity, oxidation, and hot corrosion resistance. These results were compared to the resistance of an advanced, NiCrAl coated superalloy. An ODS FeCrAl were identified as having sufficient oxidation and hot corrosion resistance to allow potential use in an aircraft gas turbine without coating.

  13. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen, E-mail: phuan.yi.wen@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Elyas, E-mail: meibr2@student.monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao, E-mail: zhu.tao@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Nam-gu, Daehakro 93, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ocon, Joey D., E-mail: jdocon@up.edu.ph [Laboratory of Electrochemical Engineering (LEE), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Chan, Eng Seng, E-mail: chan.eng.seng@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  14. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe_2O_3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  15. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85 °C is over 3 × 104 sec

  16. R and D status of oxide electro-refining reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myochin, Munetaka

    2005-01-01

    The oxide electro-refining pyrochemical reprocessing is excellent in the resistivity against nuclear material diversion and in the suitability for oxide fuel cycle and has an excellent affinity for the technology of fuel production using the vibropac method. The oxide electro-refining pyrochemical reprocessing system has therefore been examined as a part of studies of commercialization of FBR cycle. This report outlines the examination results of fundamental data acquired for the system design. (M.H.)

  17. Tightly sealed facility of excellent in durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirano, Kenji; Chatani, Michio; Ebe, Shinji; Shimizu, Masatoshi; Seguchi, Tadao; Fukushima, Susumu; Hirata, Masaru; Shiosawa, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    It is found that a cross linked methacryl resin using an appropriate amount of a cross linking monomer also has a useful characteristic of an excellent chemical resistance and excellent γ-ray resistance. Then in the present invention, a cross linked methacryl resin molding product comprising 60 to 98 % by weight of methyl methacrylate units and 2 to 40 % by weight of cross linking monomer units is used as a material for transparent partition walls. A tightly sealed facility having the transparent partition wall materials of excellent radiation resistance in addition to acid resistance can be attained. (T.M.)

  18. Copper oxide resistive switching memory for e-textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistive switching memory suitable for integration into textiles is demonstrated on a copper wire network. Starting from copper wires, a Cu/CuxO/Pt sandwich structure is fabricated. The active oxide film is produced by simple thermal oxidation of Cu in atmospheric ambient. The devices display a resistance switching ratio of 102 between the high and low resistance states. The memory states are reversible and retained over 107 seconds, with the states remaining nondestructive after multiple read operations. The presented device on the wire network can potentially offer a memory for integration into smart textile.

  19. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, V.; Mohan Raj, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  20. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  1. Thermal Oxidation Resistance of Rare Earth-Containing Composite Elastomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱关明; 张明; 周兰香; 中北里志; 井上真一; 冈本弘

    2001-01-01

    The rare earth-containing composite elastomer was obtained by the reaction of vinyl pyridine-SBR (PSBR) latex with rare earth alkoxides, and its thermal oxidation resistance was studied. After aging test, it is found that its retention rate of mechanical properties is far higher than that of the control sample. The results of thermogravimetric analysis show that its thermal-decomposing temperature rises largely. The analysis of oxidation mechanisms indicates that the main reasons for thermal oxidation resistance are that rare earth elements are of the utility to discontinue autoxidation chain reaction and that the formed complex structure has steric hindrance effect on oxidation.

  2. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  3. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin, E-mail: songaixin@sdu.edu.cn; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol. • The fabrication process of superhydrophobic metal surfaces greatly increases the safety in industrial manufacture in commercial scale. • The superhydrophobic copper surfaces show excellent corrosion resistance. - Abstract: A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  4. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  5. Effects of Oxidation on Oxidation-Resistant Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades that exhibit oxidation resistance through the formation of protective oxides on the surface of the graphite material. In the unlikely event of an oxygen ingress accident, graphite components within the VHTR core region are anticipated to oxidize so long as the oxygen continues to enter the hot core region and the core temperatures remain above 400°C. For the most serious air-ingress accident which persists over several hours or days the continued oxidation can result in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material during any air-ingress accident would mitigate the structural effects and keep the core intact. Previous air oxidation testing of nuclear-grade graphite doped with varying levels of boron-carbide (B4C) at a nominal 739°C was conducted for a limited number of doped specimens demonstrating a dramatic reduction in oxidation rate for the boronated graphite grade. This report summarizes the conclusions from this small scoping study by determining the effects of oxidation on the mechanical strength resulting from oxidation of boronated and unboronated graphite to a 10% mass loss level. While the B4C additive did reduce mechanical strength loss during oxidation, adding B4C dopants to a level of 3.5% or more reduced the as-fabricated compressive strength nearly 50%. This effectively minimized any benefits realized from the protective film formed on the boronated grades. Future work to infuse different graphite grades with silicon- and boron-doped material as a post-machining conditioning step for nuclear components is discussed as a potential solution for these challenges in this report.

  6. The etiology of oxidative stress in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Hurrle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a prevalent syndrome in developed as well as developing countries. It is the predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most common end stage development of metabolic syndrome in the United States. Previously, studies investigating type 2 diabetes have focused on beta cell dysfunction in the pancreas and insulin resistance, and developing ways to correct these dysfunctions. However, in recent years, there has been a profound interest in the role that oxidative stress in the peripheral tissues plays to induce insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to focus on the mechanism of oxidative species generation and its direct correlation to insulin resistance, to discuss the role of obesity in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, and to explore the potential of antioxidants as treatments for metabolic dysfunction.

  7. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe2O3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni2+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  8. Total antioxidant and oxidant status in obese children without insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Doğan Demir; Ufuk Erenberk; İlker Tolga Özgen; Emin Özkaya; Aysel Vahapoğlu Türkmen; M. Ruşen Dündaröz; Özcan Erel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress in obese children may lead in adulthood serious conditions such as coronary heart diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In childhood oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance or extreme obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress status in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 38 obese children (21 male, 17 female) without insulin resistance, mean aged 9.4±3.8 years) and 51 normal weight children...

  9. Effects of iron content on electrical resistivity of oxide films on Zr-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshio; Uno, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity were made for oxide films formed by anodic oxidation and steam oxidation (400degC/12 h) on Zr plates with different Fe contents. When the Fe content was higher than about 1,000 ppm the electrical resistivity of the steam oxide films was almost equivalent to that of the anodic oxide films, while at lower Fe content the former exhibited lower electrical resistivity than the latter by about 1∼3 orders of magnitude. The anodic oxide film was an almost homogeneous single oxide layer. The steam oxide films, on the other hand, were composed of duplex oxide layers. The oxide layer formed in the vicinity of the oxide/metal interface had higher electrical resistivity than the near-surface oxide layer by about 1∼4 orders of magnitude. The oxide layer in the vicinity of the interface could act as a protective film against corrosion and its electrical resistivity is one important factor controlling the layer protectiveness. The electrical resistivity of the oxide/metal interfacial layer was strongly dependent on the Fe content. One possible reason for Fe to improve the corrosion resistance is that Fe ions would tend to stabilize the tetragonal (or cubic) phase and consequently suppress the formation of open pores and cracks in the interfacial layer. (author)

  10. Irradiation test plan of oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Hirotaka; Kato, Hideki; Fujitsuka, Kunihiro; Muto, Takenori; Gizatulin, Shamil; Shaimerdenov, Asset; Dyussambayev, Daulet; Chakrov, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor. In the case of air ingress accident in HTGR, SiO_2 protective layer is formed on the surface of SiC layer in TRISO CFP and oxidation of SiC does not proceed and fission products are retained inside the fuel particle. A new safety concept for the HTGR, called Naturally Safe HTGR, has been recently proposed. To enhance the safety of Naturally Safe HTGR ultimately, it is expected that oxidation-resistant graphite is used for graphite components to prevent the TRISO CFPs and fuel compacts from failure. SiC coating is one of candidate methods for oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and four graphite companies launched R&Ds to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) partner project with JAEA and INP was launched to investigate the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite. To determine grades of the oxidation-resistant graphite which will be adopted as irradiation test, a preliminary oxidation test was carried out. This paper described the results of the preliminary oxidation test, the plan of out-of-pile test, irradiation test and post-irradiation test (PIE) of the oxidation-resistant graphite. The results of the preliminary oxidation test showed that the integrity of the oxidation resistant graphite was confirmed and that all of grades used in the preliminary test can be adopted as the irradiation test. Target irradiation temperature was determined to be 1473 (K) and neutron fluence was determined to be from 0.54 × 10"2"5through 1.4 × 10"2"5 (/m"2, E>0.18MeV). Weight change, oxidation rate, activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in out-of-pile test and weight change, irradiation effect on oxidation rate and activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in PIE. (author)

  11. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  12. Reduction of graphene oxide and its effect on square resistance of reduced graphene oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Yin; Li, Guang Bin; Wang, Shaohong; Wang, Mei Han; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Siming [Liaoning Province Key Laboratory of New Functional Materials and Chemical Technology, School ofMechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphite oxide was prepared via the modified Hummers’ method and graphene via chemical reduction. Deoxygenation efficiency of graphene oxide was compared among single reductants including sodium borohydride, hydrohalic acids, hydrazine hydrate, and vitamin C. Two-step reduction of graphene oxide was primarily studied. The reduced graphene oxide was characterized by XRD, TG, SEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Square resistance was measured as well. Results showed that films with single-step N2H4 reduction have the best transmittance and electrical conductivity with square resistance of ~5746 Ω/sq at 70% transmittance. This provided an experimental basis of using graphene for electronic device applications.

  13. Diffusion barrier coatings for high temperature corrosion resistance of advanced carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Raman, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon possesses an excellent combination of mechanical and thermal properties, viz., excellent creep resistance at temperatures up to 2400 deg C in non-oxidizing environment and a low thermal expansion coefficient. These properties make carbon a potential material for very high temperature applications. However, the use of carbon materials at high temperatures is considerably restricted due to their extremely poor oxidation resistance at temperatures above 400 deg C. The obvious choice for improving high temperature oxidation resistance of such materials is a suitable diffusion barrier coating. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in advanced diffusion- and thermal-barrier coatings for ceramic composites, with particular reference to C/C composites. The paper discusses the development of multiphase and multi-component ceramic coatings, and recent investigations on the oxidation resistance of the coated C/C composites. The paper also discusses the cases of innovative engineering solutions for traditional problems with the ceramic coatings, and the scope of intelligent processing in developing coatings for the C/C composites. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  14. Enhanced resistive switching in forming-free graphene oxide films embedded with gold nanoparticles deposited by electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, Geetika; Kumar, Nitu; Katiyar, Ram S; Misra, Pankaj; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Scott, James F

    2016-01-01

    Forming-free resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices having low switching voltages are a prerequisite for their commercial applications. In this study, the forming-free resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) films embedded with gold nanoparticles (Au Nps), having an enhanced on/off ratio at very low switching voltages, were investigated for non-volatile memories. The GOAu films were deposited by the electrophoresis method and as-grown films were found to be in the low resistance state; therefore no forming voltage was required to activate the devices for switching. The devices having an enlarged on/off ratio window of ∼10"6 between two resistance states at low voltages (<1 V) for repetitive dc voltage sweeps showed excellent properties of endurance and retention. In these films Au Nps were uniformly dispersed over a large area that provided charge traps, which resulted in improved switching characteristics. Capacitance was also found to increase by a factor of ∼10, when comparing high and low resistance states in GOAu and pristine GO devices. Charge trapping and de-trapping by Au Nps was the mechanism responsible for the improved switching characteristics in the films. (paper)

  15. Graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite as a promising biocidal agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moraes ACM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ana Carolina Mazarin de Moraes,1 Bruna Araujo Lima,2 Andreia Fonseca de Faria,1 Marcelo Brocchi,2 Oswaldo Luiz Alves1 1Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been responsible for serious hospital infections worldwide. Nanomaterials are an alternative to conventional antibiotic compounds, because bacteria are unlikely to develop microbial resistance against nanomaterials. In the past decade, graphene oxide (GO has emerged as a material that is often used to support and stabilize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs for the preparation of novel antibacterial nanocomposites. In this work, we report the synthesis of the graphene-oxide silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag and its antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine. Materials and methods: GO-Ag nanocomposite was synthesized through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+ by sodium citrate in an aqueous GO dispersion, and was extensively characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by microdilution assays and time-kill experiments. The morphology of bacterial cells treated with GO-Ag was investigated via transmission electron microscopy. Results: AgNPs were well distributed throughout GO sheets, with an average size of 9.4±2.8 nm. The GO-Ag nanocomposite exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. All (100% MRSA cells were inactivated after 4 hours of exposure to GO-Ag sheets. In addition, no toxicity was found for either pristine GO or bare Ag

  16. Improvement of oxidation resistance of copper by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.L.; Cheng, T.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.C. [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C., E-mail: hclinntu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.J., E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Results of glancing incident angle diffraction (GIXD) show the bare-Cu specimen was attacked by oxidation, whereas the coated-Cu specimens prevented from this problem. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on pure copper by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of properties of the films coated at various substrate temperatures using the ALD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the improvement of oxidation resistance of pure copper by the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of the durability of the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by adhesion strength. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique onto pure copper at temperatures in the range 100-200 Degree-Sign C. The chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanic properties of the ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were systematically analyzed. The variations in the film characteristics with substrate temperature were observed. Oxidation trials revealed that 20-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited at a substrate temperature as low as 100 Degree-Sign C suppress oxidative attack on pure copper. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films also showed excellent durability of adhesion strength, according to predictions using the Coffin-Manson model based on the results of accelerated temperature cycling tests. These features indicate that ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is a very promising candidate to be a protective coating for pure copper.

  17. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of Ag/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with excellent electrocatalytic and antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathalipour, Soghra, E-mail: fathalipour@pnu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box: 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourbeyram, Sima; Sharafian, Aziaeh [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box: 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tanomand, Asghar [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty Of Medicine, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, PO Box: 78151-55158 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azam, Parisa [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box: 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    In this work, an environmentally friendly method was applied for the synthesis of aqueous suspension of L-cysteine modified Ag nanoparticles (NPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite. L-cysteine played a triple role as reducing agent, stabilizer and linker of Ag NPs onto the surface of rGO. The resultant nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), zeta potential, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). Meanwhile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bacterial concentration (MBC), agar well diffusion and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used for the investigation of antibacterial and electrocatalytic behaviors of the nanocomposite, respectively. The obtained nanocomposite showed not only enhanced electrocatalytic activity for glucose but also excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). - Highlights: • Biocompatible reduced graphene oxide/ Ag nanocomposite was synthesized based on cysteine- Ag nanoparticles. • The reaction was carried out at room temperature without any further reducer. • The nanocomposite displayed excellent antibacterial and electrocatalytic activity against glucose.

  18. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Girod

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  19. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  20. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  1. Polarization-coupled tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruverman, Alexei [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Eom, Chang-Beom [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-03

    This research focuses on investigation of the physical mechanism of the electrically and mechanically tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures with engineered interfaces realized via a strong coupling of ferroelectric polarization with tunneling electroresistance and metal-insulator (M-I) transitions. This report describes observation of electrically conductive domain walls in semiconducting ferroelectrics, voltage-free control of resistive switching and demonstration of a new mechanism of electrical control of 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. The research goals are achieved by creating strong synergy between cutting-edge fabrication of epitaxial single-crystalline complex oxides, nanoscale electrical characterization by scanning probe microscopy and theoretical modeling of the observed phenomena. The concept of the ferroelectric devices with electrically and mechanically tunable nonvolatile resistance represents a new paradigm shift in realization of the next-generation of non-volatile memory devices and low-power logic switches.

  2. Insulin resistance in H pylori infection and its association with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Nazligul, Yasar; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, F Fusun; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-11-14

    To determine the insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative status in H pylori infection and to find out if there is any relationship between these parameters and insulin resistance. Fifty-five H pylori positive and 48 H pylori negative patients were enrolled. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined in all subjects. The total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (1.36 +/- 0.33 and 1.70 +/- 0.50, respectively; P total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were significantly higher in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (6.79 +/- 3.40 and 5.08 +/- 0.95, and 5.42 +/- 3.40 and 3.10 +/- 0.92, respectively; P total antioxidant capacity (r = -0.251, P total oxidant status (r = 0.365, P antioxidant vitamins to H pylori eradication therapy on insulin resistance during H pylori infection.

  3. Oxidative stress resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Leroy G; McKenzie, Rachelle ME; Robles, Antonette; Fletcher, Hansel M

    2012-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobe, is an important etiologic agent of periodontal disease. The harsh inflammatory condition of the periodontal pocket implies that this organism has properties that will facilitate its ability to respond and adapt to oxidative stress. Because the stress response in the pathogen is a major determinant of its virulence, a comprehensive understanding of its oxidative stress resistance strategy is vital. We discuss multiple mechanisms and systems that clearly work in synergy to defend and protect P. gingivalis against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. The involvement of multiple hypothetical proteins and/or proteins of unknown function in this process may imply other unique mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22439726

  4. Graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite as a promising biocidal agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Lima, Bruna Araujo; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Brocchi, Marcelo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been responsible for serious hospital infections worldwide. Nanomaterials are an alternative to conventional antibiotic compounds, because bacteria are unlikely to develop microbial resistance against nanomaterials. In the past decade, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a material that is often used to support and stabilize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the preparation of novel antibacterial nanocomposites. In this work, we report the synthesis of the graphene-oxide silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag) and its antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine. GO-Ag nanocomposite was synthesized through the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) by sodium citrate in an aqueous GO dispersion, and was extensively characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by microdilution assays and time-kill experiments. The morphology of bacterial cells treated with GO-Ag was investigated via transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were well distributed throughout GO sheets, with an average size of 9.4±2.8 nm. The GO-Ag nanocomposite exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. All (100%) MRSA cells were inactivated after 4 hours of exposure to GO-Ag sheets. In addition, no toxicity was found for either pristine GO or bare AgNPs within the tested concentration range. Transmission electronic microscopy images offered insights into how GO-Ag nanosheets interacted with bacterial cells. Our results indicate that the GO-Ag nanocomposite is a promising antibacterial agent against common nosocomial bacteria, particularly antibiotic-resistant MRSA. Morphological injuries on MRSA cells revealed a likely loss of viability as a result of the

  5. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  6. Halogen effect for improving high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-50Al by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Min-Hua; Wu, Lian-Kui; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Lin, Jun-Pin; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2017-06-01

    The high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-50Al was significantly improved via halogen effect which was achieved by anodizing in an ethylene glycol solution containing with fluorine ion. The anodized Ti-50Al with holes and micro-cracks could be self-repaired during oxidation at 1000 °C. The thickness of the oxide scale increases with the prolonging of oxidation time. On the basis of halogen effect for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-50Al by anodization, only fluorine addition into the electrolyte can effectively improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-50Al.

  7. SiC as an oxidation-resistant refractory material. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlichting, J.

    1979-01-01

    Uses his own investigations and gives a literature survey on the oxidation and corrosion behaviour of SiC (in the form of a pure SiC powder, hot-pressed and reaction-sintered materials). The excellent stability of SiC in oxidizing atmosphere is due to the development of protective SiO 2 coatings. Any changes in these protective coatings (e.g. due to impurities with corrosive media, high porosity of SiC, etc.) lead in most cases to increased rates of oxidation and thus restrict the field of application of SiC. (orig.) [de

  8. A study on the improvement of oxidation resistance of OAE-added stainless steels for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Gil Moo

    1996-01-01

    Since the manufacturing temperature of stainless steels is relatively high, oxidation at the elevated temperature becomes important. The chemical and physical properties of the protective oxide film which was formed on the stainless steels at high temperature for the oxidation resistance are important in determining the rate of oxidation and the life of equipment exposed to high temperature oxidizing environments. In this study, the oxidation behavior of STS 309S and STS 409L added by a small amount of oxygen active element(each + 0.5wt% Hf and Y) was studied to improve oxidation resistance. In the cyclic oxidation, while OAE-free specimens showed relatively poor oxidation resistance due to spallations and cracks of Cr-rich oxide layer, OAE-added specimens improved cyclic oxidation resistance assumably due to constant oxidation rate with stable oxide layers at high temperature. Especially Hf improved cyclic oxidation resistance by forming Cr-rich oxide layer preventing internal oxidation in STS 309S. (author)

  9. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-01-09

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing properties. Here, it is demonstrated that multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)- and reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO)-based conductive films have opposite humidity/electrical resistance responses: MWCNTs increase their electrical resistance (positive response) and rGOs decrease their electrical resistance (negative response). The authors propose a new phenomenology that describes a

  10. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidan, S.; Muhaffel, F.; Riool, M.; Cempura, G.; Boer, L. de; Zaat, S.A.J.; Filemonowicz, A. Czyrska -; Cimenoglu, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidation process was applied on zirconium in an electrolyte containing silver acetate. • Silver incorporated in the oxide layer in the form of nanoparticles. • 0.45 wt.% silver incorporation provided excellent antibacterial activity.

  11. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidan, S.; Muhaffel, F. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Sariyer, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Riool, M. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cempura, G. [International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Boer, L. de; Zaat, S.A.J. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filemonowicz, A. Czyrska - [International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Cimenoglu, H., E-mail: cimenogluh@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Sariyer, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}). Addition of AgC{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2} into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidation process was applied on zirconium in an electrolyte containing silver acetate. • Silver incorporated in the oxide layer in the form of nanoparticles. • 0.45 wt.% silver incorporation provided excellent antibacterial activity.

  12. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yi-Min; Cao Ying-Ying; Chen Guo-Qiang; Xing Tie-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the the...

  13. Oxidant resistance in a yeast mutant deficient in the Sit4 phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to thiol oxidation can arise from mutations altering redox homeostasis. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae sit4-110 mutant is here described, which was isolated as resistant to the thiol-specific oxidant dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) and which contains a single-residue substitution in the SIT4 gene...

  14. Improved thermal stability and oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–N coating by Si addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Yang, Bing; Xu, Yuxiang; Pei, Fei; Zhou, Liangcai; Du, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Addition of Si is very effective in upgrading the machining performance and thermal properties of Al–Ti–N coating. Here, we concentrate on the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating. Alloying with Si favors the growth of wurtzite phase, and thereby causes a drop in hardness from ∼ 34.5 to 28.7 GPa. However, Si-containing coating retards the formation of w-AlN during thermal annealing, and thereby behaves a high hardness value of ∼ 31.3 GPa after annealing at T a = 1100 °C. After 10 h exposure in air at 850 °C, Al–Ti–N coating is fully oxidized. Incorporation of Si significantly improves the oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–N due to the combined effects with the promoted formation of Al-oxide rich top-scale and retarded transformation of anatase (a-) TiO 2 into rutile (r-) TiO 2 , where only ∼ 1.43 μm oxide scale is shown after oxidation at 1100 °C for 15 h. Noticeable is that the worst oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating in the temperature range from 800 to 1100 °C is obtained at 950 °C with oxide scale of ∼ 1.76 μm due to the fast formation of r-TiO 2 . Additionally, a pre-oxidation at 1000 °C has a positive effect on the oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating, which is attributed to the formation of Al-oxide rich top-scale, and thus inhibits the outward diffusion of metal atoms and inward diffusion of O. - Highlights: • Si as a substitutional solid solution and via the formation of a-Si 3 N 4 coexists. • Si addition favors the growth of wurtzite phase and causes a decreased hardness. • Alloying with Si improves the oxidation resistance of AlTiN. • AlTiSiN behaves the worst oxidation resistance at 950 °C from 800 to 1100 °C. • A pre-oxidation at 1000 °C improves the oxidation resistance of AlTiSiN coating

  15. Aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, S.; Mikami, K.; Yamada, K.

    1980-01-01

    An aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance, which consists essentially of, in weight percentage: zinc - 0.3 to 3.0%, magnesium - 0.2 to 4.0%, manganese - 0.3 to 2.0%, and, the balance aluminum and incidental impurities; said alloy including an aluminum alloy also containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of, in weight percentage: indium - 0.005 to 0.2%, tin - 0.01 to 0.3%, and, bismuth - 0.01 to 0.3%; provided that the total content of indium, tin and bismuth being up to 0.3%

  16. Total antioxidant and oxidant status in obese children without insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Doğan Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress in obese children may lead in adulthood serious conditions such as coronary heart diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In childhood oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance or extreme obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress status in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 38 obese children (21 male, 17 female without insulin resistance, mean aged 9.4±3.8 years and 51 normal weight children (25 male, 26 female as the control group, mean aged 9.3±3.9 years were enrolled to the study. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Results: The results reveal that obese children had lower TAC than normal weight children (2,27±0,28 vs. 2.76±0.35 mmol Trolox Eq./L; p<0,001. There was no statistical difference between obese and control groups regarding TOS (6,08±3,63 vs 5.25±4.16 μmol H2O2 Eq./L; p=0.333. OSI was higher in obese group (2.65±1.52 vs 1.92±1.56; p=0.029 Conclusion: Balance between oxidant and antioxidant system is disrupted due to the reduced TAC even in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Further studies should also be performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of dietary intake of antioxidants in these children.

  17. One new route to optimize the oxidation resistance of TiC/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect by increasing graphite particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Jian; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-09-01

    TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable thermal expansion and excellent electrical conductivity are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect. In this paper, the TiC/hastelloy composites are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration, and the oxidation resistance of composites is optimized by increasing graphite particle size. Results show that the increase of graphite particles size from 1 μm to 40 μm reduces TiC particle size from 2.68 μm to 2.22 μm by affecting the formation process of TiC. Moreover, the decrease of TiC particles size accelerates the fast formation of dense and continuous TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide layer, which bring down the mass gain (800 °C/100 h) from 2.03 mg cm-2 to 1.18 mg cm-2. Meanwhile, the coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from 11.15 × 10-6 °C-1 to 10.80 × 10-6 °C-1, and electrical conductivity maintains about 5800 S cm-1 at 800 °C. Therefore, the decrease of graphite particle size is one simple and effective route to optimize the oxidation resistance of composites, and meantime keeps suitable thermal expansion and good electrical conductivity.

  18. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of pack siliconized Mo–Si–B alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanjib, E-mail: sanjib@barc.gov.in

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Pack-siliconizing of Mo–Si–B alloy improves its oxidation resistance at 750, 900 and 1400 °C. • A marginal weight change of the coated alloy is detected in isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. • Kinetics of growth of protective SiO{sub 2} scale is much faster at 1400 °C. • Self-healing SiO{sub 2} is developed at the cracks formed in MoSi{sub 2} layer during cyclic oxidation tests. - Abstract: Oxidation behaviour of MoSi{sub 2} coated Mo–9Si–8B–0.75Y (at.%) alloy has been investigated at three critical temperatures including 750, 900 and 1400 °C in static air. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data indicates a remarkable improvement in the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy in both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis reveal the occurrence of internal oxidation particularly at the crack fronts formed in the outer MoSi{sub 2} layer during thermal cycling. The dominant oxidation mechanisms at 750–900 °C and 1400 °C are identified. Development of MoB inner layer further improves the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy.

  19. Improved ductility and oxidation resistance of cast Ti–6Al–4V alloys by microalloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, J.H.; Jiao, Z.B.; Chen, G.; Liu, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified Ti64 alloys with improved ductility and oxidation resistance are developed. • B improves the ductility by refining grain size and enhancing boundary cohesion. • Y enhances the oxidation resistance by possibly slowing down the oxidation kinetics. - Abstract: The effects of B and Y on the mechanical properties and oxidation behavior of cast Ti–6Al–4V alloys were systematically investigated, and the new alloys with improved ductility and oxidation resistance are developed by the microalloying approach. The results indicate that boron is beneficial for improving the ductility by not only grain-size refinement but also grain-boundary enhancement, while yttrium is effective in increasing the oxidation resistance through possibly slowing down the oxidation kinetics. The improved properties, together with their high strength, make the microalloyed cast Ti–6Al–4V alloys competitive for practical engineering applications

  20. Enhancement of oxidation resistance in Cu and Cu(Al) thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.E.; Peto, G.; Paszti, Z.; Zsoldos, E.; Szilagyi, E.; Battistig, G.; Lohner, T.; Molnar, G.L.; Gyulai, J.

    1999-01-01

    High conductivity and good resistance to electromigration makes copper a promising interconnect material in microelectronics. However, one of its disadvantages is the poor corrosion resistance. Two methods of passivation are investigated and compared: Al alloying and BF 2 + ion implantation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) show the oxidation inhibition of both methods, but the different ratio of CuO 2 to CuO phases suggests different mechanisms of passivation. There are no definite oxide lines in the XRD spectrum of the implanted and annealed Cu(Al) sample, so the presence of Al and the implantation together give increased protection against oxidation. The difference between the two mechanisms of oxidation inhibition is discussed briefly

  1. Effect of oxide insertion layer on resistance switching properties of copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil G.; Pandya, Nirav C.; Joshi, U. S.

    2013-02-01

    Organic memory device showing resistance switching properties is a next-generation of the electrical memory unit. We have investigated the bistable resistance switching in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diode based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film sandwiched between aluminum (Al) electrodes. Pronounced hysteresis in the I-V curves revealed a resistance switching with on-off ratio of the order of 85%. In order to control the charge injection in the CuPc, nanoscale indium oxide buffer layer was inserted to form Al/CuPc/In2O3/Al device. Analysis of I-V measurements revealed space charge limited switching conduction at the Al/CuPc interface. The traps in the organic layer and charge blocking by oxide insertion layer have been used to explain the absence of resistance switching in the oxide buffer layered memory device cell. Present study offer potential applications for CuPc organic semiconductor in low power non volatile resistive switching memory and logic circuits.

  2. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing properties. Here, it is demonstrated that multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)- and reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO)-based conductive films have opposite humidity/electrical resistance responses

  3. Enhancement of oxidation resistance in Cu and Cu(Al) thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z.E.; Peto, G. E-mail: peto@mfa.kfki.hu; Paszti, Z.; Zsoldos, E.; Szilagyi, E.; Battistig, G.; Lohner, T.; Molnar, G.L.; Gyulai, J

    1999-01-02

    High conductivity and good resistance to electromigration makes copper a promising interconnect material in microelectronics. However, one of its disadvantages is the poor corrosion resistance. Two methods of passivation are investigated and compared: Al alloying and BF{sub 2}{sup +} ion implantation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) show the oxidation inhibition of both methods, but the different ratio of CuO{sub 2} to CuO phases suggests different mechanisms of passivation. There are no definite oxide lines in the XRD spectrum of the implanted and annealed Cu(Al) sample, so the presence of Al and the implantation together give increased protection against oxidation. The difference between the two mechanisms of oxidation inhibition is discussed briefly.

  4. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  5. Influence of cerium, zirconium and boron on the oxidation resistance of heat-resistant steels in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, A.; Schendler, W.

    1981-01-01

    Isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments were carried out in air to investigate the influence of the minor elements such as Cerium, Zirkonium and Boron on the oxidation resistance of heat resistant ferritic and austenitic steels like X10Cr18, X10CrAl18 and X15CrNiSi2012. In the case of cyclicexperiments samples were exposed at constant temperatures for 100 h and then cooled to R.T. This cycle was repeated 10 times. The corrosion was determined as weight change and was continuously measured by a thermo-balance. The distribution of the alloying elements on the phase boundary scale/steel was examined by Scanning-Electron-Microscope. Addition of small amounts of Ce (0.3 wt-% max.) could reduce the oxidation rate in the case of isothermal and cyclic conditions. Zirkonium concentrations below 0.1 wt-% could have a beneficial effect, but at higher concentrations the oxidation rate increases with increasing amounts of Zr. Small Boron concentrations of 0.02 wt-% lead to catastrophic oxidation at temperatures above 1000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  6. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of low modulus β-type Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) dental alloys through thermal oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Gan, Xiaxia; Tang, Hongqun; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2017-07-01

    In order to obtain material with low elastic modulus, good abrasion resistance and high corrosion stability as screw for dental implant, the biomedical Zr-20Nb and Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy with low elastic modulus were thermal oxidized respectively at 700°C for 1h and 600°C for 1.25h to obtain the compact oxidized layer to improve its wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results show that smooth compact oxidized layer (composed of monoclinic ZrO 2 , tetragonal ZrO 2 and 6ZrO 2 -Nb 2 O 5 ) with 22.6μm-43.5μm thickness and 1252-1306HV hardness can be in-situ formed on the surface of the Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3). The adhesion of oxidized layers to the substrates is determined to be 58.35-66.25N. The oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi alloys reveal great improvement of the pitting corrosion resistance in comparison with the un-oxidized alloys. In addition, the oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti exhibits sharply reduction of the corrosion rates and the oxidized Zr-20Nb shows higher corrosion rates than un-oxidized alloys, which is relevant with the content of the t-ZrO 2 . Wear test in artificial saliva demonstrates that the wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) are superior to pure Ti. All of the un-oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys suffer from serious adhesive wear due to its high plasticity. Because of the protection from compact oxide layer with high adhesion and high hardness, the coefficients of friction and wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys decrease 50% and 95%, respectively. The defects on the oxidized Zr-20Nb have a negative effect on the friction and wear properties. In addition, after the thermal oxidation, compression test show that elastic modulus and strength of Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) increase slightly with plastic deformation after 40% of transformation. Furthermore, stripping of the oxidized layer from the alloy matrix did not occur during the whole experiments. As the surface oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy has a combination of excellent performance

  7. Crack resistance of tungsten strengthened by dispersed refractory oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for crack resistance of commercial tungsten, obtained during specimen testing at temperatures of 20 deg C to Tsub(cr) (upper boundary of temperature range of ductile-brittle transition). Comparison of s-n diagrams and temperature dependences of crack resistance are conducted for commercial tungsten and tungsten strengthened by refractory oxides. It is shown that dispersion hardening increases crack resistance in the temperature range of 20 to 2000 deg C but the upper boundary of ductile-brittle shifts to the side of higher temperatures

  8. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  9. Weatherability and Leach Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Nano-Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Kartal S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern pine specimens vacuum-treated with nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO dispersions were evaluated for leach resistance and UV protection. Virtually, no leaching occurred in any of the nano-ZnO–treated specimens in a laboratory leach test, even at the highest retention of 13 kg/m3. However, specimens treated with high concentrations of nano-ZnO showed 58–65% chemical depletion after 12 months of outdoor exposure. Protection from UV damage after 12 months exposure is visibly obvious on both exposed and unexposed surfaces compared to untreated controls. Graying was markedly diminished, although checking occurred in all specimens. Nano-zinc oxide treatment at a concentration of 2.5% or greater provided substantial resistance to water absorption following 12 months of outdoor exposure compared to untreated and unweathered southern pine. We conclude that nano-zinc oxide can be utilized in new wood preservative formulations to impart resistance to leaching, water absorption and UV damage of wood.

  10. Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  11. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  12. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles; Yang, Zhen-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance

  13. Excellent performance of Pt-C/TiO2 for methanol oxidation: Contribution of mesopores and partially coated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinbing; Zhuang, Wei; Lu, Linghong; Li, Licheng; Zhu, Jiahua; Mu, Liwen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yudan; Lu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Partial deposition of carbon onto mesoporous TiO2 (C/TiO2) were prepared as supporting substrate for Pt catalyst development. Carbon deposition is achieved by in-situ carbonization of furfuryl alcohol. The hybrid catalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and TEM and exhibited outstanding catalytic activity and stability in methanol oxidation reaction. The heterogeneous carbon coated on mesoporous TiO2 fibers provided excellent electrical conductivity and strong interfacial interaction between TiO2 support and Pt metal nanoparticles. Methanol oxidation reaction results showed that the activity of Pt-C/TiO2 is 3.0 and 1.5 times higher than that of Pt-TiO2 and Pt-C, respectively. In addition, the Pt-C/TiO2 exhibited a 6.7 times enhanced stability compared with Pt-C after 2000 cycles. The synergistic effect of C/TiO2 is responsible for the enhanced activity of Pt-C/TiO2, and its excellent durability could be ascribed to the strong interfacial interaction between Pt nanoparticles and C/TiO2 support.

  14. Lamoka, a variety with excellent chip color out of cold storage and resistance to the golden potato cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoka is a white-skinned, white-fleshed potato cultivar variety notable for excellent chip color from cold storage, good yield, and resistance to both common scab and race Ro1 of the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis). It was selected from a cross made at Cornell University in 1...

  15. Reactor fuel cladding tube with excellent corrosion resistance and method of manufacturing the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Takanari; Kanehara, Mitsuo; Abe, Katsuhiro; Nishimura, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a fuel cladding tube having an excellent corrosion resistance and thus a long life, and a suitable manufacturing method therefor. Namely, in the fuel cladding tube, the outer circumference of an inner layer made of a zirconium base alloy is coated with an outer layer made of a metal more corrosion resistant than the zirconium base alloy. Ti or a titanium alloy is suitable for the corrosion resistant metal. In addition, the outer layer can be coated by a method such as vapor deposition or plating, not limited to joining of the inner layer material and the outer layer material. Specifically, a composite material having an inner layer made of a zirconium alloy coated by the outer material made of a titanium alloy is applied with hot fabrication at a temperature within a range of from 500 to 850degC and at a fabrication rate of not less than 5%. The fabrication method includes any of extrusion, rolling, drawing, and casting. As the titanium-base alloy, a Ti-Al alloy or a Ti-Nb alloy containing Al of not more than 20wt%, or Nb of not more than 20wt% is preferred. (I.S.)

