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Sample records for examine sex differences

  1. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered....

  2. Paraphilic Interests: An Examination of Sex Differences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J; Bannerman, Brittany A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-02-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine paraphilic sexual interests in nonclinical samples. The little that exists suggests that atypical sexual interests are more common in men than in women, but the reasons for this difference are unknown. In this study, we explored the prevalence of paraphilic interests in a nonclinical sample of men and women. We expected that men would report greater arousal (or less repulsion) toward various paraphilic acts than women. We also examined putative correlates of paraphilias in an attempt to explain the sex difference. In all, 305 men and 710 women completed an online survey assessing sexual experiences, sexual interests, as well as indicators of neurodevelopmental stress, sex drive, mating effort, impulsivity, masculinity/femininity, and socially desirable responding. As expected, significant sex differences were found, with men reporting significantly less repulsion (or more arousal) to the majority of paraphilic acts than women. Using mediation analysis, sex drive was the only correlate to significantly and fully mediate the sex difference in paraphilic interests. In other words, sex drive fully accounted for the sex difference in paraphilic interests. The implications of these findings for understanding the etiology of atypical sexual interests are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Sex Ideologies in China: Examining Interprovince Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.

  4. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  5. Examination of Sex Differences in a Large Sample of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Vanessa P.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite consistent and substantive research documenting a large male to female ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), only a modest body of research exists examining sex differences in characteristics. This study examined sex differences in developmental functioning and early social communication in children with ASD as compared to children with…

  6. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  7. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani El-Alayli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how public/private affection and marginalization relate to relationship satisfaction. Women in committed same-sex and different-sex relationships completed surveys of public affection, private affection, marginalization, and relationship satisfaction online. As predicted, women in same-sex relationships displayed less public affection than those in different-sex relationships, an effect mediated by general societal marginalization. Both private and public affection predicted higher relationship satisfaction, whereas feelings of marginalization by friends/family predicted lower relationship satisfaction. We discuss implications for relationship counseling and propose new ways of looking at marginalization.

  8. Examining sex differences in DSM-IV-TR narcissistic personality disorder symptom expression using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Nicolas; Peyre, Hugo; Lavaud, Pierre; Blanco, Carlos; Guerin-Langlois, Christophe; René, Margaux; Schuster, Jean-Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Delorme, Richard; Limosin, Frédéric

    2017-12-14

    The limited published literature on the subject suggests that there may be differences in how females and males experience narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) symptoms. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory to examine whether, when equating for levels of NPD symptom severity, there are sex differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV-TR NPD symptoms. We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample from the USA (n=34,653), the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). There were statistically and clinically significant sex differences for 2 out of the 9 DSM-IV-TR NPD symptoms. We found that males were more likely to endorse the item 'lack of empathy' at lower levels of narcissistic personality disorder severity than females. The item 'being envious' was a better indicator of NPD severity in males than in females. There were no clinically significant sex differences on the remaining NPD symptoms. Overall, our findings indicate substantial sex differences in narcissistic personality disorder symptom expression. Although our results may reflect sex-bias in diagnostic criteria, they are consistent with recent views suggesting that narcissistic personality disorder may be underpinned by shared and sex-specific mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining Sex Differences in Altering Attitudes About Rape: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Intervention sought to improve first-year college students' attitudes about rape. Used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine men's and women's attitude change process. Found numerous sex differences in ways men and women experienced and changed during and after intervention. Women's attitude showed more lasting change while men's was more…

  10. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amani El-Alayli; Erin Kent

    2011-01-01

    Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private) physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how publ...

  11. Sex differences in genetic architecture of complex phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Vink

    Full Text Available We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA studies of complex phenotypes. If different genes play a role across sex, GWA studies should consider the effect of genetic variants separately in men and women, which affects statistical power. Twin and family studies offer an opportunity to compare resemblance between opposite-sex family members to the resemblance between same-sex relatives, thereby presenting a test of quantitative and qualitative sex differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits. We analyzed data on lifestyle, personality, psychiatric disorder, health, growth, development and metabolic traits in dizygotic (DZ same-sex and opposite-sex twins, as these siblings are perfectly matched for age and prenatal exposures. Sample size varied from slightly over 300 subjects for measures of brain function such as EEG power to over 30,000 subjects for childhood psychopathology and birth weight. For most phenotypes, sample sizes were large, with an average sample size of 9027 individuals. By testing whether the resemblance in DZ opposite-sex pairs is the same as in DZ same-sex pairs, we obtain evidence for genetic qualitative sex-differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits for 4% of phenotypes. We conclude that for most traits that were examined, the current evidence is that same the genes are operating in men and women.

  12. Built Environment Influences of Children’s Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child’s neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9–14 years in London (ON, Canada. As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child’s neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m around each child’s home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children’s MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys’ MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls’ MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child’s physical activity may differ according to sex.

  13. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  14. Genes, Environments, and Sex Differences in Alcohol Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-07-01

    The study of sex differences has been identified as one way to enhance scientific reproducibility, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have implemented a new policy to encourage the explicit examination of sex differences. Our goal here is to address sex differences in behavioral genetic research on alcohol outcomes. We review sex differences for alcohol outcomes and whether the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the same across sexes; describe common research designs for studying sex-specific gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects; and discuss the role of statistical power and theory when testing sex-specific genetic effects. There are robust sex differences for many alcohol outcomes. The weight of evidence suggests that the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and AUD are the same across sexes. Whether there are sex-specific G × E effects has received less attention to date. The new NIH policy necessitates a systematic approach for studying sex-specific genetic effects in alcohol research. Researchers are encouraged to report power for tests of these effects and to use theory to develop testable hypotheses, especially for studies of G × E.

  15. Sex differences in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer's disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer's disease in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Sex Difference in Depression across 29 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Bradley, Dana Burr

    2007-01-01

    The sex difference in depression is well documented in westernized, developed societies, although there has been little quantitative cross-cultural research on the topic. In this study, we use multilevel logit models to examine sex differences in depression across 29 countries using data from the World Values Survey. We find that in no country are…

  17. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Amber N V; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Tait, Roger J; Suckling, John

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18-59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Amber N.V.; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Tait, Roger J.; Suckling, John

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18–59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:24374381

  19. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  20. Sex Differences in Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Dongen, J.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Distel, M.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Smit, D.J.A.; Minica, C.C.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Geels, L.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits) in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA)

  1. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-11-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than females, whereas impulsive choice is typically greater in females. In humans, women discount more steeply than men, but sex differences on measures of impulsive action depend on tasks and subject samples. We discuss implications of these findings as they relate to drug addiction. We also point out the major gaps in this research to date, including the lack of studies designed specifically to examine sex differences in behavioral impulsivity, and the lack of consideration of menstrual or estrous phase or sex hormone levels in the studies. © 2013.

  2. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  3. Sex differences in depression after widowhood. Do men suffer more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, D.S.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: This study focuses on sex differences in depression of the widowed. Previous research showed different results in sex differences and in depression after bereavement. We assessed the effects of widowhood on depressive symptoms for men and women and examined whether environmental strain

  4. Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramikie, Teniel Sonya; Ressler, Kerry J

    2018-05-15

    Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modelling neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, N; Bale, T L

    2009-03-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and serotonin neurotransmission, which are important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Furthermore, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviours, physiology and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our laboratory and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early-life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways, including the functional importance of the organisational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity, is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminised physiological and behavioural stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice

  6. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with CRF and serotonin neurotransmission, important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Further, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviors, physiology, and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our lab and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways including the functional importance of the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminized physiological and behavioral stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of SSRI. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice. Mechanistically, stress early in pregnancy produced a significant sex-dependent effect on

  7. A systematic literature review of sex differences in childhood language and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Andrew; Adhikari, Aditi; Weinberg, Lauren S; Choo, Ai Leen; Garnett, Emily O; Chow, Ho Ming; Chang, Soo-Eun

    2018-06-01

    The extent of sex differences in childhood language development is unclear. We conducted a systematic literature review synthesizing results from studies examining sex differences in brain structure and function relevant to language development during childhood. We searched PubMed and Scopus databases, and this returned a total of 46 published studies meeting criteria for inclusion that directly examined sex differences in brain development relevant to language function in children. The results indicate that: (a) sex differences in brain structure or function do not necessarily lead to differences in language task performance; (b) evidence for sex differences in brain and language development are limited; (c) when present, sex differences often interact with a variety of factors such as age and task. Overall, the magnitude of sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories associated with language is not as significant as previously thought. Sex differences were found, however, in studies employing tighter age ranges. This suggests that sex differences may be more prominent during certain developmental stages but are negligible in other stages, likely due to different rates of maturation between the sexes. More research is needed to improve our understanding of how sex differences may arise due to the influence of sex hormones and developmental stages, and how these differences may lead to differences in various language task performance. These studies are expected to provide normative information that may be used in studies examining neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently affect more males than females, and also often affect language development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  9. Sex differences in drug use among polysubstance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-12-01

    Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences associated with intermittent swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Libman, Matthew K; Wooten, Katherine L; Drugan, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Various animal models of depression have been used to seek a greater understanding of stress-related disorders. However, there is still a great need for novel research in this area, as many individuals suffering from depression are resistant to current treatment methods. Women have a higher rate of depression, highlighting the need to investigate mechanisms of sex differences. Therefore, we employed a new animal model to assess symptoms of depression, known as intermittent swim stress (ISS). In this model, the animal experiences 100 trials of cold water swim stress. ISS has already been shown to cause signs of behavioral depression in males, but has yet to be assessed in females. Following ISS exposure, we looked at sex differences in the Morris water maze and forced swim test. The results indicated a spatial learning effect only in the hidden platform task between male and female controls, and stressed and control males. A consistent spatial memory effect was only seen for males exposed to ISS. In the forced swim test, both sexes exposed to ISS exhibited greater immobility, and the same males and females also showed attenuated climbing and swimming, respectively. The sex differences could be due to different neural substrates for males and females. The goal of this study was to provide the first behavioral examination of sex differences following ISS exposure, so the stage of estrous cycle was not assessed for the females. This is a necessary future direction for subsequent experiments. The current article highlights the importance of sex differences in response to stress.

  12. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  13. Sex differences in serum lidid levels in nigerian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Nigeria population remain undetermined. The sex differences in changes in lipoprotein levels in. NS. are not well defined. This study examines the sex differences in lipoprotein levels among Nigerian patients with the N.S.. Methods Of 79 patients seen ...

  14. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in personality: findings from the BBC Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Analyzing a large international data set generated by a BBC Internet survey, I examined sex differences and sexual orientation differences in six personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, disagreeable assertiveness, masculine versus feminine occupational preferences (MF-Occ), and self-ascribed masculinity-femininity (Self-MF). Consistent with previous research, sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for MF-Occ and for Self-MF. In general, heterosexual-homosexual differences mirrored sex differences in personality, with gay men shifted in female-typical and lesbians in male-typical directions. Bisexual men scored intermediate between heterosexual and gay men on MF-Occ; however, they were slightly more feminine than gay men on Self-MF. Bisexual women scored intermediate between heterosexual women and lesbians on both MF-Occ and Self-MF. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in MF-Occ, Self-MF, and other personality traits were consistent across five nations/world regions (the UK, USA, Canada, Australia/New Zealand, and Western Europe), thereby suggesting a biological component to these differences.

  15. Sex Differences in Reasoning and Emotion about Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines sex differences among 70 adults in the resolution of prosocial dilemmas involving self-sacrifice. Findings suggest that even when women and men make the same choices, they seem to think about and experience their choices in different ways. (MW)

  16. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Vet, Henrica C W de; Picavet, H Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in

  17. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  18. Reconciling Sex Differences in Information-Processing and Career Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1990-01-01

    Information processing theory could be made more sensitive to differences in career outcomes for males and females by (1) examining the nature of the career decision; (2) expanding the notion of information; (3) relating the vocational schema to the gender schema; and (4) noting whether variables are general, sex related, or sex specific. (SK)

  19. Sexing the Brain: The Science and Pseudoscience of Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent upsurge in unitary biological explanations for gender differences in behavior (i.e. that they are “hard-wired” in the genetic code, put forward not only in books written for a general audience but also in scientific papers, makes it important to examine the fallacies of these ideas. Such genetic and hormonal explanations of human behavior, formulated with little consideration of the influences of experience, and often without taking experience into account at all, are part of a new wave of genetic explanations for a broad range of human behavior, as explained in the paper. These ideas are far from new; moreover, they are pseudoscientific and are used for political influence under the guise of science. They are a conservative social force that maintains social and educational inequalities between women and men. This paper explains that causal explanations of differences between the sexes are of two completely different types: unitary (genetic determinist versus interactive explanations. The false reasoning used to support genetic determinist explanations of sex differences in behavior is discussed. To illustrate what biology really tells us about gender differentiation, the paper discusses the interactive roles of genetic, hormonal and environmental influences on the development of gender differences. These interactions are illustrated using two model biological systems (e.g. the intertwined influences of genes, sex hormones and experience on the development of sex differences in behavior in rats, and sex differences in neuronal connections in chickens. There is plenty of scientific evidence to show the complex interactive, and ever changing, influences of experience and genes that take place as an organism develops and throughout its life. Malleability of brain and behavior can be shown clearly using animal models, and the processes involved apply also to the development of brain and behavior in humans. We diminish our understanding

  20. Sex differences in the fetal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B; Alexander, Barbara T

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This review examined the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic disease in adulthood with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a suboptimal fetal environment. This review focuses on current findings from the PubMed database regarding animal models of fetal programming of hypertension, sex differences in phenotypic outcomes, and potential mechanisms in offspring of mothers exposed to an adverse insult during gestation. For the years 1988 to 2007, the database was searched using the following terms: fetal programming, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, sex differences, estradiol, testosterone, high blood pressure, and hypertension. The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and include alterations in the regulatory systems affecting the long-tterm control of arterial pressure. Sex differences have been observed in animal models of fetal programming, and recent studies suggest that sex hormones may modulate activity of regulatory systems, leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared with males. Animal models of fetal programming provide critical support for the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. Experimental models demonstrate that sex differences are observed in the pathophysiologic response to an adverse fetal environment. A role for sex hormone involvement is strongly suggested,with modulation of the renin-angiotensin system as a possible mechanism.

  1. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, A; Shkolnikova, M; Vaupel, J W

    2014-01-01

    and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55-69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio......In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world's largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox...... between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007-2008. Self-reported health...

  2. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  4. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Trandafir

    2009-01-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data fo...

  5. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the blood plasma of examines occupationally exposed to low doses: sex differences and confounding factor consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.; Djuric, J.; Sukalo, I.; Blagojevic, D; Spasic, M.B.; Saicic, Z.S.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in humans demonstrated that the changes in enzyme activities are substrate selective, as well as sex-dependent. Contrary to males, GST activities are found to be relatively stable with age in females. The paper deals with determination of GST activities in the blood plasma of healthy examines occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The control group consisted of the examines not exposed to sources of ionizing radiation by profession. Simultaneously, standard hematological and biochemical analyses were performed, respectively. Groups were subdivided by sex and smoking habits. GST activity (nmol GSH/min/L plasma) in male control group was 4.71±0.18 (1.05) and in female 4.53±0.15 (0.97). Exposure to ionizing radiation led to an increased GST activity in the blood plasma of both sexes (exposed males 5.17±0.35 (1.22), exposed females 4.91±1.00 (2.64). Values in the group of exposed females vary widely. Differences between GST activity of male smokers (5.12±0.19 (1.07)) and male controls, as well as between female smokers (4.93±0.22 (1.39)) and female controls were observed. Difference in GST value distributions was evident in the group of female smokers in comparison with female controls. Presented results indicate that measuring GST activity in the blood plasma might be an useful parameter for examination of ionizing radiation effects. (author)

  6. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  7. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  8. Sex differences in prenatal epigenetic programming of stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2011-07-01

    Maternal stress experience is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Recent studies have examined mechanisms by which changes in the maternal milieu may be transmitted to the developing embryo and potentially translated into programming of the epigenome. Animal models of prenatal stress have identified important sex- and temporal-specific effects on offspring stress responsivity. As dysregulation of stress pathways is a common feature in most neuropsychiatric diseases, molecular and epigenetic analyses at the maternal-embryo interface, especially in the placenta, may provide unique insight into identifying much-needed predictive biomarkers. In addition, as most neurodevelopmental disorders present with a sex bias, examination of sex differences in the inheritance of phenotypic outcomes may pinpoint gene targets and specific windows of vulnerability in neurodevelopment, which have been disrupted. This review discusses the association and possible contributing mechanisms of prenatal stress in programming offspring stress pathway dysregulation and the importance of sex.

  9. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  10. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  11. [Sex differences and anesthesiology: preface and comments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishno, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In this special issue, the topic of sex difference in the field of anesthesiology is featured. Eight subtopics are discussed including 1) sex differences in cardiovascular medicine, 2) perioperative cardiovascular management, 3) sex differences in the respiratory functions of the upper airway, 4) sex differences in the anesthetic management, 5) sex differences in pain, 6) sex differences in laboratory medicine, 7) sex differences in pharmacokinetics of anesthetics, and 8) postoperative nausea and vomiting. Although recent clinical and experimental studies have shown the existence of sex and/or gender differences in many fields of medicine, our knowledge of sex differences in anesthesiology is apparently insufficient. I believe that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to this topic to improve our daily practice of anesthesia.