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  17. Sex differences in oxidative stress resistance in relation to longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, S; Deepashree, S; Ramesh, S R; Shivanandappa, T

    2017-10-01

    Gender differences in lifespan and aging are known across species. Sex differences in longevity within a species can be useful to understand sex-specific aging. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to study the problem of sex differences in longevity since females are longer lived than males. There is evidence that stress resistance influences longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between sex differences in longevity and oxidative stress resistance in D. melanogaster. We observed a progressive age-dependent decrease in the activity of SOD and catalase, major antioxidant enzymes involved in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress in parallel to the increased ROS levels over time. Longer-lived females showed lower ROS levels and higher antioxidant enzymes than males as a function of age. Using ethanol as a stressor, we have shown differential susceptibility of the sexes to ethanol wherein females exhibited higher resistance to ethanol-induced mortality and locomotor behavior compared to males. Our results show strong correlation between sex differences in oxidative stress resistance, antioxidant defenses and longevity. The study suggests that higher antioxidant defenses in females may confer resistance to oxidative stress, which could be a factor that influences sex-specific aging in D. melanogaster.

  18. The oxidation resistance and ignition temperature of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La2O3 and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shizhe; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Zhihui; Lin, Pengyu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using lanthanum and lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) can improve oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy. ► La 2 O 3 is as effective as La in affecting both alloy microstructure and oxidation resistance. ► The optimum La concentration in alloy is ∼0.7 wt.%. ► We analyzed the oxidation kinetics of AZ31 alloy with both additions. - Abstract: We investigate the oxidation resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La and La oxide (La 2 O 3 ). The contributor is the practical La content in alloy. Both La and La 2 O 3 are effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloys. The samples with La content of ∼ 0.7 wt.% possess the best resistance to oxidation of all. Oxide scale, ignition temperature and oxidation kinetics are analyzed. However, higher La content is detrimental to the oxidation resistance.

  19. Corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, H.; Morikawa, H.; Nagano, H.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate tests are effected on zirconium in boiling nitric acid to study the influence of nitric acid concentration, of oxidizing ions (Cr and Ce) and of electric potential. Corrosion resistance is excellent and stress corrosion cracking occurs only for severe conditions: 350 mV over electric potential for corrosion with nitric acid concentration of 40 % [fr

  20. High hardness and superlative oxidation resistance in a pseudo-icosahehdral Cr-Al binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, J. W.; Rosa, R.; Antonacci, A. K.; He, H.; Bender, A. D.; Pabla, J.; Adrip, W.; McNally, D. E.; Zebro, A.; Kamenov, P.; Geschwind, G.; Ghose, S.; Dooryhee, E.; Ibrahim, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    Improving the efficiency of fossil fuel plants is a practical option for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from electrical power generation. Present limits on the operating temperatures of exposed steel components, however, restrict steam temperatures and therefore energy efficiency. Even as a new generation of creep-resistant, high strength steels retain long term structural stability to temperatures as high as ~ 973 K, the low Cr-content of these alloys hinders their oxidation resistance, necessitating the development of new corrosion resistant coatings. We report here the nearly ideal properties of potential coating material Cr55Al229, which exhibits high hardness at room temperature as well as low thermal conductivity and superlative oxidation resistance at 973 K, with an oxidation rate at least three times smaller than those of benchmark materials. These properties originate from a pseudo-icosahedral crystal structure, suggesting new criteria for future research.

  1. Low-Cost Repairable Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Carbon-Carbon Composites via CCVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendrick, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    ...) thin film process to yield oxidation resistant coatings on carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. Work was on simple coatings at this preliminary stage of investigation, including silicon dioxide, platinum and aluminum oxide...

  2. Effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on the performance of micro-arc oxidation coatings on Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong; Sun, Yezi; Zhang, Jin, E-mail: zhangjin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • An anti-oxidation TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} composite coating on Ti6Al4V alloy was prepared using micro-arc oxidation technology by adding ZrO{sub 2} particles in single phosphoric acid solution. • The composite coating displays excellent anti-oxidation characteristic at 700 °C in the air. • The concentration of ZrO{sub 2} particles not only influences the roughness and thickness of the coating, but the morphologies, phase composition, oxidation resistance and wear resistance. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on the oxidation resistance and wear properties of coatings on a Ti6Al4V alloy generated using the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique. Different concentrations micron ZrO{sub 2} particles were added in phosphate electrolyte and dispersed by magnetic stirring apparatus. The composition of coating was characterized using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrum, and the morphology was examined using SEM. The high temperature oxidation resistance of the coating sample at 700 °C was investigated. Sliding wear behaviour was tested by a wear tester. The results showed that the coating consisted of ZrTiO{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}. With ZrO{sub 2} particle addition, the ceramic coating's forming time reduced by the current dynamic curve. It was shown that the addition of ZrO{sub 2} particles (3 g/L, 6 g/L) expressed an excellent oxidation resistance at 700 °C and wear resistance.

  3. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-06

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate.

  4. Effect of coating density on oxidation resistance and Cr vaporization from solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talic, Belma; Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Venkatachalam, Vinothini

    2017-01-01

    •Protective action of dense and porous spinel coatings on Crofer 22 APU was compared. •Reduction and re-oxidation produces denser coatings than heat treating in air only. •Coating density has minor influence on oxidation resistance at 800 °C in air. •Dense coating resulted in three times lower Cr...... evaporation rate than porous coating....

  5. TiFeCoNi oxide thin film - A new composition with extremely low electrical resistivity at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ya-Chu; Tsau, Chun-Huei; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We show the electrical resistivity of a TiFeCoNi oxide thin film. The electrical resistivity of the TiFeCoNi thin film decreased sharply after a suitable period of oxidation at high temperature. The lowest resistivity of the TiFeCoNi oxide film was 35 ± 3 μΩ-cm. The low electrical resistivity of the TiFeCoNi oxide thin film was attributed to Ti, which is more reactive than the other elements, reacting with oxygen at the initial stage of annealing. The low resistivity is caused by the remaining electrons.

  6. Effect of yttrium on the oxide scale adherence of pre-oxidized silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jingbo; Gao Yimin; Shen Yudi; Yang Fang; Yi Dawei; Ye Zhaozhong; Liang Long; Du Yingqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → AE experiment shows yttrium has a beneficial effect on the pre-oxidized HP40 alloy. → Yttrium facilitates the formation of internal oxide after 10 h of oxidation. → Internal oxide changes the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale. → Twins form in the internal oxide and improve the binding strength of the scale. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the rare earth element yttrium on the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale on the silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy during cooling. After 10 h of oxidation, yttrium is found to facilitate the formation of internal oxides (silica) at the scale-matrix interface. Due to the twinning observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in silica, the critical strain value for the scale failure can be dramatically improved, and the formation of cracks at the scale-matrix interface is inhibited.

  7. Role of Y in the oxidation resistance of CrAlYN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Meister, S.; El Mrabet, S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda., Américo Vespucio 49, Sevilla 41092 (Spain); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco 28049 (Spain); Mariscal, A.; Jiménez de Haro, M.C.; Justo, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda., Américo Vespucio 49, Sevilla 41092 (Spain); Brizuela, M. [TECNALIA, Mikeletegui Pasealekua, 2, Donostia-San Sebastián 20009 (Spain); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda., Américo Vespucio 49, Sevilla 41092 (Spain); Sánchez-López, J.C., E-mail: jcslopez@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda., Américo Vespucio 49, Sevilla 41092 (Spain)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of CrAlYN films (Al < 10 at.%) depends on the Al/Y distribution. • ∼4 at.% Y enhances the oxidation resistance up to 1000 °C of CrAlYN-coated M2 steels. • Controlled inward oxygen diffusion affects positively the film oxidation resistance. • Mixed Al–Y oxides appear to block the diffusion of elements from the substrate. • Yttrium modifies the passivation layer composition by increasing the Al/Cr ratio. - Abstract: CrAlYN coatings with different aluminum (4–12 at.%) and yttrium (2–5 at.%) contents are deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and M2 steel substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N{sub 2} mixtures. The influence of the nanostructure and chemical elemental distribution on the oxidation resistance after heating in air at 1000 °C is studied by means of cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (X-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES). The sequential exposure to the metallic targets during the synthesis leads to a multilayer structure where concentration of metallic elements (Cr, Al and Y) is changing periodically. A good oxidation resistance is observed when Al- and Y-rich regions are separated by well-defined CrN layers, maintaining crystalline coherence along the columnar structure. This protective behavior is independent of the type of substrate and corresponds to the formation of a thin mixed (Al, Cr)-oxide scale that protects the film underneath. The GD-OES and XRD analysis have demonstrated that Y acts as a reactive element, blocking the Fe and C atoms diffusion from the steel and favoring higher Al/Cr ratio in the passivation layer after heating. The coating with Y content around 4 at.% exhibited the best performance with a thinner oxide scale, a delay in the CrN decomposition and transformation to Cr{sub 2}N, and a more effective Fe and C blocking.

  8. Sub-30 nm patterning of molecular resists based on crosslinking through tip based oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Wagner, Daniel; Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Oxidation Scanning Probe Lithography (o-SPL) is an established method employed for device patterning at the nanometer scale. It represents a feasible and inexpensive alternative to standard lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography (EBL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this work we applied non-contact o-SPL to an engineered class of molecular resists in order to obtain crosslinking by electrochemical driven oxidation. By patterning and developing various resist formulas we were able to obtain a reliable negative tone resist behavior based on local oxidation. Under optimal conditions, directly written patterns can routinely reach sub-30 nm lateral resolution, while the final developed features result wider, approaching 50 nm width.

  9. Effect of Myricetin, Pyrogallol, and Phloroglucinol on Yeast Resistance to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols have been attributed to their intrinsic antioxidant activity, which depends on the structure of the compound and number of hydroxyl groups. In this study, the protective effects of pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, and myricetin on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Pyrogallol and myricetin, which have a pyrogallol structure in the B ring, increased H2O2 resistance associated with a reduction in intracellular oxidation and protein carbonylation, whereas phloroglucinol did not exert protective effects. The acquisition of oxidative stress resistance in cells pretreated with pyrogallol and myricetin was not associated with an induction of endogenous antioxidant defences as assessed by the analysis of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. However, myricetin, which provided greater stress resistance, prevented H2O2-induced glutathione oxidation. Moreover, myricetin increased the chronological lifespan of yeast lacking the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2p, which exhibited a premature aging phenotype and oxidative stress sensitivity. These findings show that the presence of hydroxyl groups in the ortho position of the B ring in pyrogallol and myricetin contributes to the antioxidant protection afforded by these compounds. In addition, myricetin may alleviate aging-induced oxidative stress, particularly when redox homeostasis is compromised due to downregulation of endogenous defences present in mitochondria.

  10. Oxidation resistant chromium coating on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Jung; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of such a fuel are approved reaction kinetics with steam, a slower hydrogen generation rate, and good cladding thermo-mechanical properties. Many researchers have tried to modify zirconium alloys to improve their oxidation resistance in the early stages of the ATF development. Corrosion resistant coating on cladding is one of the candidate technologies to improve the oxidation resistance of zirconium cladding. By applying coating technology to zirconium cladding, it is easy to obtain corrosion resistance without a change in the base materials. Among the surface coating methods, arc ion plating (AIP) is a coating technology to improve the adhesion owing to good throwing power, and a dense deposit (Fig. 1). Owing to these advantages, AIP has been widely used to efficiently form protective coatings on cutting tools, dies, bearings, etc. In this study, The AIP technique for the protection of zirconium claddings from the oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment was studied. The homogeneous Cr film with a high adhesive ability to the cladding was deposited by AIP and acted as a protection layer to enhance the corrosion resistance of the zirconium cladding. It was concluded that the AIP technology is effective for coating a protective layer on claddings

  11. Oxidation resistant chromium coating on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Jung; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The attributes of such a fuel are approved reaction kinetics with steam, a slower hydrogen generation rate, and good cladding thermo-mechanical properties. Many researchers have tried to modify zirconium alloys to improve their oxidation resistance in the early stages of the ATF development. Corrosion resistant coating on cladding is one of the candidate technologies to improve the oxidation resistance of zirconium cladding. By applying coating technology to zirconium cladding, it is easy to obtain corrosion resistance without a change in the base materials. Among the surface coating methods, arc ion plating (AIP) is a coating technology to improve the adhesion owing to good throwing power, and a dense deposit (Fig. 1). Owing to these advantages, AIP has been widely used to efficiently form protective coatings on cutting tools, dies, bearings, etc. In this study, The AIP technique for the protection of zirconium claddings from the oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment was studied. The homogeneous Cr film with a high adhesive ability to the cladding was deposited by AIP and acted as a protection layer to enhance the corrosion resistance of the zirconium cladding. It was concluded that the AIP technology is effective for coating a protective layer on claddings.

  12. Association of Oxidative Stress and Obesity with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs due to delicate imbalance between pro-oxidant and anti oxidant forces in our system. It has been found to be associated with many morbidities but its association with obesity and insulin resistance is still controversial. Here in our study we examined 167 patients of recent onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and 60 age sex matched non-diabetic control. Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal circumference, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and plasma Malondealdehyde (MDA, marker for oxidative stress) were measured in them. On the basis of BMI, subjects were divided into obese (BMI≥25) and non obese (BMIobese and non-obese sub groups. Insulin resistance score showed positive correlation with BMI, abdominal circumference, and plasma MDA, strength of association being highest with abdominal circumference. Plasma MDA was found to have positive correlation with physical parameters. Study concludes that, obesity mainly central type may predispose to insulin resistance and oxidative stress may be a crucial factor in its pathogenesis. Thus, oxidative stress may be the connecting link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two on going global epidemics.

  13. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by thermal atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide after industrial firing activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, B; Stangl, R; Ma, F; Mueller, T; Lin, F; Aberle, A G; Bhatia, C S; Hoex, B

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a water (H 2 O)-based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) film, excellent surface passivation can be attained on planar low-resistivity silicon wafers. Effective carrier lifetime values of up to 12 ms and surface recombination velocities as low as 0.33 cm s −1 are achieved on float-zone wafers after a post-deposition thermal activation of the Al 2 O 3 passivation layer. This post-deposition activation is achieved using an industrial high-temperature firing process which is commonly used for contact formation of standard screen-printed silicon solar cells. Neither a low-temperature post-deposition anneal nor a silicon nitride capping layer is required in this case. Deposition temperatures in the 100–400 °C range and peak firing temperatures of about 800 °C (set temperature) are investigated. Photoluminescence imaging shows that the surface passivation is laterally uniform. Corona charging and capacitance–voltage measurements reveal that the negative fixed charge density near the AlO x /c-Si interface increases from 1.4 × 10 12 to 3.3 × 10 12 cm −2 due to firing, while the midgap interface defect density reduces from 3.3 × 10 11 to 0.8 × 10 11 cm −2 eV −1 . This work demonstrates that direct firing activation of thermal ALD Al 2 O 3 is feasible, which could be beneficial for solar cell manufacturing. (paper)

  14. Oxidation behaviour of Ti2AIN films composed mainly of nanolaminated MAX phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q M; Garkas, W; Renteria, A Flores; Leyens, C; Kim, K H

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we reported the oxidation behaviour of Ti2AIN films on polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates. The Ti2AIN films composed mainly of nanolaminated MAX phase was obtained by first depositing Ti-Al-N films using reactive sputtering of two elemental Ti and Al targets in Ar/N2 atmosphere and subsequent vacuum annealing at 800 degrees C for 1 h. The Ti2AIN films exhibited excellent oxidation resistance and thermal stability at 600-900 degrees C in air. Very low mass gain was observed. At low temperature (600 degrees C), no oxide crystals were observed on film surface. Blade-like Theta-Al2O3 fine crystals formed on film surfaces at 700-800 degrees C. At high temperature (900 degrees C), firstly Theta-Al2O3 formed on film surface and then transformed into alpha-Al2O3. At 700-900 degrees C, a continuous Al2O3 layer formed on Ti2AIN films surface, acting as diffusion barrier preventing further oxidation attack. The mechanism of the excellent oxidation resistance of Ti2AIN films was discussed based on the experimental results.

  15. Interface strength and degradation of adhesively bonded porous aluminum oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahami, S.T.; de Kok, John M.M.; Gudla, Visweswara C.; Ambat, Rajan; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    For more than six decades, chromic acid anodizing has been the main step in the surface treatment of aluminum for adhesively bonded aircraft structures. Soon this process, known for producing a readily adherent oxide with an excellent corrosion resistance, will be banned by strict international

  16. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cerium oxide nanorods were uniformly grown on diverse substrates. • Changes in growth conditions led to morphology evolution of cerium oxide nanostructures. • The grown cerium oxide nanostructures were single or poly crystalline. • Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods made the diverse substrates superhydrophobic and anti-corrosive without any surface modifiers. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields

  17. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Rip, E-mail: dongrip@hanyang.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cerium oxide nanorods were uniformly grown on diverse substrates. • Changes in growth conditions led to morphology evolution of cerium oxide nanostructures. • The grown cerium oxide nanostructures were single or poly crystalline. • Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods made the diverse substrates superhydrophobic and anti-corrosive without any surface modifiers. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields.

  18. Global regulator IscR positively contributes to antimonite resistance and oxidation in Comamonas testosteroni S44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongliang; Zhuang, Weiping; Zhang, Shengzhe

    2015-01-01

    Antimonial compounds can be found as a toxic contaminant in the environment. Knowledge on mechanisms of microbial Sb oxidation and its role in microbial tolerance are limited. Previously, we found that Comamonas testosteroni S44 was resistant to multiple heavy metals and was able to oxidize the t...... and Sb(III) oxidation via Fe-S cluster biogenesis and oxidative stress protection. Bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is a detoxification reaction.......Antimonial compounds can be found as a toxic contaminant in the environment. Knowledge on mechanisms of microbial Sb oxidation and its role in microbial tolerance are limited. Previously, we found that Comamonas testosteroni S44 was resistant to multiple heavy metals and was able to oxidize...... the toxic antimonite [Sb(III)] to the much less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. In this study, transposon mutagenesis was performed in C. testosteroni S44 to isolate genes responsible for Sb(III) resistance and oxidation. An insertion mutation into iscR, which regulates genes involved in the biosynthesis of Fe...

  19. Altered bioenergetics and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress in human retinal pigment epithelial cells from donors with age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Ferrington

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness among older adults. It has been suggested that mitochondrial defects in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE underlies AMD pathology. To test this idea, we developed primary cultures of RPE to ask whether RPE from donors with AMD differ in their metabolic profile compared with healthy age-matched donors. Analysis of gene expression, protein content, and RPE function showed that these cultured cells replicated many of the cardinal features of RPE in vivo. Using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure bioenergetics, we observed RPE from donors with AMD exhibited reduced mitochondrial and glycolytic function compared with healthy donors. RPE from AMD donors were also more resistant to oxidative inactivation of these two energy-producing pathways and were less susceptible to oxidation-induced cell death compared with cells from healthy donors. Investigation of the potential mechanism responsible for differences in bioenergetics and resistance to oxidative stress showed RPE from AMD donors had increased PGC1α protein as well as differential expression of multiple genes in response to an oxidative challenge. Based on our data, we propose that cultured RPE from donors phenotyped for the presence or absence of AMD provides an excellent model system for studying “AMD in a dish”. Our results are consistent with the ideas that (i a bioenergetics crisis in the RPE contributes to AMD pathology, and (ii the diseased environment in vivo causes changes in the cellular profile that are retained in vitro.

  20. A Novel Ni/WOX/W Resistive Random Access Memory with Excellent Retention and Low Switching Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yi-Chou; Lee, Feng-Ming; Lin, Yu-Yu; Lai, Erh-Kun; Yao, Yeong-Der; Gong, Jeng; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lee, Ching-Hsiung; Huang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Chun-Fu; Kao, Hsiao-Feng; Shih, Yen-Hao; Hsieh, Kuang-Yeu; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The behavior of WOX resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is a strong function of the top electrode material, which controls the conduction mechanism and the forming process. When using a top electrode with low work function, the current conduction is limited by space charges. On the other hand, the mechanism becomes thermionic emission for devices with a high work function top electrode. These (thermionic) devices are also found to have higher initial resistance, reduced forming current, and larger resistance window. Based on these insights and considering the compatibility to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, we proposed to use Ni as the top electrode for high performance WOX ReRAM devices. The new Ni/WOX/W device can be switched at a low current density less than 8×105 A/cm2, with RESET/SET resistance ratio greater than 100, and extremely good data retention of more than 300 years at 85 °C.

  1. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  2. Biofabrication of a novel biomolecule-assisted reduced graphene oxide: an excellent biocompatible nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan2 1College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene has been shown much interest, both in academics and industry due to its extraordinary physical, chemical, and biological proprieties. It shows great promises in biotechnological and biomedical applications as an antibacterial and anticancer agent, nanocarrier, sensor, etc. However, many studies demonstrated the toxicity of graphene in several cell lines, which is an obstacle to its use in biomedical applications. In this study, to improve the biocompatibility of graphene, we used nicotinamide (NAM as a reducing and stabilizing agent to catalyze the reduction of graphene oxide (GO to reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The resulted smaller-sized GO (NAM-rGO showed excellent biocompatibility with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, evidenced by various cellular assays. Furthermore, NAM-rGO had no effect on mitochondrial membrane permeability and caspase-3 activity compared to GO. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis allowed us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for NAM-rGO-induced biocompatibility. NAM-rGO significantly induced the expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (TJPs such as zona occludens-1 (Tjp1 and claudins (Cldn3 without any effect on the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. Furthermore, NAM-rGO enhances the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP gene, and it does this in a time-dependent manner. Overall, our study depicted the molecular mechanisms underlying NAM-rGO biocompatibility depending on upregulation of TJPs and ALP. This potential quality of graphene could be used in diverse applications including tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. Keywords: biocompatibility, graphene oxide, nicotinamide, reduced

  3. Aerobic exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in sedentary older middle-aged adults. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2016-12-01

    Older individuals who exercise regularly exhibit greater resistance to oxidative stress than their sedentary peers, suggesting that exercise can modify age-associated loss of resistance to oxidative stress. However, we recently demonstrated that a single bout of exercise confers protection against a subsequent oxidative challenge in young, but not older adults. We therefore hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would be needed to increase resistance to an oxidative challenge in sedentary older middle-aged adults. Sedentary older middle-aged men and women (50-63 years, n = 11) participated in an 8-week exercise intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption was measured before and after the intervention. The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week, for 45 min at an intensity corresponding to 70-85 % maximal heart rate (HR max ). Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by F 2 -isoprostane response to a forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial before and after the exercise intervention. The intervention elicited a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) (P exercise intervention (time-by-trial interaction, P = 0.043). Individual improvements in aerobic fitness were associated with greater improvements in the F 2 -isoprostane response (r = -0.761, P = 0.011), further supporting the role of aerobic fitness in resistance to oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that regular exercise with improved fitness leads to increased resistance to oxidative stress in older middle-aged adults and that this measure is modifiable in previously sedentary individuals.

  4. Resistive switching properties and physical mechanism of europium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Zou, Changwei [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang (China); Bao, Dinghua [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    A forming-free resistive switching effect was obtained in Pt/Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt devices in which the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method. The devices show unipolar resistive switching with excellent switching parameters, such as high resistance ratio (10{sup 7}), stable resistance values (read at 0.2 V), low reset voltage, good endurance, and long retention time (up to 10{sup 4} s). On the basis of the analysis of the current-voltage (I-V) curves and the resistance-temperature dependence, it can be concluded that the dominant conducting mechanisms were ohmic behavior and Schottky emission at low resistance state and high resistance state, respectively. The resistive switching behavior could be explained by the formation and rupture of conductive filament, which is related to the abundant oxygen vacancies generated in the deposition process. This work demonstrates the great potential opportunities of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film in resistive switching memory applications, which might possess distinguished properties. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields.

  6. Facile Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Paper with Excellent Water Repellency and Moisture Resistance by Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple but effective method of fabricating superhydrophobic paper with excellent moisture resistance was developed by precipitating carnauba wax onto the surface of cellulose fibers using a phase separation method. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the effects of the preparation variables on the water contact angle (WCA of the paper surface. The four independent variables were carnauba wax concentration, immersion time, coagulation bath ratio (water/ethanol, and coagulation bath time. The optimal treatment conditions were as follows: wax concentration, 3.78% (wax/chloroform, w/v; immersion time, 1.46 h; coagulation bath ratio, 13/87 (water/ethanol, v/v; and coagulation bath time, 2.63 h. Under these conditions, the experimental WCA reached 152.7°, which agreed closely with the predicted value of 154.1°. The surface morphology of the superhydrophobic paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the images showed that cluster-like carnauba wax aggregation completely covered the fiber surface, resulting in increased roughness. Moreover, the moisture resistance of the obtained superhydrophobic paper was evaluated. The results demonstrated that under high relative humidity conditions, the moisture resistance of the superhydrophobic paper significantly improved, and its tensile strength remained high.

  7. ENHANCEMENT OF RESISTANCE TO OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF NATURAL RUBBER THROUGH LATEX DEGRADATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A fully characterised natural rubber latex was subjected to mechanical degradation by stirring at intervals. The resistance to oxidative degradation of the different samples were studied by measuring the Plasticity retention indices (PRI).The results show that there is an enhancement of the PRI from 57% for the undegraded rubber to 79% for the one-hour degraded sample. Further degradation resulted in decrease of PRI as time of degradation increased. Therefore, the one-hour degraded sample is a special rubber with high oxidation resistance which is of great importance in engineering.

  8. Statistical Study of the Effects of the Composition on the Oxidation Resistance of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of alloying elements (Co, Cr, Mo, W, Al, Ti, and Ta on the oxidation resistance of Ni-based superalloys are studied using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The statistical analysis showed that Al and Ta generally improve the oxidation resistance of the alloy, whereas Ti and Mo degrade the oxidation resistance. Co, Cr, and W did not alter oxidation rate significantly when examined by the mass gain averaged for all model alloys. However, it is remarkable that the degree of the effects of alloying elements varied with the concentration of other elements. Further, the effect of each element was sometimes found to be reversed for alloy groups specified by the concentration of another element.

  9. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  10. The role of oxidative stress in the development of cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotte, Jimmy; Fletcher, Nicole M; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Alexis, Mitchell; Abu-Soud, Husam M; Saed, Mohammed G; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of oxidative stress in the development of cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Two parent EOC cell lines (MDAH-2774 and SKOV-3) and their chemoresistant counterparts (cisplatin, 50 µmol/L) were used. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of glutathione reductase (GSR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as nitrate/nitrite levels. Analysis of variance was used for main effects and Tukey for post hoc analysis at P nitrate/nitrite levels were significantly higher in SKOV-3 cisplatin resistant cells while iNOS mRNA levels were significantly higher in MDAH-2774 cisplatin resistant cells (P < .05). Our data suggest that the development of cisplatin resistance tilts the balance toward a pro-oxidant state in EOC.

  11. The Impact of Morphology and Composition on the Resistivity and Oxidation Resistance of Metal Nanostructure Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian Edward

    Printed electronics, including transparent conductors, currently rely on expensive materials to generate high conductivity devices. Conductive inks for thick film applications utilizing inkjet, aerosol, and screen printing technologies are often comprised of expensive and rare silver particles. Thin film applications such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) predominantly employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conductive layer which requires expensive and wasteful vapor deposition techniques. Thus an alternative to silver and ITO with similar performance in printed electronics warrants considerable attention. Copper nanomaterials, being orders of magnitude cheaper and more abundant than silver or indium, solution-coatable, and exhibiting a bulk conductivity only 6 % less than silver, have emerged as a promising candidate for incorporation in printed electronics. First, we examine the effect of nanomaterial shape on the conductivity of thick films. The inks used in such films often require annealing at elevated temperature in order to sinter the silver nanoparticles together and obtain low resistivities. We explore the change in morphology and resistivity that occurs upon heating thick films of silver nanowires (of two different lengths, Ag NWs), nanoparticles (Ag NPs), and microflakes (Ag MFs) deposited from water at temperatures between 70 and 400 °C. At the lowest temperatures, longer Ag NWs exhibited the lowest resistivity (1.8 x 10-5 O cm), suggesting that the resistivity of thick films of silver nanostructures is dominated by the contact resistance between particles. This result supported previous research showing that junction resistance between Ag NWs in thin film conductors also dominates optoelectronic performance. Since the goal is to replace silver with copper, we perform a similar analysis by using a pseudo-2D rod network modeling approach that has been modified to include lognormal distributions in length

  12. One-pot synthesis of reduced graphene oxide@boron nitride nanosheet hybrids with enhanced oxidation-resistant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxun; Bi, Jianqiang; Wang, Weili; Zhang, Jingde

    2017-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide@boron nitride nanosheet (RGO@BNNS) hybrids were prepared for the first time using template-assisted autoclave pyrolysis technique at the temperature as low as 600 °C. The developed method can be scaled into gram-scale synthesis of the material. The BNNSs combine with RGO through van der Waals interplanar interaction without damaging the structures of RGO. Such ultrathin BNNSs on the surface of RGO can serve as high-performance oxidation-resistant coatings in oxidizing atmospheres at high temperatures. The RGO@BNNS hybrids can sustain up to 800 °C over a relatively long period of time.

  13. Microstructure and high temperature oxidation resistance of in-situ synthesized TiN/Ti_3Al intermetallic composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by laser cladding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongxi; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Yehua; Zhou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    High temperature anti-oxidation TiN/Ti_3Al intermetallic composite coatings were fabricated with the powder and AlN powder on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by 6 kW transverse-flow CO_2 laser apparatus. The chemical composition, morphology and microstructure of the TiN/Ti_3Al composite coatings were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti_3Al coating, the isothermal oxidation test was performed in a high temperature resistance furnace at 600 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The result shows that the composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like or dendrites), with an even distribution in Ti_3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between Ti powder and AlN powder has completely occurred under the laser irradiation condition. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic composite coating is 3.4 times higher than that of the Ti6Al4V alloy substrate and reaches 844 HV_0_._2. The high temperature oxidation behavior test reveals that the high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti_3Al composite coating is much better than that of titanium alloy substrate. The excellent high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti_3Al intermetallic composite coating is attributed to the formation of reinforced phases TiN, Al_2O_3 and TiO_2. The laser cladding TiN/Ti_3Al intermetallic composite coating is anticipated to be a promising high temperature oxidation resistance coating for Ti6Al4V alloy. - Highlights: • In-situ TiN/Ti_3Al composite coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V alloy by laser cladding. • The influence of Ti and AlN molar ratio on the microstructure of the coating was studied. • The TiN/Ti_3Al intermetallic coating is mainly composed of α-Ti, TiN and Ti_3Al phases. • The

  14. Insulin resistance in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: relation to byproducts of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Simic, T; Lissounov, A; Pljesa-Ercegovac, M; Bozic, I; Djukic, T; Bjekic-Macut, J; Matic, M; Petakov, M; Suvakov, S; Damjanovic, S; Savic-Radojevic, A

    2011-07-01

    To get more insight into molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and its link with insulin resistance, oxidative stress parameters, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activities were studied in young, non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study was performed in 34 PCOS women and 23 age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Plasma nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde (MDA), representative byproducts of protein and lipid oxidative damage, were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were studied spectrophotometrically. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis assessment model (HOMA-IR). Plasma nitrotyrosine and MDA were increased, but only nitrotyrosine was significantly higher (p PCOS women compared to controls. Uric acid (surrogate marker of × antine oxidase) was also significantly elevated in PCOS (p PCOS and controls. Indices of insulin resistance (insulin and HOMAIR) were significantly higher in PCOS group and positively correlated with level of MDA (r = 0.397 and r = 0.523, respectively; p insulin resistance could be responsible for the existence of subtle form of oxidative stress in young, nonobese PCOS women. Hence, presence of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and oxidative damage are likely to accelerate slow development of cardiovascular disease in PCOS. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Chronological change of electrical resistance in GeCu2Te3 amorphous film induced by surface oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuta; Shindo, Satoshi; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Unusual chronological electrical resistance change behavior was investigated for amorphous GeCu 2 Te 3 phase change material. More than a 1 order decrease of electrical resistance was observed in the air even at room temperature. The resistance of the amorphous film gradually increased with increasing temperature and then showed a drop upon crystallization. Such unusual behavior was attributed to the oxidation of the amorphous GeCu 2 Te 3 film. From the compositional depth profile measurement, the GeCu 2 Te 3 film without any capping layer was oxidized in air at room temperature and the formed oxide was mainly composed of germanium oxide. Consequently, a highly-conductive Cu-rich layer was formed in the vicinity of the surface of the film, which reduced the total resistance of the film. The present results could provide insight into the chronological change of electrical resistance in amorphous chalcogenide materials, indicating that not only relaxation of the amorphous, but also a large atomic diffusion contributes to the chronological resistance change. (paper)

  16. Graphene oxide in the water environment could affect tetracycline-antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Zhang, Guo-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the influence of new materials like nanoparticles in the water environment on biological substances has been widely studied. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represent a new type of pollutant in the environment. Graphene oxide (GO), as a nano material, because of its unique structure, may have an impact on antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) and ARGs; however the research in this area is rarely reported. Therefore, this study mainly investigated the effects of GO on bacterial antibiotic resistance. The results showed that GO had a limited effect on ARB inactivation. A high concentration of GO (>10 mg/L) can damage resistant plasmids to reduce bacterial resistance to antibiotics, but low concentrations of GO (antibiotic resistance needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and resistance proportion of catalytic oxidation bed, the heat exchanger preheating section, and the heat exchanger flue gas section were measured. In addition, based on a large number of experimental data, the empirical equations of flow resistance are obtained by the least square method. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for preheated catalytic oxidation designs when employed in industry.

  18. Electrochemically reduced graphene-oxide supported bimetallic nanoparticles highly efficient for oxygen reduction reaction with excellent methanol tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple and facile method for the fabrication of bimetallic nanoparticles on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. First, reduced graphene oxide supported palladium and manganese oxide nanoparticle (rGO/Pd-Mn2O3) catalyst was synthesized via a simple chemical method at room temperature; then, it was electrochemically reduced for oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The chemical composition and morphological properties of ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TEM images reveals that, nano-sized Pd and Mn2O3 particles were disperse on the ErGO sheet without aggregation. The as-prepared ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was employed for ORR in alkaline media which shows higher ORR activity with more positive onset and half-wave potential, respectively. Remarkably, ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 reduced oxygen via four-electron transfer pathway with negligible amount of intermediate peroxide species (HO2-). Furthermore, the higher stability and excellent methanol tolerance of the ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 compared to commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst, indicating its suitability for fuel cells.

  19. Improved oxidation resistance of group VB refractory metals by Al+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampikian, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum ion implantation of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum improved the metals' oxidation resistances at 500 C and 735 C. Implanted vanadium oxidized only to one-third the extent of unimplanted vanadium when exposed at 500 C to air. The oxidative weight gains of implanted niobium and tantalum proved negligible when measured at 500 C and for times sufficient to fully convert the untreated metals to their pentoxides. At 735 C, implantation of vanadium only slightly retarded its oxidation, while oxidative weight gains of niobium and tantalum were reduced by factors of 3 or more. Implanted niobium exhibited weight gain in direct proportion to oxidation time squared at 735 C. Microstructural examination of the metals implanted with selected fluences of the 180 kV aluminum ions showed the following. The solubility limit of aluminum is extended by implantation, the body centered cubic (bcc) phases being retained to ∼60 at. pct Al in all three metals. The highest fluence investigated, 2.4 x 10 22 ions/m 2 , produced an ∼400-nm layer of VAl 3 beneath the surface of vanadium, and ∼300-nm layers of an amorphous phase containing ∼70 at. pct Al beneath the niobium and tantalum surfaces. All three metals, implanted to this fluence and annealed at 600 C, contained tri-aluminides, intermetallic compounds known for their oxidation resistances. Specimens implanted to this fluence were thus selected for the oxidation measurements

  20. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  1. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  2. Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation to improve the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dahye [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Kim, Yonghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wonsub, E-mail: wschung1@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation was performed using dispersed CuO particles in convectional PEO electrolyte. • Thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods, respectively. • Deposited copper oxide on the surface of the Al substrate was enhanced the corrosion resistance and the emissivity compared with the conventional PEO. - Abstract: A composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed for enhancing the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al alloy by dispersing cupric oxide (CuO) particles in a conventional PEO electrolyte. Cu-based oxides (CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) formed by composite PEO increased the emissivity of the substrate to 0.892, and made the surface being dark color, similar to a black body, i.e., an ideal radiator. In addition, the corrosion resistance was analyzed using potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. An optimum condition of 10 ampere per square decimeter (ASD) current density and 30 min processing time produced appropriate surface morphologies and coating thicknesses, as well as dense Cu- and Al-based oxides that constituted the coating layers.