  12. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards. We examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14, 618 white- and blue-collar aluminium manufacturing employees in eight US states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine the effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job status, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.97) and partnered men with children less likely (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83). Education, age at hire and race influenced job status for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.35). Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (eg, single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, and finer exploration of sex-linked biological differences influencing responsivity to workplace exposures, is warranted.

  13. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  14. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  15. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sex-related differences in patients treated surgically for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Sex-related differences were examined in the clinical course of patients treated surgically for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Retrospective analyses were carried out to evaluate sex-related differences in aneurysm location, aneurysm size, preoperative neurological condition, preoperative computed tomography findings, and outcome among 2577 patients who underwent surgical repair of ruptured aneurysms. The internal carotid artery was most frequently affected in women and the anterior cerebral artery in men. Intracerebral or intraventricular hematoma was more common in men than in women. Some differences may be related to the location of the aneurysm. Sex-related differences were prominent in the 5th decade of life. These findings might be related to the menopause. Sex hormones may be involved in aneurysm formation. (author)

  17. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Disease: A Focus on the Glutamate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Wickens

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These studies reveal sex differences at multiple levels in the glutamate system including metabolic markers, receptor levels, genetic interactions, and therapeutic responses to glutamatergic drugs. Our survey of the current literature revealed a considerable need for more evaluations of sex differences in future studies examining the role of the glutamate system in psychiatric disease. Gaining a more thorough understanding of how sex differences in the glutamate system contribute to psychiatric disease could provide novel avenues for the development of sex-specific pharmacotherapies.

  18. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  19. Sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F

    2006-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.

  20. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Xue

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  1. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  2. Sex differences in the Simon task help to interpret sex differences in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, a number of studies have reported sex differences in selective attention, but a unified explanation for these effects is still missing. This study aims to better understand these differences and put them in an evolutionary psychological context. 418 adult participants performed a computer-based Simon task, in which they responded to the direction of a left or right pointing arrow appearing left or right from a fixation point. Women were more strongly influenced by task-irrelevant spatial information than men (i.e., the Simon effect was larger in women, Cohen's d = 0.39). Further, the analysis of sex differences in behavioral adjustment to errors revealed that women slow down more than men following mistakes (d = 0.53). Based on the combined results of previous studies and the current data, it is proposed that sex differences in selective attention are caused by underlying sex differences in core abilities, such as spatial or verbal cognition.

  3. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12 in an older Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Carver

    Full Text Available Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population.The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil.The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women. Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22. A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12 previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66 loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51 loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent.Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  4. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  5. Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  7. Sex Differences in the Cerebral Collateral Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Moore, Scott M; Lucitti, Jennifer L; Aghajanian, Amir; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Premenopausal women and intact female rodents sustain smaller cerebral infarctions than males. Several sex-dependent differences have been identified as potential contributors, but many questions remain unanswered. Mice exhibit wide variation in native collateral number and diameter (collateral extent) that is dependent on differences in genetic background, aging, and other comorbidities and that contributes to their also-wide differences in infarct volume. Likewise, variation in infarct volume correlates with differences in collateral-dependent blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We examined whether extent of pial collateral arterioles and posterior communicating collateral arteries (PComAs) differ depending on sex in young, aged, obese, hypertensive, and genetically different mice. We combined new data with meta-analysis of our previously published data. Females of C57BL/6J (B6) and BALB/cByJ (BC) strains sustained smaller infarctions than males after permanent MCA occlusion. This protection was unchanged in BC mice after introgression of the B6 allele of Dce1, the major genetic determinant of variation in pial collaterals among mouse strains. Consistent with this, collateral extent in these and other strains did not differ with sex. Extent of PComAs and primary cerebral arteries also did not vary with sex. No dimorphism was evident for loss of pial collateral number and/or diameter (collateral rarefaction) caused by aging, obesity, and hypertension, nor for collateral remodeling after pMCAO. However, rarefaction was greater in females with long-standing hypertension. We conclude that smaller infarct volume in female mice is not due to greater collateral extent, greater remodeling, or less rarefaction caused by aging, obesity, or hypertension.

  8. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical...... to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different......-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995–2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings...

  9. Sex-differences, Handedness, and Lateralization in the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a widely used decision-making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, male performance is observed to be superior to that of females, and is attributed to right lateralization (i.e., right hemispheric dominance. It is as yet unknown whether sex-differences in affect and motor lateralization have implications for sex-specific lateralization in the IGT, and specifically, whether sex-difference in performance in the IGT changes with right-handedness or with affect lateralization (decision valence, and valence-directed motivation. The present study (N = 320; 160 males examined the effects of right-handedness (right-handedness vs. non-right-handedness as a measure of motor lateralization, decision valence (reward vs. punishment IGT, and valence-directedness of task motivation (valence-directed vs. non-directed instructions, as measures of affective lateralization on IGT decision making. Analyses of variance revealed that both male and female participants showed valence-induced inconsistencies in advantageous decision-making; however, right-handed females made more disadvantageous decisions in a reward IGT. These results suggest that IGT decision-making may be largely right-lateralized in right-handed males, and show that sex and lateralized differences (motor and affect have implications for sex-differences in IGT decision-making. Implications of the results are discussed with reference to lateralization and sex-differences in cognition.

  10. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush

    2016-10-01

    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

  12. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  13. Why we should consider sex (and study sex differences) in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Becker, Jill B

    2016-09-01

    Among mammals, every cell has a biological sex, and the sex of an individual pervades its body and brain. In this review, we describe the processes through which mammals become phenotypically male or female by organizational and activational influences of genes and hormones throughout development. We emphasized that the molecular and cellular changes triggered by sex chromosomes and steroid hormones may generate sex differences in overt physiological functions and behavior, but they may alternatively promote end-point convergences between males and females. Clinical and pre-clinical evidences suggest that sex and gender differences modulate drug consumption as well as of the transition towards drug-promoted pathological states such as dependence and addiction. Additionally, sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will also influence dependence and addiction as well as side effects of drugs. These effects will further interact with socially gendered factors to result in sex differences in the access to, engagement in and efficacy of any therapeutic attempt. Finally, we maintain that 'sex sameness' is as important as 'sex differences' when building a complete understanding of biology for both males and females and provide a framework with which to classify and guide investigation into the mechanisms mediating sex differences and sex sameness. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-05-14

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.

  15. Sex-dependent differences in voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-01-02

    Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In rodents, the amount of time engaged in spontaneous activity within the home cage is a strong predictor of later adiposity and weight gain. Thus, it is important to understand primary motivators stimulating physical activity (PA). There are normal sex differences in PA levels in rodents and humans. The perinatal environment can induce sex-dependent differences in PA disturbances. This Review considers the current evidence for sex differences in PA in rodents and humans. The rodent studies showing that early exposure to environmental chemicals can shape later adult PA responses are discussed. Next, whether there are different motivators stimulating exercise in male vs. female humans are examined. Finally, the brain regions, genes, and pathways that modulate PA in rodents, and possibly by translation in humans, are described. A better understanding of why each sex remains physically active through the life span could open new avenues for preventing and treating obesity in children and adults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. Arbeitman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.

  17. Sexually Selected Sex Differences in Competitiveness Explain Sex Differences in Changes in Drinking Game Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana S. E. Hone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013 replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013 also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness—and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular—are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.

  18. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Marrie H.J.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method: Participants

  19. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  20. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N

  1. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.

  2. Sex differences in neural activation following different routes of oxytocin administration in awake adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Kulkarni, Praveen P; Ferris, Craig F; Veenema, Alexa H

    2017-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0.1mg/kg) OT administration as compared to baseline. ICV OT induced sex differences in BOLD activation in 26 out of 172 brain regions analyzed, with 20 regions showing a greater volume of activation in males (most notably the nucleus accumbens and insular cortex), and 6 regions showing a greater volume of activation in females (including the lateral and central amygdala). IP OT also elicited sex differences in BOLD activation with a greater volume of activation in males, but this activation was found in different and fewer (10) brain regions compared to ICV OT. In conclusion, exogenous OT modulates neural activation differently in male versus female rats with the pattern and magnitude, but not the direction, of sex differences depending on the route of administration. These findings highlight the need to include both sexes in basic and clinical studies to fully understand the role of OT on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: Are the Social Role and Evolutionary Explanations Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    1996-01-01

    Examines competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is suggested that evolutionary theory better accounts for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins.…

  4. Sex differences in T cells in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ashlee J; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and end-organ damage. There is a sex difference in blood pressure (BP) that begins in adolescence and continues into adulthood, in which men have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with women until the sixth decade of life. Less than 50% of hypertensive adults in the United States manage to control their BP to recommended levels using current therapeutic options, and women are more likely than are men to have uncontrolled high BP. This, is despite the facts that more women compared with men are aware that they have hypertension and that women are more likely to seek treatment for the disease. Novel therapeutic targets need to be identified in both sexes to increase the percentage of hypertensive individuals with controlled BP. The purpose of this article was to review the available literature on the role of T cells in BP control in both sexes, and the potential therapeutic application/implications of targeting immune cells in hypertension. A search of PubMed was conducted to determine the impact of sex on T cell-mediated control of BP. The search terms included sex, gender, estrogen, testosterone, inflammation, T cells, T regulatory cells, Th17 cells, hypertension, and blood pressure. Additional data were included from our laboratory examinations of cytokine expression in the kidneys of male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and differential gene expression in both the renal cortex and mesenteric arterial bed of male and female SHRs. There is a growing scientific literature base regarding the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of hypertension and BP control; however, the majority of these studies have been performed exclusively in males, despite the fact that both men and women develop hypertension. There is increasing evidence that although T cells also mediate BP in females, there are distinct differences in both the T-cell profile and the functional impact of sex

  5. Sex differences in cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Wiedmer, Sebastian; Schwerzmann, Markus; Windecker, Stephan; Haefeli, Tobias; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel

    2008-09-01

    Sex differences in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic stroke have not been systematically analyzed. We aimed to determine sex influences on demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, stroke location, and clinical outcome. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were admitted to a single stroke center. All patients underwent a complete stroke workup including clinical examination, standard blood tests, cerebral and vascular imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and 24-hour electrocardiography. In 500 patients, no definite etiology could be established (cryptogenic stroke/TIA). Of them, 167 patients (107 men and 60 women, mean age 52 +/- 13 years) had an PFO. The prevalence of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA was higher in men than in women (38% vs 28%, P = .014). Stroke severity and the prevalence of risk factors did not differ between the 2 sexes. There was an independent association between male sex and stroke location in the posterior cerebral circulation (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, P = .006). Men and women did not differ in respect to PFO grade, prevalence of right-to-left shunt at rest, or coexistence of atrial septal aneurysm. Clinical outcome at 3 months was similar in both sexes. Patent foramen ovale was more prevalent in men than in women with cryptogenic stroke. There were no sex influences on age, risk factors, echocardiographic characteristics of PFO, or clinical outcome. Male sex was independently associated with stroke in the posterior cerebral circulation.

  6. Sex differences in cortisol's regulation of affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Gary D; Rice, Leslie K; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation. First, men were more affiliative toward their dogs after victory, whereas women were more affiliative after defeat. Second, the greater a female competitor's increase in cortisol, the more time she spent affiliating with her dog, whereas for men, the pattern was the exact opposite: the greater a male competitor's increase in cortisol, the less time he spent affiliating with his dog. This pattern suggests that, in the wake of competition, men and women's affiliative behavior may serve different functions-shared celebration for men; shared consolation for women. These sex differences show not only that men and women react very differently to victory and defeat, but also that equivalent changes in cortisol across the sexes are associated with strikingly different behavioral consequences for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  8. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Gojković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that there's a statistical significant level in discrimination of subsamples of different sex.

  9. Sex Differences in Patient-Reported Poststroke Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Burns, Suzanne Perea; Ellis, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that stroke has a differential impact in women compared to men. Women are more likely to survive strokes than men, yet they experience more severe strokes resulting in greater poststroke disability. However, few studies have characterized sex differences in functional ability after stroke. This study examined sex differences in long-term disability among stroke survivors. This was a retrospective analysis of the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 11 functional tasks. Univariate comparisons were completed to evaluate sex differences in performance, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the odds of reporting functional limitations. Five hundred fourteen men and 641 women stroke survivors completed the survey (mean age: 66.9 years). Approximately 75% of the sample reported having hypertension, 61% high cholesterol, 33% diabetes, 24% heart disease, 21% heart attack, and 16% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the predictive models, men were less likely to report "very difficult/can't do at all" in walking ¼ mile (odds ratios [OR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.90), climbing 10 steps (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.85), standing 2 hours (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87), stooping (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.68), reaching overhead (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97), carrying 10 pounds (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59), and pushing large objects (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.5) compared to women. The functional outcomes of men stroke survivors were significantly greater than women. The specific factors that contribute to sex differences in stroke-related outcomes are not entirely clear. Future research is needed to better understand these differences to ensure that equity of care is received.

  10. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in the relationships between parasympathetic activity and pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Dayan, Lior; Sprecher, Elliot; Hochberg, Uri; Brill, Silviu; Yarnitsky, David; Jacob, Giris

    2016-02-01

    Higher parasympathetic activity is related to lower pain perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. We aimed to examine whether this relationship depends on sex, in healthy subjects. Parasympathetic activity was assessed using time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability indices and deep breathing ratio. Pain perception parameters, consisting of heat pain thresholds and pain ratings of supra-thresholds stimuli, as well as pain modulation parameters of mechanical temporal summation, pain adaptation, offset analgesia and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response were examined. Forty healthy subjects were examined (20 men). Women demonstrated higher parasympathetic activity compared to men (high frequency power of 0.55±0.2 and 0.40±0.2, respectively, p=0.02) and less pain reduction in the offset analgesia paradigm (-35.4±29.1 and -55.0±31.2, respectively, p=0.046). Separate slopes models analyses revealed sex differences such that a significant negative correlation was observed between higher rMSSD (the root mean square of successive differences) and higher pain adaptation in men (r=-0.649, p=0.003) but not in women (r=0.382, p=0.106). Similarly, a significant negative correlation was found between higher rMSSD and higher efficiency of the CPM response in men (r=-0.510, p=0.026) but not in women (r=0.406, p=0.085). Sex hormones levels, psychological factors or baseline autonomic activity can be possible explanations for these sex differences. Future autonomic interventions destined to change pain modulation should consider sex as an important intervening factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex Differences in Conscious Sedation During Upper Gastrointestinal Panendoscopic Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Yen

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Women need more analgesic agents than men during panendoscopic examination. There was no significant difference between men and women with regard to anesthetic depth and response to noxious stimuli, as revealed by similar SE and RE values.

  13. Considering sex differences clarifies the effects of depression on facial emotion processing during fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L M; Kendall, A D; Kassel, M T; Patrón, V G; Gowins, J R; Dion, C; Shankman, S A; Weisenbach, S L; Maki, P; Langenecker, S A

    2018-01-01

    Sex differences in emotion processing may play a role in women's increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, studies of sex differences in brain mechanisms involved in emotion processing in MDD (or interactions of sex and diagnosis) are sparse. We conducted an event-related fMRI study examining the interactive and distinct effects of sex and MDD on neural activity during a facial emotion perception task. To minimize effects of current affective state and cumulative disease burden, we studied participants with remitted MDD (rMDD) who were early in the course of the illness. In total, 88 individuals aged 18-23 participated, including 48 with rMDD (32 female) and 40 healthy controls (HC; 25 female). fMRI revealed an interaction between sex and diagnosis for sad and neutral facial expressions in the superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. Results also revealed an interaction of sex with diagnosis in the amygdala. Data was from two sites, which might increase variability, but it also increases power to examine sex by diagnosis interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of taking sex differences into account when examining potential trait (or scar) mechanisms that could be useful in identifying individuals at-risk for MDD as well as for evaluating potential therapeutic innovations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  15. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  16. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  17. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke H A; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of "chromatin-CGH") and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14-15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification.

  18. Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury...

  19. Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality: the role of risky impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P

    2010-12-23

    Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  1. Sex differences in the vulnerability to drug abuse: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Megan E; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2004-10-01

    Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that males and females differ on several aspects of drug reinforcement. Females are more vulnerable than males during transition periods of drug use that are characteristic of drug addiction and relapse. Females are also more sensitive than males to the reinforcing effects of stimulants. It has been suggested that ovarian hormones contribute to the mechanisms of action underlying these sex differences. This review examines the preclinical literature on sex differences and ovarian hormonal influences on drug self-administration in animals. It summarizes the findings on the effects of these variables during different phases of drug addiction. Possible differences in the mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse due to interactions with sex differences or ovarian hormonal factors are considered. The animal literature on sex differences in drug abuse treatment effectiveness is also discussed.

  2. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality in the Nordic countries, 1981--2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the situation for infant and adult mortality, there are only a few studies on child and adolescent mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by age and cohort in four Nordic countries over a 20-year period.......Unlike the situation for infant and adult mortality, there are only a few studies on child and adolescent mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by age and cohort in four Nordic countries over a 20-year period....