  3. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  4. Manganese oxide electrode with excellent electrochemical performance for sodium ion batteries by pre-intercalation of K and Na ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengya; Du, Qinghua; Su, Li; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Gao, Weimin; Qin, Xiujuan; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-05-22

    Materials with a layered structure have attracted tremendous attention because of their unique properties. The ultrathin nanosheet structure can result in extremely rapid intercalation/de-intercalation of Na ions in the charge-discharge progress. Herein, we report a manganese oxide with pre-intercalated K and Na ions and having flower-like ultrathin layered structure, which was synthesized by a facile but efficient hydrothermal method under mild condition. The pre-intercalation of Na and K ions facilitates the access of electrolyte ions and shortens the ion diffusion pathways. The layered manganese oxide shows ultrahigh specific capacity when it is used as cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It also exhibits excellent stability and reversibility. It was found that the amount of intercalated Na ions is approximately 71% of the total charge. The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials.

  5. Freeze drying-assisted synthesis of Pt@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as excellent hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaojing; Song, Xinjie; Gu, Cuiping; Ren, Haibo; Sun, Yufeng; Huang, Jiarui

    2018-05-01

    Quick and efficient detection of low concentrations of hydrogen remains a challenge because of the stability of hydrogen. A sensor based on reduced oxide graphene functionalized with Pt nanoparticles is successfully fabricated using a freeze-drying method followed by heat treatment. The structure and morphology of the Pt@rGO nanocomposites are well analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Pt@rGO nanocomposites show excellent hydrogen gas sensing properties at a low working temperature of 50 °C. The sensitivity toward 0.5% hydrogen is 8%. The response and recovery times of the sensor exposed to 0.5% hydrogen are 63 and 104 s, respectively. The gas-sensing mechanism of Pt@rGO sensor is also discussed.

  6. Thermally oxidized titania nanotubes enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, John; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Butt, Arman; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-02-01

    The negative impact of in vivo corrosion of metallic biomedical implants remains a complex problem in the medical field. We aimed to determine the effects of electrochemical anodization (60V, 2h) and thermal oxidation (600°C) on the corrosive behavior of Ti-6Al-4V, with serum proteins, at physiological temperature. Anodization produced a mixture of anatase and amorphous TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes, while the annealing process yielded an anatase/rutile mixture of TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes. The surface area was analyzed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and was estimated to be 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of polished control samples. Corrosion resistance was evaluated on the parameters of open circuit potential, corrosion potential, corrosion current density, passivation current density, polarization resistance and equivalent circuit modeling. Samples both anodized and thermally oxidized exhibited shifts of open circuit potential and corrosion potential in the noble direction, indicating a more stable nanoporous/nanotube layer, as well as lower corrosion current densities and passivation current densities than the smooth control. They also showed increased polarization resistance and diffusion limited charge transfer within the bulk oxide layer. The treatment groups studied can be ordered from greatest corrosion resistance to least as Anodized+Thermally Oxidized > Anodized > Smooth > Thermally Oxidized for the conditions investigated. This study concludes that anodized surface has a potential to prevent long term implant failure due to corrosion in a complex in-vivo environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of coal on the oxidation susceptibility and electrical resistivity of HTT coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, N.B.; Sarkar, P.; Choudhury, A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI, Dhanbad-828108, Jharkhand (India)

    2005-02-25

    The influence of hydrothermal treatment of coal prior to carbonization, on the oxidation susceptibility of resultant coke/char, calcined at 1350, 1800 and 2200 {sup o}C has been investigated. The non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis technique has been employed, and parameters such as onset, DTG peak temperatures, and cumulative oxidation loss (wt.%) at different temperatures have been utilized to compare proneness to oxidation with respective untreated samples apart from electrical resistivity. Data suggest that all the cokes/chars samples produced from hydrothermally treated coals are less reactive and more electrically conductive (less resistive) than their respective untreated counterparts. But the extent of improvement of oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity appears to be coal-specific. The kinetic parameters obtained by non-linear regression analysis on multi-curve reveal that the n{sup th} order reaction model (where 'n' was found to vary from 0.9 to 1.3) is the best-fitted model. The higher activation energy values observed for hydrothermally treated coke samples are in agreement with the observation of TG analysis data. Overall results indicate the importance of introducing a hydrothermal treatment step for the improvement of oxidation resistance as well as electrical conductivity of the coke samples.

  8. Effect of nano-oxide particle size on radiation resistance of iron–chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weizong; Li, Lulu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Valdez, James A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Saber, Mostafa [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Zhu, Yuntian, E-mail: ytzhu@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Radiation resistance of Fe–14Cr alloys under 200 keV He irradiation at 500 °C was systematically investigated with varying sizes of nano oxide Zr, Hf and Cr particles. It is found that these nano oxide particles acted as effective sites for He bubble formation. By statistically analyzing 700–1500 He bubbles at the depth of about 150–700 nm from a series of HRTEM images for each sample, we established the variation of average He bubble size, He bubble density, and swelling percentage along the depth, and found them to be consistent with the He concentration profile calculated from the SIRM program. Oxide particles with sizes less than 3.5–4 nm are found most effective for enhancing radiation resistance in the studied alloy systems.

  9. Comparison of oxidation resistance of copper treated by beam-line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Quanzhang; Li Liuhe; Hu Tao; Xin Yunchang; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Cai Xun; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2 x 10 17 ions cm -2 and 5 x 10 16 ions cm -2 , respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260 deg. C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Technology of Processing of Fluorol with Metallic Oxides and It's Resistance toward Active Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, G.M.; Hadhoud, M.K.; Mohamed, A.Z.; Sherif, S.A

    2004-01-01

    Fluorocarbon polymers are the best elastomers for a variety of applications. In this work we investigate the characteristics of fluorocarbon rubber for use in different applications, via preparation different formulations. We investigate the effect of added metallic oxides ( CaO, MgO, ZnO and PbO ) on the chemical and physical properties of prepared formulations. Chemical resistance tests were made for conc. H 2 SO 4 , conc. HCl, conc. HNO 3 , ASTM Oil No.2, ASTM Ref. Fuel C and conc. NaOH solution. Results showed that the prepared fluorocarbon rubber have high chemical resistance to various acids, alkalis, oils and fuels, also chemical resistance towards conc. HNO 3 is enhanced in the presence of lead oxide

  11. Creep resistance in a new alloy based on Fe3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Iron aluminide alloys based on the composition Fe 3 Al are receiving considerable attention as structural materials for applications at high temperatures in view of their excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion as well as reasonable mechanical properties. Recently, problems associated with poor ductility at room temperature have been alleviated by small additions of Cr and by microstructure control, as well by as the realization that the low ductility is, in part, extrinsic behavior due to environmental attack. These materials suffer also from a loss of their good strength at temperatures above about 600 C, and recent attention has led also to the development of creep resistant alloys. The present report considers a new alloy developed for improved creep resistance which shows also good oxidation and erosion resistance. Effort has been devoted to an examination of the dislocation structures that characterize deformation, both cold and hot, during fast tensile straining as well as during creep testing

  12. Heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire micro-sensor array for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMeo, Dante; E Vandervelde, Thomas; MacNaughton, Sam; Sonkusale, Sameer; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Xinjie

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide, and nickel oxide nanowires were investigated for their applicability as chemiresistive gas sensors. Nanowires have excellent surface-to-volume ratios which yield higher sensitivities than bulk materials. Sensing elements consisting of these materials were assembled in an array to create an electronic nose platform. Dielectrophoresis was used to position the nanomaterials onto a microfabricated array of electrodes, which was subsequently mounted onto a leadless chip carrier and printed circuit board for rapid testing. Samples were tested in an enclosed chamber with vapors of acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and aqueous ammonia. The change in resistance of each assembly was measured. Responses varied between nanowire compositions, each demonstrating unique and repeatable responses to different gases; this enabled direct detection of the gases from the ensemble response. Sensitivities were calculated based on the fractional resistance change in a saturated environment and ranged from 6 × 10 −4 to 2 × 10 −5 %change ppm −1 . (papers)

  13. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Rizwan M; Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E

  14. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R. M.; Oral, E.; Muratoglu, O. K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Heat Capacity and Resistance to Cyclic Oxidation of Nickel Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przeliorz R.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of evaluation of heat resistance and specific heat capacity of MAR-M-200, MAR-M-247 and Rene 80 nickel superalloys. Heat resistance was evaluated using cyclic method. Every cycle included heating in 1100°C for 23 hours and cooling for 1 hour in air. Microstructure of the scale was observed using electron microscope. Specific heat capacity was measured using DSC calorimeter. It was found that under conditions of cyclically changing temperature alloy MAR-M-247 exhibits highest heat resistance. Formed oxide scale is heterophasic mixture of alloying elements, under which an internal oxidation zone was present. MAR-M-200 alloy has higher specific heat capacity compared to MAR-M-247. For tested alloys in the temperature range from 550°C to 800°C precipitation processes (γ′, γ″ are probably occurring, resulting in a sudden increase in the observed heat capacity.

  16. Alkali-resistant low-temperature atomic-layer-deposited oxides for optical fiber sensor overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiel, K.; Dominik, M.; Ściślewska, I.; Kalisz, M.; Guziewicz, M.; Gołaszewska, K.; Niedziółka-Jonsson, J.; Bock, W. J.; Śmietana, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of properties of selected metallic oxides deposited at a low temperature (100 °C) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, relating to their applicability as thin overlays for optical fiber sensors resistant in alkaline environments. Hafnium oxide (Hf x O y with y/x approx. 2.70), tantalum oxide (Ta x O y with y/x approx. 2.75) and zirconium oxide (Zr x O y with y/x approx. 2.07), which deposition was based, respectively, on tetrakis(ethylmethyl)hafnium, tantalum pentachloride and tetrakis(ethylmethyl)zirconium with deionized water, were tested as thin layers on planar Si (100) and glass substrates. Growth per cycle (GPC) in the ALD processes was 0.133-0.150 nm/cycle. Run-to-run GPC reproducibility of the ALD processes was best for Hf x O y (0.145 ± 0.001 nm/cycle) and the poorest for Ta x O y (0.133 ± 0.003 nm/cycle). Refractive indices n of the layers were 2.00-2.10 (at the wavelength λ = 632 nm), with negligible k value (at λ for 240-930 nm). The oxides examined by x-ray diffractometry proved to be amorphous, with only small addition of crystalline phases for the Zr x O y . The surfaces of the oxides had grainy but smooth topographies with root-mean square roughness ˜0.5 nm (at 10 × 10 μm2 area) according to atomic force microscopy. Ellipsometric measurements, by contrast, suggest rougher surfaces for the Zr x O y layers. The surfaces were also slightly rougher on the glass-based samples than on the Si-based ones. Nanohardness and Young modules were 4.90-8.64 GPa and 83.7-104.4 GPa, respectively. The tests of scratch resistance revealed better tribological properties for the Hf x O y and the Ta x O y than for the Zr x O y . The surfaces were hydrophilic, with wetting angles of 52.5°-62.9°. The planar oxides on Si, being resistive even to concentrated alkali (pH 14), proved to be significantly more alkali-resistive than Al2O3. The Ta x O y overlay was deposited on long-period grating sensor induced in optical

  17. High temperature oxidation characteristics of developed Ni-Cr-W superalloys in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Shindo, Masami

    1996-11-01

    For expanding utilization of the Ni-Cr-W superalloy, which has been developed as one of new high temperature structural materials used in the advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), in various engineering fields including the structural material for heat utilization system, the oxidation behavior of this alloy in air as one of high oxidizing environments becomes one of key factors. The oxidation tests for the industrial scale heat of Ni-Cr-W superalloy with the optimized chemical composition and five kinds of experimental Ni-Cr-W alloys with different Cr/W ratio were carried out at high temperatures in the air compared with Hastelloy XR. The conclusions were obtained as follows. (1) The oxidation resistance of the industrial scale heat of Ni-Cr-W superalloy with the optimized chemical composition was superior to that of Hastelloy XR. (2) The most excellent oxidation resistance was obtained in an alloy with 19% Cr of the industrial scale heat of Ni-Cr-W superalloy. (author)

  18. Low-power resistive random access memory by confining the formation of conducting filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Lee, Si-Chen; Shen, Tzu-Hsien; Lee, Lan-Hsuan; Wen, Cheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their small physical size and low power consumption, resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices are potential for future memory and logic applications in microelectronics. In this study, a new resistive switching material structure, TiO_x/silver nanoparticles/TiO_x/AlTiO_x, fabricated between the fluorine-doped tin oxide bottom electrode and the indium tin oxide top electrode is demonstrated. The device exhibits excellent memory performances, such as low operation voltage (<±1 V), low operation power, small variation in resistance, reliable data retention, and a large memory window. The current-voltage measurement shows that the conducting mechanism in the device at the high resistance state is via electron hopping between oxygen vacancies in the resistive switching material. When the device is switched to the low resistance state, conducting filaments are formed in the resistive switching material as a result of accumulation of oxygen vacancies. The bottom AlTiO_x layer in the device structure limits the formation of conducting filaments; therefore, the current and power consumption of device operation are significantly reduced.

  19. Oxidation resistance of quintuple Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings and associated mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Ji, Vincent; Chu, Paul K. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); ICMMO/LEMHE, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    The oxidation behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings with different Al contents deposited on high-speed steel and Si substrates by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering is investigated in the temperature range of 500 Degree-Sign C-1000 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness is maintained at around 35 GPa, and the parabolic oxidation rate constant K{sub p} at 1000 Degree-Sign C decreases to 3.36 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} kg{sup 2} m{sup -4} s{sup -1} when the Al concentration is increased to 30 at. %, indicating that Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings with larger Al concentrations have better oxidation resistance. X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal a protective surface layer consisting of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2} that retards inward oxygen diffusion. A mechanism is proposed to elucidate the oxide formation. As a consequence of the good oxidation resistance, the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings have a large potential in high-speed dry cutting as well as other high temperature applications.

  20. High temperature steam oxidation of Al3Ti-based alloys for the oxidation-resistant surface layer on Zr fuel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Dong-Jun; Choi, Byung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility to apply Al 3 Ti-based alloys as the surface layer for improving the oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings under accident conditions. Two types of Al 3 Ti-based alloys with the compositions of Al–25Ti–10Cr and Al–21Ti–23Cr in atomic percent were prepared by arc-melting followed by homogenization annealing at 1423 K for 48 h. Al–25Ti–10Cr alloy showed an L1 2 quasi-single phase microstructure with a lot of needle-shaped minor phase and pores. Al–21Ti–23Cr alloy consisted of an L1 2 matrix and Cr 2 Al as the second phase. Al 3 Ti-based alloys showed an extremely low oxidation rate in a 1473 K steam for up to 7200 s when compared to Zircaloy-4. Both alloys exhibited almost the same oxidation rate in the early stage of oxidation, but Al–25Ti–10Cr showed a little lower oxidation rate after 4000 s than Al–21Ti–23Cr. The difference in the oxidation rate between two types of Al 3 Ti-based alloys was too marginal to distinguish the oxidation behavior of each alloy. The resultant oxide exhibited almost the same characteristics in both alloys even though the microstructure was explicitly distinguished from each other. The crystal structure of the oxide formed up to 2000 s was identified as Al 2 O 3 in both alloys. The oxide morphology consisted of columnar grains whose length was almost identical to the average oxide thickness. On the basis of the results obtained, it is considered that Al 3 Ti-based alloy is one of the promising candidates for the oxidation-resistant surface layer on Zr fuel claddings

  1. Excellent Temperature Performance of Spherical LiFePO4/C Composites Modified with Composite Carbon and Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized spherical LiFePO4/C composite was synthesized from nanosized spherical FePO4·2H2O, Li2C2O4, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, oxalic acid, and sucrose by binary sintering process. The phases and morphologies of LiFePO4/C were characterized using SEM, TEM, CV, EIS, EDS, and EDX as well as charging and discharging measurements. The results showed that the as-prepared LiFePO4/C composite with good conductive webs from nanosized spherical FePO4·2H2O exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, delivering an initial discharge capacity of 161.7 mAh·g−1 at a 0.1 C rate, 152.4 mAh·g−1 at a 1 C rate and 131.7 mAh·g−1 at a 5 C rate, and the capacity retention of 99.1%, 98.7%, and 95.8%, respectively, after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the high and low temperature performance is excellent for 18650 battery, maintaining capacity retention of 101.7%, 95.0%, 88.3%, and 79.3% at 55°C, 0°C, −10°C, and −20°C by comparison withthat of room temperature (25°C at the 0.5 C rate over a voltage range of 2.2 V to 3.6 V, respectively.

  2. Excellent temperature performance of spherical LiFePO4/C composites modified with composite carbon and metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Jiafeng; Peng, Chunli; Zheng, Junchao; Chen, Guomin

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized spherical LiFePO4/C composite was synthesized from nanosized spherical FePO4 ·2H2O, Li2C2O4, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, oxalic acid, and sucrose by binary sintering process. The phases and morphologies of LiFePO4/C were characterized using SEM, TEM, CV, EIS, EDS, and EDX as well as charging and discharging measurements. The results showed that the as-prepared LiFePO4/C composite with good conductive webs from nanosized spherical FePO4 ·2H2O exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, delivering an initial discharge capacity of 161.7 mAh·g(-1) at a 0.1 C rate, 152.4 mAh·g(-1) at a 1 C rate and 131.7 mAh·g(-1) at a 5 C rate, and the capacity retention of 99.1%, 98.7%, and 95.8%, respectively, after 50 cycles. Meanwhile, the high and low temperature performance is excellent for 18650 battery, maintaining capacity retention of 101.7%, 95.0%, 88.3%, and 79.3% at 55°C, 0°C, -10°C, and -20°C by comparison withthat of room temperature (25°C) at the 0.5 C rate over a voltage range of 2.2 V to 3.6 V, respectively.

  3. The effect of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of vacuum plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jie [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao Huayu; Zhou Xiaming [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao Shunyan, E-mail: shunyantao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ding Chuanxian [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used ion implantation to improve the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coating at 1100 Degree-Sign C for 1000 h was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Nb ion implanted coating exhibited better oxidation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influences of Nb and Al ion implantation into CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated. - Abstract: CoNiCrAlY coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) were implanted with Nb and Al ions at a fluence of 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2}. The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) formed on each specimen was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. The results showed that the oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coatings could be divided into four stages and the key to obtaining good oxidation resistance was to remain high enough amount of Al and promote the lateral growth of TGO. The implantation of Nb resulted in the formation of continuous and dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale to improve the oxidation resistance. The Al implanted coating could form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the initial stage, however, the scale was soon broken and TGO transformed to non-protective spinel.

  4. Microstructural Stability and Oxidation Resistance of 9-12 Chromium Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.; Hawk, J.A.

    2006-05-01

    Various martensitic 9-12 Cr steels are utilized currently in fossil fuel powered energy plants for their good elevated temperature properties such as creep strength, steam side oxidation resistance, fire side corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. Need for further improvements on the properties of 9-12 Cr steels for higher temperature (>600oC) use is driven by the environmental concerns (i.e., improve efficiency to reduce emissions and fossil fuel consumption). In this paper, we will discuss the results of the research done to explore new subsitutional solute solution and precipitate hardening mechanisms for improved strength of 9-12 Cr martensitic steels. Stability of the phases present in the steels will be evaluated for various temperature and time exposures. A comparison of microstructural properties of the experimental steels and commercial steels will also be presented.

    The influence of a Ce surface treatment on oxidation behavior of a commercial (P91) and several experimental steels containing 9 to 12 weight percent Cr was examined at 650ºC in flowing dry and moist air. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys without the Ce modification was significantly degraded by the presence of moisture in the air during testing. For instance the weight gain for P91 was two orders of magnitude greater in moist air than in dry air. This was accompanied by a change in oxide scale from the formation of Cr-based scales in dry air to the formation of Fe-based scales in moist air. The Ce surface treatment was very effective in improving the oxidation resistance of the experimental steels in both moist and dry air. For instance, after exposure to moist air at 650ºC for 2000 hours, an experimental alloy with the cerium surface modification had a weight gain three orders of magnitude lower than the alloy without the Ce modification and two orders of magnitude lower than P91. The Ce surface treatment suppressed the formation of Fe-based scales and

  5. A Mutator Phenotype Promoting the Emergence of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Tang, Yizhi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-12-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress-resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OX R ) in C. jejuni We further demonstrated that MutY malfunction did not directly contribute to the OX R phenotype but increased the spontaneous mutation rate in the peroxide regulator gene perR , which functions as a repressor for multiple genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Mutations in PerR resulted in loss of its DNA binding function and derepression of PerR-controlled oxidative stress defense genes, thereby conferring an OX R phenotype and facilitating Campylobacter survival under oxidative stress. These findings reveal a new mechanism that promotes the emergence of spontaneous OX R mutants in bacterial organisms. IMPORTANCE Although a mutator phenotype has been shown to promote antibiotic resistance in many bacterial species, little is known about its contribution to the emergence of OX R mutants. This work describes the link between a mutator phenotype and the enhanced emergence of OX R mutants as well as its underlying mechanism involving DNA repair and mutations in PerR. Since DNA repair systems and PerR are well conserved in many bacterial species, especially in Gram positives, the same mechanism may operate in multiple bacterial species. Additionally, we developed a novel method that allows for rapid quantification of spontaneous OX R mutants in a bacterial population. This method represents a technical

  6. Crack behavior of oxidation resistant coating layer on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Terrani et al. reported the oxidation resistance of Fe-based alloys for protecting zirconium alloys from the rapid oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment. Kim and co-workers also reported the corrosion behavior of Cr coated zirconium alloy using a plasma spray and laser beam scanning. Cracks are developed by tensile stress, and this significantly deteriorates the oxidation resistance. This tensile stress is possibly generated by the thermal cycle or bending or the irradiation growth of zirconium. In this study, Cr was deposited by AIP on to Zircaloy-4 plate, and the crack behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 under uni-axial tensile strain was observed. In addition, the strain of the as-deposited state was calculated by iso-inclination method. Coating began to crack at 8% of applied strain. It is assumed that a well-densified structure by AIP tends to be resistant to cracking under tensile strain.

  7. Crack behavior of oxidation resistant coating layer on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Jae Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Terrani et al. reported the oxidation resistance of Fe-based alloys for protecting zirconium alloys from the rapid oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment. Kim and co-workers also reported the corrosion behavior of Cr coated zirconium alloy using a plasma spray and laser beam scanning. Cracks are developed by tensile stress, and this significantly deteriorates the oxidation resistance. This tensile stress is possibly generated by the thermal cycle or bending or the irradiation growth of zirconium. In this study, Cr was deposited by AIP on to Zircaloy-4 plate, and the crack behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 under uni-axial tensile strain was observed. In addition, the strain of the as-deposited state was calculated by iso-inclination method. Coating began to crack at 8% of applied strain. It is assumed that a well-densified structure by AIP tends to be resistant to cracking under tensile strain.

  8. Microstructure and high temperature oxidation resistance of in-situ synthesized TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by laser cladding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongxi, E-mail: piiiliuhx@sina.com; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Yehua; Zhou, Rong

    2016-06-15

    High temperature anti-oxidation TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic composite coatings were fabricated with the powder and AlN powder on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by 6 kW transverse-flow CO{sub 2} laser apparatus. The chemical composition, morphology and microstructure of the TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al composite coatings were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al coating, the isothermal oxidation test was performed in a high temperature resistance furnace at 600 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The result shows that the composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like or dendrites), with an even distribution in Ti{sub 3}Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between Ti powder and AlN powder has completely occurred under the laser irradiation condition. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic composite coating is 3.4 times higher than that of the Ti6Al4V alloy substrate and reaches 844 HV{sub 0.2}. The high temperature oxidation behavior test reveals that the high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al composite coating is much better than that of titanium alloy substrate. The excellent high temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic composite coating is attributed to the formation of reinforced phases TiN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}. The laser cladding TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic composite coating is anticipated to be a promising high temperature oxidation resistance coating for Ti6Al4V alloy. - Highlights: • In-situ TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al composite coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V alloy by laser cladding. • The influence of Ti and AlN molar ratio on the microstructure of the coating was studied. • The TiN/Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic

  9. Influence of rare earth additions on the oxidation resistance of chromia forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    1995-01-01

    The addition of rare earths to alloys, either in elemental form or as surface coatings reduces the oxidation rate of chromia forming alloys. The rare earths either act as nucleation sites for surface oxides or get incorporates into the surface oxide and diffuse to oxide grain boundaries. If the latter occurs, a change in the defect structure close to the grain boundaries, probably takes place. In this manner, the rare earths inhibits the movement of chromium ions to the oxide/gas interface. The influence of rare earth additions to AISI 316, AISI 316L and Ni-20 Cr on their oxidation behavior has been studied., AISI 316+Ce, AISI 316+Y, Ni-20 Cr and Ni-20 Cr-2 Al-1 Ce were prepared by melting and AISI 316L, AISI 316L+Ce O 2 and AISI 316L+Y 2 O 3 by powder compaction. The effect of superficial deposits of rare earth oxides was also studied. The alloys were coated with rare earth oxides by high temperature conversion of the respective rare earth nitrates. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 900-1100 deg C and the cyclic oxidation tests consisted of 6 cycles of 2 hours each at 900 deg C, followed by cooling to room temperature. All the tests were carried out in air. Oxidation behavior was evaluated gravimetrically. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study surface morphology. Energy dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify oxide constituents. Overall, it has been observed that with the addition of rare earths, oxidation resistance increases by decreasing oxidation rates and increasing oxide adhesion. Addition of rare earths to AISI 316 prepared by melting resulted in rapid formation of a chromium rich oxide layered near the metal/oxide interface which reduced overall oxidation rate. The addition of Ce O 2 to AISI 316L was found to improve oxidation behavior after 10 hours at 1100 deg C and also inhibit the formation of volatile Cr O 3 . The isothermal oxidation behavior of rare earth oxide covered Ni-20 Cr at 900 deg C

  10. Steam oxidation resistance of Ni-aluminide/Fe-aluminide duplex coatings formed on creep resistant ferritic steels by low temperature pack cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Z.D.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, C.Y.; Rose, S.R.; Datta, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Ni 2 Al 3 /Fe 2 Al 5 duplex coating on ferritic steel is resistant against steam oxidation at 650 o C. → The coating shows evidence of enhanced thermal stability. → The enhanced thermal stability of the coating is facilitated by thermodynamic constraints. → The lifetime of the coating can be enhanced by controlling the layer structure of the coating. - Abstract: Steam oxidation resistance and thermal stability were studied at 650 o C for a coating with an outer Ni 2 Al 3 layer and an inner Fe 2 Al 5 layer formed on P92 steel surface. The parabolic rate law of oxidation was obeyed only in less than 2000 h with positive deviations occurring at longer oxidation times. The outer layer of the coating was transformed to NiAl during oxidation, but it remained stable once it was formed. The mechanisms for the enhanced thermal stability were discussed and a simple approach to enhancing the lifetime of the coating was proposed.

  11. Novel Functional Changes during Podocyte Differentiation: Increase of Oxidative Resistance and H-Ferritin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Bányai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Podocytes are highly specialized, arborized epithelial cells covering the outer surface of the glomerular tuft in the kidney. Terminally differentiated podocytes are unable to go through cell division and hereby they are lacking a key property for regeneration after a toxic injury. Podocytes are long-lived cells but, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that support their stress resistance. Our aim was to investigate whether the well-known morphological changes during podocyte differentiation are accompanied by changes in oxidative resistance in a manner that could support their long-term survival. We used a conditionally immortalized human podocyte cell line to study the morphological and functional changes during differentiation. We followed the differentiation process for 14 days by time-lapse microscopy. During this period nondifferentiated podocytes gradually transformed into large, nonproliferating, frequently multinucleated cells, with enlarged nuclei and opened chromatin structure. We observed that differentiated podocytes were highly resistant to oxidants such as H2O2 and heme when applied separately or in combination, whereas undifferentiated cells were prone to such challenges. Elevated oxidative resistance of differentiated podocytes was associated with increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and H-ferritin expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human kidney specimens revealed that podocytes highly express H-ferritin in vivo as well.

  12. High quality aluminium doped zinc oxide target synthesis from nanoparticulate powder and characterisation of sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, P.J.M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Neves, N. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Bowers, J.W. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Newbatt, P. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticulate aluminium-doped zinc oxide powder was synthesised through detonation and subsequent rapid quenching of metallic precursors. This technique allows for precise compositional control and rapid nanoparticle production. The resulting powder was used to form sputter targets, which were used to deposit thin films by radio frequency sputtering. These films show excellent sheet resistance and transmission values for a wide range of deposition temperatures. Crystal structure analysis shows that crystals in the target have a random orientation, whereas the crystals in the films grow perpendicular to the substrate surface and propagate preferentially along the (002) axis. Higher temperature deposition reduces crystal quality with a corresponding decrease in refractive index and an increase in sheet resistance. Films deposited between room temperature and 300 °C were found to have sheet resistances equivalent to or better than indium tin oxide films for a given average transmission value. - Highlights: • Nanoparticulate AZO powder was used to produce sputter targets. • The powder synthesis technique allows for precise compositional control. • Sputtered films show excellent optical, electronic and structural properties. • High temperature films show reduced electrical and structural quality. • For a given transmission, films show equivalent sheet resistances to ITO.

  13. A 3D graphene interface (Si-doped) of Ag matrix with excellent electronic transmission and thermal conductivity via nano-assembly modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianzhu; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-04-01

    The wide development of electronic materials requires higher load capacity and high temperature resistance. In this study, a novel architecture was fabricated consisting of a 3D reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-Si interface using a simple nano-assembly sintering to achieve high current capacity and excellent thermal features. Via the analysis of catalytic oxidation for methanol, the loading catalytic activity of nano-Ag still remained to a certain extent for the composite with 0.8 vol.% rGO. The final Ag-rGO composite apparently possesses a higher initial oxidation temperature and lower rate of oxidation for internal passing and shielding, and the thermal conductivity is significantly enhanced from 344 to 407 W m‑1 K‑1. Importantly, with a 3D synergistic transportation network, the resistivity of the Ag-rGO composite is much lower than pure Ag, and with a longer conductive time under a stress condition of current density of 6.0  ×  104 A cm‑2. Thermal-electronic features demonstrate that the dispersed graphene interface can efficiently suppress the primary failure pathways (high temperature) in Ag matrix and make it uniquely efficient for the advancement of microscale and thermal-management electronics.

  14. Delayed hydride cracking and elastic properties of Excel, a candidate CANDU-SCWR pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Z.L.

    2010-01-01

    Excel, a Zr alloy which contains 3.5%Sn, 0.8%Nb and 0.8%Mo, shows high strength, good corrosion resistance, excellent creep-resistance and dimension stability and thus is selected as a candidate pressure tube material for CANDU-SCWR. In the present work, the delayed hydride cracking properties (K IH and the DHC growth rates), the hydrogen solubility and elastic modulus were measured in the irradiated and unirradiated Excel pressure tube material. (author)

  15. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  16. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, S; Muhaffel, F; Riool, M; Cempura, G; de Boer, L; Zaat, S A J; Filemonowicz, A Czyrska-; Cimenoglu, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  18. TOC-39, a novel parenteral broad-spectrum cephalosporin with excellent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaki, H; Akagi, H; Masaru, Y; Otani, T; Hyodo, A; Hiramatsu, K

    1995-01-01

    TOC-39, a new parenteral cephalosporin, is a hydroxyimino-type cephem antibiotic with vinylthio-pyridyl moiety at the 3 position. TOC-39 was evaluated for antibacterial activity against various clinically isolated strains. TOC-39 had excellent activity, stronger than that of methicillin, oxacillin, the cephalosporins tested, imipenem, gentamicin, minocycline, tobramycin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and had an MIC comparable to that of vancomycin (the MICs of TOC-39 and vancomycin for 90% of the strains tested were 3.13 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively). Against Enterococcus faecalis strains, which are resistant to cephalosporins, TOC-39 was twice as active as ampicillin. Against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae, TOC-39 was twice as active as or more active than cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, TOC-39 was superior to cefotiam, ceftazidime, and flomoxef and was similar to cefpirome. In addition, the activity of TOC-39 was equal to or greater than that of cefotiam, ceftazidime, flomoxef, and cefpirome against Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Morganella morganii. In terms of bactericidal effect against MRSA, TOC-39 was superior to vancomycin. No mutant resistant to TOC-39 or vancomycin was obtained from susceptible MRSA strains. In murine systemic infection models, TOC-39 showed potent activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Against highly MRSA, the activity of TOC-39 was comparable to that of vancomycin. PMID:7625799

  19. Novel Cu@SiO2/bacterial cellulose nanofibers: Preparation and excellent performance in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bo; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Chunlin; Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Fan, Mengmeng; Sun, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 coated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@SiO 2 /BC) and its properties were characterized. Its chemical structures and morphologies were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 coated Cu particles were well homogeneously precipitated on the surface of BC. The Cu@SiO 2 /BC was more resistant to oxidation than the Cu nanoparticles impregnated into BC (Cu/BC) and then Cu@SiO 2 /BC could prolong the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of Cu@SiO 2 /BC. Due to its unique structure, the Cu@SiO 2 /BC membrane shows excellent antibacterial effects and can be used for a long time. - Highlights: • This work paves the novel way to fabricate antibacterial nanomaterial with good efficiency. • We prepare the antibacterial membrane based on bacterial cellulose by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 -coated Cu nanoparticles. • The antibacterial membrane is more resistant to oxidation and can prolong the antimicrobial activity.

  20. The influence of Cr and Al pack cementation on low carbon steel to improve oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik; Sugiarti, Eni; Destyorini, Fredina; Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Pack chromizing and aluminizing has been widely used for many years to improve hot temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of metals. The coating process involves packing the steel in a powder mixture which contain aluminum and chromium source, and inert filler (usually alumina), and halide activator NH4Cl. Al and Cr were deposited onto carbon steel by pack cementation process using elemental Al and Cr powder as Al and Cr source, whereas NiCo alloys codeposited by electrodeposition. The position of Al and Cr could be under or over Ni-Co alloys deposited. Pack cementation was heated on dry inert gas at temperature 800 °C about 5 hours and 20 minute for Cr and Al respectively. Al and Cr was successfully deposited. Laying down effect of Al and Cr onto carbon steel whether up and down toward NiCo alloys coating have affected to oxidation resistance. The pack aluminizing as top layer given best resitance to restrain excessive oxide scale, in contrast pack chromizing reveal bad oxidation resistance, moreover occured spallation on layer.

  1. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and insecticide resistance

  2. Conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposite as thermistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Girish M., E-mail: varadgm@gmail.com; Deshmukh, Kalim [Polymer Nanocomposite Laboratory, Material Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632014, TN (India)

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the synthesis and measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistivity of graphene oxide (GO) reinforced poly (3, 4 - ethylenedioxythiophene) - tetramethacrylate (PEDOTTMA)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposites. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed for 0.5, 1 % GO loading and the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) was observed for 1.5 and 2 % Go loading in the temperature (40 to 120 °C). The GO inducted nanocomposite perform as an excellent thermistor and suitable for electronic and sensor domain.

  3. Conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposite as thermistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis and measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistivity of graphene oxide (GO) reinforced poly (3, 4 - ethylenedioxythiophene) - tetramethacrylate (PEDOTTMA)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposites. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed for 0.5, 1 % GO loading and the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) was observed for 1.5 and 2 % Go loading in the temperature (40 to 120 °C). The GO inducted nanocomposite perform as an excellent thermistor and suitable for electronic and sensor domain

  4. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  5. Low cost corrosion and oxidation resistant coatings for improved system reliability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to improve high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of critical superalloy components in turbine engines innovative processing methods must be...