  3. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  4. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  5. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Direct Aggression and Sociosexuality: The Role of Risky Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine P. Cross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  6. The trouble with sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2011-12-22

    Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erin E; Masta, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  8. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, E J; Fillingim, R B

    2013-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed substantially increased research regarding sex differences in pain. The expansive body of literature in this area clearly suggests that men and women differ in their responses to pain, with increased pain sensitivity and risk for clinical pain commonly being observed among women. Also, differences in responsivity to pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain interventions have been observed; however, these effects are not always consistent and appear dependent on treatment type and characteristics of both the pain and the provider. Although the specific aetiological basis underlying these sex differences is unknown, it seems inevitable that multiple biological and psychosocial processes are contributing factors. For instance, emerging evidence suggests that genotype and endogenous opioid functioning play a causal role in these disparities, and considerable literature implicates sex hormones as factors influencing pain sensitivity. However, the specific modulatory effect of sex hormones on pain among men and women requires further exploration. Psychosocial processes such as pain coping and early-life exposure to stress may also explain sex differences in pain, in addition to stereotypical gender roles that may contribute to differences in pain expression. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the extant literature examining sex-related differences in clinical and experimental pain, and highlights several biopsychosocial mechanisms implicated in these male-female differences. The future directions of this field of research are discussed with an emphasis aimed towards further elucidation of mechanisms which may inform future efforts to develop sex-specific treatments.

  9. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  10. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  11. Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: a study of opposite-sex twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Gardner, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    The authors sought to clarify the nature of sex differences in the etiologic pathways to major depression. Retrospective and prospective assessments of 20 developmentally organized risk factors and the occurrence of past-year major depression were conducted at two waves of personal interviews at least 12 months apart in 1,057 opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs from a population-based register. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Sixty percent of all paths in the best-fit model exhibited sex differences. Eleven of the 20 risk factors differed across sexes in their impact on liability to major depression. Five had a greater impact in women: parental warmth, neuroticism, divorce, social support, and marital satisfaction. Six had a greater impact in men: childhood sexual abuse, conduct disorder, drug abuse, prior history of major depression, and distal and dependent proximal stressful life events. The life event categories responsible for the stronger effect in males were financial, occupational, and legal in nature. In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, personality and failures in interpersonal relationships played a stronger etiologic role in major depression for women than for men. Externalizing psychopathology, prior depression, and specific "instrumental" classes of acute stressors were more important in the etiologic pathway to major depression for men. The results are consistent with previously proposed typologies of major depression that suggest two subtypes that differ in prevalence in women (deficiencies in caring relationships and interpersonal loss) and men (failures to achieve expected goals, with lowered self-worth).

  12. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  13. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting.

  14. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  15. Looking behind the score: Skill structure explains sex differences in skilled video game performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Kyle W; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2018-01-01

    Some have explained large sex differences in visuospatial abilities by genetic adaptations to different roles in primitive hunter-gatherer societies and the interaction of innate biological differences and environmental factors. We explored the extent to which variations in behavior and acquired skills can provide alternative accounts for sex differences in the performance of a complex spatially-demanding video game (Space Fortress). Men and women with limited video game experience were given 30 hours of training, and latent curve analyses examined the development of their ship control performance and behavior. Men had significantly better control performance than women before and after training, but differences diminished substantially over the training period. An analysis of participants' joystick behaviors revealed that initially men and women relied on different patterns of control behaviors, but changes in these behaviors over time accounted for the reduced sex differences in performance. When we controlled for these differences in behavior, sex effects after training were no longer significant. Finally, examining the development of control performance and control behaviors of men and women categorized as initially high and low performers revealed the lower-performing women may have been controlling their ship using an approach that was very different from the men and higher-performing women. The potential problems of analyzing men and women's spatial performance as homogenous groups are discussed, as well as how these issues may account for sex differences in skilled video game performance and perhaps other domains involving spatial abilities.

  16. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Brandt

    Full Text Available Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757, a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  17. Mothers’ Parenting and Child Sex Differences in Behavior Problems among African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. This study examines whether associations between observations of mothers’ positive and negative parenting and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consists of 137 African American, low-income families with one sibling approximately two-years-old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately four-years-old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, while lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors. PMID:23937420

  18. Sex differences in drug-related stress-system changes: implications for treatment in substance-abusing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.

  19. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  20. Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The countermovement jump (CMJ is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH, reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79. Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power, 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase, and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off.

  1. Sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraines, Morganne A; Kelberer, Lucas J A; Wells, Tony T

    2017-12-01

    Research demonstrates that women experience disgust more readily and with more intensity than men. The experience of disgust is associated with increased attention to disgust-related stimuli, but no prior study has examined sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions. We hypothesised that women, compared to men, would demonstrate increased attention to disgust facial expressions. Participants (n = 172) completed an eye tracking task to measure visual attention to emotional facial expressions. Results indicated that women spent more time attending to disgust facial expressions compared to men. Unexpectedly, we found that men spent significantly more time attending to neutral faces compared to women. The findings indicate that women's increased experience of emotional disgust also extends to attention to disgust facial stimuli. These findings may help to explain sex differences in the experience of disgust and in diagnoses of anxiety disorders in which disgust plays an important role.

  2. Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, L.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are

  3. Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2002-01-01

    Four studies examined sex differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics. Study 1, among 130 undergraduates, made an inventory of all relevant rival characteristics that were spontaneously mentioned when asked about a rival to whom one's partner might feel attracted. On the

  4. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  5. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan.

  6. Sex differences in the processing of flankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2010-04-01

    The study of sex differences in cognition has often focused on differences in spatial processing. Recently, sex differences in selective attention have been observed by Bayliss, di Pellegrino, and Tipper (2005), showing that women are more influenced than men by irrelevant spatial cues. The current study elaborates on this finding and tests whether sex differences in the processing of irrelevant information also occur in a simpler task, in which there is no need to redirect visual attention and no need to remember multiple spatial stimulus-response associations. Here, attention is studied using a novel combination of a go/no-go task and a flanker task. A total of 80 neurotypical participants were studied, and it was found that responses in women were more strongly affected by flanker information than were responses in men. This suggests that these sex differences were not due to difficulties with spatial reorientation, or remembering spatial stimulus-response relationships. The findings are discussed in the context of the hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences.

  7. Sex differences in the association between infant markers and later autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Jones, Emily J H; Johnson, Mark H; Pickles, Andrew; Charman, Tony; Gliga, Teodora

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well established that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is higher in males than females, there is relatively little understanding of the underlying mechanisms and their developmental time course. Sex-specific protective or risk factors have often been invoked to explain these differences, but such factors are yet to be identified. We take a developmental approach, using a prospective sample of 104 infants at high and low familial risk for ASD, to characterise sex differences in infant markers known to predict emerging autism symptoms. We examine three markers previously shown to be associated with later autistic social-communication symptoms: the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) total score, attention disengagement speed and gaze following behaviour. Our aim was to test whether sex differences were already present in these markers at 1 year of age, which would suggest sex-specific mechanisms of risk or protection. While no sex differences were found in any of the three markers investigated, we found sex differences in their relationship to 3-year autism traits; all three markers significantly predicted later autism traits only in the boys. Previously identified 'early autism markers' were associated with later autism symptoms only in boys. This suggests that there may be additional moderating risk or protective factors which remain to be identified. Our findings have important implications for prospective studies in terms of directly testing for the moderating effect of sex on emerging autistic traits.

  8. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  9. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeitman Michelle N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform

  10. Sex differences in proximal control of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R; Quatman, Carmen E; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-07-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbo-pelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries.

  11. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries. PMID:21688868

  12. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N = 5,525) from a representative community sample in the Netherlands filled out questionnaires regarding the variables under study. Results Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, SA; sensitivity to others, SO; capacity for managing new situations, CMNS) fully mediated the sex differences in depression and anxiety, and partly in eating disorder -(drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and anti-social personality disorder characteristics. The mediations followed the expected sex-specific patterns. SO related positively to the internalizing disorder indices, and negatively to the anti-social personality disorder. SA related negatively to all disorder indices; and CMNS to all internalizing disorder indices, but positively to the anti-social personality disorder. Conclusion Treatment of depression, anxiety, but also eating disorders and the antisocial personality disorder may benefit from a stronger focus on autonomy strengthening. PMID:28771498

  13. Sex differences in common pain events: expectations and anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Dannecker, Erin A; Brown, Jennifer L; Jump, Rebecca L; Price, Donald D

    2003-02-01

    This study examined (1) the effects of sex-related stereotypes in commonly experienced, potentially painful events and (2) differences in events representing the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and the typical man. Undergraduates (63 women and 54 men) completed the Situational Pain Questionnaire as the typical woman would and as the typical man would. The participants also answered 2 open-ended questions regarding the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and for the typical man. Our findings demonstrate that sex-related stereotypes extend to common pain events and that men and women expected that men would report less pain for common pain events than women. This suggests a gender-role related learning history that is relatively consistent for both sexes. The worst pain sensation imaginable was perceived to be different for typical men and women. Both sexes chose injury as the class of events men would find most painful and childbirth and menstrual pain as the class of events women would find most painful. Implications of this finding for common pain scaling approaches are discussed. The results of this study were obtained from a fairly uniform group of undergraduate men and women, which may limit the generalizability of our findings.

  14. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  15. Accounting for sex differences in PTSD: A multi-variable mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj

    2015-01-01

    methods that were not ideally suited to test for mediation effects. Prior research has identified a number of individual risk factors that may contribute to sex differences in PTSD severity, although these cannot fully account for the increased symptom levels in females when examined individually....... Objective: The present study is the first to systematically test the hypothesis that a combination of pre-, peri-, and posttraumatic risk factors more prevalent in females can account for sex differences in PTSD severity. Method: The study was a quasi-prospective questionnaire survey assessing PTSD...... cognitions about self and the world, and feeling let down. These variables were included in the model as potential mediators. The combination of risk factors significantly mediated the association between sex and PTSD severity, accounting for 83% of the association. Conclusion: The findings suggest...

  16. Sex differences in components of imagined perspective transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mark R; Sorhus, Ingrid; Edmonds, Caroline J; Potts, Rosalind

    2012-05-01

    Little research to date has examined whether sex differences in spatial ability extend to the mental self rotation involved in taking on a third party perspective. This question was addressed in the present study by assessing components of imagined perspective transformations in twenty men and twenty women. Participants made speeded left-right judgements about the hand in which an object was held by front- and back- facing schematic human figures in an "own body transformation task." Response times were longer when the figure did not share the same spatial orientation as the participant, and were substantially longer than those made for a control task requiring left-right judgements about the same stimuli from the participant's own point of view. A sex difference in imagined perspective transformation favouring males was found to be restricted to the speed of imagined self rotation, and was not observed for components indexing readiness to take a third party point of view, nor in left-right confusion. These findings indicate that the range of spatial abilities for which a sex difference has been established should be extended to include imagined perspective transformations. They also suggest that imagined perspective transformations may not draw upon those empathic social-emotional perspective taking processes for which females show an advantage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  18. Sex differences in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, John J; Murphy, Michael F; Cutler, Neal R

    2016-12-01

    Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause. This paper will review the history and current research on sex effects of antidepressant treatment.

  19. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  1. On the Real Magnitude of Psychological Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Del Giudice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evolutionary theory of sex differences will benefit from an accurate assessment of their magnitude across different psychological domains. This article shows that mainstream research has severely underestimated the magnitude of psychological sex differences; the reason lies in the common practice of measuring multidimensional differences one dimension at a time, without integrating them into a proper multivariate effect size (ES. Employing the Mahalanobis distance D (the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d results in more accurate, and predictably larger, estimates of overall sex differences in multidimensional constructs. Two real-world examples are presented: (1 In a published dataset on Big Five personality traits, sex differences on individual scales averaged d = .27, a typical ES conventionally regarded as “small.” However, the overall difference was D = .84 (disattenuated D = .98, implying considerable statistical separation between male and female distributions. (2 In a recent meta-analytic summary of sex differences in aggression, the individual ESs averaged d = .34. However, the overall difference was estimated at D = .75 – .80 (disattenuated D = .89–1.01. In many psychological domains, sex differences may be substantially larger than previously acknowledged.

  2. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  3. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  4. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  5. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Ullman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic auditory or motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies, and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition. Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously-reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language

  6. Examining the role of sex in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathryn R; Millner, Alexander J; Mukerji, Cora E; Nock, Matthew K

    2017-09-28

    Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), including nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide death exhibit substantial sex differences. Across most countries, men die by suicide more frequently than women; yet, women think about and attempt suicide more frequently than men. Research on sex differences in nonsuicidal self-injury is less developed; however, nonsuicidal self-injury is historically understood as a primarily female phenomenon. This review describes current research on sex differences across SITBs with a focus on factors that moderate these effects, such as age, race, geographic region, and time. Additionally, this review describes factors that may help to explain why sex differences across SITBs exist, including differences in culture, access to lethal suicide methods, rates of mental illness, and utilization of health care. The role of gender, and particularly non-binary gender, is also discussed. Current understanding of these sex differences is described with an eye toward future research on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  8. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    . The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  9. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...

  10. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  11. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  12. Developmental neurogenetics and multimodal neuroimaging of sex differences in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2017-02-01

    Examining sex differences in the brain has been historically contentious but is nonetheless important for advancing mental health for both girls and boys. Unfortunately, females in biomedical research remain underrepresented in most mental health conditions including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), even though equal inclusion of females would improve treatment for girls and yield benefits to boys. This review examines sex differences in the relationship between neuroanatomy and neurogenetics of ASD. Recent findings reveal that girls diagnosed with ASD exhibit more intellectual and behavioral problems compared to their male counterparts, suggesting that girls may be less likely diagnosed in the absence of such problems or that they require a higher mutational load to meet the diagnostic criteria. Thus far, the female biased effect of chromosome 4, 5p15.33, 8p, 9p24.1, 11p12-13, 15q, and Xp22.3 and the male biased effect of 1p31.3, 5q12.3, 7q, 9q33.3, 11q13.4, 13q33.3, 16p11.2, 17q11-21, Xp22.33/Yp11.31, DRD1, NLGN3, MAOA, and SHANK1 deletion have been discovered in ASD. The SNPs of genes such as RYR2, UPP2, and the androgen receptor gene have been shown to have sex-biasing factors in both girls and boys diagnosed with ASD. These sex-related genetic factors may drive sex differences in the neuroanatomy of these girls and boys, including abnormal enlargement in temporal gray and white matter volumes, and atypical reduction in cerebellar gray matter volumes and corpus callosum fibers projecting to the anterior frontal cortex in ASD girls relative to boys. Such factors may also be responsible for the attenuation of brain sexual differentiation in adult men and women with ASD; however, much remains to be uncovered or replicated. Future research should leverage further the association between neuroanatomy and genetics in girls for an integrated and interdisciplinary understanding of ASD.

  13. Why size matters: differences in brain volume account for apparent sex differences in callosal anatomy: the sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum. © 2013.

  14. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  15. Narrowing sex differences in life expectancy: regional variations, 1971-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of industrialized nations have recently experienced some degrees of constriction in their long-standing sex differentials in life expectancy at birth. In this study we examine this phenomenon in the context of Canada’s regions between 1971 and 1991: Atlantic (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; Quebec, Ontario, and the West (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Decomposition analysis based on multiple decrement life tables is applied to address three questions: (1 Are there regional differentials in the degree of narrowing in the sex gap in life expectancy? (2 What is the relative contribution of major causes of death to observed sex differences in average length of life within and across regions? (3 How do the contributions of cause-of-death components vary across regions to either widen or narrow the sex gap in survival? It is shown that the magnitude of the sex gap is not uniform across the regions, though the differences are not large. The most important contributors to a narrowing of the sex gap in life expectancy are heart disease and external types of mortality (i.e., accidents, violence, and suicide, followed by lung cancer and other types of chronic conditions. In substantive terms these results indicate that over time men have been making sufficient gains in these causes of death as to narrow some of the gender gap in overall survival. Regions show similarity in these effects.

  16. Female disability disadvantage: a global perspective on sex differences in physical function and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Felicia V; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives were to determine whether women always fare more poorly in terms of physical function and disability across countries that vary widely in terms of their level of development, epidemiologic context and level of gender equality. Sex differences in self-reported and objective measures of disability and physical function were compared among older adults aged 55-85 in the United States of America, Taiwan, Korea, Mexico, China, Indonesia and among the Tsimane of Bolivia using population-based studies collected between 2001 and 2011. Data were analysed using logistic and ordinary least-squares regression. Confidence intervals were examined to see whether the effect of being female differed significantly between countries. In all countries, women had consistently worse physical functioning (both self-reported and objectively measured). Women also tended to report more difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL), although differences were not always significant. In general, sex differences across measures were less pronounced in China. In Korea, women had significantly lower grip strength, but sex differences in ADL difficulty were non-significant or even reversed. Education and marital status helped explain sex differences. Overall, there was striking similarity in the magnitude and direction of sex differences across countries despite considerable differences in context, although modest variations in the effect of sex were observed.

  17. Sex selection: treating different cases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z

    2005-08-01

    This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.