  6. Correlation of oxidative stress in patients with HBV-induced liver disease with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Jianbo; Feng, Jiafu; Yang, Yuwei; Tang, Jie; Xie, Gang; Fan, Lingying

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the correlation of oxidative stress (OxS) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the disease severity with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations. A total of 296 patients with CHB were enrolled into the study. PCR-reverse dot-blot hybridization was used to detect the HBV genotypes (B, C, and D) and the drug resistance-causing HBV mutant genes. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated and compared. Serum levels of TOS and OSI, the B/C ratio, and drug resistance mutation rate were increased along with the elevated disease severity degree (CHBHBV mutation had higher serum TOS and OSI levels, while lower serum TAS levels (P HBV-induced liver disease, and the damage degree is correlated with the HBV genotype and drug resistance mutation. Oxidative stress might be a useful indicator of the progression of HBV-induced liver disease in patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. AsrR is an oxidative stress sensing regulator modulating Enterococcus faecium opportunistic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lebreton

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator. The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial

  8. Uncoupling of oxidative stress resistance and lifespan in long-lived isp-1 mitochondrial mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dues, Dylan J; Schaar, Claire E; Johnson, Benjamin K; Bowman, Megan J; Winn, Mary E; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2017-07-01

    Mutations affecting components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. While it was originally proposed that decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from lower rates of electron transport could account for the observed increase in lifespan, recent evidence indicates that ROS levels are increased in at least some of these long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Here, we show that the long-lived mitochondrial mutant isp-1 worms have increased resistance to oxidative stress. Our results suggest that elevated ROS levels in isp-1 worms cause the activation of multiple stress-response pathways including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, the SKN-1-mediated stress response, and the hypoxia response. In addition, these worms have increased expression of specific antioxidant enzymes, including a marked upregulation of the inducible superoxide dismutase genes sod-3 and sod-5. Examining the contribution of sod-3 and sod-5 to the oxidative stress resistance in isp-1 worms revealed that loss of either of these genes increased resistance to oxidative stress, but not other forms of stress. Deletion of sod-3 or sod-5 decreased the lifespan of isp-1 worms and further exacerbated their slow physiologic rates. Thus, while deletion of sod-3 and sod-5 genes has little impact on stress resistance, physiologic rates or lifespan in wild-type worms, these genes are required for the longevity of isp-1 worms. Overall, this work shows that the increased resistance to oxidative stress in isp-1 worms does not account for their longevity, and that resistance to oxidative stress can be experimentally dissociated from lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stathmin Mediates Hepatocyte Resistance to Death from Oxidative Stress by down Regulating JNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Enpeng; Amir, Muhammad; Lin, Yu; Czaja, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Stathmin 1 performs a critical function in cell proliferation by regulating microtubule polymerization. This proliferative function is thought to explain the frequent overexpression of stathmin in human cancer and its correlation with a bad prognosis. Whether stathmin also functions in cell death pathways is unclear. Stathmin regulates microtubules in part by binding free tubulin, a process inhibited by stathmin phosphorylation from kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The involvement of JNK activation both in stathmin phosphorylation, and in hepatocellular resistance to oxidative stress, led to an examination of the role of stathmin/JNK crosstalk in oxidant-induced hepatocyte death. Oxidative stress from menadione-generated superoxide induced JNK-dependent stathmin phosphorylation at Ser-16, Ser-25 and Ser-38 in hepatocytes. A stathmin knockdown sensitized hepatocytes to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death from menadione without altering levels of oxidant generation. The absence of stathmin during oxidative stress led to JNK overactivation that was the mechanism of cell death as a concomitant knockdown of JNK1 or JNK2 blocked death. Hepatocyte death from JNK overactivation was mediated by the effects of JNK on mitochondria. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization occurred in stathmin knockdown cells at low concentrations of menadione that triggered apoptosis, whereas mitochondrial β-oxidation and ATP homeostasis were compromised at higher, necrotic menadione concentrations. Stathmin therefore mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down regulating JNK and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which stathmin promotes cell survival and potentially tumor growth. PMID:25285524

  10. Stathmin mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down regulating JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enpeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Stathmin 1 performs a critical function in cell proliferation by regulating microtubule polymerization. This proliferative function is thought to explain the frequent overexpression of stathmin in human cancer and its correlation with a bad prognosis. Whether stathmin also functions in cell death pathways is unclear. Stathmin regulates microtubules in part by binding free tubulin, a process inhibited by stathmin phosphorylation from kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The involvement of JNK activation both in stathmin phosphorylation, and in hepatocellular resistance to oxidative stress, led to an examination of the role of stathmin/JNK crosstalk in oxidant-induced hepatocyte death. Oxidative stress from menadione-generated superoxide induced JNK-dependent stathmin phosphorylation at Ser-16, Ser-25 and Ser-38 in hepatocytes. A stathmin knockdown sensitized hepatocytes to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death from menadione without altering levels of oxidant generation. The absence of stathmin during oxidative stress led to JNK overactivation that was the mechanism of cell death as a concomitant knockdown of JNK1 or JNK2 blocked death. Hepatocyte death from JNK overactivation was mediated by the effects of JNK on mitochondria. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization occurred in stathmin knockdown cells at low concentrations of menadione that triggered apoptosis, whereas mitochondrial β-oxidation and ATP homeostasis were compromised at higher, necrotic menadione concentrations. Stathmin therefore mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down regulating JNK and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which stathmin promotes cell survival and potentially tumor growth.

  11. Nano-oxides to improve the surface properties of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaldi, E.; Tucci, A.; Esposito, L.; Naldi, D.; Timellini, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to realise ceramic tiles with superior surface mechanical characteristics and chemical resistance, by the addition of nano-oxides, such as zirconia and alumina, since such advanced ceramics oxides are well known for their excellent mechanical properties and good resistance to chemical etching. In order to avoid any dangerousness, the nanoparticles were used in form of aqueous suspension and they were sprayed, by airbrush, directly onto the dried ceramic support, before firing. To observe the distribution of the nanoparticles and to optimise the surface treatment, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the fired samples. XRD analysis was conducted to assess the phases evolution of the different materials during the firing step. The surface mechanical characteristics of the samples have been evaluated by Vickers hardness and scratch test. In addition, also chemical resistance tests were performed. Microstructural observations allowed to understand how alumina and zirconia nanoparticles acted to improve the surface performances of the modified ceramic tiles. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and

  13. A Monte Carlo simulation for bipolar resistive memory switching in large band-gap oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun, E-mail: jhhur123@gmail.com, E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Korea University, Sejong 2511, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Compound Device Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongsoo [Compound Device Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sanghun, E-mail: jhhur123@gmail.com, E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Korea University, Sejong 2511, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    A model that describes bilayered bipolar resistive random access memory (BL-ReRAM) switching in oxide with a large band gap is presented. It is shown that, owing to the large energy barrier between the electrode and thin oxide layer, the electronic conduction is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling. The model is composed of an atomic oxygen vacancy migration model and an electronic tunneling conduction model. We also show experimentally observed three-resistance-level switching in Ru/ZrO{sub 2}/TaO{sub x} BL-ReRAM that can be explained by the two types of traps, i.e., shallow and deep traps in ZrO{sub 2}.

  14. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-01-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  15. Microstructural Study on Oxidation Resistance of Nonmodified and Platinum Modified Aluminide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Sieniawski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Platinum electroplating layers (3 and 7 μm thick) were deposited on the surface of the Inconel 713 LC, CMSX 4, and Inconel 625 Ni-base superalloys. Diffusion treatment at 1050°C for 2 h under argon atmosphere was performed after electroplating. Diffusion treated samples were aluminized according to the low activity CVD process at 1050°C for 8 h. The nonmodified aluminide coatings consist of NiAl phase. Platinum modification let to obtain the (Ni,Pt)Al phase in coatings. The coated samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation testing at 1100°C. It was discovered that increase of the platinum electroplating thickness from 3 to 7 μm provides the improvement of oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings. Increase of the platinum thickness causes decreases in weight change and decreases in parabolic constant during oxidation. The platinum provides the pure Al2O3 oxide formation, slow growth oxide layer, and delay the oxide spalling during heating-cooling thermal cycles.

  16. Production of the oxidation-resistant polypropylene track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Apel, P.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes results of the method of manufacturing the polypropylene track membranes produced by physicochemical treatment under irradiation of accelerated heavy ions of polymer films. The developed method allows to produce membranes 0.1 - 0.2 μm in diameter and more with an improved structural and physicochemical properties. Poly-propylene track membranes of a novel sample are characterized by high homogeneity of pore sizes in magnitude, considerable mechanical strength, advanced thermal stability and resistance to oxidation in aggressive media. It opens new fields for their usage

  17. Modulation of cell metabolic pathways and oxidative stress signaling contribute to acquired melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zub, Kamila Anna; Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal de; Sarno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    of the AKR1C family involved in prostaglandin synthesis contribute to the resistant phenotype. Finally, selected metabolic and oxidative stress response enzymes were targeted by inhibitors, several of which displayed a selective cytotoxicity against the melphalan-resistant cells and should be further...... and pathways not previously associated with melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells, including a metabolic switch conforming to the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), and an elevated oxidative stress response mediated by VEGF/IL8-signaling. In addition, up-regulated aldo-keto reductase levels...

  18. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

  19. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress. Methods Effective concentration (EC50 values, which indicate the concentration of ascorbic acid that reduced the number of viable cells by 50%, were detected with the crystal violet assay. The level of intracellular catalase protein and enzyme activity was determined. Expression of catalase was silenced by catalase-specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA in BT-20 breast carcinoma cells. Oxidative cell stress induced apoptosis was measured by a caspase luminescent assay. Results The tested human cancer cell lines demonstrated obvious differences in their resistance to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative cell stress. Forty-five percent of the cell lines had an EC50 > 20 mmol/L and fifty-five percent had an EC50 50 of 2.6–5.5 mmol/L, glioblastoma cells were the most susceptible cancer cell lines analysed in this study. A correlation between catalase activity and the susceptibility to ascorbic acid was observed. To study the possible protective role of catalase on the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative cell stress, the expression of catalase in the breast carcinoma cell line BT-20, which cells were highly resistant to the exposure to ascorbic acid (EC50: 94,9 mmol/L, was silenced with specific sh-RNA. The effect was that catalase-silenced BT-20 cells (BT-20 KD-CAT became more susceptible to high concentrations of ascorbic acid (50 and 100 mmol/L. Conclusions Fifty-five percent of the human cancer cell lines tested were unable to protect themselves

  20. Oxidation and corrosion of silicon-based ceramics and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, N.S.; Fox, D.S.; Smialek, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Silica scales exhibit slow growth rates and a low activation energy. Thus silica-protected materials are attractive high temperature structural materials for their potentially excellent oxidation resistance and well-documented high temperature strength. This review focuses on silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and composites of these materials. It is divided into four parts: (i) Fundamental oxidation mechanisms, (ii) Special properties of silica scales, (iii) Protective coatings, and (iv) Internal oxidation behavior of composites. While the fundamental oxidation mechanism of SiC is understood, there are still many questions regarding the oxidation mechanism of Si 3 N 4 . Silica scales exhibit many unique properties as compared to chromia and alumina. These include slower growth rates, SiO(g) formation, sensitivity to water vapor and impurities, and dissolution by basic molten salts. Protective coatings can limit the deleterious effects. The fourth area-internal oxidation of fibers and fiber coatings in composites-has limited the application of these novel materials. Strategies for understanding and limiting this internal oxidation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Advanced Radiation-Resistant ODS Steel with Different Lengths of Mechanical Alloying Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Ga Eon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/ martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, powder properties and microstructures of the ODS steel with different length of mechanical alloying time was investigated. The ODS steel milled 5h showed homogeneous grain structure with the highest hardness.

  2. Microstructural Evolution of Advanced Radiation-Resistant ODS Steel with Different Lengths of Mechanical Alloying Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Ga Eon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/ martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, powder properties and microstructures of the ODS steel with different length of mechanical alloying time was investigated. The ODS steel milled 5h showed homogeneous grain structure with the highest hardness

  3. The Microstructures and Electrical Resistivity of (Al, Cr, TiFeCoNiOx High-Entropy Alloy Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Huei Tsau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The (Al, Cr, TiFeCoNi alloy thin films were deposited by PVD and using the equimolar targets with same compositions from the concept of high-entropy alloys. The thin films became metal oxide films after annealing at vacuum furnace for a period; and the resistivity of these thin films decreased sharply. After optimum annealing treatment, the lowest resistivity of the FeCoNiOx, CrFeCoNiOx, AlFeCoNiOx, and TiFeCoNiOx films was 22, 42, 18, and 35 μΩ-cm, respectively. This value is close to that of most of the metallic alloys. This phenomenon was caused by delaminating of the alloy oxide thin films because the oxidation was from the surfaces of the thin films. The low resistivity of these oxide films was contributed to the nonfully oxidized elements in the bottom layers and also vanishing of the defects during annealing.

  4. Excel Initiative: Excellence in Youth Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M. Borden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Excellence in Youth Programming (Excel Initiative strives to support youth programs in delivering high quality programs. The backbone of Excel is the Youth Development Observational Tool (YDOT which allows for the virtual assessment of program staff who work with children and youth ages 9-18 years. The YDOT also allows Excel to provide structured feedback to programs. Excel has several unique features, including a virtual platform and a focus on the relationships between adults and youth participating in after-school programs. Offering structured assessment and interaction online eliminates expenses, provides convenient access for programs around the globe, and allows for unobtrusive assessment of worker-youth interactions. Excel is also integrated into a broader network of resources, tools, and research for those working with children and youth ages 9-18.

  5. Progranulin causes adipose insulin resistance via increased autophagy resulting from activated oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinyue; Xu, Lin; Li, Huixia; Sun, Hongzhi; Liu, Jiali; Wu, Shufang; Zhou, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Progranulin (PGRN) has recently emerged as an important regulator for insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of progranulin in adipose insulin resistance associated with the autophagy mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, progranulin was administered to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BL/6 J mice with/without specific inhibitors of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy markers were assessed. Progranulin treatment increased iNOS expression, NO synthesis and ROS generation, and elevated protein expressions of CHOP, GRP78 and the phosphorylation of PERK, and caused a significant increase in Atg7 and LC3-II protein expression and a decreased p62 expression, and decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and glucose uptake, demonstrating that progranulin activated oxidative stress and ER stress, elevated autophagy and induced insulin insensitivity in adipocytes and adipose tissue of mice. Interestingly, inhibition of iNOS and ER stress both reversed progranulin-induced stress response and increased autophagy, protecting against insulin resistance in adipocytes. Furthermore, the administration of the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid reversed the negative effect of progranulin in vivo. Our findings showed the clinical potential of the novel adipokine progranulin in the regulation of insulin resistance, suggesting that progranulin might mediate adipose insulin resistance, at least in part, by inducing autophagy via activated oxidative stress and ER stress.

  6. Cellulose nanofibers/reduced graphene oxide flexible transparent conductive paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Wu, Xue; Wang, Xi; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun

    2013-08-14

    The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) paper exhibit high visible light transmittance, high mechanical strength, and excellent flexibility. Therefore, CNFs paper may be an excellent substrate material for flexible transparent electronic devices. In this paper, we endeavor to prepare CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly using divalent copper ions (Cu(2+)) as the crosslinking agent. The thickness of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) active layer in the CNFs paper can be controlled by the cycle times of the LbL assembly. CNFs/[RGO]20 paper has the sheet resistances of ∼2.5 kΩ/□, and the transmittance of about 76% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, CNFs/[RGO]20 paper inherits the excellent mechanical properties of CNFs paper, and the ultimate strength is about 136 MPa. CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper also exhibits excellent electrical stability and flexibility. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Oxygen-ion-migration-modulated bipolar resistive switching and complementary resistive switching in tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghui; Zhang, Qiuhui; Cui, Nana; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Kefu; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Qixing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation of room-temperature-fabricated tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold (W/ITO/Au) resistive random access memory (RRAM), which exhibits asymmetric bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. The device displays good write/erase endurance and data retention properties. The device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics after controlling the compliance current. A WO x layer electrically formed at the W/ITO in the forming process. Mobile oxygen ions within ITO migrate toward the electrode/ITO interface and produce a semiconductor-like layer that acts as a free-carrier barrier. The CRS characteristic here can be elucidated in light of the evolution of an asymmetric free-carrier blocking layer at the electrode/ITO interface.

  8. Enhanced oxidative killing of azole-resistant Candida glabrata strains with ERG11 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, V L; Geber, A; Bennett, J E

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of genetically defined Candida glabrata strains to killing by H2O2 and neutrophils was assessed. Fluconazole-susceptible L5L and L5D strains demonstrated survival rates higher than those of two fluconazole-resistant strains lacking the ERG11 gene coding for 14 alpha-demethylase. Fluconazole resistance can occur by mechanisms which increase fungal susceptibility to oxidative killing by H2O2 and neutrophils. PMID:8807069

  9. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  10. Role of Y in the oxidation resistance of CrAlYN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Meister, S.; El Mrabet, S.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Mariscal, A.; Jiménez de Haro, M. C.; Justo, A.; Brizuela, M.; Rojas, T. C.; Sánchez-López, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    CrAlYN coatings with different aluminum (4-12 at.%) and yttrium (2-5 at.%) contents are deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and M2 steel substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N2 mixtures. The influence of the nanostructure and chemical elemental distribution on the oxidation resistance after heating in air at 1000 °C is studied by means of cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (X-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES). The sequential exposure to the metallic targets during the synthesis leads to a multilayer structure where concentration of metallic elements (Cr, Al and Y) is changing periodically. A good oxidation resistance is observed when Al- and Y-rich regions are separated by well-defined CrN layers, maintaining crystalline coherence along the columnar structure. This protective behavior is independent of the type of substrate and corresponds to the formation of a thin mixed (Al, Cr)-oxide scale that protects the film underneath. The GD-OES and XRD analysis have demonstrated that Y acts as a reactive element, blocking the Fe and C atoms diffusion from the steel and favoring higher Al/Cr ratio in the passivation layer after heating. The coating with Y content around 4 at.% exhibited the best performance with a thinner oxide scale, a delay in the CrN decomposition and transformation to Cr2N, and a more effective Fe and C blocking.

  11. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-22

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  12. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  13. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-01

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  14. Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide coatings with photochromism and UV durability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ting [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° and rolling angle of 3.5° were developed. • The superhydrophobic coatings have excellent mechanical robustness and UV durability. • The superhydrophobic TO coatings show the reversible convert of photochromism. • The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. - Abstract: Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° were developed for photochromism via a facile and substrate-independent route. Importantly, after scatch test on both a single and two orthogonal direction, the TO coating still exhibited superhydrophobic behavior, indicating excellent mechanical robustness. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic TO coatings showed the reversible convert of photochromism of WO{sub 3} induced by alternating UV and visible light irradiation. Besides that, the TO coating remained superhydrophobicity after UV irradiation for 36 h, showing excellent UV durability. In addition, the coating showed good resistance to acidic droplets. Moreover, it can also be applied on other substrates, such as copper mesh, steel, paper and fiber. The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. Overall, this work is a promising approach to design and produce functional superhydrophobic coatings for various substrates.

  15. Can microbial cells develop resistance to oxidative stress in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Nasim; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    Infections have been a major cause of disease throughout the history of humans on earth. With the introduction of antibiotics, it was thought that infections had been conquered. However, bacteria have been able to develop resistance to antibiotics at an exponentially increasing rate. The growing threat from multi-drug resistant organisms calls for intensive action to prevent the emergence of totally resistant and untreatable infections. Novel, non-invasive, non-antibiotic strategies are needed that act more efficiently and faster than current antibiotics. One promising alternative is antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI), an approach that produces reactive oxygen species when dyes and light are combined. So far, it has been questionable if bacteria can develop resistance against APDI. This review paper gives an overview of recent studies concerning the susceptibility of bacteria towards oxidative stress, and suggests possible mechanisms of the development of APDI-resistance that should at least be addressed. Some ways to potentiate APDI and also to overcome future resistance are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of target-substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10-4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  17. An evaluation of corrosion resistant alloys by field corrosion test in Japanese refuse incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Yuuzou; Nakamura, Masanori; Shibuya, Eiichi; Yukawa, Kenichi

    1995-01-01

    As the first step for development of the corrosion resistant superheater tube materials of 500 C, 100 ata used in high efficient waste-to-energy plants, field corrosion tests of six conventional alloys were carried out at metal temperatures of 450 C and 550 C for 700 and 3,000 hours in four typical Japanese waste incineration plants. The test results indicate that austenitic alloys containing approximately 80 wt% [Cr+Ni] show excellent corrosion resistance. When the corrosive environment is severe, intergranular corrosion of 40∼200 microm depth occurs in stainless steel and high alloyed materials. It is confirmed quantitatively that corrosion behavior is influenced by environmental corrosion factors such as Cl concentration and thickness of deposits on tube surface, metal temperature, and flue gas temperature. The excellent corrosion resistance of high [Cr+Ni+Mo] alloys such as Alloy 625 is explained by the stability of its protective oxide, such that the time dependence of corrosion nearly obeys the parabolic rate law

  18. Oxidized zirconium: a potentially longer lasting hip implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, V.; Widding, K.; Hunter, G.; Heuer, D.

    2005-01-01

    Because younger, more active patients are receiving total hip replacements, it is necessary to develop materials, which would increase the life span of the implants and challenge their wear potential under adverse conditions. Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is a metal with the surface transformed to ceramic by oxidation that offers low fracture risk and excellent abrasion resistance. This study compared wear of polyethylene (non-irradiated and highly crosslinked) with OxZr and CoCr heads under smooth and rough (clinically relevant) conditions. Wear was up to 15-fold less and up to 4-fold fewer particles were produced when coupled with OxZr than with CoCr, demonstrating that OxZr heads should increase clinical implant longevity

  19. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Techasen, Anchalee [Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hou, Bo [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Yongvanit, Puangrat, E-mail: puangrat@kku.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Murata, Mariko, E-mail: mmurata@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  20. Formation and oxidation resistance of NbSi2 coatings on niobium by pack cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Lixin; Le Jun; Zhang Xiaowei; Pei Baogen; Hu Xingfang

    2005-01-01

    NbSi 2 coatings were formed on niobium by halide-activated pack cementation process. The as-coated niobium samples were oxidized in air up to 1723 K by thermogravimetry method. The surface and cross-sectional morphology, phase composition and element distribution of the NbSi 2 coatings before and after oxidation were characterized by SEM, XRD and EPMA. The results show that the as-formed coatings consist of single phase of hexagonal NbSi 2 and the oxidation resistance of pure niobium can be greatly improved by pack siliconizing. (orig.)

  1. Ordovas-Oxidized LDL is associated with metabolic syndrome traits independently of central obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baselin...

  2. Interface strength and degradation of adhesively bonded porous aluminum oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Abrahami, Shoshan; M. M. de Kok, John; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    2017-01-01

    For more than six decades, chromic acid anodizing has been the main step in the surface treatment of aluminum for adhesivelybonded aircraft structures. Soon this process, known for producing a readily adherent oxide with an excellent corrosion resistance,will be banned by strict international....... The relationship between the anodizing conditions insulfuric and mixtures of sulfuric and phosphoric acid electrolytes and the formation and durability of bonding under variousenvironmental conditions was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the oxide features. Selectedspecimens were...... studied with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to measureresin concentration within structurally different porous anodic oxide layers as a function of depth. Results show that there are twocritical morphological aspects for strong and durable bonding. First...

  3. Effects of fish oil on oxidation resistance of VLDL in hypertriglyceridemic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hau, M.-F.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Bindels, A.J.G.H.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Laarse, A. van der; Onkenhout, W.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Princen, H.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    In hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients the addition of fish oil to the diet causes a marked reduction in the concentration of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the serum. To investigate the effects of fish oil on the oxidation resistance of VLDL and LDL in HTG patients, nine male patients received 1

  4. Switching behavior of resistive change memory using oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Takashige; Sugawa, Kosuke; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Takase, Kouichi

    2018-06-01

    Resistive change random access memory (ReRAM), which is expected to be the next-generation nonvolatile memory, often has wide switching voltage distributions due to many kinds of conductive filaments. In this study, we have tried to suppress the distribution through the structural restriction of the filament-forming area using NiO nanowires. The capacitor with Ni metal nanowires whose surface is oxidized showed good switching behaviors with narrow distributions. The knowledge gained from our study will be very helpful in producing practical ReRAM devices.

  5. High temperature oxidation resistance of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-based cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicardi, E.; Córdoba, J.M.; Gotor, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cermets based on (Ti,Ta)(C,N) were oxidized in air between 800 and 1100 °C for 48 h. • The substitution of Ti by Ta resulted in a high resistance to oxidation. • A protective layer of cobalt titanates at the surface of cermets was observed. • A rutile phase in which some Ti"4"+ are replaced by Ta"5"+ was detected. • This replacement decelerated the oxygen diffusion into the cermets. - Abstract: Cermets based on titanium–tantalum carbonitride were oxidized in static air between 800 °C and 1100 °C for 48 h. The thermogravimetric and microstructural study showed an outstanding reduction in the oxidation of more than 90% when the Ta content was increased. In cermets with low Ta content, the formation of a thin CoO/Co_3O_4 outer layer tends to disappear by reacting with the underlying rutile phase, which emerges at the surface. However, in cermets with higher Ta content, the formation of an external titanate layer, observed even at a low temperature, appears to prevent the oxygen diffusion and the oxidation progression.

  6. Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described

  7. Transparent Conducting Films with Multilayered Structures Formed by Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jie Hun; Jang, Hyun Chul; Choi, Jung Mi; Hyeon, Jae Young; Sok, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in electronic displays should have comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity while being easy to source and manufacture. However, novel materials such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) are incapable of addressing these challenges. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate good transparent conductive films (TCFs) by combining and leveraging the superior optical transparency of RGOs and the excellent electrical conductivity of SWCNTs. This method affords thin multilayers of SWCNTs and RGOs with excellent optical and electrical properties because these properties are correlated with spraying time and the amount of SWCNTs or RGOs. In general, transmittance is advantageous to RGO as conductance is to CNTs. With a view to finding good TCFs with reduced sheet resistance, but with little sacrifice of transmittance, it is natural to explore the combination of CNT and RGO. The sandwiched multilayer of SWCNTs and RGOs exhibited a low sheet resistance of 214.2 Ω/sq, which was comparable to that of SWCNTs, and a transmittance of 60% at a wavelength of 550 nm. To further reduce the sheet resistance and improve the transparency of the multilayer TCFs, Au doping was carried out. The doping, in combination with controlled spraying of the amount of SWCNTs and RGOs, led to multilayers with resistance/transmittance combinations of 141.3 Ω/sq and 70% and 371.5 Ω/sq and 83%. These properties meet the requisite criteria for an ITO replacement.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  9. Laser cladding in-situ carbide particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings with rare earth oxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝锋; 马明星; 刘文今; 钟敏霖; 张红军; 张伟明

    2009-01-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composite(PR-MMC) has excellent properties such as good wear resistance,corrosion resistance and high temperature properties.Laser cladding is usually used to form PR-MMC on metal surface with various volume fractions of ceramic particles.Recent literatures showed that laser melting of powder mixture containing carbon and carbide-forming elements,was favorable for the formation of in-situ synthesized carbide particles.In this paper,rare earth oxide(RE2O3) was added into t...

  10. Improved reaction sintered silicon nitride. [protective coatings to improve oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Processing treatments were applied to as-nitrided reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) with the purposes of improving strength after processing to above 350 MN/m2 and improving strength after oxidation exposure. The experimental approaches are divided into three broad classifications: sintering of surface-applied powders; impregnation of solution followed by further thermal processing; and infiltration of molten silicon and subsequent carburization or nitridation of the silicon. The impregnation of RSSN with solutions of aluminum nitrate and zirconyl chloride, followed by heating at 1400-1500 C in a nitrogen atmosphere containing silicon monoxide, improved RSSN strength and oxidation resistance. The room temperature bend strength of RSSN was increased nearly fifty percent above the untreated strength with mean absolute strengths up to 420 MN/m2. Strengths of treated samples that were measured after a 12 hour oxidation exposure in air were up to 90 percent of the original as-nitrided strength, as compared to retained strengths in the range of 35 to 60 percent for untreated RSSN after the same oxidation exposure.

  11. Excellent Tribological Properties of Lower Reduced Graphene Oxide Content Copper Composite by Using a One-Step Reduction Molecular-Level Mixing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Nie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite copper matrix powders were fabricated successfully by using a modified molecular-level mixing (MLM method. Divalent copper ions (Cu2+ were adsorbed in oxygen functional groups of graphene oxide (GO as a precursor, then were reduced simultaneously by one step chemical reduction. RGO showed a distribution converting from a random to a three-dimensional network in the copper matrix when its content increased to above 1.0 wt.% The tribological tests indicated that the friction coefficient of the composite with 1.0 wt.% RGO decreased markedly from 0.6 to 0.07 at an applied load of 10 N, and the wear rate was about one-third of pure copper. The excellent tribological properties were attributed to a three-dimensional and uniform distribution, which contributes to improving toughness and adhesion strength.

  12. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films with buffer layers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin-hua; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan

    2013-09-02

    Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit rough pyramid-like textured surface, high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region and excellent electrical properties. The experiment results indicate that tungsten-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) buffer layers can effectively improve the surface roughness and enhance the light scattering ability of HGZO thin films. The root-mean-square roughness of HGZO, IWO (10 nm)/HGZO and IWO (30 nm)/HGZO thin films are 28, 44 and 47 nm, respectively. The haze values at the wavelength of 550 nm increase from 7.0% of HGZO thin film without buffer layer to 18.37% of IWO (10 nm)/HGZO thin film. The optimized IWO (10 nm)/HGZO exhibits a high optical transmittance of 82.18% in the visible and near infrared region (λ ∼ 400–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties with a relatively low sheet resistance of 3.6 Ω/□ and the resistivity of 6.21 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm. - Highlights: • Textured hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) films were developed. • Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) buffer layers were applied for the HGZO films. • Light-scattering ability of the HGZO films can be improved through buffer layers. • Low sheet resistance and high haze were obtained for the IWO(10 nm)/HGZO film. • The IWO/HGZO films are promising transparent conductive layers for solar cells.

  13. Novel Cu@SiO{sub 2}/bacterial cellulose nanofibers: Preparation and excellent performance in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bo [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao Ling Wei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Department of Life Sciences of Lianyungang Teacher' s College, Sheng Hu Lu 28, Lianyungang 222006 (China); Huang, Yang; Zhu, Chunlin; Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Fan, Mengmeng [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao Ling Wei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun, Dongping, E-mail: sundpe301@163.com [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao Ling Wei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The antibacterial composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of SiO{sub 2} coated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@SiO{sub 2}/BC) and its properties were characterized. Its chemical structures and morphologies were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the SiO{sub 2} coated Cu particles were well homogeneously precipitated on the surface of BC. The Cu@SiO{sub 2}/BC was more resistant to oxidation than the Cu nanoparticles impregnated into BC (Cu/BC) and then Cu@SiO{sub 2}/BC could prolong the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of Cu@SiO{sub 2}/BC. Due to its unique structure, the Cu@SiO{sub 2}/BC membrane shows excellent antibacterial effects and can be used for a long time. - Highlights: • This work paves the novel way to fabricate antibacterial nanomaterial with good efficiency. • We prepare the antibacterial membrane based on bacterial cellulose by in-situ synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-coated Cu nanoparticles. • The antibacterial membrane is more resistant to oxidation and can prolong the antimicrobial activity.

  14. Improvement in the mechanical properties, proton conductivity, and methanol resistance of highly branched sulfonated poly(arylene ether)/graphene oxide grafted with flexible alkylsulfonated side chains nanocomposite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Peng, Jinhua; Li, Zhuoyao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Sulfonated polymer/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties as proton exchange membranes. However, few investigations on highly branched sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s (HBSPE)/GO nanocomposites as proton exchange membranes are reported. In order to obtain HBSPE-based nanocomposite membranes with better dispersibility and properties, a novel GO containing flexible alkylsulfonated side chains (SGO) is designed and prepared for the first time in this work. The HBSPE/SGO nanocomposite membranes with excellent dispersibility are successfully prepared. The properties of these membranes, including the mechanical properties, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol resistance, are characterized. The nanocomposite membranes exhibit higher tensile strength (32.67 MPa), higher proton conductivity (0.39 S cm-1 at 80 °C) and lower methanol permeability (4.89 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) than the pristine membrane. The nanocomposite membranes also achieve a higher maximum power density (82.36 mW cm-2) than the pristine membrane (67.85 mW cm-2) in single-cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) tests, demonstrating their considerable potential for applications in DMFCs.

  15. Oxidation resistant coatings for ceramic matrix composite components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaubert, V.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hirschfeld, D.A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Corrosion resistant Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CMZP) and Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CS-50) coatings for fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchanger tubes have been developed. Aqueous slurries of both oxides were prepared with high solids loading. One coating process consisted of dipping the samples in a slip. A tape casting process has also been created that produced relatively thin and dense coatings covering a large area. A processing technique was developed, utilizing a pre-sintering step, which produced coatings with minimal cracking.

  16. VO2(B conversion to VO2(A and VO2(M and their oxidation resistance and optical switching properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yifu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide VO2 has been paid in recent years increasing attention because of its various applications, however, its oxidation resistance properties in air atmosphere have rarely been reported. Herein, VO2(B nanobelts were transformed into VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts by hydrothermal route and calcination treatment, respectively. Then, we comparatively studied the oxidation resistance properties of VO2(B, VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts in air atmosphere by thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA. It was found that the nanobelts had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 341 °C, 408 °C and 465 °C in air, respectively, indicating that they were stable in air at room temperature. The fierce oxidation of the nanobelts occurred at 426, 507 and 645 °C, respectively. The results showed that the VO2(M nanobelts had the best thermal stability and oxidation resistance among the others. Furthermore, the phase transition temperatures and optical switching properties of VO2(A and VO2(M were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and variable temperature infrared spectra. It was found that the VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts had outstanding thermochromic character and optical switching properties.

  17. 9% Cr steel high temperature oxidation. Solutions investigated for improving corrosion resistance of the steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, Harold Nicolas; Heintz, Olivier; Chevalier, Sebastien [UMR 5209 CNRS-Bourgogne Univ. (France). Lab. Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne; Foejer, Cecilia; Jakani, Saad; Dhont, Annick; Claessens, Serge [OCAS N.V. ArcelorMittal Global R and D, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of low chromium content steels, such as T/P91, is of great interest in regards with their application in thermal power generating plants. Indeed, they possess good creep properties, but are facing their limits of use at temperature higher than 600 C, due to accelerated corrosion phenomena. Good knowledge of the mechanisms involved during their oxidation process is needed to prevent the degradation of the materials and to extend life time of the power plants components. Oxide layers thermally grown, on 9% Cr steels (provided by OCAS N.V), during isothermal tests between 600 C and 750 C in laboratory air under atmospheric pressure were investigated, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxidation behaviour appeared very limited at 750 C, due to the presence of a breakaway, which can be linked to iron porous oxide grown over the surface of the samples. ''In situ'' X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed in air at 600 C after short exposures (between 5 min and 25 h). A complex mixture of iron oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr (VI) species were characterized in the scales. The in-situ analyses were compared and related to XPS analyses performed on thick oxide scales formed on samples oxidized in air at 600 C for 100h. An oxidation mechanism is then proposed to understand the oxide scale growth in the temperature range 600 - 750 C. The second step of this study consists in improving the high temperature corrosion resistance of these steels without modifying their mechanical properties. Thus several solutions were investigated such as MOCVD coatings, pack cementation coatings, and tested in cycle conditions prior. (orig.)

  18. Cathodic arc sputtering of functional titanium oxide thin films, demonstrating resistive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Petr, E-mail: pshvets@innopark.kantiana.ru; Maksimova, Ksenia; Demin, Maxim; Dikaya, Olga; Goikhman, Alexander

    2017-05-15

    The formation of thin films of the different stable and metastable titanium oxide phases is demonstrated by cathode arc sputtering of a titanium target in an oxygen atmosphere. We also show that sputtering of titanium in vacuum yields the formation of titanium silicides on the silicon substrate. The crystal structure of the produced samples was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. We conclude that cathode arc sputtering is a flexible method suitable for producing the functional films for electronic applications. The functionality is verified by the memory effect demonstration, based on the resistive switching in the titanium oxide thin film structure.

  19. Analog memory and spike-timing-dependent plasticity characteristics of a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyungah; Park, Sangsu; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Byounghun; Hwang, Hyunsang; Kim, Insung; Jung, Seungjae; Jo, Minseok; Park, Jubong; Shin, Jungho; Biju, Kuyyadi P; Kong, Jaemin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated analog memory, synaptic plasticity, and a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) function with a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device with a simple fabrication process and good yield uniformity. We confirmed the multilevel conductance and analog memory characteristics as well as the uniformity and separated states for the accuracy of conductance change. Finally, STDP and a biological triple model were analyzed to demonstrate the potential of titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device as synapses in neuromorphic devices. By developing a simple resistive switching device that can emulate a synaptic function, the unique characteristics of synapses in the brain, e.g. combined memory and computing in one synapse and adaptation to the outside environment, were successfully demonstrated in a solid state device.

  20. Influence of electropolishing and anodic oxidation on morphology, chemical composition and corrosion resistance of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Maciej; Greń, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kukharenko, Andrey I. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, Mira str. 19 (Russian Federation); Korotin, Danila M. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Michalska, Joanna [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego Street 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Mosiałek, Michał [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek Street 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland); Żak, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Pamuła, Elżbieta [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza Avenue 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Kurmaev, Ernst Z. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cholakh, Seif O. [Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, Mira str. 19 (Russian Federation); Simka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.simka@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    The work presents results of the studies performed on electropolishing of pure niobium in a bath that contained: sulphuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, ethylene glycol and acetanilide. After the electropolishing, the specimens were subjected to anodic passivation in a 1 mol dm{sup −3} phosphoric acid solution at various voltages. The surface morphology, thickness, roughness and chemical composition of the resulting oxide layers were analysed. Thusly prepared niobium samples were additionally investigated in terms of their corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution. The electropolished niobium surface was determined to be smooth and lustrous. The anodisation led to the growth of barrier-like oxide layers, which were enriched in phosphorus species. - Highlights: • Pure niobium was electropolished and subsequently anodised in a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. • Phosphorus was successfully introduced into the oxide layers after the treatment. • Corrosion resistance of niobium in Ringer's solution was improved after anodising.