  18. A Theory of Sex Differences in Technical Aptitude and Some Supporting Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2011-11-01

    In this article, I present a theory that explains the origin of sex differences in technical aptitudes. The theory takes as proven that there are no sex differences in general mental ability (GMA), and it postulates that sex differences in technical aptitude (TA) stem from differences in experience in technical areas, which is in turn based on sex differences in technical interests. Using a large data set, I tested and found support for four predictions made by this theory: (a) the construct level correlation between technical aptitude and GMA is larger for females than males, (b) the observed and true score variability of technical aptitude is greater among males than females, (c) at every level of GMA females have lower levels of technical aptitude, and (d) technical aptitude measures used as estimates of GMA for decision purposes would result in underestimation of GMA levels for girls and women. Given that GMA carries the weight of prediction of job performance, the support found for this last prediction suggests that, for many jobs, technical aptitude tests may underpredict the job performance of female applicants and employees. Future research should examine this question. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.

  19. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  20. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  1. Cross-national comparison of sex differences in health and mortality in Denmark, Japan and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Crimmins, Eileen; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to compare the direction and magnitude of sex differences in mortality and major health dimensions across Denmark, Japan and the US. The Human Mortality Database was used to examine sex differences in age-specific mortality rates. The Danish twin surveys, the Danish 1905-Co...

  2. Sex differences of gray matter morphology in cortico-limbic-striatal neural system in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingtao; Chen, Kaiyuan; Womer, Fay; Jiang, Wenyan; Luo, Xingguang; Driesen, Naomi; Liu, Jie; Blumberg, Hilary; Tang, Yanqing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences are observed in both epidemiological and clinical aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD). The cortico-limbic-striatal neural system, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum, have shown sexually dimorphic morphological features and have been implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion in MDD. In this study, we utilized a whole-brain, voxel-based approach to examine sex differences in the regional distribution of gray matter (GM) morphological abnormalities in medication-naïve participants with MDD. Participants included 29 medication-naïve individuals with MDD (16 females and 13 males) and 33 healthy controls (HC) (17 females and 16 males). Gray matter morphology of the cortico-limbic-striatal neural system was examined using voxel-based morphometry analyzes of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The main effect of diagnosis and interaction effect of diagnosis by sex on GM morphology were statistically significant (p sex-related patterns of abnormalities within the cortico-limbic-strial neural system, such as predominant prefrontal-limbic abnormalities in MDD females vs. predominant prefrontal-striatal abnormalities in MDD males, suggest differences in neural circuitry that may mediate sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and potential targets for sex-differentiated treatment of the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  4. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  5. Confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Felker, Sydney

    2012-06-01

    On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracy than females. Using the most common measure of mental rotation (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whether individual variability in confidence mediates this sex difference in mental rotation performance. In each of four experiments, the sex difference was reliably elicited and eliminated by controlling or manipulating participants' confidence. Specifically, confidence predicted performance within and between sexes (Experiment 1), rendering confidence irrelevant to the task reliably eliminated the sex difference in performance (Experiments 2 and 3), and manipulating confidence significantly affected performance (Experiment 4). Thus, confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hence the sex difference appears to be a difference of performance rather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to other potential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles, sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, working memory, and spatial attention.

  6. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Differences in Liking and Wanting Sex: Examining the Role of Motivational Context and Implicit Versus Explicit Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Marieke

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the specificity of sexual appraisal processes by making a distinction between implicit and explicit appraisals and between the affective (liking) and motivational (wanting) valence of sexual stimuli. These appraisals are assumed to diverge between men and women, depending on the context in which the sexual stimulus is encountered. Using an Implicit Association Test, explicit ratings, and film clips to prime a sexual, romantic or neutral motivational context, we investigated whether liking and wanting of sexual stimuli differed at the implicit and explicit level, differed between men and women, and were differentially sensitive to context manipulations. Results showed that, at the implicit level, women wanted more sex after being primed with romantic mood whereas men showed the least wanting of sex in the romantic condition. At the explicit level, men reported greater liking and wanting of sex than women, independently of context. We also found that women's (self-reported) sexual behavior was best predicted by the incentive salience of sexual stimuli whereas men's sexual behavior was more closely related to the hedonic qualities of sexual stimuli. Results were discussed in relation to an emotion-motivational account of sexual functioning.

  8. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  9. The new science of cognitive sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Halpern, Diane F

    2014-01-01

    Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies align with earlier literature to help establish the role of prenatal androgens and large international datasets help explain how cultural factors such as economic prosperity and gender equity affect females and males differently. Understanding how biological and environmental factors interact could help maximize cognitive potential and address pressing societal issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Different association between renal hyperfiltration and mortality by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Don; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Heo, Nam Ju; Chin, Ho Jun; Yang, Seung Hee; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-10-01

    Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) is a marker of early kidney injury that was recently shown to be a novel marker of mortality. However, it has no clear definition. In this study, we suggested an age- and sex-adjusted RHF definition and explored the association between RHF and mortality by sex. We analyzed data from individuals receiving routine health examinations from 1995 to 2009. RHF was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate over the 95th percentile matched for age and sex. A total of 114 966 individuals were included. During the 75-month of observation period, 2559 (2.2%) participants died. Among those, 71.4% were men. Because sex and RHF had a significant interaction for mortality (P for interaction sex. RHF was related to lower body weight and a higher proportion of cigarette smoking in men, whereas these relationships were not found in women. In the Kaplan-Meier curve, RHF was associated with higher mortality rate than non-RHF in both sexes, but this relationship was more prominent in men. In the multivariate analysis, RHF remained as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality even after adjustment for confounding in men (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.59; P = 0.001). In women, RHF was not associated with increased mortality. We demonstrated that RHF was a significant risk factor for mortality in men but not in women. The mechanisms and clinical implications of these different associations according to sex require a further clarification. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women

  12. Sex-related differences in outcomes after hallux valgus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Ji Wun; Park, Sung Bum; Kim, Jin Kak

    2015-03-01

    With differences between the sexes in foot bone anatomy and ligamentous laxity, there is the possibility that the results of hallux valgus surgery may also differ between the sexes. We aimed to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between the sexes. The authors retrospectively reviewed 60 males (66 feet) and 70 females (82 feet) who underwent distal or proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity between June 2005 and December 2011. We compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the sexes. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics between the sexes. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, visual analogue scale for pain, and patient satisfaction at the last follow-up did not differ significantly between the sexes. The mean preoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) were not significantly different between the sexes. At the last follow-up, the mean HVA was significantly greater in females (p=0.003) than in males; mean IMA was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean correction of HVA in males was significantly greater than that in females (p=0.014). There were no significant differences between the sexes regarding clinical outcomes after distal and proximal chevron osteotomy. However, male patients achieved greater correction of HVA than female patients. There is a possibility that sexual dimorphism of the foot may affect postoperative HVA.

  13. Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bailey, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    It is a clinical reality that women make up the large majority of chronic pain patients, and there is now consensus from laboratory experiments that when differences are seen, women are more sensitive to pain than men. Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference. Although sex differences in sociocultural, psychological, and experiential factors likely play important roles, evidence largely from animal studies has revealed surprisingly robust and often qualitative sex differences at low levels of the neuraxis. Although not yet able to affect clinical practice, the continued study of sex differences in pain may have important implications for the development of new analgesic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  15. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or cognitive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eOhla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the first sex-dependent differences for chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG, psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and oldorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate attention stronger to potentially noxious stimuli, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception.

  16. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pa...

  17. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Identity as a moderator of gender differences in the emotional closeness of emerging adults' same- and cross-sex friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H Durell; Brady, Evelyn; McNair, Renae; Congdon, Darcy; Niznik, Jamie; Anderson, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    Closeness is an integral aspect of friendships, and males and females differ in their closeness experiences within these relationships. However, identity development and friendship type (e.g., same-sex versus cross-sex friendships) may moderate these gender differences. In an attempt to clarify the relationships among gender, identity, and friendship closeness, the current study examined gender and identity associations with reported emotional closeness in emerging adults' same- and cross-sex friendships. Responses from 181 college undergraduates (89 males and 92 females) indicated similar levels of emotional closeness reported for same- and cross-sex friendships. Results also indicated overall identity commitment and friendship identity commitment associations with same-sex friendship closeness. Examination of closeness reports for cross-sex friends revealed a significant association with overall identity commitment for emerging adult males. A significant association was not indicated for emerging adult females. The associations between identity and emotional closeness in same-sex friendships and male cross-sex friendships support previous studies that report differences in the role of these relationships for emerging adult males and females. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the gender and identity differences in emerging adults' reports of friendship closeness.

  19. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  20. How important are sex differences in cannabinoid action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fratta, Walter

    2010-06-01

    In humans as in animals, males and females are dissimilar in their genetic and hormonally driven behaviour; they process information differently, perceive experience and emotions in different ways, display diverse attitudes, language and social skills, and show sex-related differences in the brain anatomy and organization. Drug addiction is a widespread relapsing illness that affects both men and women. Sex-dependent differences have been frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. Beside sex differences observed in the cannabinoid-induced effects related to cannabis abuse and dependence, cannabinoids have been shown to exert sex-dependent effects also in other physiological and behavioural aspects, such as food intake and energy balance (more evident in males), or anxiety and depression (more evident in females). Research has just begun to identify factors which could provide a neurobiological basis for gender-based differences in cannabinoid effects, among which, gonadal hormones seem to play a crucial role. Yet, cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic may also be important, as sex differences in cannabinoid effects might be due, at least in part, to differences in muscle mass and fat tissue distribution between males and females. Here, we will review both clinical and laboratory-based research evidence revealing important sex-related differences in cannabinoid effects, and put forward some suggestions for future studies to fill the gap in our knowledge of gender-specific bias in cannabinoid pharmacology.

  1. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Zagni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions.

  2. Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileena Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics. Utilizing a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP dataset, we identify distinct sex-specific genome-wide significant loci. We investigate genetic hypotheses and find no evidence for increased genetic risk load in females, but evidence for sex heterogeneity on the X chromosome, and contribution of sex-heterogeneous SNPs for anthropometric traits to ASD risk. Thus, our results support pleiotropy between secondary sex characteristic determination and ASDs, providing a biological basis for sex differences in ASDs and implicating non brain-limited mechanisms.

  3. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Edlund; Jeremy D. Heider; Cory R. Scherer; Maria-Magdalena Farc; Brad J. Sagarin

    2006-01-01

    The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a) that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b) that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actu...

  4. Sex differences in Hadza eating frequency by food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Crittenden, Alyssa N

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sex differences in frequencies of adults eating in a foraging population-the Hadza of Tanzania. We use eating frequency data from instantaneous scan observations of the Hadza, to see to how much sharing of foods taken back to camp compensates for the targeting of different foods by each sex while out foraging. Eating in camp differs by sex in terms of overall eating frequency, as well as in terms of diet composition (frequencies of eating each food type). We also control for sex-differences in time spent in camp and still find sex-differences in eating frequencies-women are observed eating significantly more frequently than men. There are also sex-differences in the eating frequencies of particular food types both with and without controlling for presence in camp. Finally, we use data on acquisition of each food type by sex and find that both sexes are more frequently observed eating women's foods in camp than men's foods. At least in the case of the Hadza, we see pronounced sex differences in the in-camp diet. Hadza men are eating a higher quality diet than are women, but women are able to eat far more frequently, and spend less time foraging than men. It is not yet clear whether a regular caloric intake of lower quality foods would be more beneficial for maintaining fecundity than a more variable diet consisting of higher quality foods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Parents bereaved by infant death: sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte M; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Parents bereaved by infant death experience a wide range of symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may persist for years after the loss. Little research has been conducted on PTSD in fathers who have lost an infant. Mothers report most symptoms to a greater extent than fathers, but not much is known about other sex differences following infant death. The present cross-sectional study examined sex differences in PTSD and sex differences in the relationship between PTSD severity and related variables. Subjects were 361 mothers and 273 fathers who had lost an infant either late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life. Participants filled out questionnaires between 1.2 months and 18 years after the loss (M = 3.4 years). Mothers reported significantly more PTSD symptoms, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping and feeling let down, but significantly lower levels of attachment avoidance than fathers. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and emotion-focused coping were significantly more strongly associated with PTSD severity in mothers than fathers, but only when examined alone. When all variables and time since the loss were examined together, there were no longer any significant moderation effects of sex. Persistent posttraumatic symptomatology exists in both mothers and fathers long after the loss. There are several sex differences in severity and correlates of PTSD, and a few moderation effects were identified for attachment and emotion-focused coping. Overall, more similarities than differences were found between mothers and fathers in the associations between PTSD and covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex differences in circadian food anticipatory activity are not altered by individual manipulations of sex hormones or sex chromosome copy number in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Antonio; Martin, Camille S; Huddy, Timothy F; Ogawa-Okada, Maya; Adkins, Jamie L; Steele, Andrew D

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies in mice have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in circadian entrainment to scheduled feeding. On a time restricted diet, males tend to develop food anticipatory activity (FAA) sooner than females and with a higher amplitude of activity. The underlying cause of this sex difference remains unknown. One study suggests that sex hormones, both androgens and estrogens, modulate food anticipatory activity in mice. Here we present results suggesting that the sex difference in FAA is unrelated to gonadal sex hormones. While a sex difference between males and females in FAA on a timed, calorie restricted diet was observed there were no differences between intact and gonadectomized mice in the onset or magnitude of FAA. To test other sources of the sex difference in circadian entrainment to scheduled feeding, we used sex chromosome copy number mutants, but there was no difference in FAA when comparing XX, XY-, XY-;Sry Tg, and XX;Sry Tg mice, demonstrating that gene dosage of sex chromosomes does not mediate the sex difference in FAA. Next, we masculinized female mice by treating them with 17-beta estradiol during the neonatal period; yet again, we saw no difference in FAA between control and masculinized females. Finally, we observed that there was no longer a sex difference in FAA for older mice, suggesting that the sex difference in FAA is age-dependent. Thus, our study demonstrates that singular manipulations of gonadal hormones, sex chromosomes, or developmental patterning are not able to explain the difference in FAA between young male and female mice.

  7. Sex differences in the neural substrates of spatial working memory during adolescence are not mediated by endogenous testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-12-17

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by notable changes in behavior, physical attributes, and an increase in endogenous sex steroid hormones, which may impact cognitive functioning. Moreover, sex differences in brain structure are present, leading to differences in neural function and cognition. Here, we examine sex differences in performance and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in a sample of adolescents during a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We also examine whether endogenous testosterone levels mediate differential brain activity between the sexes. Adolescents between ages 10 and 16 years completed a SWM functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, and serum hormone levels were assessed within seven days of scanning. While there were no sex differences in task performance (accuracy and reaction time), differences in BOLD response between girls and boys emerged, with girls deactivating brain regions in the default mode network and boys showing increased response in SWM-related brain regions of the frontal cortex. These results suggest that adolescent boys and girls adopted distinct neural strategies, while maintaining spatial cognitive strategies that facilitated comparable cognitive performance of a SWM task. A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure revealed that testosterone did not mediate sex-specific brain activity, suggesting that sex differences in BOLD activation during SWM may be better explained by other factors, such as early organizational effects of sex steroids or environmental influences. Elucidating sex differences in neural function and the influence of gonadal hormones can serve as a basis of comparison for understanding sexually dimorphic neurodevelopment and inform sex-specific psychopathology that emerges in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  9. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Edlund

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity experiences; men experienced more jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an actual infidelity, whereas women experienced more jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of the infidelity. Sex differences emerged using both continuous measures of jealousy as well as the traditional forced-choice measure. Overall, our results demonstrate that sex differences in jealousy are not limited to responses to hypothetical infidelity scenarios; they also emerge in response to actual infidelity experiences.

  10. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling…

  11. Sex differences in visual-spatial working memory: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Visual-spatial working memory measures are widely used in clinical and experimental settings. Furthermore, it has been argued that the male advantage in spatial abilities can be explained by a sex difference in visual-spatial working memory. Therefore, sex differences in visual-spatial working memory have important implication for research, theory, and practice, but they have yet to be quantified. The present meta-analysis quantified the magnitude of sex differences in visual-spatial working memory and examined variables that might moderate them. The analysis used a set of 180 effect sizes from healthy males and females drawn from 98 samples ranging in mean age from 3 to 86 years. Multilevel meta-analysis was used on the overall data set to account for non-independent effect sizes. The data also were analyzed in separate task subgroups by means of multilevel and mixed-effects models. Results showed a small but significant male advantage (mean d = 0.155, 95 % confidence interval = 0.087-0.223). All the tasks produced a male advantage, except for memory for location, where a female advantage emerged. Age of the participants was a significant moderator, indicating that sex differences in visual-spatial working memory appeared first in the 13-17 years age group. Removing memory for location tasks from the sample affected the pattern of significant moderators. The present results indicate a male advantage in visual-spatial working memory, although age and specific task modulate the magnitude and direction of the effects. Implications for clinical applications, cognitive model building, and experimental research are discussed.

  12. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Croatian Mortality Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Being male is the strongest demographic predictor of early mortality in Croatia. For every woman who dies between the ages of 15 and 34, three men die. Between the ages of 15 and 54, men are four times as likely as women to die from behavioral causes of death, such as accidents, homicides, and suicides. A causal explanation for sex differences in mortality must be based on an understanding of how sex differences were shaped by natural selection, and how those differences interact with environmental factors to create observed patterns and variations. In brief, males have been selected for riskier behavioral and physiological strategies than women, because of the greater variance and skew in male reproductive success. This paper examines the sex difference in Croatian mortality in three parts. First, we quantify the Croatian Male to Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR for 9 major causes of death across age group to provide a richer understanding of the sex difference in mortality from a life history framework. Second, we compare the Croatian M:F MR from behavioral, internal, and all causes with that of the available world population to demonstrate how Croatian mortality can be understood as part of a universal pattern that is influenced by unique environmental context. Third, we investigate how the War of Independence in 1991-1995 affected mortality patterns though its impact on behavioral strategies and the physical embodiment of distress.