  1. Unipolar resistive switching in metal oxide/organic semiconductor non-volatile memories as a critical phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Rocha, Paulo R. F.; Gomes, Henrique L.; Leeuw, Dago M. de

    2015-01-01

    Diodes incorporating a bilayer of an organic semiconductor and a wide bandgap metal oxide can show unipolar, non-volatile memory behavior after electroforming. The prolonged bias voltage stress induces defects in the metal oxide with an areal density exceeding 10 17  m −2 . We explain the electrical bistability by the coexistence of two thermodynamically stable phases at the interface between an organic semiconductor and metal oxide. One phase contains mainly ionized defects and has a low work function, while the other phase has mainly neutral defects and a high work function. In the diodes, domains of the phase with a low work function constitute current filaments. The phase composition and critical temperature are derived from a 2D Ising model as a function of chemical potential. The model predicts filamentary conduction exhibiting a negative differential resistance and nonvolatile memory behavior. The model is expected to be generally applicable to any bilayer system that shows unipolar resistive switching

  2. Enhancement of corrosion resistance for plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel by plain air plasma post-oxidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiqiang; Liu, Han; Ye, Xuemei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Chai, Yating [Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Hu, Jing, E-mail: jinghoo@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Plain air was primarily used for plasma post-oxidation for AISI 4140 steel. • A thin iron oxide layer composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on top of the compound layer. • The ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was closely related to the post-oxidizing conditions. • Post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min brought out highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and optimum corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma post-oxidizing was conducted immediately after plasma nitriding in the same equipment for AISI 4140 steel, and plain air was used as the oxygen bearing gas. The cross-sectional microstructures of the treated samples were observed by optical metallography and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and the thickness of compound layer was measured accordingly. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization, and the surface morphology before and after polarization test was also observed by SEM. Meanwhile, standard Gibbs free energy of the oxidation reactions existed in Fe–O system was calculated. The results show that a thin iron oxide layer composed of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is formed on top of the compound layer during plasma post-oxidizing process, and the ratio of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is depended on plasma post-oxidizing temperature and time. Highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained while post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min due to lower standard Gibbs free energy and appropriate forming rate for the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at this temperature. The thin oxide layer brings out significant enhancement of corrosion resistance, especially at higher ratios of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to the dense and adherent characteristic of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide. Surface images of the post-oxidizing specimen

  3. Investigation on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvet, P.; Mur, P.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium in nitric solutions exhibits an excellent corrosion resistance in the passive state, and a mediocre corrosion resistance in the unpassive state with risk of stress corrosion cracking. Results of the influence of some parameters (medium, potential, temperature, stress, friction, metallurgical structure and surface state) on zirconium passivation are presented. Zirconium remains passive in a large range of HNO 3 concentration (at least up to 14.4N), in the presence of oxidizing ions (Cr 4 , Ce 4 ), in a spent fuel dissolution solution. Zirconium is depassived by friction at high speed and pressure, by platinum coupling in boiling 14.4N HNO 3 with or without stress, or by imposed deformation speed under high potential. (A.B.)

  4. Critical-temperature inhomogeneities and resistivity rounding in copper oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, J.; Vidal, F.

    1991-01-01

    By using effective-medium approaches, we obtain the onset of the electrical-resistivity rounding, above the normal-superconducting transition, associated with inhomogeneities of the mean-field critical temperature T c0 at scales larger than the superconducting correlation length. These results are compared with available data in single-crystal and single-phase (to within 4%) polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ samples. This comparison shows that the measured resistivity rounding cannot be explained by these types of local T c0 inhomogeneities. Complementarily, our calculations allow us to check some proposals on T c0 inhomogeneities associated with local sample strains or oxygen-content variations. The interplay between T c0 inhomogeneities and superconducting order-parameter fluctuations (SCOPF) leads to the conclusion that in the mean-field-like region (MFR) above the superconducting transition, the T c0 inhomogeneity contribution to the measured resistivity rounding in high-quality (single-phase) cuprate oxide superconductors is negligible. In contrast, our analysis confirms that in the MFR these effects may be explained quantitatively on the grounds of the Lawrence-Doniach theory for SCOPF

  5. Structural evaluation of reduced graphene oxide in graphene oxide during ion irradiation: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in-situ sheet resistance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K.; Jayalakshmi, G.; Suresh, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural evolution of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in graphene oxide (GO) flakes during 1 MeV Si+ ion irradiation. In-situ electrical resistivity measurements facilitate monitoring the sheet resistance with the increase in the fluence. The electrical sheet resistance of the GO flake shows the exponential decay behaviour with the increasing ion fluence. Raman spectra of the GO flake reveal the increase in the ID/IG ratio, indicating restoration of the sp2 network upon irradiation. The C/O ratio estimated from resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis directly evidenced the reduction of oxygen moieties upon irradiation. C K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra reveal the restoration of C=C sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups in the GO flake. STM data reveal the higher conductance in the rGO regime in comparison with the regime, where the oxygen functional groups are present. The experimental investigation demonstrates that the ion irradiation can be employed for efficient reduction of GO with tunable electrical and structural properties.

  6. Failure of Elevating Calcium Induces Oxidative Stress Tolerance and Imparts Cisplatin Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liwei; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Jing; Xie, Qi; Xu, Lu; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Li, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of malignant ovarian cancer, but acquired resistance limits its application. There is therefore an overwhelming need to understand the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, that is, ovarian cancer cells are insensitive to cisplatin treatment. Here, we show that failure of elevating calcium and oxidative stress tolerance play key roles in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin induce...

  7. The Interface Structure of High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant Aluminum-Based Coatings on Titanium Billet Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhefeng; Rong, Ju; Yu, Xiaohua; Kun, Meng; Zhan, Zhaolin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yannan

    2017-10-01

    A new type of high-temperature oxidation-resistant aluminum-based coating, on a titanium billet surface, was fabricated by the cold spray method, at a high temperature of 1050°C, for 8 h, under atmospheric pressure. The microstructure of the exposed surface was analyzed via optical microscopy, the microstructure of the coating and elemental diffusion was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and the interfacial phases were identified via x-ray diffraction. The Ti-Al binary phase diagram and Gibbs free energy of the stable phase were calculated by Thermo-calc. The results revealed that good oxidation resistant 50-μm-thick coatings were successfully obtained after 8 h at 1050°C. Two layers were obtained after the coating process: an Al2O3 oxidation layer and a TiAl3 transition layer on the Ti-based substrate. The large and brittle Al2O3 grains on the surface, which can be easily spalled off from the surface after thermal processing, protected the substrate against oxidation during processing. In addition, the thermodynamic calculation results were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. High temperature oxidation resistance of magnetron-sputtered homogeneous CrAlON coatings on 430 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garratt, E; Wickey, K J; Nandasiri, M I; Moore, A; AlFaify, S; Gao, X [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Smith, R J; Buchanan, T L; Priyantha, W; Kopczyk, M; Gannon, P E [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717 (United States); Kayani, A, E-mail: asghar.kayani@wmich.ed

    2009-11-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigated the performance of steel plates with homogenous coatings of CrAlON (oxynitrides). The coatings were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, with Ar as a sputtering gas. Oxygen in these coatings was not intentionally added. Oxygen might have come through contaminated nitrogen gas bottle, leak in the chamber or from the partial pressure of water vapors. Nitrogen was added during the growth process to get oxynitride coating. The Cr/Al composition ratio in the coatings was varied in a combinatorial approach. The coatings were subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 {sup o}C. The composition of the coated plates and the rate of oxidation were characterized using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Surface characterization was carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and surfaces of the coatings were found smooth on submicron scale. From our results, we conclude that Al rich coatings are more susceptible to oxidation than Cr rich coatings.

  9. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of an epoxy-polyamide coating containing different ratios of micaceous iron oxide/Al pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, B.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Sarabi, A.A.; Kasiriha, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of the coating was improved using MIO and Al pigments. → The greatest coating corrosion resistance was observed at MIO/Al ratio of 10/90. → The cathodic disbonded area of the coating was decreased using MIO and Al particles. → The lowest disbonded area was observed at MIO/Al ratio of 10/90. → Al particles had high capability of reacting with the OH - ions. - Abstract: The corrosion resistance of an epoxy coating reinforced with different ratios of MIO/Al pigments was studied. The coatings properties were investigated by an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray test, cathodic disbonding and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was improved using MIO (micaceous iron oxide) and Al pigments. The corrosion resistance of the purely Al pigmented coating was considerably greater than the purely MIO pigmented coating. The cathodic disbonded area of coating was decreased using MIO and Al pigments. The decrease in disbonded area was more pronounced in the presence of Al particles.

  10. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  11. Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Xu, Wen Ming; Zhang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level. Case-control study. University teaching hospital. In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry. PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients. The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water

  13. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  14. The iron and cerium oxide influence on the electric conductivity and the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Kellie Provazi de

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different treatments on the aluminum system covered with aluminum oxide is investigated. The aluminum anodization in sulphuric media and in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric media was used to alter the corrosion resistance, thickness, coverage degree and microhardness of the anodic oxide. Iron electrodeposition inside the anodic oxide was used to change its electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. Direct and pulsed current were used for iron electrodeposition and the Fe(SO 4 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O electrolyte composition was changed with the addition of boric and ascorbic acids. To the sealing treatment the CeCl 3 composition was varied. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS), the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (FRX) and the morphologic analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) allowed to verify that, the pulsed current increase the iron content inside the anodic layer and that the use of the additives inhibits the iron oxidation. The chronopotentiometric curves obtained during iron electrodeposition indicated that the boric and ascorbic acids mixture increased the electrodeposition process efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE), the Vickers (Hv) microhardness measurements and morphologic analysis evidenced that the sealing treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the anodic film modified with iron. The electrical impedance (EI) technique allowed to prove the electric conductivity increase of the anodized aluminum with iron electrodeposited even after the cerium low concentration treatment. Iron nanowires were prepared by using the anodic oxide pores as template. (author)

  15. The resistance changes of carbon and metal oxide film resistors by irradiation of 60Co γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujino, Takahiro; Furuta, Junichiro; Yoshida, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The resistance changes of glass-sealed deposited-carbon-film and carbon-coated-film resitors and metal oxide glazed resistors made in USA were studied by gamma-ray irradiation. (1) The resistances of deposited-carbon-film resistors of 50, 100 and 200 megohm did not change by irradiation of gamma rays up to 1.9 x 10 9 R. (2) The carbon-coated-film resistors of 100, 1000, 10000 and 100000 megohm had negative resistance changes by irradiation of gamma rays up to 9.9 x 10 8 R. (3) The resistances of metal oxide glazed resistors of 100, 1000 and 10000 megohm did not change by irradiation of gamma rays up to 8.8 x 10 8 R. When radiation monitoring instruments with hi-meg resistors are used in a gamma field with high intensity, the resistors must not be exposed to gamma rays with high doses, or the resistors which do not change by gamma-ray irradiation must be selected. (author)

  16. Effect of radiation resistance additives for insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Yagyu, Hideki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    For the electric wires and cables used in radiation environment such as nuclear power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities, the properties of excellent radiation resistance are required. For these insulators and sheath materials, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene and other polymers have been used, but it cannot be said that they always have good radiation resistance. However, it has been well known that radiation resistance can be improved with small amount of additives, and heat resistance and burning retarding property as well as radiation resistance are given to the insulators of wires and cables for nuclear facilities by mixing various additives. In this research, the measuring method for quantitatively determining the effect of Anti-rad (radiation resistant additive) was examined. Through the measurement of gel fraction, radical formation and decomposed gas generation, the effect of Anti-rad protecting polymers from radiation deterioration was examined from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The experimental method and the results are reported. The radiation energy for cutting C-H coupling is polymers is dispersed by Anti-rad, and the probability of cutting is lowered. Anti-rad catches and extinguishes radicals that start oxidation reaction. (K.I.)

  17. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  18. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  19. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Raji, Hikmat O; Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Adigun, Nurudeen S; Giwa, Oluwayemisi B; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Oladiji, Adenike T

    2016-03-30

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high-fructose diet. High-fructose diet-fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight of H. sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from week 7 of high-fructose diet treatment. High-fructose diet significantly (P Hibiscus extract. Overall, aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics studies on effect of Zr on oxidation resistance of TiAlN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Jingwu [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Kong, Yi, E-mail: yikong@csu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Chen, Li [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China); Zhuzhou Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools Co., Ltd., Zhuzhou, Hunan 412007 (China); Du, Yong [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha,Hunan 410083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The lowest bonding energy sequence for dimers in the vacuum: Zr−O < Ti−O < Al−O. • The lowest bonding energy sequence for oxygen above the surface: Ti−O < Zr−O < Al−O. • At 300 K, the addition of Zr benefitting the formation of vacancy and TiO{sub 2}. • At 1123 K, the addition of Zr leading to a more stable surface. • Our findings explain that the oxidation resistance of TiAlZrN superior to TiAlN at 1123 K as well as TiAlZrN at 300 K. - Abstract: It was demonstrated experimentally that doping Zr into TiAlN coatings at room temperature will detriment its oxidation resistance. On the other hand, there are evidences that doping Zr into TiAlN at high temperature will improve coating's oxidation resistance. In the present work, we address the effect of Zr on the oxidation resistance of TiAlN by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The TiAlN and TiAlZrN (1 Zr atom replacing 1 Ti atom) surfaces covered with 4 oxygen atoms at 300 K and 1123 K were simulated. Based on the analysis of the atomic motion, bond formation after relaxation, and the charge density difference maps we find that at 300 K, the addition of Zr induces escape of Ti atoms from the surface, resulting in formation of surface vacancies and subsequently TiO{sub 2}. Comparison of metal-oxygen dimers in the vacuum and above the TiAlZrN surface further shows that the addition of Zr in the TiAlN surface will change the lowest bonding energy sequence from Zr−O < Ti−O < Al−O in the vacuum to Ti−O < Zr−O < Al−O above the TiAlZrN surface. From Molecular Dynamics simulations at 1123 K, it is find that no Ti vacancies were generated in the surface. Moreover, less charge is transferred from metal to N atoms and the bond lengths between Ti and O atoms become shorter at 1123 K as compared with 300 K, suggesting that the addition of Zr atom promotes the interaction of Ti and O at TiAlZrN surface at 1123 K, leading to a more stable surface. Our simulation

  1. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Po-Kang

    2015-10-12

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85 °C is over 3 × 104 sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity = 90% at 85 °C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments.

  2. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  3. Corrosion-resistant coating technique for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ando, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are attractive materials for application as fuel cladding in fast reactors and first-wall material of fusion blanket. Recent studies have focused more on high-chromium ferritic (12-18 wt% Cr) ODS steels with attractive corrosion resistance properties. However, they have poor material workability, require complicated heat treatments for recrystallization, and possess anisotropic microstructures and mechanical properties. On the other hand, low-chromium ferritic/martensitic (8-9 wt% Cr) ODS steels have no such limitations; nonetheless, they have poor corrosion resistance properties. In our work, we developed a corrosion-resistant coating technique for a low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. The ODS steel was coated with the 304 or 430 stainless steel, which has better corrosion resistances than the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. The 304 or 430 stainless steel was coated by changing the canning material from mild steel to stainless steel in the conventional material processing procedure for ODS steels. Microstructural observations and micro-hardness tests proved that the stainless steels were successfully coated without causing a deterioration in the mechanical property of the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. (author)

  4. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C.N.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A.C.; Luculescu, C.R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCO thin films were grown by PLD on PET substrate at low temperature. ► We found that the quality of TCO on PET substrate depends on the target–substrate distance. ► TCO with high transparency (>95%) and reduced electrical resistivity (∼5 × 10 −4 Ω cm) were obtained. ► Optimized TCO films deposited on PET were free of any cracks. - Abstract: The influence of target–substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  6. High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant and Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion NiAl-Base Bond Coat Developed for a Turbine Blade Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat

  7. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  8. The effect of body bias of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor in the resistive network on spatial current distribution in a bio-inspired complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor vision chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jae-Sung; Hyun, Hyo-Young; Seo, Sang-Ho; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2008-11-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) vision chips for edge detection based on a resistive circuit have recently been developed. These chips help in the creation of neuromorphic systems of a compact size, high speed of operation, and low power dissipation. The output of the vision chip depends predominantly upon the electrical characteristics of the resistive network which consists of a resistive circuit. In this paper, the body effect of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor for current distribution in a resistive circuit is discussed with a simple model. In order to evaluate the model, two 160 × 120 CMOS vision chips have been fabricated using a standard CMOS technology. The experimental results nicely match our prediction.

  9. Correlation of EPO resistance with oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in patients with maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of erythropoietin (EPO resistance with oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Methods: A total of 184 patients with end-stage renal disease who received maintenance hemodialysis in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital between March 2015 and October 2016 were selected as dialysis group, 102 volunteers who received physical examination in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital during the same period were selected as control group, the EPO resistance index was assessed, the median was calculated, and serum oxidative stress and inflammatory response indexes were detected. Results: Serum T-AOC, SOD and CAT levels in dialysis group were significantly lower than those in control group while MDA, AOPP, IFN-γ, HMGB-1, ICAM-1, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than those in control group; serum T-AOC, SOD and CAT levels in patients with high ERI were significantly lower than those in patients with low ERI while MDA, AOPP, IFN-γ, HMGB-1, ICAM-1, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher than those in patients with low ERI. Conclusion: The degree of EPO resistance in patients with maintenance hemodialysis is closely related to the activation of oxidative stress response and inflammatory response.

  10. Enhanced and selective ammonia sensing of reduced graphene oxide based chemo resistive sensor at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2016-05-01

    The reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated by using the spin coating method. The reduced graphene oxide samples were characterised by Raman studies to obtain corresponding D and G bands at 1360 and 1590 cm-1 respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra consists of peak corresponds to sp2 hybridisation of carbon atoms at 1560 cm-1. The reduced graphene oxide based chemoresistive sensor exhibited a p-type semiconductor behaviour in ambient conditions and showed good sensitivity to different concentration of ammonia from 25 ppm to 500 ppm and excellent selectivity at room temperature. The sensor displays selectivity to several hazardous vapours such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and hydrazine hydrate. The sensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.8 at 25 ppm concentration of ammonia with response time of 163 seconds.

  11. Laterally configured resistive switching device based on transition-metal nano-gap electrode on Gd oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Masatoshi; Okabe, Kyota [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kimura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Research Center for Quantum Nano-Spin Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a fabrication process for a laterally configured resistive switching device based on a Gd oxide. A nano-gap electrode connected by a Gd oxide with the ideal interfaces has been created by adapting the electro-migration method in a metal/GdO{sub x} bilayer system. Bipolar set and reset operations have been clearly observed in the Pt/GdO{sub x} system similarly in the vertical device based on GdO{sub x}. Interestingly, we were able to observe a clear bipolar switching also in a ferromagnetic CoFeB nano-gap electrode with better stability compared to the Pt/GdO{sub x} device. The superior performance of the CoFeB/GdO{sub x} device implies the importance of the spin on the resistive switching.

  12. The characteristics of surface oxidation and corrosion resistance of nitrogen implanted zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, G.; Choi, B.H.; Kim, W.; Jung, K.S.; Kwon, H.S.; Lee, S.J.; Lee, J.H.; Song, T.Y.; Shon, D.H.; Han, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    This work is concerned with the development and application of ion implantation techniques for improving the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-4. The corrosion resistance in nitrogen implanted zircaloy-4 under a 120 keV nitrogen ion beam at an ion dose of 3 x 10 17 cm -2 depends on the implantation temperature. The characteristics of surface oxidation and corrosion resistance were analyzed with the change of implantation temperature. It is shown that as implantation temperature rises from 100 to 724 C, the colour of specimen surface changes from its original colour to light yellow at 100 C, golden at 175 C, pink at 300 C, blue at 440 C and dark blue at 550 C. As the implantation temperature goes above 640 C, the colour of surface changes to light black, and the surface becomes a little rough. The corrosion resistance of zircaloy-4 implanted with nitrogen is sensitive to the implantation temperature. The pitting potential of specimens increases from 176 to 900 mV (SCE) as the implantation temperature increases from 100 to 300 C, and decreases from 900 to 90 mV(SCE) as the implantation temperature increases from 300 to 640 C. The microstructure, the distribution of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon elements, the oxide grain size and the feature of the precipitation in the implanted surface were investigated by optical microscope, TEM, EDS, XRD and AES. The experimental results reveal that the ZrO 2 is distributed mainly on the outer surface. The ZrN is distributed under the ZrO 2 layer. The characteristics of the distribution of ZrO 2 and ZrN in the nitrogen-implanted zircaloy-4 is influenced by the implantation temperature of the sample, and in turn the corrosion resistance is influenced. (orig.)

  13. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yongqi; Liu, Ruixiang; Meng, Jian; Mao, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h) and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C) within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and res...

  14. Carbon-Starvation Induces Cross-Resistance to Thermal, Acid, and Oxidative Stress in Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joseph R.; Kline, La’Kesha C.; Kenyon, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The broad host-range pathogen Serratia marcescens survives in diverse host and non-host environments, often enduring conditions in which the concentration of essential nutrients is growth-limiting. In such environments, carbon and energy source starvation (carbon-starvation) is one of the most common forms of stress encountered by S. marcescens. Related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are known to undergo substantial changes in gene expression and physiology in response to the specific stress of carbon-starvation, enabling non-spore-forming cells to survive periods of prolonged starvation and exposure to other forms of stress (i.e., starvation-induced cross-resistance). To determine if carbon-starvation also results in elevated levels of cross-resistance in S. marcescens, both log-phase and carbon-starved cultures, depleted of glucose before the onset of high cell-density stationary-phase, were grown in minimal media at either 30 °C or 37 °C and were then challenged for resistance to high temperature (50 °C), low pH (pH 2.8), and oxidative stress (15 mM H2O2). In general, carbon-starved cells exhibited a higher level of resistance to thermal stress, acid stress, and oxidative stress compared to log-phase cells. The extent of carbon-starvation-induced cross-resistance was dependent on incubation temperature and on the particular strain of S. marcescens. In addition, strain- and temperature-dependent variations in long-term starvation survival were also observed. The enhanced stress-resistance of starved S. marcescens cells could be an important factor in their survival and persistence in many non-host environments and within certain host microenvironments where the availability of carbon sources is suboptimal for growth. PMID:27682115

  15. Carbon-Starvation Induces Cross-Resistance to Thermal, Acid, and Oxidative Stress in Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Pittman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The broad host-range pathogen Serratia marcescens survives in diverse host and non-host environments, often enduring conditions in which the concentration of essential nutrients is growth-limiting. In such environments, carbon and energy source starvation (carbon-starvation is one of the most common forms of stress encountered by S. marcescens. Related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are known to undergo substantial changes in gene expression and physiology in response to the specific stress of carbon-starvation, enabling non-spore-forming cells to survive periods of prolonged starvation and exposure to other forms of stress (i.e., starvation-induced cross-resistance. To determine if carbon-starvation also results in elevated levels of cross-resistance in S. marcescens, both log-phase and carbon-starved cultures, depleted of glucose before the onset of high cell-density stationary-phase, were grown in minimal media at either 30 °C or 37 °C and were then challenged for resistance to high temperature (50 °C, low pH (pH 2.8, and oxidative stress (15 mM H2O2. In general, carbon-starved cells exhibited a higher level of resistance to thermal stress, acid stress, and oxidative stress compared to log-phase cells. The extent of carbon-starvation-induced cross-resistance was dependent on incubation temperature and on the particular strain of S. marcescens. In addition, strain- and temperature-dependent variations in long-term starvation survival were also observed. The enhanced stress-resistance of starved S. marcescens cells could be an important factor in their survival and persistence in many non-host environments and within certain host microenvironments where the availability of carbon sources is suboptimal for growth.

  16. Effect of respiration and manganese on oxidative stress resistance of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, M.; Veen, van der S.; Nakajima, H.; Abee, T.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium that can perform respiration under aerobic conditions in the presence of haem, with vitamin K2 acting as a source of menaquinone. We investigated growth performance and oxidative stress resistance of Lb. plantarum WCFS1 cultures grown in

  17. Anomalous temperature dependence of the current in a metal-oxide-polymer resistive switching diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, H.L.; Rocha, P.R.F.; Kiazadeh, A.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Metal-oxide polymer diodes exhibit non-volatile resistive switching. The current–voltage characteristics have been studied as a function of temperature. The low-conductance state follows a thermally activated behaviour. The high-conductance state shows a multistep-like behaviour and below 300 K an

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic resistive switching in a planar diode based on silver oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiazadeh, A.; Gomes, H.L.; Rosa da Costa, A.M.; Moreira, J.A.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Resistive switching is investigated in thin-film planar diodes using silver oxide nanoparticles capped in a polymer. The conduction channel is directly exposed to the ambient atmosphere. Two types of switching are observed. In air, the hysteresis loop in the current–voltage characteristics is

  19. Growth mechanisms of oxide scales on ODS alloys in the temperature range 1000-1100deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    After a short overview of the production, microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel- and iron-based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, the oxidation properties of this class of materials is extensively discussed. The excellent oxidation resistance of ODS alloys is illustrated by comparing their behaviour with conventional chromia and alumina forming wrought alloys of the same base composition. ODS alloys exhibit improved scale adherence, decreased oxide growth rates, enhanced selective oxidation and decreased oxide grain size compared to corresponding non-ODS alloys. It is shown, that these experimental observations can be explained by a change in oxide growth mechanism. The presence of the oxide dispersion reduces cation diffusion in the scale, causing the oxides on the ODS alloys to grow mainly by oxygen grain boundary transport. As oxide grain size increases with time, the oxide growth kinetics obey a sub-parabolic time dependence especially in the case of the alumina forming iron-based ODS alloy. (orig.) [de

  20. Bipolar resistive switching in room temperature grown disordered vanadium oxide thin-film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Franklin J.; Sriram, Tirunelveli S.; Smith, Brian R.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate bipolar switching with high OFF/ON resistance ratios (>104) in Pt/vanadium oxide/Cu structures deposited entirely at room temperature. The SET (RESET) process occurs when negative (positive) bias is applied to the top Cu electrode. The vanadium oxide (VOx) films are amorphous and close to the vanadium pentoxide stoichiometry. We also investigated Cu/VOx/W structures, reversing the position of the Cu electrode, and found the same polarity dependence with respect to the top and bottom electrodes, which suggests that the bipolar nature is linked to the VOx layer itself. Bipolar switching can be observed at 100 °C, indicating that it not due to a temperature-induced metal-insulator transition of a vanadium dioxide second phase. We discuss how ionic drift can lead to the bipolar electrical behavior of our junctions, similar to those observed in devices based on several other defective oxides. Such low-temperature processed oxide switches could be of relevance to back-end or package integration processing schemes.

  1. Using Dopants to Tune Oxygen Vacancy Formation in Transition Metal Oxide Resistive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Stewart, Derek A

    2017-05-17

    Introducing dopants is an important way to tailor and improve electronic properties of transition metal oxides used as high-k dielectric thin films and resistance switching layers in leading memory technologies, such as dynamic and resistive random access memory (ReRAM). Ta 2 O 5 has recently received increasing interest because Ta 2 O 5 -based ReRAM demonstrates high switching speed, long endurance, and low operating voltage. However, advances in optimizing device characteristics with dopants have been hindered by limited and contradictory experiments in this field. We report on a systematic study on how various metal dopants affect oxygen vacancy formation in crystalline and amorphous Ta 2 O 5 from first principles. We find that isoelectronic dopants and weak n-type dopants have little impact on neutral vacancy formation energy and that p-type dopants can lower the formation energy significantly by introducing holes into the system. In contrast, n-type dopants have a deleterious effect and actually increase the formation energy for charged oxygen vacancies. Given the similar doping trend reported for other binary transition metal oxides, this doping trend should be universally valid for typical binary transition metal oxides. Based on this guideline, we propose that p-type dopants (Al, Hf, Zr, and Ti) can lower the forming/set voltage and improve retention properties of Ta 2 O 5 ReRAM.

  2. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  3. Carbon and nitrogen molecular composition of soil organic matter fractions resistant to oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Heckman; Dorisel Torres; Christopher Swanston; Johannes Lehmann

    2017-01-01

    The methods used to isolate and characterise pyrogenic organic carbon (PyC) from soils vary widely, and there is little agreement in the literature as to which method truly isolates the most chemically recalcitrant (inferred from oxidative resistance) and persistent (inferred from radiocarbon abundance) fraction of soil organic matter. In addition, the roles of fire,...

  4. Influence of deposition temperature and amorphous carbon on microstructure and oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Kristian; Andersson, Matilda; Högström, Jonas; Fredriksson, Wendy; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif; Jansson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    It is known that mechanical and tribological properties of transition metal carbide films can be tailored by adding an amorphous carbon (a-C) phase, thus making them nanocomposites. This paper addresses deposition, microstructure, and for the first time oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C/a-C films with emphasis on studies of both phases. By varying the deposition temperature between 20 and 700 °C and alternating the film composition, it was possible to deposit amorphous, nanocomposite, and crystalline Crsbnd C films containing about 70% C and 30% Cr, or 40% C and 60% Cr. The films deposited at temperatures below 300 °C were X-ray amorphous and 500 °C was required to grow crystalline phases. Chronoamperometric polarization at +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat. KCl) in hot 1 mM H2SO4 resulted in oxidation of Crsbnd C, yielding Cr2O3 and C, as well as oxidation of C. The oxidation resistance is shown to depend on the deposition temperature and the presence of the a-C phase. Physical characterization of film surfaces show that very thin C/Cr2O3/Crsbnd C layers develop on the present material, which can be used to improve the oxidation resistance of, e.g. stainless steel electrodes.

  5. Natural printed silk substrate circuit fabricated via surface modification using one step thermal transfer and reduction graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Huang, Zhan; Wang, Chaoxia

    2018-05-01

    Graphene conductive silk substrate is a preferred material because of its biocompatibility, flexibility and comfort. A flexible natural printed silk substrate circuit was fabricated by one step transfer of graphene oxide (GO) paste from transfer paper to the surface of silk fabric and reduction of the GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a simple hot press treatment. The GO paste was obtained through ultrasonic stirring exfoliation under low temperature, and presented excellent printing rheological properties at high concentration. The silk fabric was obtained a surface electric resistance as low as 12.15 KΩ cm-1, in the concentration of GO 50 g L-1 and hot press at 220 °C for 120 s. Though the whiteness and strength decreased with the increasing of hot press temperature and time slowly, the electric conductivity of RGO surface modification silk substrate improved obviously. The surface electric resistance of RGO/silk fabrics increased from 12.15 KΩ cm-1 to 18.05 KΩ cm-1, 28.54 KΩ cm-1 and 32.53 KΩ cm-1 after 10, 20 and 30 washing cycles, respectively. The results showed that the printed silk substrate circuit has excellent washability. This process requires no chemical reductant, and the reduction efficiency and reduction degree of GO is high. This time-effective and environmentally-friendly one step thermal transfer and reduction graphene oxide onto natural silk substrate method can be easily used to production of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based flexible printed circuit.

  6. Leptin and Leptin Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Possible Link to Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Berger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS cause intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, a powerful trigger of oxidative stress. Obesity also leads to dramatic increases in circulating levels of leptin, a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Leptin acts in the hypothalamus to suppress food intake and increase metabolic rate. However, obese individuals are resistant to metabolic effects of leptin. Leptin also activates the sympathetic nervous system without any evidence of resistance, possibly because these effects occur peripherally without a need to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. IH is a potent stimulator of leptin expression and release from adipose tissue. Hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance may upregulate generation of reactive oxygen species, increasing oxidative stress and promoting inflammation. The current review summarizes recent data on a possible link between leptin and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders.

  7. Decarburization behavior and mechanical properties of Inconel 617 during high temperature oxidation in He environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Do; Kim, Dae Gun; Jo, Tae Sun; Kim, Hoon Sup; Lim, Jeong Hun

    2010-04-01

    Among Generation IV reactor concepts, high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are high-efficiency systems designed for the economical production of hydrogen and electricity. Inconel 617 is a solid-solution strengthening Ni-based superalloy that shows excellent strength, creep-rupture strength, and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Thus, it is a desirable candidate for tube material of IHX and HGD in HTGRs. In spite of these excellent properties, aging degradation by long time exposure at high temperature induced to deterioration of mechanical properties and furthermore alloys' lifetime because of Cr-depleted zone and carbide free zone below external scale. Also, machinability of Inconel 617 is a important property for system design. In this study, oxidation and decarbrization behavior were evaluated at various aging temperature and environment. Also, cold rolling was carried out for the machinability evaluation of Inconel 617 and then microstructure change was evaluated

  8. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  9. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  10. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  11. Enhanced and selective ammonia sensing of reduced graphene oxide based chemo resistive sensor at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshphysicsdu@gmail.com; Kaur, Amarjeet, E-mail: amarkaur@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated by using the spin coating method. The reduced graphene oxide samples were characterised by Raman studies to obtain corresponding D and G bands at 1360 and 1590 cm{sup −1} respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra consists of peak corresponds to sp{sup 2} hybridisation of carbon atoms at 1560 cm{sup −1}. The reduced graphene oxide based chemoresistive sensor exhibited a p-type semiconductor behaviour in ambient conditions and showed good sensitivity to different concentration of ammonia from 25 ppm to 500 ppm and excellent selectivity at room temperature. The sensor displays selectivity to several hazardous vapours such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and hydrazine hydrate. The sensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.8 at 25 ppm concentration of ammonia with response time of 163 seconds.

  12. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  13. Highly antifouling and antibacterial performance of poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes blending with copper oxide and graphene oxide nanofillers for effective wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Lv, Jinling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Guoquan; Yang, Yuesuo; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-11-01

    Innovation and effective wastewater treatment technology is still in great demand given the emerging contaminants frequently spotted from the aqueous environment. By blending with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the strong hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) and antibacterial copper oxide (Cu x O) were used as nanofillers to develop the novel, highly antifouling composite membranes via phase inversion process in our latest work. The existence and dispersion of GO and Cu x O posed a significant role on morphologies, structures, surface composition and hydrophilicity of the developed composite membranes, confirmed by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS in depth characterization. The SEM images showed that the modified membranes presented a lower resistant structure with developed finger-like macrovoids and thin-walled even interconnected sponge-like pores after adding nanofillers, much encouraging membrane permeation. The XPS results revealed that Cu x O contained Cu 2 O and CuO in the developed membrane and the Cu 2 O nanoparticles were dominant accounting for about 79.3%; thus the modified membrane specifically exhibited an efficient antibacterial capacity. Due to the hydrophilic and bactericidal membrane surface, the composite membranes demonstrated an excellent antifouling performance, including higher flux recovery rate, more resistant against accumulated contaminants and lower filtration resistance, especially lower irreversible resistance. The antifouling property, especially anti-irreversible fouling, was significantly improved, showing a significant engineering potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attenuation of iron-binding proteins in ARPE-19 cells reduces their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Markus; Kurz, Tino

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress-related damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important feature in the development of age-related macular degeneration. Iron-catalysed intralysosomal production of hydroxyl radicals is considered a major pathogenic factor, leading to lipofuscin formation with ensuing depressed cellular autophagic capacity, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that cultured immortalized human RPE (ARPE-19) cells are extremely resistant to exposure to bolus doses of hydrogen peroxide and contain considerable amounts of the iron-binding proteins metallothionein (MT), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and ferritin (FT). According to previous findings, autophagy of these proteins depresses lysosomal redox-active iron. The aim of this study was to investigate whether up- or downregulation of these proteins would affect the resistance of ARPE-19 cells to oxidative stress. The sensitivity of ARPE-19 cells to H2 O2 exposure was tested following upregulation of MT, HSP70 and/or FT by pretreatment with ZnSO4 , heat shock or FeCl3 , as well as siRNA-mediated downregulation of the same proteins. Upregulation of MT, HSP70 and FT did not improve survival following exposure to H2 O2 . This was interpreted as existence of an already maximal protection. Combined siRNA-mediated attenuation of both FT chains (H and L), or simultaneous downregulation of all three proteins, made the cells significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress confirming the importance of iron-binding proteins. The findings support our hypothesis that the oxidative stress resistance exhibited by RPE cells may be explained by a high autophagic influx of iron-binding proteins that would keep levels of redox-active lysosomal iron low. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

    2010-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g -1 . The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm 2 s -1 (40 o C), and 14.6 h (110 o C). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 o C and -19 o C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition.

  16. Facile solid-state synthesis of oxidation-resistant metal nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hyung; Jung, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyungtae; Lee, Byeongno; Nam, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Man; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2018-05-01

    A simple and scalable method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solid-state was developed, which can produce nanoparticles in the absence of solvents. Nanoparticles of coinage metals were synthesized by grinding solid hydrazine and the metal precursors in their acetates and oxides at 25 °C. The silver and gold acetates converted completely within 6 min into Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, while complete conversion of the copper acetate to the Cu sub-micrometer particles took about 2 h. Metal oxide precursors were also converted into metal nanoparticles by grinding alone. The resulting particles exhibit distinctive crystalline lattice fringes, indicating the formation of highly crystalline phases. The Cu sub-micrometer particles are better resistant to oxidation and exhibit higher conductivity compared to conventional Cu nanoparticles. This solid-state method was also applied for the synthesis of platinum group metals and intermetallic Cu3Au, which can be further extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles.