  13. Sex differences in visuospatial abilities persist during induced hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Gioia M; Wakim, Paul G; Keenan, P A; Schenkel, Linda A; Berlin, Kate; Gibson, Carolyn J; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-29

    Despite well-established sex differences in the performance on tests of several cognitive domains (e.g., visuospatial ability), few studies in humans have evaluated if these sex differences are evident both in the presence of circulating sex hormones and during sex steroid hormonal suppression. Sex differences identified in the relative absence of circulating levels of estradiol and testosterone suggest that differences in brain structure or function exist independent of current hormonal environment and are more likely a reflection of differing developmental exposures and/or genetic substrates. To evaluate cognitive performance in healthy eugonadal men and women before and again during GnRH agonist-induced hypogonadism. Men (n=16) and women (n=15) without medical or psychiatric illness were matched for IQ. Cognitive tests were performed at baseline (when eugonadal) and after 6-8 weeks of GnRH agonist-induced gonadal suppression. The test batteries included measures of verbal and spatial memory, spatial ability, verbal fluency, motor speed/dexterity, and attention/concentration. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures models. During both eugonadism and hypogonadism, men performed significantly better than women on several measures of visuospatial performance including mental rotation, line orientation, Money Road Map, Porteus maze, and complex figure drawing. Although some test performances showed an effect of hormone treatment, the majority of these differences reflected an improved performance during hypogonadism compared with baseline (and probably reflected practice effects). The well-documented male advantage in visuospatial performance, which we observed during eugonadal conditions, was maintained in the context of short-term suppression of gonadal function in both men and women. These findings suggest that, in humans, sex differences in visuospatial performance are not merely dependent on differences in the current circulating sex steroid environment. Thus

  14. Sex Differences in Emergent Literacy and Reading Behaviour in Junior Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasley, Shanna; Evans, Mary Ann; Nowak, Sarah; Willoughby, David

    2018-01-01

    In a sample of 128 Canadian junior kindergarten children (66 boys), we examined sex differences in emergent literacy and behaviour when listening to and interacting with books of four types: alphabet books with simple text and illustrations, traditional alphabet books with complex text and illustrations, alphabet eBooks, and illustrated…

  15. Sex Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared with Their Unaffected Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…

  16. Depression in chronic ketamine users: Sex differences and neural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiang-Shan R; Zhang, Sheng; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Ming; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Ching-Po; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2017-11-30

    Chronic ketamine use leads to cognitive and affective deficits including depression. Here, we examined sex differences and neural bases of depression in chronic ketamine users. Compared to non-drug using healthy controls (HC), ketamine-using females but not males showed increased depression score as assessed by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We evaluated resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), a prefrontal structure consistently implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Compared to HC, ketamine users (KU) did not demonstrate significant changes in sgACC connectivities at a corrected threshold. However, in KU, a linear regression against CES-D score showed less sgACC connectivity to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with increasing depression severity. Examined separately, male and female KU showed higher sgACC connectivity to bilateral superior temporal gyrus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), respectively, in correlation with depression. The linear correlation of sgACC-OFC and sgACC-dmPFC connectivity with depression was significantly different in slope between KU and HC. These findings highlighted changes in rsFC of the sgACC as associated with depression and sex differences in these changes in chronic ketamine users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences in claimed and behavioral self-handicapping and ADHD symptomatology in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Stephen J; Hartung, Cynthia M; McCrea, Sean M; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Canu, Will H

    2016-12-01

    Although the research is clear that boys with ADHD have higher symptomatology and impairment than girls with ADHD, for adults the research is mixed. Some studies suggest no sex differences, whereas others suggest that women might have higher symptomatology and impairment. The present study examined sex differences in ADHD symptomatology and impairment, and the possible role of claimed and behavioral self-handicapping as an explanation for any differences. Claimed self-handicapping (CSH) involves reports of performance-inhibiting conditions, whereas behavioral self-handicapping (BSH) involves reporting more objective, intentional acts that could undermine performance. College students (N = 699) completed an online study. Sex differences were found for hyperactivity such that women reported higher levels, but not for inattention or impairment. The test of the indirect effect of sex through CSH was significant, suggesting that higher levels of CSH in women were associated with elevated ADHD symptoms and impairment. The test of the indirect effect of sex through BSH was also significant, suggesting that higher levels of BSH in men are associated with elevated symptoms of ADHD and impairment. These data extend the literature by suggesting that self-handicapping might at least partially explain differential self-reporting of ADHD symptoms and impairment in emerging adults across the sexes.

  19. Understanding the broad influence of sex hormones and sex differences in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S; Milner, Teresa A

    2017-01-02

    Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells. Hormonal regulation of a variety of signaling pathways as well as direct and indirect effects on gene expression induce spine synapses, up- or downregulate and alter the distribution of neurotransmitter receptors, and regulate neuropeptide expression and cholinergic and GABAergic activity as well as calcium sequestration and oxidative stress. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences and responses to sex hormones in brain regions, which influence functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era of our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Using lod scores to detect sex differences in male-female recombination fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    2004-01-01

    Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One way to detect these differences is to use lod scores. In this study we focused on detecting RF sex differences and answered the following questions, in both phase-known and phase-unknown matings: (1) How large a sample size is needed to detect a RF sex difference? (2) What are "optimal" proportions of paternally vs. maternally informative matings? (3) Does ascertaining nonoptimal proportions of paternally or maternally informative matings lead to ascertainment bias? Our results were as follows: (1) We calculated expected lod scores (ELODs) under two different conditions: "unconstrained," allowing sex-specific RF parameters (theta(female), theta(male)); and "constrained," requiring theta(female) = theta(male). We then examined the DeltaELOD (identical with difference between maximized constrained and unconstrained ELODs) and calculated minimum sample sizes required to achieve statistically significant DeltaELODs. For large RF sex differences, samples as small as 10 to 20 fully informative matings can achieve statistical significance. We give general sample size guidelines for detecting RF differences in informative phase-known and phase-unknown matings. (2) We defined p as the proportion of paternally informative matings in the dataset; and the optimal proportion p(circ) as that value of p that maximizes DeltaELOD. We determined that, surprisingly, p(circ) does not necessarily equal (1/2), although it does fall between approximately 0.4 and 0.6 in most situations. (3) We showed that if p in a sample deviates from its optimal value, no bias is introduced (asymptotically) to the maximum

  1. Sex differences and sex similarities in disgust sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Bryan, A.D.; Lieberman, D.L.; Caldwell Hooper, A.E.; Merriman, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Across two studies, we test for sex differences in the factor structure, factor loadings, concurrent validity, and means of the Three Domain Disgust Scale. In Study 1, we find that the Three Domain Disgust Scale has indistinguishable factor structure and factor loadings for men and women. In Study

  2. Sex and gender differences in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Sugarman, Dawn E; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2017-11-10

    The gender gap in substance use disorders (SUDs), characterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. In this critical review, we provide an overview of sex/gender differences in the biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender (i.e., environmentally and socioculturally defined roles for men and women) also contributes to the initiation and course of substance use and SUDs. Adverse medical, psychiatric, and functional consequences associated with SUDs are often more severe in women. However, men and women do not substantively differ with respect to SUD treatment outcomes. Although several trends are beginning to emerge in the literature, findings on sex and gender differences in SUDs are complicated by the interacting contributions of biological and environmental factors. Future research is needed to further elucidate sex and gender differences, especially focusing on hormonal factors in SUD course and treatment outcomes; research translating findings between animal and human models; and gender differences in understudied populations, such as those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders and gender-specific populations, such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse K T Gardener

    Full Text Available Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs to examine sex differences in N1 and N2 components (reflecting early emotional reactivity and P3 and LPP components (reflecting emotion regulation. N1, N2, P3, and LPP were recorded from 20 men and 23 women who were instructed to "increase," "decrease," and "maintain" their emotional response during passive viewing of negative images. Results indicated that women had significantly greater N1 and N2 amplitudes (reflecting early emotional reactivity to negative stimuli than men, supporting a female negativity bias. LPP amplitudes increased to the "increase" instruction, and women displayed greater LPP amplitudes than men to the "increase" instruction. There were no differences to the "decrease" instruction in women or men. These findings confirm predictions of the female negativity bias hypothesis and suggest that women have greater up-regulation of emotional responses to negative stimuli. This finding is highly significant in light of the female vulnerability for developing anxiety disorders.

  4. Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Elyse K T; Carr, Andrea R; Macgregor, Amy; Felmingham, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine sex differences in N1 and N2 components (reflecting early emotional reactivity) and P3 and LPP components (reflecting emotion regulation). N1, N2, P3, and LPP were recorded from 20 men and 23 women who were instructed to "increase," "decrease," and "maintain" their emotional response during passive viewing of negative images. Results indicated that women had significantly greater N1 and N2 amplitudes (reflecting early emotional reactivity) to negative stimuli than men, supporting a female negativity bias. LPP amplitudes increased to the "increase" instruction, and women displayed greater LPP amplitudes than men to the "increase" instruction. There were no differences to the "decrease" instruction in women or men. These findings confirm predictions of the female negativity bias hypothesis and suggest that women have greater up-regulation of emotional responses to negative stimuli. This finding is highly significant in light of the female vulnerability for developing anxiety disorders.

  5. Sex-based differences in brain alterations across chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Fling, Connor; Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce D; Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2017-01-02

    Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles. Results from sex difference studies indicate more prominent primary sensorimotor structural and functional alterations in female chronic pain patients compared with male chronic pain patients: differences in the nature and degree of insula alterations, with greater insula reactivity in male patients; differences in the degree of anterior cingulate structural alterations; and differences in emotional-arousal reactivity. Qualitative comparisons of male-specific and female-specific studies appear to be consistent with the results from sex difference studies. Given these differences, mixed-sex studies of chronic pain risk creating biased data or missing important information and single-sex studies have limited generalizability. The advent of large-scale neuroimaging databases will likely aid in building a more comprehensive understanding of sex differences and commonalities in brain mechanisms underlying chronic pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex differences in correlates of intermediate phenotypes and prevalent cardiovascular disease in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate B. Schnabel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.

  7. Sex role and children's perception and judging of different types of television advertisements for children

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Milovanovič

    2005-01-01

    A lot of research has pointed out that television with its advertisements represents a part of the children's socialization, including the development of the sex roles. By designing different advertisements for boys and girls, today's advertisers additionally affect development and reinforcement of the children's traditional sex roles. The purpose of this study was to examine whether children are able to perceive differences in the content, style and structure of the message in di...

  8. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  9. Sex differences in daily life stress and craving in opioid-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Landhing M; Kowalczyk, William J; Phillips, Karran A; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2018-04-11

    Responses to stress and drug craving differ between men and women. Differences in the momentary experience of stress in relation to craving are less well-understood. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we examined sex differences in real-time in two areas: (1) causes and contexts associated with stress, and (2) the extent to which stress and drug cues are associated with craving. Outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment (135 males, 47 females) reported stress, craving, and behavior on smartphones for 16 weeks. They initiated an entry each time they felt more stressed than usual (stress event) and made randomly prompted entries 3 times/day. In stress-event entries, they identified the causes and context (location, activity, companions), and rated stress and craving severity. The causes reported for stress events did not differ significantly by sex. Women reported arguing and being in a store more often during stress events, and men reported working more often during stress events, compared to base rates (assessed via random prompts). Women showed a greater increase in opioid craving as a function of stress (p stress ratings in the presence of both stress and drug cues relative to men (p stress but differ in stress- and cue-induced craving. These findings support sex-based tailoring of treatment, but because not all participants conformed to the overall pattern of sex differences, any such tailoring should also consider person-level differences.

  10. Sex differences in mathematical achievement: Grades, national test, and self-confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova, Marina S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic achievement, which is inherently an indicator of progress in the curriculum, can also be viewed as an indirect measure of cognitive development, social adaptation, and motivational climate characteristics. In addition to its direct application, academic achievement is used as a mediating factor in the study of various phenomena, from the etiology of learning disabilities to social inequality. Analysis of sex differences in mathematical achievement is considered particularly important for exploring academic achievement, since creating an adequate educational environment with equal opportunities for boys and girls serves as a prerequisite for improving the overall mathematical and technical literacy that is crucial for modern society, creates balanced professional opportunities, and destroys traditional stereotypes about the roles of men and women in society. The objective of our research was to analyze sex differences in mathematical achievement among high school students and to compare various methods for diagnosing academic performance, such as school grades, test scores, and self-concept. The results were obtained through two population studies whose samples are representative of the Russian population in the relevant age group. Study 1 looked at sex differences in math grades among twins (n = 1,234 pairs and singletons (n = 2,227 attending high school. The sample of Study 2 comprised all twins who took the Unified State Examination in 2010–2012. The research analyzed sex differences in USE math scores across the entire sample and within the extreme subgroups. It also explored differences between boys and girls in opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ twin pairs. The key results were as follows. No difference in mathematical achievement was observed between twins and singletons. Sex differences were found in all measures of mathematical achievement. Girls had higher school grades in math than boys, while boys outperformed girls in USE math

  11. The Sex Difference in Basic Surgical Skills Learning: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zheng; Yan, Fei-Hu; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Shui, Xian-Qi; Liu, Jia; Zhuo, Dong-Lan; Li, Li; Yu, En-da

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known of sex-related differences among medical students in the acquisition of basic surgical skills at an undergraduate level. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex differences in basic surgical skills learning and the possible explanations for sex disparities within basic surgical skills education. A didactic description of 10 surgical skills was performed, including knot tying, basic suture I, basic suture II, sterile technique, preoperative preparation, phlebotomy, debridement, laparotomy, cecectomy, and small bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis. The students were rated on a 100-point scale for each basic surgical skill. Later during the same semester all the students took the final theoretical examination. A total of 342 (male = 317 and female = 25) medical students participated in a single skills laboratory as part of their third-year medical student clerkship. The mean scores for each of the 10 surgical skills were higher in female group. The difference in sterile technique, preoperative preparation, cecectomy, and small bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis reached the significant level. Compared with male medical students, the mean theory examination score was significantly higher in female medical students. Approximately 76% of the (19 of 25) female students expressed their interest in pursuing a surgical career, whereas only 65.5% (207 of 317) male students wanted to be surgical professionals (p = 0.381). Female medical students completed basic surgical skills training more efficiently and passed the theoretical examination with significantly higher scores than male medical students. In the future, studies should be done in other classes in our institution and perhaps other schools to see if these findings are reliable or valid or just a reflection of this 1 sample. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpreting sex differences in enamel hypoplasia in human and non-human primates: Developmental, environmental, and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D; Lukacs, J R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a synoptic, critical evaluation of the evidence of, and potential etiological factors contributing to, sex differences in the expression of enamel hypoplasia (EH). Specifically, this review considers theoretical expectations and empirical evidence bearing on two central issues. The first of these is the impact of a theorized inherent male vulnerability to physiological stress on sex differences in EH. The second issue is the potential contribution to sex differences in EH of intrinsic differences in male and female enamel composition and development. To address this first issue, EH frequencies by sex are examined in samples subject to a high degree of physiological stress. Based on the concept of inherent male vulnerability (or female buffering), males in stressful environments would be expected to exhibit higher EH frequencies than females. This expectation is evaluated in light of cultural practices of sex-biased investment that mediate the relationship between environmental stress and EH expression. Defects forming prenatally afford an opportunity to study this relationship without the confounding effects of sex-biased postnatal investment. Data bearing on this issue derive from previously conducted studies of EH in permanent and deciduous teeth in both modern and archaeological samples as well as from new data on Indian schoolchildren. To address the second issue, fundamental male-female enamel differences are evaluated for their potential impact on EH expression. A large sex difference in the duration of canine crown formation in non-human primates suggests that male canines may have greater opportunity to record stress events than those of females. This expectation is examined in great apes, whose canines often record multiple episodes of stress and are sexually dimorphic in crown formation times. With respect to the first issue, in most studies, sex differences in EH prevalence are statistically nonsignificant

  13. Examining Age-Related Differences in Auditory Attention Control Using a Task-Switching Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lawo; Iring Koch

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using a novel task-switching variant of dichotic selective listening, we examined age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention between 2 speakers defined by their sex.

  14. Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Chung, Wilson C. J.; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Hofman, Michel A.; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2003-01-01

    Quite a number of structural and functional sex differences have been reported in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures that may be related to not only reproduction, sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to the often pronounced sex differences in prevalence of psychiatric and

  15. A reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J; Becker, D Vaughn; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Wilkinson, Wayne W; Nicastle, Lionel D

    2012-08-10

    Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex). Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional) would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  16. A Reproductive Threat-Based Model of Evolved Sex Differences in Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Sagarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex. Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  17. [Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items: mega-data from a Japanese Health Service Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kawai, Tadashi; Aoki, Yoshikazu; Yamane, Noriyuki; Yamauchi, Kuniaki

    2005-07-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items in Japanese adults. Health examination data were accumulated from 24 different prefectural health service associations affiliated with the Japan Association of Health Service. Those who were non-smokers, drank less than 7 days/week, and had a body mass index of 18.5-24.9kg/m2 were sampled as a reference population (n = 737,538; 224,947 men and 512,591 women). After classified by age and sex, reference intervals for 10 health examination items (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, uric acid, AST, ALT, gamma-GT, and hemoglobin) were estimated using the parametric and nonparametric methods. In every item except for hemoglobin, men had higher reference intervals than women. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose showed an upward trend in values with increasing age. Hemoglobin showed a downward trend in values with increasing age. Triglyceride, ALT, and gamma-GT reached a peak in middle age. Overall, parametric estimates showed narrower reference intervals than non-parametric estimates. Reference intervals vary with age and sex. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals may contribute to better assessment of health examination data.

  18. Sex Differences in Relationship Regret: The Role of Perceived Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coats

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current set of studies examined regret involving action and inaction in the realm of romantic relationships by testing whether such regret is associated with the characteristics of one's mate. In study 1, 394 participants reported on a previous casual sexual encounter, and in study 2, 358 participants reported on a previous romantic relationship. In both, instances of actual engagement and instances of passing up opportunities were studied. Study 3 was experimental and elicited reactions to hypothetical scenarios from 201 participants. Regret reported by men in both study 1 and study 2 varied as a function of the perceived attractiveness of the participants' actual and potential mate. Regret reported by women in study 2 varied as a function of the perceived stinginess of the participant's mate and perceived wealth of the participants' potential mate. Study 3 found that sex differences in type of regret (with men regretting inaction more than women occurred only when the mate presented in the scenario was described in ways consistent with mate preferences. Together these findings suggest that regret differs between the sexes in ways consistent with sex differences in mate preferences.

  19. Neurogenin 3 Mediates Sex Chromosome Effects on the Generation of Sex Differences in Hypothalamic Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Scerbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis.

  20. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  1. Between-Sex Differences in Romantic Jealousy: Substance or Spin? A Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Fussell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes (“threat appraisal”, “emotional episodes”, “sex-specific threat” and “forgive and forget” and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  2. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-03-29

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  3. Gender perceptions predict sex differences in growth patterns of indigenous Guatemalan infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilowicz, Alison; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David L

    2015-11-01

    Nearly one-half of Guatemalan children experience growth faltering, more so in indigenous than in nonindigenous children. On the basis of ethnographic interviews in Totonicapán, Guatemala, which revealed differences in maternal perceptions about food needs in infant girls and boys, we predicted a cumulative sex difference in favor of girls that occurred at ∼6 mo of age and diminished markedly thereafter. We examined whether the predicted differences in age-sex patterns were observed in the village, replicated the examination nationally for indigenous children, and examined whether the pattern in nonindigenous children was different. Ethnographic interviews (n = 24) in an indigenous village were conducted. Anthropometric measurements of the village children aged 0-35 mo (n = 119) were obtained. National-level growth patterns were analyzed for indigenous (n = 969) and nonindigenous (n = 1374) children aged 0-35 mo with the use of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. Mothers reported that, compared with female infants, male infants were hungrier, were not as satisfied with breastfeeding alone, and required earlier complementary feeding. An anthropometric analysis confirmed the prediction of healthier growth in indigenous girls than in indigenous boys throughout the first year of life, which resulted in a 2.98-cm height-for-age difference (HAD) between sexes in the village and a 1.61-cm HAD (P differences diminished in the second year of life (P differences in the HAD that first favor girls and then favor boys in the indigenous growth patterns are due to feeding patterns on the basis of gendered cultural perceptions. Circumstances that result in differential sex growth patterns need to be elucidated, in particular the favorable growth in girls in the first year of life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. A Systems Biology Approach to Investigating Sex Differences in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Josephine; Fillmore, Natasha; Gao, Shouguo; Yang, Yanqin; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Poching; Stoehr, Andrea; Chen, Ye; Springer, Danielle; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Xujing; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Heart failure preceded by hypertrophy is a leading cause of death, and sex differences in hypertrophy are well known, although the basis for these sex differences is poorly understood. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate mechanisms underlying sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy. Male and female mice were treated for 2 and 3 weeks with angiotensin II to induce hypertrophy. Sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy were apparent after 3 weeks of treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on hearts, and sex differences in mRNA expression at baseline and following hypertrophy were observed, as well as within-sex differences between baseline and hypertrophy. Sex differences in mRNA were substantial at baseline and reduced somewhat with hypertrophy, as the mRNA differences induced by hypertrophy tended to overwhelm the sex differences. We performed an integrative analysis to identify mRNA networks that were differentially regulated in the 2 sexes by hypertrophy and obtained a network centered on PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α). Mouse experiments further showed that acute inhibition of PPARα blocked sex differences in the development of hypertrophy. The data in this study suggest that PPARα is involved in the sex-dimorphic regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Sex Differences in the Association between Foetal Growth and Child Attention at Age Four: Specific Vulnerability of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C.; Stein, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that impaired foetal growth may provide an early indication of increased risk of child attention problems. However, despite both foetal growth and child attention problems differing by sex, few studies have examined sex differences in this association. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in low- and…

  6. Homage to Bateman: sex roles predict sex differences in sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Karoline; Arnqvis, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  8. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision making and age of initiated use, specifically that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother's education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females.

  9. Sex difference and Allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the

  10. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  11. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  12. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cross-cultural sex differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Mylonas, Kostas; Lawrence, Claire; Konopka, Karolina; Rajchert, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines male and female individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses (STAR) in three countries as well as cross-cultural sex differences in trait aggression (aggression questionnaire, AQ). Convenience sampling was employed (university students) for the descriptive correlational study (Poland N = 300, 63% female, mean age 21.86, SD = 2.12; UK N = 196, 60% female, mean age 20.48, SD = 3.79; Greece N = 299, 57% female, mean age 20.71, SD = 4.42). The results showed that the STAR scale is an equivalent construct across all three countries. Overall, females were more sensitive to both provocation (SP) and frustration (SF) than males. When controlling for trait aggression, Polish and Greek females scored similarly in SP and higher than UK females. No sex differences in SP or SF were found in the UK sample. Additionally, Polish participants scored the highest in SP. Furthermore, when trait aggression was removed, the Greek participants were most sensitive to frustration, whereas Polish and English participants' SF did not differ. We discuss the results with regard to intercultural differences between investigated countries. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Sex differences in confidence influence patterns of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Brown, Gillian R; Morgan, Thomas J H; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-11-01

    Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task. After providing an answer, participants reported their confidence before seeing the responses of demonstrators and being allowed to change their initial answer. In the MR, but not the LT, task, women showed lower levels of confidence than men, and confidence mediated an indirect effect of sex on the likelihood of switching answers. These results provide novel, experimental evidence that confidence is a general explanatory mechanism underpinning susceptibility to social influences. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the wider literature on sex differences in conformity. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Sex differences in stress effects on emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-01-02

    Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory. The focus is on the available human data on sex differences and the impact sex hormones have on the stress effects on emotional learning and memory. It will become apparent that the menstrual cycle but also the intake of hormonal contraceptives modulates the impact of stress on brain and behavior. Additional basic research is needed for a deeper insight regarding the interplay between stress and sex hormones in emotion and cognition. In addition, new treatment options might be derived to optimize existing strategies such as exposure therapy, which relies on the principles of fear conditioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Memory for Object Locations: Priority Effect and Sex Differences in Associative Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinan, Sevtap; Atalay, Deniz; Sisman, Simge; Basbug, Gokce; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Teoman, Dalga D.; Karagoz, Ayca; Karadeniz, A. Yezdan; Beykurt, Sinem; Suleyman, Hediye; Memis, H. Ozge; Yurtsever, Ozgur D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments conducted to examine priority effects and sex differences in object location memory. A new task of paired position-learning was designed, based on the A-B A-C paradigm, which was used in paired word learning. There were three different paired position-learning conditions: (1) positions of several different…

  17. Hemispheric side of damage influences sex-related differences in smoking cessation in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of smoking behavior vary between the sexes. There is evidence that decision making, which is one of the key "executive functions" necessary for making life-style modifications such as smoking cessation, is relatively lateralized to the right hemisphere in males and left hemisphere in females. In the current study, we examined whether the side of brain lesion has a differential effect on smoking behavior between the sexes. We hypothesized sex differences in smoking cessation based on lesion side. Participants were 49 males and 50 females who were smoking at the time of lesion onset. The outcome variable was abstinence from smoking (quit rate) at least one year post lesion. We found that in patients with left-hemisphere damage, quit rates were significantly higher in males than in females; however, in patients with right-hemisphere damage, quit rates were not statistically different. The findings support previous cognitive neuroscience literature showing that components of behavior responsible for maintaining addiction tend to be more strongly lateralized in males, whereas in females there is a more bilateral distribution. Our study provides further evidence for differences in lateralization of complex behavior between the sexes, which has significant implications for differences in treatment strategies between the sexes.

  18. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: Sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species-specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species- specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. PMID:25951955

  20. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  1. Sex Differences in Sexual Desires and Attitudes in Norwegian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite highly replicable predictable differences between the sexes on various sexual desires and attitudes, critics of evolutionary perspectives argue against the biological origins of such differences, highlighting cultural explanations. Critics suggest that there are no cross-cultural evolutionary predictable, systematic differences. Eagly and Wood (1999 suggest that in egalitarian cultures sex differences will be small or disappear. We tested whether Trivers’ (1972 Parental Investment Theory and Buss and Schmitt’s (1993 Sexual Strategies Theory predicted sex differences in sexuality within samples of students (N=1072 in egalitarian Norway. We expected similar interest in long-term relationships, but that females seek short-term partners less than males. Furthermore, males were expected to have less restricted sociosexuality, fantasize more, take more initiative to sex and be less satisfied with frequency of sex. The predictions were supported in the evolutionarily-predicted directions. Clinical consequences of claiming there are no sex differences in sexuality, when indeed they exist, are discussed.

  2. Sex Differences and/in the Self: Classic Themes, Feminist Variations, Postmodern Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohan, Janis S.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines perspectives on and intersections between two recurrent themes in the history of American psychology: sex differences and theories of self. These themes and certain connections between them are considered in three eras: early American psychology, feminist psychology coincident with the second wave of feminism, and the recent…

  3. Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder: a high-density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, D T; Goldstein, M R; Landsness, E C; Peterson, M J; Riedner, B A; Ferrarelli, F; Wanger, T; Guokas, J J; Tononi, G; Benca, R M

    2013-03-20

    Sleep spindles are believed to mediate several sleep-related functions including maintaining disconnection from the external environment during sleep, cortical development, and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Prior studies that have examined sleep spindles in major depressive disorder (MDD) have not demonstrated consistent differences relative to control subjects, which may be due to sex-related variation and limited spatial resolution of spindle detection. Thus, this study sought to characterize sleep spindles in MDD using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine the topography of sleep spindles across the cortex in MDD, as well as sex-related variation in spindle topography in the disorder. All-night hdEEG recordings were collected in 30 unipolar MDD participants (19 women) and 30 age and sex-matched controls. Topography of sleep spindle density, amplitude, duration, and integrated spindle activity (ISA) were assessed to determine group differences. Spindle parameters were compared between MDD and controls, including analysis stratified by sex. As a group, MDD subjects demonstrated significant increases in frontal and parietal spindle density and ISA compared to controls. When stratified by sex, MDD women demonstrated increases in frontal and parietal spindle density, amplitude, duration, and ISA; whereas MDD men demonstrated either no differences or decreases in spindle parameters. Given the number of male subjects, this study may be underpowered to detect differences in spindle parameters in male MDD participants. This study demonstrates topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in MDD. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of sleep spindles and sex in the pathophysiology of MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress Prevention Training; Sex Differences inTypes of Stressors, Coping, and Training Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in

  5. Sex differences in jealousy: evolutionary mechanism or artifact of measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Bartlett, Monica Y; Braverman, Julia; Salovey, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Two studies are presented that challenge the evidentiary basis for the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. In opposition to the evolutionary view, Study I demonstrated that a sex difference in jealousy resulting from sexual versus emotional infidelity is observed only when judgments are recorded using a forced-choice response format. On all other measures, no sex differences were found; both men and women reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity. A second study revealed that the sex difference on the forced-choice measure disappeared under conditions of cognitive constraint. These findings suggest that the sex difference used to support the evolutionary view of jealousy (e.g., D. M. Buss, R. Larsen, D. Westen, & J. Semmelroth, 1992; D. M. Buss et al., 1999) likely represents a measurement artifact resulting from a format-induced effortful decision strategy and not an automatic, sex-specific response shaped by evolution.

  6. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. MATERIALS: Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health...

  7. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over…

  8. Sex differences in interpersonal problems: does sexual orientation moderate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Harkless, Lynn E; Sheridan, Daniel J; Winakur, Emily; Fowers, Blaine J

    2013-01-01

    Sexual orientation was examined as a moderator in the relation between biological sex and interpersonal problems. Participants were 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual women, 37 gay men, and 39 heterosexual men, who completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Sexual orientation was found to moderate one of the eight interpersonal problems under study. Heterosexual women scored significantly higher than lesbian women in Non-assertive. Although hypothesized, gay men did not differ from heterosexual men along the Dominant-Cold quadrant. Implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…

  10. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL

    2011-01-01

    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  11. Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with…

  12. Do you see what I see? Sex differences in the discrimination of facial emotions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nikki C; Krabbendam, Lydia; White, Thomas P; Meeter, Martijn; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Juergen; Schumann, Gunther; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2013-12-01

    During adolescence social relationships become increasingly important. Establishing and maintaining these relationships requires understanding of emotional stimuli, such as facial emotions. A failure to adequately interpret emotional facial expressions has previously been associated with various mental disorders that emerge during adolescence. The current study examined sex differences in emotional face processing during adolescence. Participants were adolescents (n = 1951) with a target age of 14, who completed a forced-choice emotion discrimination task. The stimuli used comprised morphed faces that contained a blend of two emotions in varying intensities (11 stimuli per set of emotions). Adolescent girls showed faster and more sensitive perception of facial emotions than boys. However, both adolescent boys and girls were most sensitive to variations in emotion intensity in faces combining happiness and sadness, and least sensitive to changes in faces comprising fear and anger. Furthermore, both sexes overidentified happiness and anger. However, the overidentification of happiness was stronger in boys. These findings were not influenced by individual differences in the level of pubertal maturation. These results indicate that male and female adolescents differ in their ability to identify emotions in morphed faces containing emotional blends. The findings provide information for clinical studies examining whether sex differences in emotional processing are related to sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders within this age group.

  13. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Naudet, Florian; Laude, Jennifer; Radua, Joaquim; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Chu, Isabella; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-17

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions in their abstract and presented some foci related to sex differences. There was no statistically significant relationship between sample size and the number of foci (-0.048% increase for every 10 participants, p = 0.63). The extremely high prevalence of "positive" results and the lack of the expected relationship between sample size and the number of discovered foci reflect probable reporting bias and excess significance bias in this literature.

  14. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  15. The Expression of Depressive Symptomatology in Korean American Undergraduates: Sex and Generational Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Kim, Sara Cho; Park, Yong S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation and perception of the university environment on the depressive symptomatology of 228 Korean American undergraduates, with a focus on sex and generational differences. Perceptions of the university environment and perceived barriers were positive predictors of depressive symptomatology in…

  16. Sex differences in personality traits and gender-related occupational preferences across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social-environmental theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.

  17. Serial Comparison Processes and Sex Differences in Clerical Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeres, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 91 male and 91 female university students to assess sex differences in performance on speeded matching tests and theory on same-different judgments. Results are interpreted via the dual-process hypothesis of same-difference judgments with sex differences explained in terms of serial comparison processes rather…

  18. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability—including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school

  19. Sex-Related Differences in Vasomotor Function in Patients With Angina and Unobstructed Coronary Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Sechtem, Udo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary vasomotor dysfunction is an important mechanism for angina in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of vasomotor dysfunction in a European population...... and to examine sex differences in the dose of acetylcholine leading to a positive acetylcholine provocation test (ACH test). METHODS Between 2007 and 2014, we included 1,379 consecutive patients with stable angina, unobstructed coronaries and ACH test performed for epicardial vasospasm or coronary microvascular...... dysfunction (CMD) due to microvascular spasm. The predictive value of sex, risk factors, symptoms, and noninvasive test results was analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS The mean patient age was 62 years, and 42% were male. There were 813 patients (59 with a pathological ACH test, 33% for CMD...

  20. Examining the relationship between sex and motivation in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Iván; Merino-Marbán, Rafael; Fernández-Rodríguez, Emilio

    2014-08-01

    The present paper assesses the relationship between sex and motivation in triathletes utilising a multidimensional measurement of motivation in sports. Data were collected from 138 triathlon participants (age range 17-72 years): 95 men (M = 36.7 yr., SD = 10.7) and 43 women (M = 34.6 yr., SD = 9.9). Measures included the Sport Motivation Scale, a multi-dimensional measure to assess different types of athletes' motivations for practising their sport. Results showed a significant sex difference in amotivation, with women displaying lower scores; but amotivation scores were very low. The results were not dependent on competition level or age. Men and women competing at the international level in triathlon have similar motivational profiles.