  17. Synthesis of oxidation resistant lead nanoparticle films by modified pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eunsung; Murray, P. Terrence; Subramanyam, Guru; Malik, Hans K.; Schwartz, Kenneth L. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0170 (United States); Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0170, USA and Graduate Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0240 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0232 (United States); Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Linthicum, MD 21090 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Thin layers of lead nanoparticles have been produced by a modified pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process in which smaller nanoparticles were swept out of the ablation chamber by a stream of flowing Ar. Large ({mu}m-sized) particles, which are usually deposited during the standard PLA process, were successfully eliminated from the deposit. The nanoparticles deposited on room temperature substrates were well distributed, and the most probable particle diameter was in the order of 30 nm. Since lead is highly reactive, the nanoparticles formed in Ar were quickly oxidized upon exposure to air. A small partial pressure of H{sub 2}S gas was subsequently added to the effluent, downstream from the ablation chamber, and this resulted in the formation of nanoparticle deposits that were surprisingly oxidation resistant. The properties of the nanoparticle films (as determined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements) are reported, and the mechanism of the oxidation retardation process is discussed.

  18. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  19. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg -1 and 47.5 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 400 W kg -1 , respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  20. A PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related decrease in markers of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of humans with inherited insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Skov, Vibe; Petersson, Stine Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes is related to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is impaired in muscle of patients with inherited insulin resistance and defective...

  1. The characteristics of TiC and oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of TiC coated graphite under corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Oku, Tatsuo; Ioka, Ikuo; Umekawa, Shokichi.

    1982-07-01

    Core region of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) consists mainly of polycrystalline graphite whose mechanical properties degradated by corrosion resulting from such impurities as O 2 , H 2 O, and CO 2 in coolant He gas. Mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of TiC coated graphite under corrosive condition were examined in order to evaluate the effects of TiC coating on preventing the graphite from its degradation in service condition of the VHTR. Characteristics of TiC coating was also examined using EPMA. Holding the specimen at 1373 K for 6 hr produced strong interface between TiC coating and the graphite, however, microcracks on TiC coating was observed, the origin of which is ascribed to mismatch in thermal expansion between TiC coating and the graphite. Oxidation rate of TiC coated graphite was one-thirds of that of uncoated graphite, which demonstrated that TiC coating on the graphite improved the oxidation resistance of the graphite. However, debonding of TiC coating layer at the interface was observed after heating for 3 to 4 hr in the oxidation condition. Changes in Young's modulus of TiC coated graphite were a half of that of uncoated graphite. Flexural strength of TiC coated graphite remained at the original value up to about 4 hr oxidation, therafter it decreased abruptly as was the trend of uncoated graphite. It is concluded that TiC coating on graphite materials is very effective in improving oxidation resistance and suppressing degradation of mechanical properties of the graphite. (author)

  2. Oxidation of 316 stainless steel and other alloys in prototypic GCFR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.T.

    1980-05-01

    The oxidation behavior of type 316 stainless steel and candidate advanced alloys for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is being investigated at General Atomic Company. The test program consists of oxidation tests in prototypic GCFR environments. Two tests have been completed to date and a third test is under way. The first test was performed in an environment containing a hydrogen/water ratio of 10. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys was good to excellent in this environment. Preferential oxidation of chromium was responsible for this behavior. The second test was performed in an environment containing a hydrogen/water ratio of 0.25, where both chromium and iron oxides are thermodynamically stable. Some of the alloys and some of the ribbed type 316 stainless steel test specimens showed unacceptable oxidation resistance in this environment. In the third test, presently under way, two different pretreatment procedures are being used to control the poor oxidation behavior observed in the second test. Early results show some degree of success

  3. Optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide thin films with low resistivity via Li-N dual-acceptor doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daoli, E-mail: zhang_daoli@mail.hust.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Zhang Jianbing [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Guo Zhe [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Miao Xiangshui [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430074 (China)

    2011-05-19

    Highlights: > Zinc oxide films have been deposited on glass substrates by Li-N dual-acceptor doping method via a modified SILAR method. > The resistivity of ZnO film was found to be 1.04 {Omega} cm with a Hall mobility of 0.749 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, carrier concentration of 8.02 x 1018 cm{sup -3}, and transmittance of about 80% in visible range showing good crystallinity with prior c-axis orientation. > A shallow acceptor level of 91 meV is identified from free-to-neutral-acceptor transitions. > Another deep level of 255 meV was ascribed to Li{sub Zn}-Li{sub i} complex. - Abstract: Zinc oxide thin films with low resistivity have been deposited on glass substrates by Li-N dual-acceptor doping method via a modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process. The thin films were systematically characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The resistivity of zinc oxide film was found to be 1.04 {Omega} cm with a Hall mobility of 0.749 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and carrier concentration of 8.02 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The Li-N dual-acceptor doped zinc oxide films showed good crystallinity with prior c-axis orientation, and high transmittance of about 80% in visible range. Moreover, the effects of Li doping level and other parameters on crystallinity, electrical and ultraviolet emission of zinc oxide films were investigated.

  4. Sub-10 nm low current resistive switching behavior in hafnium oxide stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Celano, U.; Xu, Z.; Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Goux, L.; Fantini, A.; Degraeve, R.; Youssef, A.; Jurczak, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Liu, L., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn; Cheng, Y.; Kang, J. [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In this letter, a tip-induced cell relying on the conductive atomic force microscope is proposed. It is verified as a referable replica of an integrated resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. On the basis of this cell, the functionality of sub-10 nm resistive switching is confirmed in hafnium oxide stack. Moreover, the low current switching behavior in the sub-10 nm dimension is found to be more pronounced than that of a 50 × 50 nm{sup 2} device. It shows better ON/OFF ratio and low leakage current. The enhanced memory performance is ascribed to a change in the shape of the conductive filament as the device dimensions are reduced to sub-10 nm. Therefore, device downscaling provides a promising approach for the resistance optimization that benefits the RRAM array design.

  5. Influence of rare earth oxides in the oxidation of chromia forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of superficial application of rare earth oxides such as CeO sub(2), La sub(2)O sub(3), Nd sub(2)O sub(3), Sm sub(2)O sub(3), and Gd sub(2)O sub (3) to AISI 304 and 310 stainless steels, on their isothermal oxidation behavior at 900 sup(0) and 1000 sup(0)C, and cyclic oxidation behavior between 20 sup(0) and 1000 sup(0)C has been studied. The application of rare earth oxides (REO) has been found to increase the oxidation resistance at AISI 304. No significant improvements in oxidation resistance of AISI 310 were noted. The oxidation resistance of AISI 304 was highest in the presence of CeO sub(2) on its surface. The other REO in decreasing order of influence on oxidation resistance are La sub(2)O sub(3), Nd sub(2)O sub(3), Sm sub(2)O sub(3) and Gd sub(2)O sub(3). SEM investigations of the oxide scale morphology revealed that the improved resistance is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of fine grained compact Cr sub(2)O sub(3) and the higher adhesion of the scale to its increased plasticity. (author)

  6. Nitrous Oxide for Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Proof-of-Concept Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagele, Peter; Duma, Andreas; Kopec, Michael; Gebara, Marie Anne; Parsoei, Alireza; Walker, Marie; Janski, Alvin; Panagopoulos, Vassilis N; Cristancho, Pilar; Miller, J Philip; Zorumski, Charles F; Conway, Charles R

    2015-07-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, have rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We hypothesized that nitrous oxide, an inhalational general anesthetic and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, may also be a rapidly acting treatment for TRD. In this blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 20 patients with TRD were randomly assigned to 1-hour inhalation of 50% nitrous oxide/50% oxygen or 50% nitrogen/50% oxygen (placebo control). The primary endpoint was the change on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) 24 hours after treatment. Mean duration of nitrous oxide treatment was 55.6 ± 2.5 (SD) min at a median inspiratory concentration of 44% (interquartile range, 37%-45%). In two patients, nitrous oxide treatment was briefly interrupted, and the treatment was discontinued in three patients. Depressive symptoms improved significantly at 2 hours and 24 hours after receiving nitrous oxide compared with placebo (mean HDRS-21 difference at 2 hours, -4.8 points, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.8 to -7.8 points, p = .002; at 24 hours, -5.5 points, 95% CI, -2.5 to -8.5 points, p nitrous oxide and placebo, p nitrous oxide compared with one patient (5%) and none after placebo (odds ratio for response, 4.0, 95% CI, .45-35.79; OR for remission, 3.0, 95% CI, .31-28.8). No serious adverse events occurred; all adverse events were brief and of mild to moderate severity. This proof-of-concept trial demonstrated that nitrous oxide has rapid and marked antidepressant effects in patients with TRD. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of titanium oxide coatings on NiTi shape memory alloys by selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.; Glogowski, T.; Kuehn, S.; Hessing, C.; Unterumsberger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Materials used for medical devices that are in contact with human tissue must have good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are often used in medical applications due to their special functional and mechanical properties (shape memory effect, pseudo elasticity). Because of the high Ni content in nearly stoichiometric NiTi SMAs, the possibility of Ni being released needs to be considered as Ni may cause problems in the human body. SMAs exhibit a high intrinsic corrosion resistance because of the thermodynamic stability of Ni (thermodynamic reason) and the low degree of disorder in a thin protective TiO 2 -layer (kinetic reason). While therefore there is no need to be concerned too much about a normal corrosive attack in the human body, it has to be kept in mind that in medical applications, these materials represent one part of a tribological system where wear processes need to be considered. The formation of a uniform TiO 2 -layer can be beneficial in this respect. The selective oxidation of Ti to TiO 2 on the surface is a promising method to decrease the Ni release significantly. This can be achieved by controlling the partial pressure of oxygen during a controlled oxidation process. The atmosphere must be adjusted so that TiO 2 is stable while NiO cannot yet form. The result of a selective oxidation is a TiO 2 -layer that has an excellent degree of purity and represents a safe barrier against Ni emission

  8. Correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Feng Tian

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: A total of 110 patients with traumatic brain injury who were treated in our hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 were collected as the observation group, and 60 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE levels as well as oxidative stress index and insulin resistance index levels of two groups of subjects were detected, and Pearson test was used to further evaluate the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Results: Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of normal control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA, MPO and LPO contents were higher than those of normal control group while SOD and TAC contents were lower than those of normal control group; serum insulin resistance indexes GLU, INS and HOMA-IR levels were higher than those of control group. Pearson test showed that serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents in patients with traumatic brain injury were directly correlated with post-traumatic oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Conclusion: The serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents increase in patients with traumatic brain injury, and the increase is directly correlated with the oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  9. Influence of desiccation procedures on the surface wettability and corrosion resistance of porous aluminium anodic oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Meng, E-mail: ZhengMeng@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sakairi, Masatoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Jha, Himendra [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple desiccation treatment without coating or etching produces hydrophobicity of porous anodic oxide film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment time can be shortened by controlling desiccation condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface microstructure is the key point to determine the wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophobic surfaces show better corrosion resistance than oxide aluminium. - Abstract: A hydrophobic oxide film was formed on aluminium by anodizing followed by desiccation treatment. Films subjected to gradual heating and cooling exhibit larger water contact angles than samples exposed to fast heating and cooling at the same temperature. From SEM and Auger Electron Spectroscopic observations, the low wettability surface shows a regular porous morphology with no significant chemical composition differences due to the different treatments. The desiccation process improves the corrosion resistance, shown by immersion in NaCl. The change in morphology by the desiccation processes is considered a main reason to lower the wettability, which further affects the corrosion properties.

  10. The Passive Film Growth Mechanism of New Corrosion-Resistant Steel Rebar in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution: Nanometer Structure and Electrochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Yang; Wang, Danqian; Chu, Hong-Yan; Ma, Han; Liu, Yao; Gao, Yun; Shi, Jinjie; Sun, Wei

    2017-04-14

    An elaborative study was carried out on the growth mechanism and properties of the passive film for a new kind of alloyed corrosion-resistant steel (CR steel). The passive film naturally formed in simulated concrete pore solutions (pH = 13.3). The corrosion resistance was evaluated by various methods including open circuit potential (OCP), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Meanwhile, the 2205 duplex stainless steel (SS steel) was evaluated for comparison. Moreover, the passive film with CR steel was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and the Mott‑Schottky approach. The results showed that the excellent passivity of CR steel could be detected in a high alkaline environment. The grain boundaries between the fine passive film particles lead to increasing Cr oxide content in the later passivation stage. The filling of cation vacancies in the later passivation stage as well as the orderly crystalized inner layer contributed to the excellent corrosion resistance of CR steel. A passive film growth model for CR steel was proposed.

  11. Gamma radiation shielding materials improved with burning resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Michio; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Yukawa, Katsunori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain gamma irradiation shielding materials excellent in workability and resistant to burning by using a two component type room temperature vulcanizing silicon rubber composition as the base material. Method: Silicon rubber comprising a diorganopolysiloxane polymer, an alkyl silicate as a crosslinker and a suitable sulfurdizing catalyst, for example, a carboxylate is mixed with iron powder and silicon oxide powder as reinforcing and flame retardant material and applied with molding. The iron powder and the silica rocks powder have grain size of 50 - 150 μm and 1 - 70 μm and charged by the amount of from 55 to 60 % by weight and from 20 to 25 % by weight respectively. The fluidizing property is impaired if the particle size of the silica rocks powder is less than 1 μm and, while on the other hand, no desired specific gravity of a predetermined value can be obtained for the molding product if the filled amount of the iron powder is less than 55 %. The oxygen index of the molding product is 45 to improve the burning resistance. The materials are excellent in the air-tightness, gamma radiation shielding performance, elasticity and workability required for the cable penetrations in a nuclear power plant and they generate noxious gases neither. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na_2SiO_3, KF and NaH_2PO_4·2H_2O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  13. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Neralla, Sudheer [Jet-Hot LLC, Burlington, NC 27215 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, KF and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  14. Oxidation effects on the electric resistance of In and Al in thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada, G.; Araya, J.; Clark, N.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of electric resistance (R) in function of the time in evaporated samples of thin layers of In and Al trivalent elements in both vacuum and atmospheric pressure are reported. Measurements in samples at ambient and cooled with nitrogen temperatures taken place. The changes observed in R is attributed partly to changes in the sample surface produced by the oxidation. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Effect of Si3N4 Addition on Oxidation Resistance of ZrB2-SiC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manab Mallik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol % SiC and ZrB2-20 vol % SiC-5 vol % Si3N4 composites prepared by hot-pressing and subjected to isothermal exposure at 1200 or 1300 °C for durations of 24 or 100 h in air, as well as cyclic exposure at 1300 °C for 24 h, have been investigated. The oxidation resistance of the ZrB2-20 vol % SiC composite has been found to improve by around 20%–25% with addition of 5 vol % Si3N4 during isothermal or cyclic exposures at 1200 or 1300 °C. This improvement in oxidation resistance has been attributed to the formation of higher amounts of SiO2 and Si2N2O, as well as a greater amount of continuity in the oxide scale, because these phases assist in closing the pores and lower the severity of cracking by exhibiting self-healing type behavior. For both the composites, the mass changes are found to be higher during cyclic exposure at 1300 °C by about 2 times compared to that under isothermal conditions.

  16. [Studies on high temperature oxidation of noble metal alloys for dental use. (III) On high temperature oxidation resistance of noble metal alloys by adding small amounts of alloying elements. (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, H

    1976-11-01

    The previous report pointed out the undesirable effects of high temperature oxidation on the casting. The influence of small separate additions of Zn, Mg, Si, Be and Al on the high temperature oxidation of the noble metal alloys was examined. These alloying elements were chosen because their oxide have a high electrical resistivity and they have much higher affinity for oxygen than Cu. The casting were oxidized at 700 degrees C for 1 hour in air. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The Cu oxides are not observed on the as-cast surface of noble metal alloys containing small amounts of Zn, Mg, Si, Be, and Al. The castings have gold- or silver-colored surface. 2. After heating of the unpolished and polished castings, the additions of Si, Be and Al are effective in preventing oxidation of Cu in the 18 carats gold alloys. Especially the golden surface is obtained by adding Be and Al. But there is no oxidation-resistance on the polished castings in the alloys containing Zn and Mg. 3. The zinc oxide film formed on the as-cast specimen is effective in preventing of oxidation Cu in 18 carats gold alloys. 4. It seems that the addition of Al is most available in dental application.

  17. Resistive switching of Cu/Cu2O junction fabricated using simple thermal oxidation at 423 K for memristor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, M. H.; Helmi, F.; Herman, S. H.; Noh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extensive researches have been done on memristor to replace current memory storage technologies. Study on active layer of memristor mostly involving n-type semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 and ZnO. This paper highlight a simple water vapour oxidation method at 423 K to form Cu/Cu2O electronic junction as a new type of memristor. Cu2O is a p-type semiconductor oxide, was used as the active layer of memristor. Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor was fabricated by thermal oxidation of copper foil, followed by sputtering of gold. Structural, morphological and memristive properties were characterized using XRD, FESEM, and current-voltage, I-V measurement respectively. Its memristivity was indentified by pinch hysteresis loop and measurement of high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) of the sample. The Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor demonstrates comparable performances to previous studies using other methods.

  18. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal

  19. Effect of DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Resistance of Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sowa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zr is a valve metal, the biocompatibility of which is at least on par with Ti. Recently, numerous attempts of the formation of bioactive coatings on Zr by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO in solutions that were based on calcium acetate and calcium β-glycerophosphate were made. In this study, the direct current (DC PEO of commercially pure zirconium in the solutions that contained Ca(H2PO22, Ca(HCOO2, and Mg(CH3COO2 was investigated. The treatment was conducted at 75 mA/cm2 up to 200, 300, or 400 V. Five process stages were discerned. The treatment at higher voltages resulted in the formation of oxide layers that had Ca/P or (Mg+Ca/P ratios that were close to that of hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67, determined by SEM/EDX. The corrosion resistance studies were performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization methods. R(Q[R(QR] circuit model was used to fit the EIS data. In general, the coatings that were obtained at 200 V were the most corrosion resistant, however, they lacked the porous structure, which is typical for PEO coatings, and is sought after in the biomedical applications. The treatment at 400 V resulted in the formation of the coatings that were more corrosion resistant than those that were obtained at 300 V. This was determined mainly by the prevailing plasma regime at the given process voltage. The pitting resistance of Zr was also improved by the treatment, regardless of the applied process conditions.

  20. Influence of Thermal Annealing Treatment on Bipolar Switching Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin-Film Resistance Random-Access Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Huang; Cheng, Chien-Min; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Wu, Sean; Su, Feng-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The bipolar switching properties and electrical conduction mechanism of vanadium oxide thin-film resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices obtained using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process have been investigated in high-resistive status/low-resistive status (HRS/LRS) and are discussed herein. In addition, the resistance switching properties and quality improvement of the vanadium oxide thin-film RRAM devices were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. The activation energy of the hopping conduction mechanism in the devices was investigated based on Arrhenius plots in HRS and LRS. The hopping conduction distance and activation energy barrier were obtained as 12 nm and 45 meV, respectively. The thermal annealing process is recognized as a candidate method for fabrication of thin-film RRAM devices, being compatible with integrated circuit technology for nonvolatile memory devices.

  1. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  2. The influence of modification of elastomer compositions in polyethylene oxides on their resistance to mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Uss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying of elastomer compositions based on nitrile rubber in the medium of low molecular weight polyethylene oxide on resistance of rubbers to liquid aggressive mediawas studied. Standard hydrocarbon oils – oil ASTM №1 and ASTM №3, having a constant chemical composition and properties, were used as aggressive fluids. Resistance of elastomer compositions to standard oil was evaluated by change in weight, volume and relative compression set after keeping the samples in these oils at elevated temperatures. The influence of aggressive environment on the degree of swelling and the value of compression set of compositions modified in polyethylene oxides medium was established. It has been shown that the mass/volume of modified rubbers during aging in oil ASTM №1 reduced to a lesser degree compared to unmodified samples, which is probably due to the influence of low molecular weight polyethylene oxides for the formation of vulcanizates structure. At the same time exposure to oil ASTM №3 of elastomer compositions increases the degree of swelling of modified rubber more than unmodified, which can be due to destruction by the action of aggressive medium additional intermolecular bonds between macromolecules of polyethylene oxide and rubber, resulting in increased flexibility of the elastomeric matrix segments. It revealed that modification of rubbers in low molecular weightpolyethylene oxides facilitates preparation of rubber with low compression set after aging in standard oils at elevated temperatures.

  3. Study on the CMP characteristics of a copper passivity layer formed by dipping in an oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youn-Ok; Lee, Woo-Sun; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Lee, Kang-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Copper has been the material for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits owing to its excellent electromigration resistance and low electrical resistance. The polishing mechanism of metal chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been reported to be a repeated process of passive oxide layer formation through the use of on oxidizer and then the abrasion action of the slurry. However, because copper is softer and more sensitive to corrosion than tungsten, the slurry composition and the polishing mechanism during the copper CMP process may be more complicated. In a general Cu-CMP process, a mixture of an alumina-based slurry and an oxidizer in proper proportion is used in order to form a passive oxide layer such as CuO and CuO 2 . However, a conventional CMP process consumes an unnecessary amount of slurry to formed the passive layer. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new method. The copper samples were oxidized by dipping in an oxidizer for an appropriate time to minimize the consumption of slurry before the CMP process. Then, we performed the CMP process. In order to compare the polishing characteristics of the copper thin film, we discuss the CMP removal rate and non-uniformity, as well as the microstructure of the surface and a layer cross-section based on a scanning.

  4. Overexpression of miR529a confers enhanced resistance to oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Erkui; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chao; Li, Yu; Liu, Qiuxiang; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-07-01

    Overexpressing miR529a can enhance oxidative stress resistance by targeting OsSPL2 and OsSPL14 genes that can regulate the expression of their downstream SOD and POD related genes. MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of plant developmental and physiological processes, and their expression can be altered when plants suffered environment stresses, including salt, oxidative, drought and Cadmium. The expression of microRNA529 (miR529) can be induced under oxidative stress. However, its biological function under abiotic stress responses is still unclear. In this study, miR529a was overexpressed to investigate the function of miR529a under oxidative stress in rice. Our results demonstrated that the expression of miR529a can be induced by exogenous H 2 O 2 , and overexpressing miR529a can increase plant tolerance to high level of H 2 O 2 , resulting in increased seed germination rate, root tip cell viability, reduced leaf rolling rate and chlorophyll retention. The expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were increased in miR529a overexpression plant, which could help to reduce redundant reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, only OsSPL2 and OsSPL14 were targeted by miR529a in rice seedlings, repressing their expression in miR529aOE plants could lead to strengthen plant tolerance to oxidation stress. Our study provided the evidence that overexpression of miR529a could strengthen oxidation resistance, and its target genes OsSPL2 and OsSPL14 were responsible for oxidative tolerance, implied the manipulation of miR529a and its target genes regulation on H 2 O 2 related response genes could improve oxidative stress tolerance in rice.

  5. Arsenite Oxidation and Arsenite Resistance by Bacillus sp. PNKP-S2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic causes human health problems after accumulate in the body for 10-15 years and arsenite [As(III] is generally regarded as being more mobile and toxic than other oxidation states. In this study, two-hundred and three bacterial strains were isolated from groundwater and soil samples collecting in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. All strains were screened for arsenic tolerant efficiency at 1-10 mM of sodium arsenite. Eighteen selected strains which had the highest resistance to 10 mM of As(III were further studied for their As(III-oxidizing activity and growth in enrichment and growth medium (EG medium supplemented with 0.58 mM of As(III. It was found that strain PNKP-S2 was able to grow in the medium with As(III as a sole energy source and had 89.11% As(III removal within 48 h. The PCR-based 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the strain PNKP-S2 was closed relative to Bacillus sp. This is the first report on Bacillus sp. chemolithoautotrophic As(III-oxidizer and this strain could be a potential candidate for application in arsenic remediation of contaminated water.

  6. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  7. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions. [for thermal resistant insulators and refractory coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance are properties of cermet compositions particularly to provide high temperature resistant refractory coatings on metal substrates, for use as electrical insulation seals for thermionic converters. The compositions comprise a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride are also described.

  8. Inhibitory Effect Evaluation of Glycerol-Iron Oxide Thin Films on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of glycerol- iron oxide thin films on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Our results suggest that glycerol-iron oxide thin films could be used in the future for various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The glycerol-iron oxide thin films have been deposited by spin coating method on a silicon (111 substrate. The structural properties have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM. The XRD investigations of the prepared thin films demonstrate that the crystal structure of glycerol-iron oxide nanoparticles was not changed after spin coating deposition. On the other hand, the SEM micrographs suggest that the size of the glycerol-iron oxide microspheres increased with the increase of glycerol exhibiting narrow size distributions. The qualitative depth profile of glycerol-iron oxide thin films was identified by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. The GDOES spectra revealed the presence of the main elements: Fe, O, C, H, and Si. The antimicrobial activity of glycerol-iron oxide thin films was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition. After 18 hours of incubation at 37°C, the diameters of the zones of complete inhibition have been measured obtaining values around 25 mm.

  9. The biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance gene ndvB is important for expression of ethanol oxidation genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Trevor; Zhang, Li; Hinz, Aaron J; Parr, Christopher J; Mah, Thien-Fah

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are responsible for a large number of persistent infections and are often more resistant to antibiotics than are free-floating bacteria. In a previous study, we identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene, ndvB, which is important for the formation of periplasmic glucans. We established that these glucans function in biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance by sequestering antibiotic molecules away from their cellular targets. In this study, we investigate another function of ndvB in biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance. DNA microarray analysis identified 24 genes that were responsive to the presence of ndvB. A subset of 20 genes, including 8 ethanol oxidation genes (ercS', erbR, exaA, exaB, eraR, pqqB, pqqC, and pqqE), was highly expressed in wild-type biofilm cells but not in ΔndvB biofilms, while 4 genes displayed the reciprocal expression pattern. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed the ndvB-dependent expression of the ethanol oxidation genes and additionally demonstrated that these genes were more highly expressed in biofilms than in planktonic cultures. Expression of erbR in ΔndvB biofilms was restored after the treatment of the biofilm with periplasmic extracts derived from wild-type biofilm cells. Inactivation of ethanol oxidation genes increased the sensitivity of biofilms to tobramycin. Together, these results reveal that ndvB affects the expression of multiple genes in biofilms and that ethanol oxidation genes are linked to biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance.

  10. Improved cyclic oxidation resistance of electron beam physical vapor deposited nano-oxide dispersed {beta}-NiAl coatings for Hf-containing superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hongbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)], E-mail: Guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn; Cui Yongjing; Peng Hui; Gong Shengkai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Oxide dispersed (OD) {beta}-NiAl coatings and OD-free {beta}-NiAl coatings were deposited onto a Hf-containing Ni-based superalloy by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Excessive enrichment of Hf was found in the TGO on the OD-free coating due to outward diffusion of Hf from the superalloy, causing accelerated TGO thickening and spalling. The OD-coating effectively prevented Hf from outward diffusion. Only small amount of Hf diffused to the coating surface and improved the TGO adherence by virtue of the reactive element effect. The OD-coating exhibited an improved oxidation resistance as compared to the OD-free coating.

  11. Rational Design of a Water-Storable Hierarchical Architecture Decorated with Amorphous Barium Oxide and Nickel Nanoparticles as a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode with Excellent Sulfur Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufei; Wang, Wei; Ge, Lei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhenbao; Julião, Paulo Sérgio Barros; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-11-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which can directly convert chemical energy stored in fuels into electric power, represent a useful technology for a more sustainable future. They are particularly attractive given that they can be easily integrated into the currently available fossil fuel infrastructure to realize an ideal clean energy system. However, the widespread use of the SOFC technology is hindered by sulfur poisoning at the anode caused by the sulfur impurities in fossil fuels. Therefore, improving the sulfur tolerance of the anode is critical for developing SOFCs for use with fossil fuels. Herein, a novel, highly active, sulfur-tolerant anode for intermediate-temperature SOFCs is prepared via a facile impregnation and limited reaction protocol. During synthesis, Ni nanoparticles, water-storable BaZr 0.4 Ce 0.4 Y 0.2 O 3- δ (BZCY) perovskite, and amorphous BaO are formed in situ and deposited on the surface of a Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 (SDC) scaffold. More specifically, a porous SDC scaffold is impregnated with a well-designed proton-conducting perovskite oxide liquid precursor with the nominal composition of Ba(Zr 0.4 Ce 0.4 Y 0.2 ) 0.8 Ni 0.2 O 3- δ (BZCYN), calcined and reduced in hydrogen. The as-synthesized hierarchical architecture exhibits high H 2 electro-oxidation activity, excellent operational stability, superior sulfur tolerance, and good thermal cyclability. This work demonstrates the potential of combining nanocatalysts and water-storable materials in advanced electrocatalysts for SOFCs.

  12. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratola D Vaziri

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2 for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients.

  13. Preparation and characterization of the micro-arc oxidation composite coatings on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnesium alloys attract the light-weight manufacture due to its high strength to weight ratio, however the poor corrosion resistance limits the application in automobile industry. The Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings were studied respectively. The cross section morphologies showed that the outer organic coating was filled into the hole on surface of MAO coating, and it acted as a shelter against corrosive products. The copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray Test, abrasion resistance test, stone impact resistance test, thermal shock resistance test and adhesion test were used to evaluate the protective characterization by the third testing organization which approved by GM. The test results showed the composite coatings meet all the requirements. The MCC coating on Mg presents excellent properties, and it is a promising surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.

  14. Enhancement of the oxidation resistance of carbon fibres in C/C composites via surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labruquere, S.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux; Desbat, B. [Lab. de Spectroscopie Moleculaire et Cristalline, Univ. of Bordeaux, Talence (France)

    1997-12-31

    Carbon-carbon (C/C) composites are commonly used in rockets and braking systems. However, the carbon reacts with oxygen, burning away rapidly at temperatures as low as 450 C. This work deals with the protection of carbon fibres from oxidation between 600 and 1000 C. Two kinds of methods were investigated to protect carbon fibres: (i) surface treatment with aqueous solutions (e.g. of H3PO4) and (ii) chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of SiC coatings. Oxidation resistance of the as treated preforms was studied under dry air atmosphere. (orig.) 2 refs.

  15. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Jun, E-mail: pdj@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-15

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility. - Highlights: • Cr and FeCrAl were coated onto Zr fuel cladding for light water nuclear reactors. • Mo layer between FeCrAl and Zr prevented inter-diffusion at high temperatures. • Coated claddings were tested under loss-of-cooling accident conditions. • Coating improved high-temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties.

  16. Spatially resolved analysis of resistive switching in transition metal oxide thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Landrock, Ruth Christine

    2011-01-01

    The quest for a non-volatile, small and fast computer memory calls for new memory concepts. Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) based on transition metal oxides is an attractive candidate for future computer memories, because it has the potential of a low power consumption combined with fast switching speeds and good scalability. While in general, switching in such systems relies on a local redox reaction, many details are still unknown or under intense discussion. Especially the geometric...

  17. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Wang Dianlong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C, with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. → MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. → It is found that the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites decreases and the capacitance increases to 76 F g -1 when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared by hydrothermal reaction in 5% ammonia aqueous solution have excellent capacitance retention ratio at scan rate from 5 mV s -1 to 40 mV s -1 . - Abstract: MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX) show MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. The electrochemical capacitance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared in 5% ammonia aqueous solution is 76 F g -1 at current density of 0.1 A g -1 . Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggests the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is reduced when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. The relationship between the electrochemical capacitance and the structure of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicate the electrochemical performance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites strongly depends on their

  18. Enhanced oxidation resistance of SiC coating on Graphite by crack healing at the elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yoo-Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Windes, William E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2015-10-15

    An oxidation protective SiC coating on the graphite components could assist in slowing the oxidation down. However, the irradiation induced dimensional changes in the graphite (shrinkage followed by swelling) can occur, while the SiC CVD coating has been reported to swell even at a low dose neutron irradiation. In this work, functionally gradient electron beam evaporative coating with an ion beam processing was firstly conducted and then SiC coating on the FG coating to the desired thickness is followed. For the crack healing, both the repeated EB-PVD and CVD were performed. Oxidation and thermal cycling tests of the coated specimens were performed and reflected in the process development. In this work, efforts have been paid to heal the cracks in the SiC coated layer on graphite with both EB-PVD and CVD. CVD seems to be more appropriate coating method for crack healing probably due to its excellent crack-line filling capability for high density and high aspect ratio.

  19. Improved Long-Term Stability of Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Double-Laminated Electrosprayed Antimony Tin Oxides and Ag Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo B.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes by spin-coating and electrospraying. Compared to pure Ag nanowire electrodes and single-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes, the double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes had superior transparent conducting electrode performances with sheet resistance ~19.8 Ω/□ and optical transmittance ~81.9%; this was due to uniform distribution of the connected Ag nanowires because of double lamination of the metallic Ag nanowires without Ag aggregation despite subsequent microwave heating at 250°C. They also exhibited excellent and superior long-term chemical and thermal stabilities and adhesion to substrate because double-laminated antimony tin oxide thin films act as the protective layers between Ag nanowires, blocking Ag atoms penetration.

  20. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-01-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO 2 , TiO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Al 2 O 3 , to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta 2 O 5 RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy

  1. Photoinduced Cross-Linking of Dynamic Poly(disulfide) Films via Thiol Oxidative Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillée, Noémi; Chemtob, Abraham; Ley, Christian; Croutxé-Barghorn, Céline; Allonas, Xavier; Ponche, Arnaud; Le Nouen, Didier; Majjad, Hicham; Jacomine, Léandro

    2016-01-01

    Initially developed as an elastomer with an excellent record of barrier and chemical resistance properties, poly(disulfide) has experienced a revival linked to the dynamic nature of the S-S covalent bond. A novel photobase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization of multifunctional thiols to poly(disulfide) network is reported. Based solely on air oxidation, the single-step process is triggered by the photodecarboxylation of a xanthone acetic acid liberating a strong bicyclic guanidine base. Starting with a 1 μm thick film based on trithiol poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer, the UV-mediated oxidation of thiols to disulfides occurs in a matter of minutes both selectively, i.e., without overoxidation, and quantitatively as assessed by a range of spectroscopic techniques. Thiolate formation and film thickness determine the reaction rates and yield. Spatial control of the photopolymerization serves to generate robust micropatterns, while the reductive cleavage of S-S bridges allows the recycling of 40% of the initial thiol groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce2O3 and CeO2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  3. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D.; Zhong, Z.C.; Tong, Y.X.; Zheng, Y.F.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO 2 and a few amorphous Fe 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 . The amorphous SiO 2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  4. Influence of the chemical composition and the fabrication process on the behaviour of high temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, F.; Arnoldi, F.; Cerede, J.B.; Dionnet, B.; Nardou, F.; Duysen, J.C. van

    1993-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of four industrial Fe-Cr-Al alloys was studied. Two of them were Fe-Cr-Al alloys fabricated either by melting or by powder metallurgy. The two other ones were Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys either produced by melting or by mechanical alloying. On these alloys, we determined oxidation kinetics and observed the morphology of the oxide layer after isothermal and cyclic exposures from 1000 C up to 1300 C. The beneficial effect of yttrium on the adherence of oxide layers was confirmed. The powder metallurgy fabrication route does not improve the oxidation resistance of yttrium-free alloys. On the other hand, the association of the powder metallurgy and the addition of yttrium allow the manufacturing of alloys which present an excellent behaviour to high temperature oxidation. (orig.)

  5. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of novel oxidized mesoporous carbon with excellent adsorption performance for removal of malachite green and lead ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xialan; Lin, Qilang; Luo, Shiyuan; Ruan, Kezhao; Peng, Kaiping

    2018-06-01

    An oxidized mesoporous carbon (OMC) with fluffy structure was fabricated from the mixture of petroleum asphalt and aluminum isopropoxide, and its structures were characterized by FESEM, TEM, BET, TG, XPS and FT-IR. In addition, bath absorption experiments for malachite green (MG) and lead ion (Pb2+) were carried out to explore the effects of pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on its absorption process. Results show that the OMC prepared has a fluffy ultrathin-wall structure with narrow pore size distribution and rich oxygen-containing groups. It exhibits excellent absorption performance for the removal of MG as well as Pb2+, as indicated by that its maximum adsorption capacity is 963.1 mg g-1 for MG and 198.6 mg g-1 for Pb2+. The absorption experimental data are all fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and Frendlich isotherm, respectively. More importantly, the OMC still maintains relatively high adsorption capacity after five cycles.

  7. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiaoxi; Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing; Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei; Xue, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO 2 phase to t-ZrO 2 phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400. - Highlights: • Pre-oxide film was fabricated on Zr–1Nb cladding tube by MAO+ excimer laser processing. • Excimer laser processing induced the transformation of m-ZrO 2 to t-ZrO 2 . • The Rietveld quantitative analysis of the pre-oxide film was made. • We investigated the high temperature corrosion and corrosion mechanism of the oxide film. • The parameters of MAO+ excimer laser processing were optimized.