  1. Sex differences in "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman, Carmen E; Myer, Gregory D; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training-related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with strength training in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, nonaccidental), and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism, and location of strength training injuries. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 years were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (men = 3,102; women = 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for men versus women. Men had significantly more sprains and strains (p = 0.004), whereas women demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to men (p injuries than women (p injuries than men (p injuries during strength training (sprains and strains) compared to women, especially at the trunk. Conversely, women may be more susceptible to lower-extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training.

  2. Sex differences in human epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-09-01

    In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Alexander P; Gong, Xinyi; Hegarty, Mary

    2018-05-22

    Research on human navigation has indicated that males and females differ in self-reported navigation strategy as well as objective measures of navigation efficiency. In two experiments, we investigated sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency using an objective measure of strategy, the dual-solution paradigm (DSP; Marchette, Bakker, & Shelton, 2011). Although navigation by shortcuts and learned routes were the primary strategies used in both experiments, as in previous research on the DSP, individuals also utilized route reversals and sometimes found the goal location as a result of wandering. Importantly, sex differences were found in measures of both route selection and navigation efficiency. In particular, males were more likely to take shortcuts and reached their goal location faster than females, while females were more likely to follow learned routes and wander. Self-report measures of strategy were only weakly correlated with objective measures of strategy, casting doubt on their usefulness. This research indicates that the sex difference in navigation efficiency is large, and only partially related to an individual's navigation strategy as measured by the dual-solution paradigm.

  4. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p jealousy relationship by attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  5. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The increased male prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be mirrored by the early emergence of sex differences in ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning. The female protective effect hypothesis posits that ASD recurrence and symptoms will be higher among relatives of female probands. This study examined sex differences and sex of proband differences in ASD outcome and in the development of ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning among the high-risk younger siblings of ASD probands and low-risk children. Prior to 18 months of age, 1824 infants (1241 high-risk siblings, 583 low-risk) from 15 sites were recruited. Hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) analyses of younger sibling and proband sex differences in ASD recurrence among high-risk siblings were followed by HGLM analyses of sex differences and group differences (high-risk ASD, high-risk non-ASD, and low-risk) on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) subscales (Expressive and Receptive Language, Fine Motor, and Visual Reception) at 18, 24, and 36 months and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores (social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB)) at 24 and 36 months. Of 1241 high-risk siblings, 252 had ASD outcomes. Male recurrence was 26.7 % and female recurrence 10.3 %, with a 3.18 odds ratio. The HR-ASD group had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB and SA scores than the HR non-ASD group, which had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB scores than the LR group. Regardless of group, males obtained lower MSEL subscale scores, and higher ADOS RRB scores, than females. There were, however, no significant interactions between sex and group on either the MSEL or ADOS. Proband sex did not affect ASD outcome, MSEL subscale, or ADOS domain scores. A 3.2:1 male:female odds ratio emerged among a large sample of prospectively followed high-risk siblings. Sex differences in cognitive performance and repetitive behaviors were apparent not only in

  6. Sex Differences in Mechanical Allodynia: How Can it be Preclinically Quantified and Analysed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eNicotra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating promising preclinical drug discoveries to successful clinical trials remains a significant hurdle in pain research. Although animal models have significantly contributed to understanding chronic pain pathophysiology, the majority of research has focused on male rodents using testing procedures that produce sex difference data that do not align well with comparable clinical experiences. Additionally, the use of animal pain models presents ongoing ethical challenges demanding continuing refinement of preclinical methods. To this end, this study sought to test a quantitative allodynia assessment technique and associated statistical analysis in a modified graded nerve injury pain model with the aim to further examine sex differences in allodynia. Graded allodynia was established in male and female Sprague Dawley rats by altering the number of sutures placed around the sciatic nerve and quantified by the von Frey test. Linear mixed effects modelling regressed response on each fixed effect (sex, oestrus cycle, pain treatment. On comparison with other common von Frey assessment techniques, utilizing lower threshold filaments than those ordinarily tested, at 1 second intervals, ¬¬appropriately and successfully investigated female mechanical allodynia, revealing significant sex and estrus cycle difference across the graded allodynia that other common behavioral methods were unable to detect. Utilising this different von Frey approach and graded allodynia model, a single suture inflicting less allodynia was sufficient to demonstrate exaggerated female mechanical allodynia (N1S3, t = 3.4; N3S1, t = 7.7 throughout the phases of dioestrus (t = 3.3 and pro-oestrus (t = 3.5. Refining the von Frey testing method, statistical analysis technique and the use of a graded model of chronic pain, allowed for examination of the influences on female mechanical nociception that other von Frey methods cannot provide.

  7. Spatiotemporal mapping of sex differences during attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Urbanek, Carsten; Gross, Melanie; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Koehler, Simone; Dettling, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly aimed at approximating neural substrates of human cognitive sex differences elicited by visuospatial challenge. It has been suggested that females and males use different behaviorally relevant neurocognitive strategies. In females, greater right prefrontal cortex activation has been found in several studies. The spatiotemporal dynamics of neural events associated with these sex differences is still unclear. We studied 22 female and 22 male participants matched for age, education, and nicotine with 29-channel-electroencephalogram recorded under a visual selective attention paradigm, the Attention Network Test. Visual event-related potentials (ERP) were topographically analyzed and neuroelectric sources were estimated. In absence of behavioral differences, ERP analysis revealed a novel frontal-occipital second peak of visual N100 that was significantly increased in females relative to males. Further, in females exclusively, a corresponding central ERP component at around 220 ms was found; here, a strong correlation between stimulus salience and sex difference of the central ERP component amplitude was observed. Subsequent source analysis revealed increased cortical current densities in right rostral prefrontal (BA 10) and occipital cortex (BA 19) in female subjects. This is the first study to report on a tripartite association between sex differences in ERPs, visual stimulus salience, and right prefrontal cortex activation during attentional processing. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Sex differences in behavioral impulsivity in at-risk and non-risk drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eWeafer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.

  9. Sex Differences in Detecting Sexual Infidelity : Results of a Maximum Likelihood Method for Analyzing the Sensitivity of Sex Differences to Underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul W; Gangestad, Steven W; Miller, Geoffrey F; Haselton, Martie G; Thornhill, Randy; Neale, Michael C

    2008-12-01

    Despite the importance of extrapair copulation (EPC) in human evolution, almost nothing is known about the design features of EPC detection mechanisms. We tested for sex differences in EPC inference-making mechanisms in a sample of 203 young couples. Men made more accurate inferences (φmen = 0.66, φwomen = 0.46), and the ratio of positive errors to negative errors was higher for men than for women (1.22 vs. 0.18). Since some may have been reluctant to admit EPC behavior, we modeled how underreporting could have influenced these results. These analyses indicated that it would take highly sex-differentiated levels of underreporting by subjects with trusting partners for there to be no real sex difference. Further analyses indicated that men may be less willing to harbor unresolved suspicions about their partners' EPC behavior, which may explain the sex difference in accuracy. Finally, we estimated that women underreported their own EPC behavior (10%) more than men (0%).

  10. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Gojković; Branislav Radulović

    2010-01-01

    As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months) at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that th...

  11. Sports injuries in women: sex- and gender-based differences in etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Kimberly J; Hame, Sharon L; Hannafin, Jo A; Griffin, Letha Y; Tosi, Laura L; Shields, Naomi N

    2008-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the participation of women in sports at all levels, especially after the enactment of the Title IX Education Amendment in 1972. This increased participation at all levels has resulted in more women sustaining sports injuries. Data on sex- and gender-based differences in all organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system, are beign gathered. It is important to review some of the areas of sex- and gender-based differences in sports injuries for which there is significant research, such as osteoporosis, the female athlete triad, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. It is also necessary to examine those areas in which more information is needed, such as injuries to the shoulder, foot, and ankle.

  12. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious condition, occurring more frequently in females than in males. SAH is mainly caused by rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which is formed by localized dilation of the intracranial arterial vessel wall, usually at the apex of the arterial bifurcation. T....... The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  13. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice

    OpenAIRE

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than fem...

  14. Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Cortical Structure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdi, Areti; Cornwell, Harriet; Toschi, Nicola; Riccelli, Roberta; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Wells, Amy; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind; Rogers, Jack; Martin-Key, Nayra; Puzzo, Ignazio; Batchelor, Molly; Sidlauskaite, Justina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Kohls, Gregor; Konrad, Kerstin; Baumann, Sarah; Raschle, Nora; Stadler, Christina; Freitag, Christine; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; De Brito, Stephane; Fairchild, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure. As part of a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 48 female and 48 male participants with CD and from 104 sex-, age-, and pubertal-status-matched controls (14-18 years of age). Data were analyzed using surface-based morphometry, testing for effects of sex, diagnosis, and sex-by-diagnosis interactions, while controlling for age, IQ, scan site, and total gray matter volume. CD was associated with cortical thinning and higher gyrification in ventromedial prefrontal cortex in both sexes. Males with CD showed lower, and females with CD showed higher, supramarginal gyrus cortical thickness compared with controls. Relative to controls, males with CD showed higher gyrification and surface area in superior frontal gyrus, whereas the opposite pattern was seen in females. There were no effects of diagnosis or sex-by-diagnosis interactions on subcortical volumes. Results are discussed with regard to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and substance abuse comorbidity, medication use, handedness, and CD age of onset. We found both similarities and differences between males and females in CD-cortical structure associations. This initial evidence that the pathophysiological basis of CD may be partly sex-specific highlights the need to consider sex in future neuroimaging studies and suggests that males and females may require different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Sons, 1977. 6 15. Horn, J, L. Human abilities: A review of research and theory in the early 1970’s. Annual Review of Psychology. 1976, 27^, 437...Mother-Infant Interaction, Howard A. Moss. 149. Sex of Parent X Sex of Child: Socioemotional Development, Micheal Lewis and Marsha Weinraub. 165...C. Thomas, 1971. Contents: Biology of Sex Differences. 3. Psychological Sex Differences. 12. Freudian Theory of Feminine Development. 43. The

  16. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena

    2014-09-01

    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  17. Sex differences in parent-infant interaction during free play, departure, and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, M; Frankel, J

    1977-12-01

    20 18-month-olds were observed with their mothers and 20 with their fathers in laboratory free-play, departure, and separation situations. Parent and infant behaviors were allowed to vary naturally. Although there were no parent sex or infant sex differences in infants' free-play behavior, there were parent sex X infant sex differences in parental free-play behaviors. Parents talked to, sat on the floor more with, and tended to share play more with same-sexed than opposite-sexed infants, and the patterning of free-play behaviors was different for mothers and fathers. During departure, fathers talked to the infants more than mothers. Infants were more distressed in the absence of same-sexed than opposite-sexed parents. There were infant sex X parent sex differences in the relationships between separation distress and parental free-play and departure behaviors. The implications of these findings for understanding differential roles of mothers and fathers, the development of sex differences, and the determinants of separation distress are discussed.

  18. A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob Miguel

    2009-10-01

    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to provide expedient resources, or to inflict immediate harm onto others, and their (b) perceived trustworthiness or probability of actually reciprocating altruism (Vigil 2007). Depending on the unique social demands and relational constraints that each sex evolved, individuals should be sensitive to advertise "capacity" and "trustworthiness" cues through selective displays of dominant versus submissive and masculine versus feminine emotive behaviors, respectively. In this article, I introduce the basic theoretical assumptions and hypotheses of the framework, and show how the models provide a solid scaffold with which to begin to interpret common sex differences in the emotional development literature. I conclude by describing how the framework can be used to predict condition-based and situation-based variation in affect and other forms of expressive behaviors.

  19. Sex differences in neural responses to stress and alcohol context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongju; Jia, Zhiru; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Tsou, Kristen A; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-11-01

    Stress and alcohol context cues are each associated with alcohol-related behaviors, yet neural responses underlying these processes remain unclear. This study investigated the neural correlates of stress and alcohol context cue experiences and examined sex differences in these responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses were examined while 43 right-handed, socially drinking, healthy individuals (23 females) engaged in brief guided imagery of personalized stress, alcohol-cue, and neutral-relaxing scenarios. Stress and alcohol-cue exposure increased activity in the cortico-limbic-striatal circuit (P left anterior insula, striatum, and visuomotor regions (parietal and occipital lobe, and cerebellum). Activity in the left dorsal striatum increased during stress, while bilateral ventral striatum activity was evident during alcohol-cue exposure. Men displayed greater stress-related activations in the mPFC, rostral ACC, posterior insula, amygdala, and hippocampus than women, whereas women showed greater alcohol-cue-related activity in the superior and middle frontal gyrus (SFG/MFG) than men. Stress-induced anxiety was positively associated with activity in emotion-modulation regions, including the medial OFC, ventromedial PFC, left superior-mPFC, and rostral ACC in men, but in women with activation in the SFG/MFG, regions involved in cognitive processing. Alcohol craving was significantly associated with the striatum (encompassing dorsal, and ventral) in men, supporting its involvement in alcohol "urge" in healthy men. These results indicate sex differences in neural processing of stress and alcohol-cue experiences and have implications for sex-specific vulnerabilities to stress- and alcohol-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sex differences in face processing are mediated by handedness and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Paul W H; Mullin, Caitlin R; Dobrin, Roxana A; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated sex differences in face processing at both neural and behavioural levels. The present study examined the role of handedness and sexual orientation as mediators of this effect. We compared the performance of LH (left-handed) and RH (right-handed) heterosexual and homosexual male and female participants on a face recognition memory task. Our main findings were that homosexual males have better face recognition memory than both heterosexual males and homosexual women. We also demonstrate better face processing in women than in men. Finally, LH heterosexual participants had better face recognition than LH homosexual participants and also tended to be better than RH heterosexual participants. These findings are consistent with differences in the organisation and laterality of face-processing mechanisms as a function of sex, handedness, and sexual orientation.

  1. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  2. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  3. Evolutionary personality psychology and victimology : Sex differences in risk attitudes and short-term orientation and their relation to sex differences in victimizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Rohde, Percy A.

    Men are more often victims of events like car accidents or (violent) crimes than women with the sole exception of sexual assault. Based on the theory of sexual selection, it has been argued that these sex differences in both perpetration and victimization rates can be attributed to sex differences

  4. Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Gibbons

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness.Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years. Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy.Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis.Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females.

  5. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sex differences in microRNA regulation of gene expression: no smoke, just miRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Christopher P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Males and females differ widely in morphology, physiology, and behavior leading to disparities in many health outcomes, including sex biases in the prevalence of many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, with the exception of a relatively small number of genes on the Y chromosome, males and females share a common genome. Therefore, sexual differentiation must in large part be a product of the sex biased expression of this shared genetic substrate. microRNAs (miRs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of up to 70% of protein-coding genes. The ability of miRs to regulate such a vast amount of the genome with a high degree of specificity makes them perfectly poised to play a critical role in programming of the sexually dimorphic brain. This review describes those characteristics of miRs that make them particularly amenable to this task, and examines the influences of both the sex chromosome complement as well as gonadal hormones on their regulation. Exploring miRs in the context of sex differences in disease, particularly in sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders, may provide novel insight into the pathophysiology and potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment and prevention.

  7. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  8. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  11. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on cognition in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria; Gomez, Juan; Beck, Kevin; Bowman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement. Moreover, stress often enhances female performance in some of these cognitive tasks. Memory in females is not affected by stress in non-spatial memory tasks like recognition memory and temporal order recognition memory while males show impaired memory following stress. We discuss possible bases for these sex-dependent differences including the use of different strategies by the sexes to solve cognitive tasks. Whether the sex differences result from changes in non-mnemonic factors is also considered. Sex-dependent differences in alcohol and drug influences on stress responses are also described. Finally, the role of neurally derived estradiol in driving sex differences and providing resilience to stress in females is shown. The importance of determining the nature and extent of sex differences in stress responses is that such differences may provide vital information for understanding why some stress related diseases have different incidence rates between the sexes and for developing novel therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review on sex differences in processing emotional signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; de Gelder, B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in sex-related differences in psychological functioning has again come to the foreground with new findings about their possible functional basis in the brain. Sex differences may be one way how evolution has capitalized on the capacity of homologous brain regions to process social

  13. Sex differences in paradoxical sleep: influences of estrus cycle and ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J; Fishbein, W

    1996-09-23

    Previously, we reported that paradoxical sleep (PS) is sexually dimorphic in mice and rats. Since some early studies indicate that PS is suppressed during proestrus night, it is important to know whether the estrus cycle and accompanying circulating ovarian hormones could explain the sexual dimorphism of PS. To examine this, sleep patterns of male rats were compared with those of normal cycling female rats and ovariectomized females in a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Slow wave sleep and total sleep time are indistinguishable between the males, cycling females and ovariectomized females. However, normal males display significantly more PS than cycling females during both daytime and nighttime (average of all estrus stages). On the other hand, while ovariectomy has no visible effect on daytime sleep--the sexual dimorphism of PS is unchanged by ovariectomy--during nighttime, ovariectomy produces a selective increase of PS, eliminating the sex difference during the night. In sum, normal cycling females show no change in daytime sleep patterns across the estrus cycle, but have significantly less PS during proestrus nights than during metestrus and diestrus nights. The results indicate that the sex difference in nighttime PS is due to the suppression of PS by ovarian hormones during proestrus and, to a less extent, estrus nights. The sex difference in daytime PS, on the other hand, appears to be independent of circulating ovarian hormones.