  8. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiaoxi, E-mail: yangjiaoxi@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou 215004 (China); Xue, Wenbin [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO{sub 2} phase to t-ZrO{sub 2} phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400. - Highlights: • Pre-oxide film was fabricated on Zr–1Nb cladding tube by MAO+ excimer laser processing. • Excimer laser processing induced the transformation of m-ZrO{sub 2} to t-ZrO{sub 2}. • The Rietveld quantitative analysis of the pre-oxide film was made. • We investigated the high temperature corrosion and corrosion mechanism of the oxide film. • The parameters of MAO+ excimer laser processing were optimized.

  9. Transparent resistive switching memory using aluminum oxide on a flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Seung-Won; Kim, Tan-Young; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Shim, Jae Won; Lee, Yun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Resistive switching memory (ReRAM) has attracted much attention in recent times owing to its fast switching, simple structure, and non-volatility. Flexible and transparent electronic devices have also attracted considerable attention. We therefore fabricated an Al 2 O 3 -based ReRAM with transparent indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) electrodes on a flexible substrate. The device transmittance was found to be higher than 80% in the visible region (400–800 nm). Bended states (radius = 10 mm) of the device also did not affect the memory performance because of the flexibility of the two transparent IZO electrodes and the thin Al 2 O 3 layer. The conduction mechanism of the resistive switching of our device was explained by ohmic conduction and a Poole–Frenkel emission model. The conduction mechanism was proved by oxygen vacancies in the Al 2 O 3 layer, as analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. These results encourage the application of ReRAM in flexible and transparent electronic devices. (letter)

  10. Transparent resistive switching memory using aluminum oxide on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung-Won; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tan-Young; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Yun-Hi; Shim, Jae Won; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Resistive switching memory (ReRAM) has attracted much attention in recent times owing to its fast switching, simple structure, and non-volatility. Flexible and transparent electronic devices have also attracted considerable attention. We therefore fabricated an Al2O3-based ReRAM with transparent indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) electrodes on a flexible substrate. The device transmittance was found to be higher than 80% in the visible region (400-800 nm). Bended states (radius = 10 mm) of the device also did not affect the memory performance because of the flexibility of the two transparent IZO electrodes and the thin Al2O3 layer. The conduction mechanism of the resistive switching of our device was explained by ohmic conduction and a Poole-Frenkel emission model. The conduction mechanism was proved by oxygen vacancies in the Al2O3 layer, as analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. These results encourage the application of ReRAM in flexible and transparent electronic devices.

  11. Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu2O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Salinas, D. Hurtado; Dominguez, A. Bustamante; Najarro, D. Acosta; Khondaker, S.I.; Mitrelias, T.; Barnes, C.H.W.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Majima, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the crystallization and electrical resistivity of the formed oxides in a Cu/SiO 2 /Si thin film after thermal oxidation by ex-situ annealing at different temperatures up to 1000 °C. Upon increasing the annealing temperature, from the X ray diffractogram the phase evolution Cu → Cu + Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O + CuO → CuO was detected. Pure Cu 2 O films are obtained at 200 °C, whereas uniform CuO films without structural surface defects such as terraces, kinks, porosity or cracks are obtained in the temperature range 300–550 °C. In both oxides, crystallization improves with annealing temperature. A resistivity phase diagram, which is obtained from the current–voltage response, is presented here. The resistivity was expected to increase linearly as a function of the annealing temperature due to evolution of oxides. However, anomalous decreases are observed at different temperatures ranges, this may be related to the improvement of the crystallization and crystallite size when the temperature increases. - Highlights: ► The crystallization and electrical resistivity of oxides in a Cu films are studied. ► In annealing Cu films, the phase evolution Cu + Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O → Cu 2 O + CuO → CuO occurs. ► A resistivity phase diagram, obtained from the current–voltage response, is presented. ► Some decreases in the resistivity may be related to the crystallization.

  12. Investigation on Tribological Properties of the Pre-oxidized Ti2AlN/TiAl Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daqun; Sun, Dongli; Han, Xiuli; Wang, Qing; Wang, Guangwei

    2018-03-01

    Different oxidation layers on the Ti2AlN/TiAl substrate which was fabricated by in situ synthesis were prepared through thermal oxidation process. The microstructure, phase identification and elements distribution of the oxidation layers were analyzed. The tribological performance of pre-oxidized composites against Si3N4 ball at 25 and 600 °C, as well as the effect of pre-oxidation layers on tribological performance was systematically investigated. The results show that, compared to Ti2AlN/TiAl, the pre-oxidized composites present more excellent tribological properties, especially the wear resistance at 600 °C. It is a significant finding that, different from severe abrasive wear and plastic deformation of Ti2AlN/TiAl, the tribo-films formed by the pre-oxidation layers on the worn surface of pre-oxidized composites weaken abrasive wear and suppress the development of plastic deformation to protect the underlying composite substrate from wear. Moreover, the stable cooperation on the interface between tribo-films and Si3N4 ball results in the relatively steady friction coefficient.

  13. Synthesis of free-standing carbon nanohybrid by directly growing carbon nanotubes on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper and its application in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Yuan, Yang; Goh, Kunli; Yu, Dingshan; Wang, Liang; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a free-standing two dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid by directly growing CNTs on air-sprayed GO paper. As a result of the good integration between CNTs and thermally reduced GO film during chemical vapor deposition, excellent electrical conductivity (2.6×10 4 S/m), mechanical flexibility (electrical resistance only increases 1.1% after bent to 90° for 500 times) and a relatively large surface area (335.3 m 2 /g) are achieved. Two-electrode supercapacitor assembled using the CNT–rGO hybrids in ionic liquid electrolyte (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) shows excellent stability upon 500 bending cycles with the gravimetric energy density measuring 23.7 Wh/kg and a power density of 2.0 kW/kg. Furthermore, it shows an impedance phase angle of −64.4° at a frequency of 120 Hz, suggesting good potentials for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications. - Graphical abstract: Flexible and highly conductive carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. - Highlights: • Direct growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition on air-sprayed graphene oxide paper. • Two-dimensional carbon nanohybrid with excellent conductivity and mechanical flexibility. • Supercapacitor with excellent performance stability upon mechanical deformation for flexible electronics applications. • Supercapacitor with high impedance phase angle for 120 Hz alternating current line filtering applications

  14. A preliminary study of oxidation-resistant coatings on refractory-metal thermocouple sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The need to make reliable temperature measurements up to 2200 0 C or higher in steam environments during in-pile nuclear fuel damage tests led to a search for oxidation-resistant coatings for the refractory-metal sheaths used to enclose and protect thermocouples used for such measurements. Iridium, thoria, and thoria-over-iridium coatings were separately sputter-deposited on molybdenum-rhenium alloy protection tubes for evaluation. The coated samples were individually heated in flowing steam in an induction furnace. An extension tube welded to each sample was connected to a vacuum pump and gauge; failure of the sample was detected by noting the degradation of the vacuum maintained in the sample. Relatively heavy coatings of iridium provided a modest degree of oxidation protection at the temperatures of interest. Thoria coatings provided no significant protection at those temperatures, compared to uncoated control samples

  15. Reduced expression of nuclear-encoded genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Glintborg, Dorte; Knudsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with abnormalities in insulin signaling, fatty acid metabolism......, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In PCOS patients, the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance are, however, less well characterized. To identify biological pathways of importance for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in PCOS, we compared gene expression in skeletal muscle...... of metabolically characterized PCOS patients (n = 16) and healthy control subjects (n = 13) using two different approaches for global pathway analysis: gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA 1.0) and gene map annotator and pathway profiler (GenMAPP 2.0). We demonstrate that impaired insulin-stimulated total, oxidative...

  16. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [The Institute for Rare Earth Magnetic Materials and Devices, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Tong, Y.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO{sub 2} and a few amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  17. Excel 2013 formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2013-01-01

    Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas

  18. Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bayliak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+ but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG.

  19. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering of transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittinger, V.; Ruske, F.; Werner, W.; Jacobs, C.; Szyszka, B.; Christie, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has been used in order to study the deposition of transparent conducting oxides. We summarize the studies carried out on different materials (indium tin oxide-ITO and aluminium-doped zinc oxide-AZO) using rather different technological approaches, namely sputtering of ceramic targets and reactive sputtering. For the deposition of AZO reactive HPPMS for metallic targets has been used. A feedback control loop has been implemented in order to stabilize the discharge at any given setpoint on the hysteresis curve. The hysteresis was also found to have a rather untypical form. Reactive HPPMS was found to be a promising tool for obtaining high quality films of low total thickness. In the case of ITO deposition a ceramic target has been used. The process has been characterized in terms of its plasma emission and increasing indium ionization was found for higher peak power densities. The properties of the deposited films were compared to DC sputtered films. While for DC sputtering the choice of oxygen addition and shieldings is crucial for determining surface morphology and resistivity, in HPPMS sputtering peak power density has been found to be a good parameter for influencing the crystal structure. The morphologies obtained differ strongly from those seen in DC sputtering. At high power densities films with low surface roughness and excellent resistivity could be deposited without the use of shieldings

  20. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  1. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  2. Hierarchically assembled 3D nanoflowers and 0D nanoparticles of nickel sulfides on reduced graphene oxide with excellent lithium storage performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronganh, Nguyen; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Tao, Haihua; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Bing; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiao, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Constructing heterostructure can endow composites with many novel physical and electrochemical properties due to the built-in specific charge transfer dynamics. However, controllable fabrication route to heterostructures is still a great challenge up to now. In this work, a SiO2-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to fabricate heterostructured nickel sulfides/reduced graphene oxide (NiSx/rGO) composite. The SiO2 particles hydrolyzed from tetraethyl orthosilicate could assist the surface controllable co-growth of 3D nanoflowers and 0D nanoparticles of Ni3S2/NiS decorated on reduced graphene oxide, and the possible co-growth mechanism is discussed in detail. In this composite, the heterostructured nanocomposite with different morphologies, chemical compositions and crystal structures, along with varied electronic states and band structure, can promote the interface charge transfer kinetics and lead to excellent lithium storage performances. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the NiSx/rGO composite presents 1187.0 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and achieves a highly stable capacity of 561.2 mA h g-1 even when the current density is up to 5 A g-1.

  3. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  4. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  5. Effect of Layer-Graded Bond Coats on Edge Stress Concentration and Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) durability is closely related to design, processing and microstructure of the coating Z, tn systems. Two important issues that must be considered during the design of a thermal barrier coating are thermal expansion and modulus mismatch between the substrate and the ceramic layer, and substrate oxidation. In many cases, both of these issues may be best addressed through the selection of an appropriate bond coat system. In this study, a low thermal expansion and layer-graded bond coat system, that consists of plasma-sprayed FeCoNiCrAl and FeCrAlY coatings, and a high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed FeCrAlY coating, is developed to minimize the thermal stresses and provide oxidation resistance. The thermal expansion and oxidation behavior of the coating system are also characterized, and the strain isolation effect of the bond coat system is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Experiments and finite element results show that the layer-graded bond coat system possesses lower interfacial stresses. better strain isolation and excellent oxidation resistance. thus significantly improving the coating performance and durability.

  6. Excel 2013 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, visual approach to learning the basics of Excel 2013 As the world's leading spreadsheet program, Excel is a spreadsheet and data analysis tool that is part of the Microsoft Office suite. The new Excel 2013 includes new features and functionalities that require users of older versions to re-learn the application. However, whether you're switching from an earlier version or learning Excel for the first time, this easy-to-follow visual guide gets you going with Excel 2013 quickly and easily. Numbered steps as well as full-color screen shots, concise information, and helpfu

  7. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  8. The role of transparent conducting oxides in metal organic chemical vapour deposition of CdTe/CdS Photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, S.J.C.; Lamb, D.A.; Barrioz, V.; Clayton, A.J.; Brooks, W.S.M.; Rugen-Hankey, S.; Kartopu, G.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study is made between the relationship of Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 S/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) device properties for three different commercial transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials and some experimental CdO to determine the role of the TCO in device performance. The resistance contribution from the TCO was measured after depositing the gold contact architectures directly onto the TCOs. These were compared with the Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 S/CdTe device properties using the same contact arrangements. Series resistance for the commercial TCOs correlated with their sheet resistance and gave good agreement with the PV device series resistance for the indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) 15 Ω/Sq. superstrates. The devices on the thicker FTO 7 Ω/sq superstrates were dominated by a low shunt resistance, which was attributed to the rough surface morphology causing micro-shorts. The device layers on the CdO substrate delaminated but devices were successfully made for ultra-thin CdTe (0.8 μm thick) and compared favourably with the comparable device on ITO. From the measurements on these TCOs it was possible to deduce the back contact resistance and gave an average value of 2 Ω.cm 2 . The correlation of fill factor with series resistance has been compared with the predictions of a 1-D device model and shows excellent agreement. For high efficiency devices the combined series resistance from the TCO and back contact need to be less than 1 Ω.cm 2 .

  9. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  10. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Nacci, Diane E.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  11. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiao, E-mail: xdu@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Crawford, Douglas L. [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Nacci, Diane E. [Population Ecology Branch, Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  12. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-dimensional magnesium oxide nanosheets reinforced epoxy nanocomposites for enhanced fracture toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Guruvishnu, T.; Aditya, D. B.; Mahadevan, S. M.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have been used as excellent reinforcements to enhance mechanical properties of polymers, natural composites, and ceramics. To date, a major portion of metal oxides used as nanofillers is three dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the last decade, two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene have been widely investigated to improve the mechanical and electrical properties of polymer materials. In this paper, 2D Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanosheets reinforced epoxy composites (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 wt%) are fabricated and studied for their ability to resist the propagation of preexisting flaw by conducting fracture toughness test for K IC, critical stress intensity factor. This property is an important mechanical property for designing applications in various engineering technologies. Our results show that the MgO with 0.2 wt% is the optimized level to improve the fracture toughness of the epoxy polymer by 47%.

  14. High-temperature oxidation behavior of dense SiBCN monoliths: Carbon-content dependent oxidation structure, kinetics and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Daxin; Yang, Zhihua; Jia, Dechang; Wang, Shengjin; Duan, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qishuai; Miao, Yang; Rao, Jiancun; Zhou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The scale growth for all investigated monoliths at 1500 °C cannot be depicted by a linear or parabolic rate law. •The carbon-rich monoliths oxidize at 1500 °C according to a approximately linear weight loss equation. •The excessive carbon in SiBCN monoliths deteriorates the oxidation resistance. •The oxidation resistance stems from the characteristic oxide structures and increased oxidation resistance of BN(C). -- Abstract: The high temperature oxidation behavior of three SiBCN monoliths: carbon-lean SiBCN with substantial Si metal, carbon-moderate SiBCN and carbon-rich SiBCN with excessive carbon, was investigated at 1500 °C for times up to15 h. Scale growth for carbon-lean and −moderate monoliths at 1500 °C cannot be described by a linear or parabolic rate law, while the carbon-rich monoliths oxidize according to a approximately linear weight loss equation. The microstructures of the oxide scale compose of three distinct layers. The passivating layer of carbon and boron containing amorphous SiO 2 and increased oxidation resistance of BN(C) both benefit the oxidation resistance.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with increased mutation frequency due to inactivation of the DNA oxidative repair system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Lotte F; Ciofu, Oana; Kirkby, N

    2009-01-01

    ,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine) than PAO1 after exposure to PMNs, and they developed resistance to antibiotics more frequently. The mechanisms of resistance were increased β-lactamase production and overexpression of the MexCD-OprJ efflux-pump. Mutations in either the mutT or the mutY gene were found...... in resistant HP clinical isolates from patients with CF, and complementation with wild-type genes reverted the phenotype. In conclusion, oxidative stress might be involved in the development of resistance to antibiotics. We therefore suggest the possible use of antioxidants for CF patients to prevent...

  16. Association between insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Özgür; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Çekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8 ± 2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group) based on the elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 IU/L) and the presence or absence of liver steatosis detected by ultrasonography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) level measurements (REL Assay Diagnostics) were done in all participants. The ratio of TOS to TAS was regarded as an oxidative stress index (OSI), an indicator of the degree of OS. Fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. TAS measurements were decreased in both obese groups (NAFLD and non-NAFLD) in comparison with the control group. TOS and OSI measurements were higher in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD and control groups. OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.67, p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.71, p=0.02) in the NAFLD obese group. In this cross-sectional study, elevated OS markers in obese adolescents with NAFLD were associated with insulin resistance. This data suggest that an antioxidant therapy might have a potential for treating NAFLD associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Chronic Iron Limitation Confers Transient Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Marine Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff van Creveld, Shiri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Levin, Yishai; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are single-celled, photosynthetic, bloom-forming algae that are responsible for at least 20% of global primary production. Nevertheless, more than 30% of the oceans are considered "ocean deserts" due to iron limitation. We used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model system to explore diatom's response to iron limitation and its interplay with susceptibility to oxidative stress. By analyzing physiological parameters and proteome profiling, we defined two distinct phases: short-term (chronic (>5 d, phase II) iron limitation. While at phase I no significant changes in physiological parameters were observed, molecular markers for iron starvation, such as Iron Starvation Induced Protein and flavodoxin, were highly up-regulated. At phase II, down-regulation of numerous iron-containing proteins was detected in parallel to reduction in growth rate, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, respiration rate, and antioxidant capacity. Intriguingly, while application of oxidative stress to phase I and II iron-limited cells similarly oxidized the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool, phase II iron limitation exhibited transient resistance to oxidative stress, despite the down regulation of many antioxidant proteins. By comparing proteomic profiles of P. tricornutum under iron limitation and metatranscriptomic data of an iron enrichment experiment conducted in the Pacific Ocean, we propose that iron-limited cells in the natural environment resemble the phase II metabolic state. These results provide insights into the trade-off between optimal growth rate and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the response of diatoms to iron quota in the marine environment. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Neutron absorbers, and the production method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hideo; Yajima, Seishi; Oono, Hironori.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To integrally sinter a metal powder and a metal network material thereby to obtain a material having a high neutron absorbing function, an excellent corrosion resistance and an excellent oxidation resistance. Method: An element having a high neutron absorbing function, such as Gd, or a compound thereof and a powder of a metal having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility, such as Fe, Cr or the like are uniformly mixed with each other. In a case where a substance having a neutron absorbing function is a hydroxide an organic complex or the like, it is formed into a gel-like substance and mixed uniformly with the metal powder, the gel-like substance being pasted, and covered on the surface of the metal powder and dried. Then, the mixture or the dry coated material is extended and the metal network material having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility is covered or interposed or between at least one layer of upper, intermediate or lower layers of said laminated material, and thereafter is subjected to cold or hot rolling, and then sintered and furthermore rolled, if necessary, the thus treated material being burned in vacuum or a non-oxidizing atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Improvement of the Oxidation Resistance of CoNiCrAlY Bond Coats Sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel onto Nickel Superalloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fossati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CoNiCrAlY powders with similar granulometry and chemical composition, but different starting reactivity toward oxygen, were sprayed onto superalloy substrates by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel producing coatings of similar thicknesses. After spraying, samples were maintained at 1,273 K in air for different test periods of up to 5,000 hours. Morphological, microstructural, compositional and electrochemical analyses were performed on the coated samples in order to assess the high temperature oxidation resistance provided by the two different powders. The powder with higher starting reactivity towards oxygen improves the oxidation resistance of the coated samples by producing thinner and more adherent thermally grown oxide layers.

  20. Microstructure, Wear Resistance and Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Ti-Si Coatings Fabricated on Ti6Al4V by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peilei; Li, Mingchuan; Yan, Hua; Yu, Zhishui; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-10-30

    The Ni-Ti-Si composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding. The microstructure were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer). It has been found that Ti₂Ni and Ti₅Si₃ phases exist in all coatings, and some samples have TiSi₂ phases. Moreover, due to the existence of these phases, coatings presented relatively higher microhardness than that of the substrate (826 HV (Vickers hardness)) and the microhardness value of coating 3 is about twice larger than that of the substrate. During the dry sliding friction and wear test, due to the distribution of the relatively ductile phase of Ti₂Ni and reinforcement phases of Ti₅Si₃ and TiSi₂, the coatings performed good wear resistance. The oxidation process contains two stages: the rapid oxidation and slow oxidation by high temperature oxidation test at 800 °C for 50 h. Meanwhile, the value of the oxidation weight gain of the substrate is approximately three times larger than that of the coating 4. During the oxidation process, the oxidation film formed on the coating is mainly consisted of TiO₂, Al₂O₃ and SiO₂. Phases Ti₂Ni, Ti₅Si₃, TiSi₂ and TiSi were still found and it could be responsible for the improvement in oxidation resistance of the coatings by laser cladding.

  1. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings: After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  2. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  3. Reduction of titanium dioxide and other metal oxides by electro-deoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, Derek J.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide and other reactive metal compounds are reduced by more reactive metals to form pure metals. These, are expensive and time consuming processes which makes these metals very expensive. Many of these metals and alloys have excellent properties, high strength, low density and very good corrosion resistance, but their use is restricted by its high cost. Electro-deoxidation is a very simple technique where an oxide is made cathodic in a fused salt of an alkaline earth chloride. By applying a voltage, below the decomposition potential of the salt, it has been found that the cathodic reaction is the ionization of oxygen from the oxide to leave a pure metal, rather than the reduction of the ion alkaline earth ion element. Laboratory experiments have shown that this approach can be applied to the reduction of a large number of metal oxides. Another important observation is that when a mixture of oxides is used as the cathode, the product is an alloy of uniform composition. This is a considerable advantage for many alloys that are difficult to prepare using conventional technology. (Original)

  4. Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Baba, Makoto; Noto, Fumitoshi; Ruike, Mitsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)

  5. Effects of cathode current density on structure and corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on ZK60 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Peibo; Wu Xiaohong; Guo Yun; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    Current density is a key factor in plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of cathode current density on the composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy prepared through bi-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation in Na 3 PO 4 solution. The phase composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. It is found that the as-produced coatings are only composed of MgO. The increase of cathode current density made the coatings less porous and more compact. Analysis of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization technique on the samples shows that the corrosion resistance of the coated samples is better than that of ZK60 magnesium alloy, and that a bigger cathode current density can improve the corrosion resistance of as-prepared coatings.

  6. Niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions with magnesium oxide barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, A.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaka, S.; Shinoki, F.; Hayakawa, H.

    1985-01-01

    Niobium nitride-niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated using amorphous magnesium oxide (a-MgO) films as barriers. These junctions have excellent tunneling characteristics. For example, a large gap voltage (V/sub g/ = 5.1 mV), a large product of the maximum critical current and the normal tunneling resistance (I/sub c/R/sub n/ = 3.25 mV), and a small subgap leakage current (V/sub m/ = 45 mV, measured at 3 mV) have been obtained for a NbN/a-MgO/NbN junction. The critical current of this junction remains finite up to 14.5 K

  7. Excellence in the knowledge-based economy: from scientific to research excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’. This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts...... to define it through quantitative indicators can have important implications for research policy and for the conduct of research itself. This paper examines how the EU's understanding of excellence has evolved in recent years, from the presentation of the Lisbon strategy in 2000 to the current Europe 2020...... strategy. We find a distinct shift in the understanding of excellence and how success in the knowledge-based economy should be achieved: in the early period, excellence is a fuzzy concept, intrinsically embedded in research and researchers and revealed by peer review. In the later period, excellence...

  8. Influence of pre-deformation, sensitization and oxidation in high temperature water on corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jinlong, E-mail: ljltsinghua@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Hongyun [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The pre-strain accelerated desensitization and sensitization for austenitic stainless steels. • Low temperature sensitization (carbide precipitation) induced α′-martensite. • The sensitization level could affect directly corrosion resistance of the oxide film. - Abstract: The effects of pre-deformation on sensitization of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The effects of pre-deformation and sensitization on high temperature oxidized film formed in high temperature water were analyzed by a XRD and SEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at room temperature was used to study corrosion resistance of oxidized film. The point defect density of oxidized film was calculated by Mott–Schottky plots. The results showed that the value of the degree of sensitization first decreased and then slight increased with the increasing of engineering strain. Moreover, low temperature promoted to form sensitization induced “secondary” α′-martensite. The sample with 20% engineering strain had higher impedance value than other samples. The result was supported by further Mott–Schottky experiments. Considering increased α′-martensite with the increasing of strain, the results of the impedance were more consistent with values of the degree of sensitization.

  9. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy

  10. High corrosion-resistant fuel spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshimi; Takase, Iwao; Ikeda, Shinzo; Masaoka, Isao; Nakajima, Junjiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable manufacturing BWR fuel spacers by prior-art production process, using a zirconium-base alloy having very excellent corrosion resistance. Method: A highly improved nodular-resistant, corrosion-resistant zirconium alloy is devised by adding a slight amount of niobium, titanium and vanadium to zircaloy, of which fuel spacers are produced. That is, there can be obtained an alloy having much more excellent nodular resistance than conventional zircaloy, and free from a large change in plasticity, workability, and weldability, by adding to zirconium about 1.5 % of tin, about 0.15 % of iron, about 0.05 % of chromium, about 0.05 % of nickel, and 0.05 to 0.5 % of at least one or two kinds of niobium, titanium and vanadium. Using this zirconium-base alloy can manufacture fuel spacers by the same manufacturing process, thus improving economy and reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. High temperature oxidation test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    In a feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its high temperature oxidation resistance was evaluated. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing high temperature oxidation, excessively higher amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, high temperature oxidation test was conducted for ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11mass%Cr PNC-FMS and even 17mass% SUS430 and equivalent to austenitic PNC316. (2) The superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel was attributed to earlier formation of the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer at the matrix and inner oxide scale interface. The grain size of ODS steel is finer than that of PNC-FMS, so the superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel can be attributed to the enhanced Cr-supplying rate throughout the accelerated grain boundary diffusion. Finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 oxide particles in the ODS steel matrix may also stabilized the adherence between the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer and the matrix. (author)

  12. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, D., E-mail: dpanda@nist.edu [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Odisha 761008 (India); Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y. [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  13. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  14. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin, E-mail: khajavi@azad.ac.ir [Nano Technology Research Center, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ali Akbar [Faculty of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  15. Roles of oxidative stress, adiponectin, and nuclear hormone receptors in obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Morihiro; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-08-01

    Obesity leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular basis of obesity will lead to the establishment of effective prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases. Adipocytes have been shown to generate a variety of endocrine factors termed adipokines/adipocytokines. Obesity-associated changes to these adipocytokines contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin, which is one of the most well-characterized adipocytokines, is produced exclusively by adipocytes and exerts insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic effects. Obese subjects have lower levels of circulating adiponectin, and this is recognized as one of the factors involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Another pathophysiological feature of obesity may involve the low-grade chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. This inflammatory process increases oxidative stress in adipose tissue, which may affect remote organs, leading to the development of diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) regulate the transcription of the target genes in response to binding with their ligands, which include metabolic and nutritional substrates. Among the various NRs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ promotes the transcription of adiponectin and antioxidative enzymes, whereas mineralocorticoid receptor mediates the effects of aldosterone and glucocorticoid to induce oxidative stress in adipocytes. It is hypothesized that both play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, reduced adiponectin and increased oxidative stress play pathological roles in obesity-associated insulin resistance to increase the cardiovascular disease risk, and various NRs may be involved in this pathogenesis.

  16. Metal oxide resistive random access memory based synaptic devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Kang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Peng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The traditional Boolean computing paradigm based on the von Neumann architecture is facing great challenges for future information technology applications such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and wearable devices, due to the limited processing capability issues such as binary data storage and computing, non-parallel data processing, and the buses requirement between memory units and logic units. The brain-inspired neuromorphic computing paradigm is believed to be one of the promising solutions for realizing more complex functions with a lower cost. To perform such brain-inspired computing with a low cost and low power consumption, novel devices for use as electronic synapses are needed. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices have emerged as the leading candidate for electronic synapses. This paper comprehensively addresses the recent work on the design and optimization of metal oxide ReRAM-based synaptic devices. A performance enhancement methodology and optimized operation scheme to achieve analog resistive switching and low-energy training behavior are provided. A three-dimensional vertical synapse network architecture is proposed for high-density integration and low-cost fabrication. The impacts of the ReRAM synaptic device features on the performances of neuromorphic systems are also discussed on the basis of a constructed neuromorphic visual system with a pattern recognition function. Possible solutions to achieve the high recognition accuracy and efficiency of neuromorphic systems are presented.

  17. Chronic Iron Limitation Confers Transient Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Marine Diatoms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff van Creveld, Shiri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms are single-celled, photosynthetic, bloom-forming algae that are responsible for at least 20% of global primary production. Nevertheless, more than 30% of the oceans are considered “ocean deserts” due to iron limitation. We used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model system to explore diatom’s response to iron limitation and its interplay with susceptibility to oxidative stress. By analyzing physiological parameters and proteome profiling, we defined two distinct phases: short-term (5 d, phase II) iron limitation. While at phase I no significant changes in physiological parameters were observed, molecular markers for iron starvation, such as Iron Starvation Induced Protein and flavodoxin, were highly up-regulated. At phase II, down-regulation of numerous iron-containing proteins was detected in parallel to reduction in growth rate, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, respiration rate, and antioxidant capacity. Intriguingly, while application of oxidative stress to phase I and II iron-limited cells similarly oxidized the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool, phase II iron limitation exhibited transient resistance to oxidative stress, despite the down regulation of many antioxidant proteins. By comparing proteomic profiles of P. tricornutum under iron limitation and metatranscriptomic data of an iron enrichment experiment conducted in the Pacific Ocean, we propose that iron-limited cells in the natural environment resemble the phase II metabolic state. These results provide insights into the trade-off between optimal growth rate and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the response of diatoms to iron quota in the marine environment. PMID:27503604

  18. Degradation pattern of black phosphorus multilayer field-effect transistors in ambient conditions: Strategy for contact resistance engineering in BP transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chul Min; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Lee, Jae Woo; Joo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2017-10-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has been proposed as a future optoelectronic material owing to its direct bandgap with excellent electrical performances. However, oxygen (O2) and water (H2O) molecules in an ambient condition can create undesired bubbles on the surface of the BP, resulting in hampering its excellent intrinsic properties. Here, we report the electrical degradation pattern of a mechanically exfoliated BP field-effect transistor (FET) in terms of the channel and contact, separately. Various electrical parameters such as the threshold voltage (VTH), carrier mobility (μ), contact resistance (RCT) and channel resistance (RCH) are estimated by the Y function method (YFM) with respect to time (up to 2000 min). It is found that RCT reduces and then, increases with time; whereas, the behavior of RCH is vice versa in ambient conditions. We attribute these effects to oxygen doping at the contact and the surface oxidation effects on the surface of the BP, respectively.

  19. Excel 2010 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to the newest version of the world's most popular spreadsheet application: Excel 2010 John Walkenbach's name is synonymous with excellence in computer books that decipher complex technical topics. Known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" Walkenbach shows you how to maximize the power of all the new features of Excel 2010. An authoritative reference, this perennial bestseller proves itself indispensable no matter your level of skill, from Excel beginners and intermediate users to power users and potential power users everywhere. Fully updated for the new release, this

  20. The Influence of Aluminizing Process on the Surface Condition and Oxidation Resistance of Ti–45Al–8Nb–0.5(B, C Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szkliniarz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major barriers limiting the suitability of TiAl intermetallic alloys for use in the demanding aircraft and automotive industries is their susceptibility to degradation as a result of oxidation at temperatures exceeding 760 °C. Paper presents the characteristics of resistance to cyclic oxidation at 950 °C for Ti–45Al–8Nb–0.5(B, C alloy with and without protective coating obtained as a result of aluminizing using out of pack method. The characteristics of surface condition were determined by scanning electron microscope with EDS system, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer. The favorable behavior of the Ti–45Al–8Nb–0.5(B, C alloy with a protective coating under cyclic oxidation conditions is a result of a higher content of Al2O3 in the microstructure of the scale and the presence of Al and Nb-rich phases at the substrate interface, which probably constitue a barrier for oxidation process. The high temperature oxidation test revealed that aluminide coating was responsible for a remarkable improvement in the oxidation resistance.

  1. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  2. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  3. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed to ev...

  4. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jinyang; Sun, Wei; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  5. Passive behaviour of alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 in simulating concrete pore solutions with different pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Zhiyong, E-mail: 230139452@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Jinyang, E-mail: jiangjinyang16@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: sunwei@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Song, Dan, E-mail: songdancharls@hhu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Han, E-mail: mahan-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jianchun, E-mail: Zhangjc-iris@shasteel.cn [Research Institute of Jiangsu Shasteel Iron and Steel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Danqian, E-mail: wonderbaba@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Construction Materials, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 is developed for reinforcing rebar of concrete in severe environments. • The effects of pH on the passive behaviour of Cr10Mo1 steel compared with plain carbon steel were studied systematically by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis. • The mechanism for self-reinforcing passivity against carbonation of the corrosion-resistant steel is revealed. - Abstract: The passive behaviour of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 and plain carbon steel (as a comparison) in simulating concrete pore solutions of different pH (ranging from 13.5 to 9.0) under open circuit potential conditions, was evaluated by various electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, capacitance measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The electrochemical responses of passive films show that Cr10Mo1 steel has an increasing passivity with pH decreasing while carbon steel dose conversely, revealing carbonation does no negative effect on passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel. SIMS reveals that the passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer mainly consisting of Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer enriched in Cr species, while only a Fe-concentrated layer for carbon steel. According to the XPS analysis results, as the pH decreases, more stable and protective Cr oxides are enriched in the film on Cr10Mo1 steel while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Higher content of Cr oxides in the film layer provides Cr10Mo1 corrosion-resistant steel more excellent passivity at lower pH.

  6. Excellence in the Knowledge-Based Economy: From Scientific to Research Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new "Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence." This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators…

  7. Surface-restrained growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays with excellent thermal transport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Linquan; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jincheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Chaoqun; Tai, Kaiping; Cong, Hongtao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-22

    A vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array is a promising candidate for a high-performance thermal interface material in high-power microprocessors due to its excellent thermal transport property. However, its rough and entangled free tips always cause poor interfacial contact, which results in serious contact resistance dominating the total thermal resistance. Here, we employed a thin carbon cover to restrain the disorderly growth of the free tips of a VACNT array. As a result, all the free tips are seamlessly connected by this thin carbon cover and the top surface of the array is smoothed. This unique structure guarantees the participation of all the carbon nanotubes in the array in the heat transport. Consequently the VACNT array grown on a Cu substrate shows a record low thermal resistance of 0.8 mm 2 K W -1 including the two-sided contact resistances, which is 4 times lower than the best result previously reported. Remarkably, the VACNT array can be easily peeled away from the Cu substrate and act as a thermal pad with excellent flexibility, adhesive ability and heat transport capability. As a result the CNT array with a thin carbon cover shows great potential for use as a high-performance flexible thermal interface material.

  8. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  9. Towards the improvement of the oxidation resistance of Nb-silicides in situ composites: A solid state diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Knittel, S.; François, M.; Portebois, L.; Mathieu, S.; Vilasi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Local equilibrium is attained during oxidation at phase boundaries (steady state conditions). •A solid state diffusion model explains the oxidation mechanism of Nb-silicides composites. •The Nb ss fraction is not the only parameters governing the oxidation rate of Nb-silicides. •Aluminium increases the thermodynamic activity of Si in the Nb-silicides composites. •The results indicate the need to develop a Nb–Ti–Hf–Al–Cr–Si thermodynamic database. -- Abstract: The present study focuses on the oxidation mechanism of Nb-silicide composites and on the effect of the composition on the oxidation rate at 1100 °C. A theoretical approach is proposed based on experimental results and used to optimise the oxidation resistance. The growth model based on multiphase diffusion was experimentally tested and confirmed by manufacturing seven composites with different compositions. It was also found that the effect of the composition has to be evaluated at 1100 °C within a short time duration (50 h), where the oxide scale and the internal oxidation zone both grow according to parabolic kinetics

  10. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  11. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict

  12. Electrical behavior of amide functionalized graphene oxide and graphene oxide films annealed at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Sumita; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Films of graphene oxide (GO) and amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) by spin coating and were thermally annealed at different temperatures. Sheet resistance of GO and AGOs films was measured using four probe resistivity method. GO an insulator at room temperature, exhibits decrease in sheet resistance with increase in annealing temperature. However, AGOs' low sheet resistance (250.43 Ω) at room temperature further decreases to 39.26 Ω after annealing at 800 °C. It was observed that the sheet resistance of GO was more than AGOs up to 700 °C, but effect was reversed after annealing at higher temperature. At higher annealing temperatures the oxygen functionality reduces in GO and sheet resistance decreases. Sheet resistance was found to be annealing time dependent. Longer duration of annealing at a particular temperature results in decrease of sheet resistance. - Highlights: • Amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were synthesized at room temperature (RT). • AGO films have low sheet resistance at RT as compared to graphene oxide (GO). • Fast decrease in the sheet resistance of GO with annealing as compared to AGOs • AGOs were found to be highly dispersible in polar solvents

  13. Microstructure, Wear Resistance and Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Ti-Si Coatings Fabricated on Ti6Al4V by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqiao Zhuang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-Ti-Si composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding. The microstructure were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscopy and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer. It has been found that Ti2Ni and Ti5Si3 phases exist in all coatings, and some samples have TiSi2 phases. Moreover, due to the existence of these phases, coatings presented relatively higher microhardness than that of the substrate (826 HV (Vickers hardness and the microhardness value of coating 3 is about twice larger than that of the substrate. During the dry sliding friction and wear test, due to the distribution of the relatively ductile phase of Ti2Ni and reinforcement phases of Ti5Si3 and TiSi2, the coatings performed good wear resistance. The oxidation process contains two stages: the rapid oxidation and slow oxidation by high temperature oxidation test at 800 °C for 50 h. Meanwhile, the value of the oxidation weight gain of the substrate is approximately three times larger than that of the coating 4. During the oxidation process, the oxidation film formed on the coating is mainly consisted of TiO2, Al2O3 and SiO2. Phases Ti2Ni, Ti5Si3, TiSi2 and TiSi were still found and it could be responsible for the improvement in oxidation resistance of the coatings by laser cladding.

  14. Investigation of tribological properties of graphene oxide reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene under artificial seawater lubricating condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wenchao; Ni, Zifeng; Wu, JiaLiang; Zhao, Yongwu

    2018-03-01

    A range of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were fabricated using liquid-phase ultrasonication mixing followed by hot-pressing. The wettability, water absorption and corrosion resistance of composites were studied to prove the composites were suitable for application in liquid environment. The tribological properties of composites under dry, deionized water and seawater lubricating condition were investigated. The results showed that the incorporation of GO decreased the wear rate of UHMWPE under different lubricating conditions and with the increase of GO addition, the wear rate of UHMWPE/GO composites decreased. UHMWPE/GO composites exhibited better tribological behaviors under seawater lubricating condition than other conditions, because good corrosion resistance and excellent wear resistance of UHMWPE/GO composites, and the lubricating effect of seawater is also indispensable.

  15. Improved creep and oxidation behavior of a martensitic 9Cr steel by the controlled addition of boron and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Peter [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Material Science and Welding; Holzer, Ivan; Mendez-Martin, Francisca [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Material Science and Welding; Albu, Mihaela; Mitsche, Stefan [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Electron Microscopy; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Agueero, Alina [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript gives an overview on recent developments of a martensitic steel grade based on 9Cr3W3CoVNb with controlled additions of boron and nitrogen. Alloy design by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and calculation of boron-nitrogen solubility is discussed. Out of this alloy design process, two melts of a 9Cr3W3CoVNbBN steel were produced. The investigation focused on microstructural evolution during high temperature exposure, creep properties and oxidation resistance in steam at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of ''as-received'' and creep exposed material was carried out using conventional optical as well as advanced electron microscopic methods. Creep data at 650 was obtained at various stress levels. Longest-running specimens have reached more than 20,000 hours of testing time. In parallel, long-term oxidation resistance has been studied at 650 C in steam atmosphere up to 5,000 hours. Preliminary results of the extensive testing program on a 9Cr3W3CoVNbBN steel show significant improvement in respect to creep strength and oxidation resistance compared to the state-of-the-art 9 wt. % Cr martensitic steel grades. Up to current testing times, the creep strength is significantly beyond the +20% scatterband of standard grade P92 material. Despite the chromium content of 9 wt % the material exhibits excellent oxidation resistance. Steam exposed plain base material shows comparable oxidation behavior to coated material, and the corrosion rate of the boron-nitrogen controlled steel is much lower compared to standard 9 wt % Cr steel grades, P91 and P92. (orig.)

  16. Novel twin-roll-cast Ti/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woong; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Jung-Su; Sohn, Seok Su; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-08-14

    Pure Ti or Ti alloys are recently spot-lighted in construction industries because they have excellent resistance to corrosions, chemicals, and climates as well as various coloring characteristics, but their wide applications are postponed by their expensiveness and poor formability. We present a new fabrication process of Ti/Al clad sheets by bonding a thin Ti sheet on to a 5052 Al alloy melt during vertical-twin-roll casting. This process has merits of reduced production costs as well as improved tensile properties. In the as-twin-roll-cast clad sheet, the homogeneously cast microstructure existed in the Al alloy substrate side, while the Ti/Al interface did not contain any reaction products, pores, cracks, or lateral delamination, which indicated the successful twin-roll casting. When this sheet was annealed at 350 °C~600 °C, the metallurgical bonding was expanded by interfacial diffusion, thereby leading to improvement in tensile properties over those calculated by a rule of mixtures. The ductility was also improved over that of 5052-O Al alloy (25%) or pure Ti (25%) by synergic effect of homogeneous deformation due to excellent Ti/Al bonding. This work provides new applications of Ti/Al clad sheets to lightweight-alloy clad sheets requiring excellent formability and corrosion resistance as well as alloy cost saving.

  17. Contact resistance asymmetry of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Fei, Wu; Yun-Feng, Chen; Hai, Lu; Xiao-Ming, Huang; Fang-Fang, Ren; Dun-Jun, Chen; Rong, Zhang; You-Dou, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a method based on scanning Kelvin probe microscopy is proposed to separately extract source/drain (S/D) series resistance in operating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. The asymmetry behavior of S/D contact resistance is deduced and the underlying physics is discussed. The present results suggest that the asymmetry of S/D contact resistance is caused by the difference in bias conditions of the Schottky-like junction at the contact interface induced by the parasitic reaction between contact metal and a-IGZO. The overall contact resistance should be determined by both the bulk channel resistance of the contact region and the interface properties of the metal-semiconductor junction. Project supported by the Key Industrial R&D Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2015155), the Priority Academic Program Development of Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 021014380033).

  18. ASPIRE-to-Excellence Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Drees

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASPIRE-to-Excellence Academy was recently founded at the 2015 Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE conference in Glasgow. The academy is new pillar of the ASPIRE-to-Excellence initiative by AMEE, which aims at promoting and encouraging medical schools in achieving excellence in the categories of assessment, student engagement, social accountability or faculty development. The Academy panel consists of the members of the ASPIRE Board and representatives from schools which have been recognised with an ASPIRE-to-excellence award in one or more of the categories. Major goal of the ASPIRE-to-Excellence Academy is to foster collaboration between excellent medical schools and to allow them to exchange experiences and Best Practices. The Academy members are organising workshops and symposia at international conferences to inform medical schools about the ASPIRE-to-Excellence programme and the areas for recognition in excellence as well as to support medical school in preparing their applications.

  19. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  20. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD, we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L−/− mice. Paradoxically, Cpt2L−/− mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

  1. Microstructure and high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-Ni gradient coating on TA2 titanium alloy fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fencheng; Mao, Yuqing; Lin, Xin; Zhou, Baosheng; Qian, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of TA2 titanium alloy, a gradient Ni-Ti coating was laser cladded on the surface of the TA2 titanium alloy substrate, and the microstructure and oxidation behavior of the laser cladded coating were investigated experimentally. The gradient coating with a thickness of about 420-490 μm contains two different layers, e.g. a bright layer with coarse equiaxed grain and a dark layer with fine and columnar dendrites, and a transition layer with a thickness of about 10 μm exists between the substrate and the cladded coating. NiTi, NiTi2 and Ni3Ti intermetallic compounds are the main constructive phases of the laser cladded coating. The appearance of these phases enhances the microhardness, and the dense structure of the coating improves its oxidation resistance. The solidification procedure of the gradient coating is analyzed and different kinds of solidification processes occur due to the heat dissipation during the laser cladding process.

  2. Acylated Ghrelin and Circulatory Oxidative Stress Markers Responses to Acute Resistance and Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteri, Randhall B; Lopes, André Luis; Schöler, Cinthia M; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Macedo, Rodrigo C; Gross, Júlia Silveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Since exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in different tissues, the objective of this study is to evaluate, compare and correlate the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in circulatory markers of oxidative stress and acylated ghrelin (AG) in postmenopausal women. Ten postmenopausal women completed different protocols: a control session (CON), an aerobic exercise session (AERO); and a single-set (SSR) or 3-set (MSR) resistance exercise protocol. After exercise, both MSR (P = .06) and AERO (P = .02) sessions showed significant increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline levels. CON and SSR sessions showed no differences after exercise. No differences were found between sessions at any time for total glutathione, glutathione dissulfide or AG concentrations. Exercise significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline values. As pro oxidant stimuli is necessary to promote chronic adaptations to the antioxidant defenses induced by exercise, our findings are important to consider when evaluating exercise programs prescription variables aiming quality of life in this population.

  3. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Cermet compositions having high temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance, and particularly adapted for production of high temperature resistant cermet insulator bodies are presented. The compositions are comprised of a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Also disclosed are novel ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride.

  4. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce 2 O 3 and CeO 2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  5. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niroumandrad, S. [Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  6. Overview of Strategies for High-Temperature Creep and Oxidation Resistance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Santella, M. L.; Bei, H.; Maziasz, P. J.; Pint, B. A.

    2011-04-01

    A family of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys is under development for structural use in fossil energy conversion and combustion system applications. The AFA alloys developed to date exhibit comparable creep-rupture lives to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic alloys, and superior oxidation resistance in the ~923 K to 1173 K (650 °C to 900 °C) temperature range due to the formation of a protective Al2O3 scale rather than the Cr2O3 scales that form on conventional stainless steel alloys. This article overviews the alloy design approaches used to obtain high-temperature creep strength in AFA alloys via considerations of phase equilibrium from thermodynamic calculations as well as microstructure characterization. Strengthening precipitates under evaluation include MC-type carbides or intermetallic phases such as NiAl-B2, Fe2(Mo,Nb)-Laves, Ni3Al-L12, etc. in the austenitic single-phase matrix. Creep, tensile, and oxidation properties of the AFA alloys are discussed relative to compositional and microstructural factors.

  7. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng, E-mail: doup@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko, E-mail: kimura@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okuda, Takanari, E-mail: okuda.takanari@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki, E-mail: inoue.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Nuclear System R& D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu, E-mail: s-ukai@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuki, Somei, E-mail: ohnuki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Fujisawa, Toshiharu, E-mail: fujisawa@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Abe, Fujio, E-mail: ABE.Fujio@nims.go.jp [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: js93518@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Zhigang, E-mail: zgyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  8. Evaluation of resistive switching properties of Si-rich oxide embedded with Ti nanodots by applying constant voltage and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Yusuke; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the resistive switching behaviors of electron beam (EB) evaporated Si-rich oxide (SiO x ) sandwiched between Ni electrodes by applying a constant voltage and current. Additionally, the impact of Ti nanodots (NDs) embedded into SiO x on resistive switching behaviors was investigated because it is expected that NDs can trigger the formation of a conductive filament path in SiO x . The resistive switching behaviors of SiO x show that the response time during resistance switching was decreased by increasing the applied constant current or constant voltage. It was found that Ti-NDs in SiO x enhance the conductive filament path formation owing to electric field concentration by Ti-NDs.

  9. Charge Ordering, Competing Magnetic Interactions, and Magneto-Resistance Effects in Layered Iron(IV)-Based Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2002-01-01

    Iron(IV)-based Ruddlesden-Popper-type oxides Sr 3 Fe 2-x Co x O 7-y (0≤x≤1) have been synthesized and studied by various techniques. It is shown that iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful tool for elucidating the intimate correlations between chemical composition, electron-transport properties, electronic state, magnetism, and the large magneto-resistance effects in this system.

  10. III-V/Si wafer bonding using transparent, conductive oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C., E-mail: Adele.Tamboli@nrel.gov; Hest, Maikel F. A. M. van; Steiner, Myles A.; Essig, Stephanie; Norman, Andrew G.; Bosco, Nick; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perl, Emmett E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9560 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We present a method for low temperature plasma-activated direct wafer bonding of III-V materials to Si using a transparent, conductive indium zinc oxide interlayer. The transparent, conductive oxide (TCO) layer provides excellent optical transmission as well as electrical conduction, suggesting suitability for Si/III-V hybrid devices including Si-based tandem solar cells. For bonding temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 350 °C, Ohmic behavior is observed in the sample stacks, with specific contact resistivity below 1 Ω cm{sup 2} for samples bonded at 200 °C. Optical absorption measurements show minimal parasitic light absorption, which is limited by the III-V interlayers necessary for Ohmic contact formation to TCOs. These results are promising for Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/Si tandem solar cells operating at 1 sun or low concentration conditions.

  11. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed.In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS.Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  13. Excel simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Gerard M

    2013-01-01

    Covering a variety of Excel simulations, from gambling to genetics, this introduction is for people interested in modeling future events, without the cost of an expensive textbook. The simulations covered offer a fun alternative to the usual Excel topics and include situations such as roulette, password cracking, sex determination, population growth, and traffic patterns, among many others.

  14. Linkages between the life-history evolution of tropical and temperate birds and the resistance of cultured skin fibroblasts to oxidative and non-oxidative chemical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Harper, James M; Queenborough, Simon A; Williams, Joseph B

    2013-04-15

    A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is to understand how variation in life history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Thus, because tropical birds have higher annual survival and lower rates of metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would have greater cellular resistance to chemical injury than cells from temperate species. We cultured dermal fibroblasts from 26 tropical and 26 temperate species of birds and examined cellular resistance to cadmium, H(2)O(2), paraquat, thapsigargin, tunicamycium, methane methylsulfonate (MMS) and UV light. Using ANCOVA, we found that the values for the dose that killed 50% of cells (LD(50)) from tropical birds were significantly higher for H(2)O(2) and MMS. When we tested for significance using a generalized least squares approach accounting for phylogenetic relationships among species to model LD(50), we found that cells from tropical birds had greater tolerance for Cd, H(2)O(2), paraquat, tunicamycin and MMS than cells from temperate birds. In contrast, tropical birds showed either lower or no difference in tolerance to thapsigargin and UV light in comparison with temperate birds. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to be more resistant to forms of oxidative and non-oxidative stress than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  15. Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L., E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Salinas, D. Hurtado [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Dominguez, A. Bustamante [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Najarro, D. Acosta [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, CP 01000 (Mexico); Khondaker, S.I. [NanoScience Technology Centre and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Mitrelias, T.; Barnes, C.H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Aguiar, J. Albino [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Majima, Y. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we study the crystallization and electrical resistivity of the formed oxides in a Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film after thermal oxidation by ex-situ annealing at different temperatures up to 1000 Degree-Sign C. Upon increasing the annealing temperature, from the X ray diffractogram the phase evolution Cu {yields} Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO was detected. Pure Cu{sub 2}O films are obtained at 200 Degree-Sign C, whereas uniform CuO films without structural surface defects such as terraces, kinks, porosity or cracks are obtained in the temperature range 300-550 Degree-Sign C. In both oxides, crystallization improves with annealing temperature. A resistivity phase diagram, which is obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented here. The resistivity was expected to increase linearly as a function of the annealing temperature due to evolution of oxides. However, anomalous decreases are observed at different temperatures ranges, this may be related to the improvement of the crystallization and crystallite size when the temperature increases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallization and electrical resistivity of oxides in a Cu films are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In annealing Cu films, the phase evolution Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO occurs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A resistivity phase diagram, obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some decreases in the resistivity may be related to the crystallization.

  16. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  17. Cafeteria diet induces obesity and insulin resistance associated with oxidative stress but not with inflammation: improvement by dietary supplementation with a melon superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Romain, Cindy; Bardy, Guillaume; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Gaillet, Sylvie; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane protein resistance of oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amit; Vanderah, David J; Vierling, Ryan; Crawshaw, Fay; Gallagher, D Travis; Walker, Marlon L

    2014-10-01

    As part of an effort to develop biointerfaces for structure-function studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) a series of oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers (OEO-SAMs) were evaluated for their resistance to protein adsorption (RPA) of IMPs on Au and Pt. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to determine SAM thicknesses and compare the RPA of HS(CH2)3O(CH2CH2O)6CH3 (1), HS(CH2)3O(CH2CH2O)6H (2), [HS(CH2)3]2CHO(CH2CH2O)6CH3 (3) and [HS(CH2)3]2CHO(CH2CH2O)6H (4), assembled from water. For both substrates, SAM thicknesses for 1 to 4 were found to be comparable indicating SAMs with similar surface coverages and OEO chain order and packing densities. Fibrinogen (Fb), a soluble plasma protein, and rhodopsin (Rd), an integral membrane G-protein coupled receptor, adsorbed to the SAMs of 1, as expected from previous reports, but not to the hydroxy-terminated SAMs of 2 and 4. The methoxy-terminated SAMs of 3 were resistant to Fb but, surprisingly, not to Rd. The stark difference between the adsorption of Rd to the SAMs of 3 and 4 clearly indicate that a hydroxy-terminus of the OEO chain is essential for high RPA of IMPs. The similar thicknesses and high RPA of the SAMs of 2 and 4 show the conditions of protein resistance (screening the underlying substrate, packing densities, SAM order, and conformational mobility of the OEO chains) defined from previous studies on Au are applicable to Pt. In addition, the SAMs of 4, exhibiting the highest resistance to Fb and Rd, were placed in contact with undiluted fetal bovine serum for 2h. Low protein adsorption (≈12.4ng/cm(2)), obtained under these more challenging conditions, denote a high potential of the SAMs of 4 for various applications requiring the suppression of non-specific protein adsorption. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Effect of L-arginine and the nitric oxide synthase blocker L-NNA on calcium capacity in rat liver mitochondria with differing resistance to hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Ikkert, O V; Vovkanych, L S; Horyn', O V; Hal'kiv, M O; Hordiĭ, S K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of L-arginine and blockator of nitric oxide synthase L-NNA on processes of calcium mitochondrial capacity in liver with different resistance to hypoxia in the experiments with Wistar rats has been studied using the followrng substrates of energy support: succinic, alpha-ketoglutaric acids, alpha-ketolutarate and inhibitor succinatedehydrogenase malonate. As well we used substrates mixtures combination providing for activation of aminotransferase mechanism: glutamate and piruvate, glutamate and malate. It has been shown that L-arginine injection increases calcium mitochondrial capacity of low resistant rats using as substrates the succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of donors nitric oxide on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  20. Striving for Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of top management team diversity on academic excellence in universities. Academic excellence is conceptualized as successfully gaining funds for inter-organizational research collaborations, interdisciplinary graduate schools......, and high ranked scientific reputation. Design/methodology/approach: -The study applies upper echelon theory to universities. Three hypotheses are developed: 1) (Overall) top management team heterogeneity is positively associated with successful funding of excellence clusters, 2) (Overall) top management...... no significant effects. Besides top management team composition, we find that a high number of faculties and a broad inclusion of internal status groups (students, tenured faculty, academic and administrative staff) and external stakeholders in decision making processes may enhance academic excellence...

  1. Graphene oxide foams and their excellent adsorption ability for acetone gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongqiang; Zhang, Nana; Wu, Fei; Xu, Fangqiang; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO and RGO foams were prepared using a simple and green method, unidirectional freeze-drying. • The porous structure of the foams can be adjusted by changing GO concentrations. • GO and RGO foams show good adsorption efficiency for acetone gas. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying method. These porous carbon materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption behavior of the two kinds of foams for acetone was studied. The result showed that the saturated adsorption efficiency of the GO foams was over 100%, and was higher than that of RGO foams and other carbon materials

  2. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  3. Preparation and Oxidation Resistance of Mo-Si-B Coating on Nb-Si Based Alloy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANG Jie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mo-Si-B coating was prepared on Nb-Si alloys to improve the high-temperature oxidation. The influence of the halide activators (NaF and AlF3 on Si-B co-depositing to obtain Mo-Si-B coating on Nb-Si alloys was analyzed by thermochemical calculations. The results show that NaF proves to be more suitable than AlF3 to co-deposit Si and B. Then Mo-Si-B can be coated on Nb-Si based alloys using detonation gun spraying of Mo followed by Si and B co-deposition. The fabricated coatings consist of outer MoSi2 layer with fine boride phase and inner unreacted Mo layer. The mass gain of the Mo-Si-B coating is 1.52mg/cm2 after oxidation at 1250℃ for 100h. The good oxidation resistance results in a protective borosilicate scale formed on the coating.

  4. A highly efficient silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance: a promising candidate for optical memory storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-12-10

    Diarylethene compounds are potential candidates for applications in optical memory storage systems and photoswitchable molecular devices; however, they usually show low photocycloreversion quantum yields, which result in ineffective erasure processes. Here, we present the first highly efficient photochromic silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance. The photochemical quantum yields for photocyclization and photocycloreversion of the compound are found to be high and comparable to each other; the latter of which is rarely found in diarylethene compounds. These would give rise to highly efficient photoswitchable material with effective writing and erasure processes. Incorporation of the silole moiety as a photochromic dithienylethene backbone also was demonstrated to enhance the thermal stability of the closed form, in which the thermal backward reaction to the open form was found to be negligible even at 100 °C, which leads to a promising candidate for use as photoswitchable materials and optical memory storage.

  5. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  6. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat correlates well with both decreased and increased lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Van De Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing support for the notion that genetic variation for lifespan, both within and between species, is correlated with variation in the efficiency of the free radical scavenging system and the ability to withstand oxidative stress. In Drosophila, resistance to dietary paraquat, a free

  8. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  9. Master VISUALLY Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need

  10. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) is defined and developed through integration and expansion of business excellence modeling and sustainability thought. The intent is to enable simple yet reliable enterprise assessment of triple bottom line (TBL) performance...... and produce actionable enterprise foresight that can enable next best practices and sources of sustainable competitive advantage through innovation. Methodology: Key elements of SEE are identified from various business excellence and sustainability reporting sources, including the Global Reporting Initiative...... assessment approach similar in structure to those behind established excellence awards are developed that enable enterprise assessment of progress toward SEE. The resulting assessment is delivered in a highly consumable, combined narrative and graphic format referred to as a SEE NEWS Report. Practical...

  11. Characterization of vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity and isolation of yeast DNA which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasi, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity has been characterized in plasma membranes from the yeast S cerevisiae. NADH oxidation activity was maximally stimulated at pH 5.0 in phosphate buffer. NADH oxidation was not dependent on the concentration of plasma membranes. The vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity was abolished under anaerobic conditions and the concomitant uptake of oxygen occurred during NADH oxidation. The activity was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and stimulated by the presence of paraquat. These results indicate that the vanadate stimulation of NADH oxidation in yeast plasma membranes occurs as a result of the vanadate-dependent oxidation of NADH by superoxide, generated by a plasma membrane NADH oxidase. 51 V-NMR results indicated that a phosphate-vanadate anhydride was the stimulatory species in pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. Yeast DNA has been isolated which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

  12. Correlation of serum vitamin E content with insulin resistance and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum vitamin E content with insulin resistance and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Xining Second People’s Hospital between February 2016 and February 2017 were selected as T2DM group, healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were selected as control group, oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to detect insulin resistance indexes, and fasting venous blood was collected to detect oxidative stress indicators. Results: Serum VitE, 2 h-Ins, 2 h-CP, Trx, Txnip, SOD and GSH-Px levels of T2DM group were significantly lower than those of control group while F-Ins, F-CP, MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, AGEs and LOX-1 levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum VitE level in T2DM patients was positively correlated with serum 2 h-Ins, 2 h-CP, Trx, Txnip, SOD and GSH-Px levels, and negatively correlated with serum F-Ins, F-CP, MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, AGEs and LOX-1 levels. Conclusion: The decrease of serum vitamin E in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can lead to the aggravation of insulin resistance and the activation of oxidative stress response.

  13. Resistance exercise attenuates skeletal muscle oxidative stress, systemic pro-inflammatory state, and cachexia in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Camila Souza; Borges, Fernando Henrique; Costa Mendes da Silva, Lilian Eslaine; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Duarte, José Alberto; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Deminice, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on oxidative stress, systemic inflammatory markers, and muscle wasting in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Male (Wistar) rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary controls (n = 9), tumor-bearing (n = 9), exercised (n = 9), and tumor-bearing exercised (n = 10). Exercised and tumor-bearing exercised rats were exposed to resistance exercise of climbing a ladder apparatus with weights tied to their tails for 6 weeks. The physical activity of control and tumor-bearing rats was confined to the space of the cage. After this period, tumor-bearing and tumor-bearing exercised animals were inoculated subcutaneously with Walker-256 tumor cells (11.0 × 10 7 cells in 0.5 mL of phosphate-buffered saline) while control and exercised rats were injected with vehicle. Following inoculation, rats maintained resistance exercise training (exercised and tumor-bearing exercised) or sedentary behavior (control and tumor-bearing) for 12 more days, after which they were euthanized. Results showed muscle wasting in the tumor-bearing group, with body weight loss, increased systemic leukocytes, and inflammatory interleukins as well as muscular oxidative stress and reduced mTOR signaling. In contrast, RET in the tumor-bearing exercised group was able to mitigate the reduced body weight and muscle wasting with the attenuation of muscle oxidative stress and systemic inflammatory markers. RET also prevented loss of muscle strength associated with tumor development. RET, however, did not prevent the muscle proteolysis signaling via FBXO32 gene messenger RNA expression in the tumor-bearing group. In conclusion, RET performed prior tumor implantation prevents cachexia development by attenuating tumor-induced systemic pro-inflammatory condition with muscle oxidative stress and muscle damage.

  14. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity develops as a result of altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a new transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, SERTA domain containing 2 (TRIP-Br2, also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2-null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of these knockout mice showed greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The knockout mice also have higher energy expenditure because of increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism caused by upregulating key enzymes in their respective processes. Our data show that a cell-cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data, together with the observation that TRIP-Br2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans, suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a new therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  15. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Scafidi, Susanna; Riddle, Ryan C; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2017-07-18

    The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2 L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2 L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Sze, Simon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O_2 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O_2 plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O_2 plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O_2 plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O_2 plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O_2 plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  17. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-Hsun [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Kuan-Chang, E-mail: kcchang@pkusz.edu.cn [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O{sub 2} plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O{sub 2} plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  18. Linking Alzheimer's disease to insulin resistance: the FoxO response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulos, K N; Klotz, L-O; Korsten, P; Bornstein, S R; Barthel, A

    2010-11-01

    Oxidative stress is an important determinant not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in insulin resistance (InsRes) and diabetic complications. Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in both insulin action and the cellular response to oxidative stress, thereby providing a potential integrative link between AD and InsRes. For example, the expression of intra- and extracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese-superoxide dismutase and selenoprotein P, is regulated by FoxO proteins, as is the expression of important hepatic enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD and InsRes and discuss the function of FoxO proteins in these processes. Both InsRes and oxidative stress may promote the transcriptional activity of FoxO proteins, resulting in hyperglycaemia and a further increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The consecutive activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and inhibition of Wingless (Wnt) signalling may result in the formation of β-amyloid plaques and τ protein phosphorylation. Wnt inhibition may also result in a sustained activation of FoxO proteins with induction of apoptosis and neuronal loss, thereby completing a vicious circle from oxidative stress, InsRes and hyperglycaemia back to the formation of ROS and consecutive neurodegeneration. In view of their central function in this model, FoxO proteins may provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of both InsRes and AD.

  19. Characterization of arsenic resistant and arsenopyrite oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from Hutti gold leachate and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shailesh R; Gupta, Kajal H; Tipre, Devayani R

    2008-11-01

    Four arsenic resistant ferrous oxidizers were isolated from Hutti Gold Mine Ltd. (HGML) samples. Characterization of these isolates was done using conventional microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods. The ferrous oxidation rates with these isolates were 16, 48, 34 and 34 mg L(-1)h(-1) and 15, 47, 34 and 32 mg L(-1)h(-1) in absence and presence of 20 mM of arsenite (As3+) respectively. Except isolate HGM 8, other three isolates showed 2.9-6.3% inhibition due to the presence of 20 mM arsenite. Isolate HGM 8 was able to grow in presence of 14.7 g L(-1) of arsenite, with 25.77 mg L(-1)h(-1) ferrous oxidation rate. All the four isolates were able to oxidize iron and arsenopyrite from 20 g L(-1) and 40 g L(-1) refractory gold ore and 20 g L(-1) refractory gold concentrate. Once the growth was established pH adjustment was not needed inspite of ferrous oxidation, which could be due to concurrent oxidation of pyrite. Isolate HGM 8 showed the final cell count of as high as 1.12 x 10(8) cells mL(-1) in 40 g L(-1) refractory gold ore. The isolates were grouped into one haplotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The phylogenetic position of HGM 8 was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. It was identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and strain name was given as SRHGM 1.

  20. Multiple low-dose radiation prevents type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage through attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and subsequent renal inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglong Shao

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are the key pathogeneses of renal damage in type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence shows that whole-body low dose radiation (LDR plays a critical role in attenuating insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.The aims of the present study were to investigate whether LDR can prevent type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage and the underlying mechanisms.Mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% of calories from fat for 12 weeks to induce obesity followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg to develop a type 2 diabetic mouse model. The mice were exposed to LDR at different doses (25, 50 and 75 mGy for 4 or 8 weeks along with HFD treatment. At each time-point, the kidney weight, renal function, blood glucose level and insulin resistance were examined. The pathological changes, renal lipid profiles, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were also measured.HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice exhibited severe pathological changes in the kidney and renal dysfunction. Exposure of the mice to LDR for 4 weeks, especially at 50 and 75 mGy, significantly improved lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B activation, meanwhile, attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. The LDR-induced anti-oxidative effect was associated with up-regulation of renal nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2 expression and function. However, the above beneficial effects were weakened once LDR treatment was extended to 8 weeks.These results suggest that LDR exposure significantly prevented type 2 diabetes-induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms of LDR are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the attenuation of dyslipidemia and the subsequent lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Oxidation of Helix-3 methionines precedes the formation of PK resistant PrP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While elucidating the peculiar epitope of the alpha-PrP mAb IPC2, we found that PrPSc exhibits the sulfoxidation of residue M213 as a covalent signature. Subsequent computational analysis predicted that the presence of sulfoxide groups at both Met residues 206 and 213 destabilize the alpha-fold, suggesting oxidation may facilitate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. To further study the effect of oxidation on prion formation, we generated pAbs to linear PrP peptides encompassing the Helix-3 region, as opposed to the non-linear complexed epitope of IPC2. We now show that pAbs, whose epitopes comprise Met residues, readily detected PrPC, but could not recognize most PrPSc bands unless they were vigorously reduced. Next, we showed that the alpha-Met pAbs did not recognize newly formed PrPSc, as is the case for the PK resistant PrP present in lines of prion infected cells. In addition, these reagents did not detect intermediate forms such as PK sensitive and partially aggregated PrPs present in infected brains. Finally, we show that PrP molecules harboring the pathogenic mutation E200K, which is linked to the most common form of familial CJD, may be spontaneously oxidized. We conclude that the oxidation of methionine residues in Helix-3 represents an early and important event in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We believe that further investigation into the mechanism and role of PrP oxidation will be central in finally elucidating the mechanism by which a normal cell protein converts into a pathogenic entity that causes fatal brain degeneration.

  2. Nanofilamentary resistive switching in binary oxide system; a review on the present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2011-01-01

    This review article summarized the recent understanding of resistance switching (RS) behavior in several binary oxide thin film systems. Among the various RS materials and mechanisms, TiO 2 and NiO thin films in unipolar thermo-chemical switching mode are primarily dealt with. To facilitate the discussions, the RS was divided into three parts; electroforming, set and reset steps. After short discussions on the electrochemistry of 'electrolytic' oxide materials, the general and peculiar aspects of these RS systems and mechanism are elaborated. Although the RS behaviors and characteristics of these materials are primarily dependent on the repeated formation and rupture of the conducting filaments (CFs) at the nanoscale at a localized position, this mechanism appears to offer a basis for the understanding of other RS mechanisms which were originally considered to be irrelevant to the localized events. The electroforming and set switching phenomena were understood as the process of CF formation and rejuvenation, respectively, which are mainly driven by the thermally assisted electromigration and percolation (or even local phase transition) of defects, while the reset process was understood as the process of CF rupture where the thermal energy plays a more crucial role. This review also contains several remarks on the outlook of these resistance change devices as a semiconductor memory. (topical review)

  3. Fabrication and oxidation resistance of titanium carbide-coated carbon fibres by reacting titanium hydride with carbon fibres in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Z.J.; Li, X.K.; Yuan, G.M.; Cong, Y.; Li, N.; Jiang, Z.Y.; Hu, Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using carbon fibres and titanium hydride as a reactive carbon source and a metal source, respectively, a protective titanium carbide (TiC) coating was formed on carbon fibres in molten salts, composed of LiCl-KCl-KF, at 750-950 o C. The structure and morphology of the TiC coatings were characterised by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The oxidation resistance of the TiC-coated carbon fibres was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that control of the coating thickness is very important for improvement of the oxidation resistance of TiC-coated carbon fibres. The oxidative weight loss initiation temperature for the TiC-coated carbon fibres increases significantly when an appropriate coating thickness is used. However, thicker coatings lead to a decrease of the carbon fibres' weight loss initiation temperature due to the formation of cracks in the coating. The TiC coating thickness on carbon fibres can be controlled by adjusting the reaction temperature and time of the molten salt synthesis.

  4. Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Kishida, S.; Yoda, T.

    2011-01-01

    Conductive atomic-force microscopy (C-AFM) writing is attracting attention as a technique for clarifying the switching mechanism of resistive random-access memory by providing a wide area filled with filaments, which can be regarded as one filament with large radius. The writing area on a nickel-oxide (NiO) film formed by conductive atomic-force microscopy was observed by scanning electron microscope, and a correlation between the contrast in a secondary-electron image (SEI) and the resistance written by C-AFM was revealed. In addition, the dependence of the SEI contrast on the beam accelerating voltage (V accel ) suggests that the resistance-change effect occurs near the surface of the NiO film. As for the effects of electron irradiation and vacuum annealing on the C-AFM writing area, it was shown that the resistance-change effect is caused by exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere at the surface of the NiO film. This result suggests that the low-resistance and high-resistance areas are, respectively, p-type Ni 1+δ O (δ 1+δ O (δ≥ 0).

  5. Ectopic expression of a horseradish peroxidase enhances growth rate and increases oxidative stress resistance in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaoka, Akiyoshi; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Endo, Saori; Kondo, Shinkichi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu

    2003-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase prxC1a gene stimulated the growth rate of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S::prxC1a construct was introduced into hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii x Populus grandidentata). The growth rate of these transformed hybrid aspen plants was substantially increased under greenhouse conditions. The average stem length of transformed plants was 25% greater than that of control plants. There was no other obvious phenotypic difference between the transformed and control plants. Fast-growing transformed hybrid aspen showed high levels of expression of prxC1a and had elevated peroxidase activities toward guaiacol and ascorbate. However, there was no increase of the endogenous class I ascorbate peroxidase activities in the transformed plants by separate assay and activity staining of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, calli derived from the transformed hybrid aspen grew faster than those from control plants and were resistant to the oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, enhanced peroxidase activity affects plant growth rate and oxidative stress resistance.

  6. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus surface virulence factor that promotes resistance to oxidative killing and infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kohler, Petra L; Schlievert, Patrick M; Chuang, Olivia N; Dunny, Gary M; Kobayashi, Scott D; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Bohach, Gregory A; Seo, Keun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen and a leading cause of community- and hospital-acquired bacterial infections worldwide. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the S. aureus 67.6-kDa hypothetical protein, named for the surface factor promoting resistance to oxidative killing (SOK) in this study. Sequence analysis showed that the SOK gene is conserved in all sequenced S. aureus strains and homologous to the myosin cross-reactive antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that SOK was copurified with membrane fractions and was exposed on the surface of S. aureus Newman and RN4220. Comparative analysis of wild-type S. aureus and an isogenic deletion strain indicated that SOK contributes to both resistance to killing by human neutrophils and to oxidative stress. In addition, the S. aureus sok deletion strain showed dramatically reduced aortic valve vegetation and bacterial cell number in a rabbit endocarditis model. These results, plus the suspected role of the streptococcal homologue in certain diseases such as acute rheumatic fever, suggest that SOK plays an important role in cardiovascular and other staphylococcal infections.

  7. Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaolia, Popi; Michael, Irene; García-Fernández, Irene; Agüera, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-01-15

    The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity

  8. Aging-Resistant Functionalized LDH⁻SAS/Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites: Preparation and Study of Aging Kinetics/Anti-Aging Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxiang; Shi, Zhengren; He, Xianru; Jiang, Ping; Lu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-18

    With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH⁻SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH⁻SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH⁻SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR. The obtained NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites exhibited excellent thermo-oxidative aging resistance as shown by TGA-DSC. Further investigation by ATR-FTIR indicated that SAS can capture the radical groups, even during the aging process, which largely accounts for the improved aging resistance.

  9. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe"2"+/H_2O_2) and UV/H_2O_2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H_2O_2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H_2O_2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 molar ratios, H_2O_2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H_2O_2 process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  10. Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to oxidative stress after chloramine-T treatment