  14. Sex Differences in Technical Communication: A Perspective from Social Role Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…

  15. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P rhythmic composition without apparatus (P analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes.

  16. Sex differences in stress regulation of arousal and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Eck, Samantha R; Telenson, Alexander M; Salvatore, Madeleine

    2018-04-01

    There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are more common in women than men, and women with these disorders present with more hyperarousal symptoms than men. In contrast, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia are more common in men than women, and men with these disorders have increased cognitive deficits compared to women. A shared feature of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is the contribution of stressful events to their onset and/or severity. Here we propose that sex differences in stress responses bias females towards hyperarousal and males towards cognitive deficits. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies is detailed. We also describe underlying neurobiological mechanisms. For example, sex differences in stress receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus-arousal center are detailed. In learning circuits, evidence for sex differences in dendritic morphology is provided. Finally, we describe how evaluating sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress in female and male rodents can lead to better treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in the Simon task help to interpret sex differences in selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, a number of studies have reported sex differences in selective attention, but a unified explanation for these effects is still missing. This study aims to better understand these differences and put them in an evolutionary psychological context. 418 adult participants performed a computer-based Simon task, in which they responded to the direction of a left or right pointing arrow appearing left or right from a fixation point. Women were more strongly influenced by task-irr...

  18. Sex Differences in Trauma-Related Psychopathology: a Critical Review of Neuroimaging Literature (2014-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Zhu, Xi; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Lazarov, Amit; Monk, Catherine; Neria, Yuval

    2017-11-08

    Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure. These studies suggest that, for males, early trauma exposure may involve a loss of gray matter in the limbic system, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and hippocampus, and an over-activity and increased connectivity of salience hubs, and particularly dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). For females, however, early trauma exposure may involve overactive and possibly an enlarged amygdala, as well as decreased connectivity of salience hubs such as the dACC. Underlying mechanisms may include interaction with several endocrine systems and result in differential neural response to naturally occurring and added endocrine ligands, as well as sex-specific genetic and epigenetic risk and resilience factors. This complex interaction between multiple biological systems may be associated with sex-specific behavioral patterns, in turn associated with trauma-related psychopathology. While substantial number of published studies present preliminary evidence for neural mechanisms of sex-specific posttraumatic responses, there is a paucity of research directly designed to examine sex as a biological factor in trauma-related psychopathology. Specific foci for future studies aiming to bridge current gaps in the literature are discussed.

  19. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  20. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  1. Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function, and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Mazure, Carolyn M; Staley, Julie K

    2007-10-15

    Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step toward understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure, chemistry, and function using imaging methodologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mentally healthy individuals. MEDLINE searches of English-language literature (1980-November 2006) using the terms sex, gender, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, morphometry, neurochemistry, and neurotransmission were performed to extract relevant sources. The literature suggests that while there are many similarities in brain structure, function, and neurotransmission in healthy men and women, there are important differences that distinguish the male from the female brain. Overall, brain volume is greater in men than women; yet, when controlling for total volume, women have a higher percentage of gray matter and men a higher percentage of white matter. Regional volume differences are less consistent. Global cerebral blood flow is higher in women than in men. Sex-specific differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic markers indicate that male and female brains are neurochemically distinct. Insight into the etiology of sex differences in the normal living human brain provides an important foundation to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders and to guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  2. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  3. Sex differences in foreign language text comprehension : The role of interests and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bügel, K; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1996-01-01

    The scores obtained by female students on the national foreign language examinations in the Netherlands have been slightly but consistently lower than those of male students. The present research among 2980 high school students tested the hypothesis that, owing to sex differences in prior knowledge

  4. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  5. Geometry strategic competence of junior high school students based on sex difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, Zahra; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar

    2017-12-01

    There are different structures of male and female brain as it caused the difference of spatial and mathematical ability. This study examined whether there was different geometry strategic competence between sexes. There were 60 students given scholastic task of geometry strategic competence. The score obtained was analyzed by using independent t-test to compare the mean value of score between two groups. To determine the natural differences in strategy use between sexes, the score obtained was classified into high, medium, and low level. Semi-structured interview was conducted to six students (3 girls and 3 boys) who represented each level as subjects. By quantitative analyzing, obtained that there was no different in geometry strategic competence between girl and boy. Further, by qualitative analyzing known that girl students had more positive attitude than boys toward mathematics problem in the low score level and had the same strategic competence with boys in the medium scorelevel. Then, in the high scorelevel, boy students were tend to use insight strategies to solve problems whereas girls likely to use algorithm strategies.

  6. Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch

    OpenAIRE

    Agate, Robert J.; Grisham, William; Wade, Juli; Mann, Suzanne; Wingfield, John; Schanen, Carolyn; Palotie, Aarno; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and birds, sex differences in brain function and disease are thought to derive exclusively from sex differences in gonadal hormone secretions. For example, testosterone in male mammals acts during fetal and neonatal life to cause masculine neural development. However, male and female brain cells also differ in genetic sex; thus, sex chromosome genes acting within cells could contribute to sex differences in cell function. We analyzed the sexual phenotype of the brain of a rare gyna...

  7. Recombination difference between sexes: a role for haploid selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lenormand

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Why the autosomal recombination rate differs between female and male meiosis in most species has been a genetic enigma since the early study of meiosis. Some hypotheses have been put forward to explain this widespread phenomenon and, up to now, only one fact has emerged clearly: In species in which meiosis is achiasmate in one sex, it is the heterogametic one. This pattern, known as the Haldane-Huxley rule, is thought to be a side effect, on autosomes, of the suppression of recombination between the sex chromosomes. However, this rule does not hold for heterochiasmate species (i.e., species in which recombination is present in both sexes but varies quantitatively between sexes and does not apply to species lacking sex chromosomes, such as hermaphroditic plants. In this paper, we show that in plants, heterochiasmy is due to a male-female difference in gametic selection and is not influenced by the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This finding provides strong empirical support in favour of a population genetic explanation for the evolution of heterochiasmy and, more broadly, for the evolution of sex and recombination.

  8. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining Sex Differences in Reactions to Relationship Infidelities: Comparisons of the Roles of Sex, Gender, Beliefs, Attachment, and Sociosexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477, and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  10. Explaining sex differences in reactions to relationship infidelities: comparisons of the roles of sex, gender, beliefs, attachment, and sociosexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale

    2014-02-04

    To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  11. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  12. Sex Differences in the Anticonvulsant Activity of Neurosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Samba Reddy, Doodipala

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions such brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizures types; however there are sex-specific seizure disorders that are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, there is a substantial amount of data which indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs ...

  13. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhira, Shuji; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats

  14. Sex differences in task distribution and task exposures among Danish house painters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures...... correction were used to evaluate sex differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant (psex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor sex differences...... and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task...

  15. Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism and location of “weightlifting” injuries. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002-2005, using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (Males= 3,102; Females= 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for males versus females. Males had significantly more sprains and strains (P=0.004), while females demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to males (Pinjuries than females (Pinjuries than males (Pinjuries during weightlifting (sprains and strains) compared to females, especially at the trunk. Conversely, females may be more susceptible to lower extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training. PMID:19855331

  16. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  17. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eChan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the ‘tri-component theory of humor’, which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension, affect (appreciation, and laughter (expression. This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs, exaggeration jokes (EJs, and ambiguity jokes (AJs, were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ presumably for ‘theory of mind’ processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10 for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of

  18. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  19. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  20. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  1. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  2. Sex Differences and Response Styles: Subtypes of Rumination and Associations with Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Kistner, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    In view of recent findings regarding the multifaceted nature of rumination in adults and older adolescents, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct of rumination as a 2-factor model (brooding and reflection) in a child and early adolescent sample as well as examine sex differences and associations between depressive symptoms and…

  3. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Skin protection behaviour and sex differences in melanoma location in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew; McMeniman, Erin; Adams, Agnieszka; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sunscreen usage, sun-protection measures and self-examination rates in patients with single primary melanomas (SPM) are similar to that in the general population. This study hypothesises that these rates would be different in a population with multiple primary melanomas (MPM). We further hypothesise that there would be a sex difference in melanoma location in patients with MPM. The objectives of this study were to determine skin protection measures, self-examinations and melanoma location in a cohort of patients with MPM. A survey was conducted on 137 patients with MPM examining their sun-protection measures, skin self-examination rates and medical and phenotypic characteristics. These data were combined with a review of their medical records to examine the patients' skin cancer history. Patients with MPM had higher rates of skin self-evaluation (74% vs 22%), sunscreen usage (70% vs 45%) and other sun-protection measures (95% vs 46%) than has been published for patients with a history of a SPM. We have also shown that women have a higher risk of developing melanomas on their arms (p skin self-examination, sunscreen usage and other sun-protection methods in patients with MPM is higher than in studies of patients with SPM. It also highlighted sex differences in terms of melanoma location for patients with MPM. Further studies to examine the cause of the differences in these forms of protective behaviour could help improve the utilisation of these important preventative measures in all patients. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Sex differences in locomotor effects of morphine in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into ...

  6. Sex Differences in College Student Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimbu, Jerry L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Determines patterns of drug usage and related behavior of college, university, and junior college students on a state-wide basis. This article focuses on sex as it relates to the total pattern of drug abuse of nine specific substances among a large group of college students and examines results in terms of both practical and statistical…

  7. Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S.; McCabe, Patrick J.; Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The sleep–wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity both contribute to brain function, but whether this contribution differs between men and women and how it varies across cognitive domains and subjective dimensions has not been established. We examined the circadian and sleep–wake-dependent regulation of cognition in 16 men and 18 women in a forced desynchrony protocol and quantified the separate contributions of circadian phase, prior sleep, and elapsed time awake on cognition and sleep. The largest circadian effects were observed for reported sleepiness, mood, and reported effort; the effects on working memory and temporal processing were smaller. Although these effects were seen in both men and women, there were quantitative differences. The amplitude of the circadian modulation was larger in women in 11 of 39 performance measures so that their performance was more impaired in the early morning hours. Principal components analysis of the performance measures yielded three factors, accuracy, effort, and speed, which reflect core performance characteristics in a range of cognitive tasks and therefore are likely to be important for everyday performance. The largest circadian modulation was observed for effort, whereas accuracy exhibited the largest sex difference in circadian modulation. The sex differences in the circadian modulation of cognition could not be explained by sex differences in the circadian amplitude of plasma melatonin and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity. These data establish the impact of circadian rhythmicity and sex on waking cognition and have implications for understanding the regulation of brain function, cognition, and affect in shift-work, jetlag, and aging. PMID:27091961

  8. Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S; McCabe, Patrick J; Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-05-10

    The sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity both contribute to brain function, but whether this contribution differs between men and women and how it varies across cognitive domains and subjective dimensions has not been established. We examined the circadian and sleep-wake-dependent regulation of cognition in 16 men and 18 women in a forced desynchrony protocol and quantified the separate contributions of circadian phase, prior sleep, and elapsed time awake on cognition and sleep. The largest circadian effects were observed for reported sleepiness, mood, and reported effort; the effects on working memory and temporal processing were smaller. Although these effects were seen in both men and women, there were quantitative differences. The amplitude of the circadian modulation was larger in women in 11 of 39 performance measures so that their performance was more impaired in the early morning hours. Principal components analysis of the performance measures yielded three factors, accuracy, effort, and speed, which reflect core performance characteristics in a range of cognitive tasks and therefore are likely to be important for everyday performance. The largest circadian modulation was observed for effort, whereas accuracy exhibited the largest sex difference in circadian modulation. The sex differences in the circadian modulation of cognition could not be explained by sex differences in the circadian amplitude of plasma melatonin and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity. These data establish the impact of circadian rhythmicity and sex on waking cognition and have implications for understanding the regulation of brain function, cognition, and affect in shift-work, jetlag, and aging.

  9. Absenteeism, Burnout and Symptomatology of Teacher Stress: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out confirming high levels in symptomatology of stress and depression in the teaching profession, research focusing on sex differences in these problems has been both scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse differences with regards to sex in the incidence of absenteeism, work-related…

  10. Atomoxetine in abstinent cocaine users: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise E. DeVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Data presented are from a sex-differences secondary analysis of a human laboratory investigation of single doses of atomoxetine (40 mg and 80 mg versus placebo in abstinent individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD. Subjective drug effects, cognitive performance and cardiovascular measures were assessed. The primary atomoxetine dose analyses (which do not consider sex as a factor are reported in full elsewhere (DeVito et al., 2017 [1].

  11. Sex differences in brain and behavior in adolescence: Findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in brain and behavior were investigated across the lifespan. Parameters include neurobehavioral measures linkable to neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic indicators of brain structure and function. Sexual differentiation of behavior has been related to organizational factors during sensitive periods of development, with adolescence and puberty gaining increased attention. Adolescence is a critical developmental period where transition to adulthood is impacted by multiple factors that can enhance vulnerability to brain dysfunction. Here we highlight sex differences in neurobehavioral measures in adolescence that are linked to brain function. We summarize neuroimaging studies examining brain structure, connectivity and perfusion, underscoring the relationship to sex differences in behavioral measures and commenting on hormonal findings. We focus on relevant data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a community-based sample of nearly 10,000 clinically and neurocognitively phenotyped youths age 8-21 of whom 1600 have received multimodal neuroimaging. These data indicate early and pervasive sexual differentiation in neurocognitive measures that is linkable to brain parameters. We conclude by describing possible clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in physician salary in U.S. public medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B.; Olenski, Andrew R.; Blumenthal, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Limited evidence exists on salary differences between male and female academic physicians, largely due to difficulty obtaining data on salary and factors influencing salary. Existing studies have been limited by reliance on survey-based approaches to measuring sex differences in earnings, lack of contemporary data, small sample sizes, or limited geographic representation. Objective To analyze sex differences in earnings among U.S. academic physicians. Design, setting, and participants Freedom of Information laws mandate release of salary information of public university employees in several states. In 12 states with salary information published online, we extracted salary data on 10,241 academic physicians at 24 public medical schools. We linked this data to a unique physician database with detailed information on sex, age, years of experience, faculty rank, specialty, scientific authorship, NIH funding, clinical trial participation, and Medicare reimbursements (proxy for clinical revenue). We estimated sex differences in salary adjusting for these factors. Exposure Physician sex Main outcome measures Annual salary Results Female physicians had lower unadjusted salaries than male physicians ($206,641 vs. $257,957; difference $51,315; 95% CI $46,330–$56,301). Sex differences persisted after multivariable adjustment ($227,782 vs. $247,661; difference $19,878; 95% CI $15,261–$24,495). Sex differences in salary varied across specialties, institutions, and faculty ranks. Female full and associate professors had comparable adjusted salaries to those of male associate and assistant professors, respectively. Conclusions and relevance Among physicians with faculty appointments at 24 U.S. public medical schools, significant sex differences in salary exist even after accounting for age, experience, specialty, faculty rank, and measures of research productivity and clinical revenue. PMID:27400435

  13. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  14. Sex differences in social cognitive factors and physical activity in Korean college students

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Yi; Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined sex differences in physical activity and social cognitive theory factors in Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey of 688 college students (285 men and 403 women) in Korea was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. [Results] There was a significant difference in the level of physical activity between male and female students. The significant predictors of physical activity for male students were physical activity goals, p...

  15. Sex differences in stress responses: a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R

    2018-03-01

    Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depression are higher in women than in men. Another shared feature of these disorders is that dysregulation of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is thought to contribute to their pathophysiology. Therefore, sex differences in responses to CRF could contribute to this sex bias in disease prevalence. Here, we review emerging data from non-human animal models that reveal extensive sex differences in CRF functions ranging from its presynaptic regulation to its postsynaptic efficacy. Specifically, detailed are sex differences in the regulation of CRF-containing neurons and the amount of CRF that they produce. We also describe sex differences in CRF receptor expression, distribution, trafficking, and signaling. Finally, we highlight sex differences in the processes that mitigate the effects of CRF. In most cases, the identified sex differences can lead to increased stress sensitivity in females. Thus, the relevance of these differences for the increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men is also discussed.

  16. Sex differences in the trauma-related symptoms: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotić Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the year 2014, a part of the population from Serbia was exposed to floods. After natural disasters and other types of extreme trauma, some people will be more affected by trauma than others. How women and men differ, in the symptoms that can manifest after the exposure to extreme trauma, is still an open question. Aim: To evaluate if there are differences in the severity of trauma-related symptom clusters between the sexes (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal; according to DSM V and in experiencing negative emotional states (depression, anxiety, stress. Material and methods: Forty healthy volunteers from Obrenovac (25 women and 15 men were administered with three instruments: The Life Events Checklist - LEC-5, PTSD checklist for DSM V - PCL-5 and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - DASS. Results: The majority of subjects reported floods as the major lifetime trauma (72.5%. Despite the relatively low level of the post-traumatic symptom intensity (5.02 ±4.99, women exhibited significantly higher total post-traumatic symptom severity scores in comparison to men (p<0.01 and higher severity of trauma re-experiencing symptoms (p<0.01. Sex differences were neither observed in other trauma-related symptoms clusters, nor in the severity of current depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Conclusion: In the non-clinical sample, with only a sub-threshold level of post-traumatic symptoms, the most prominent difference between sexes was found in relation to re-experiencing and this finding is consistent with the results obtained from clinical samples. Future studies are needed, in order to examine whether trauma-focused treatments can be gender-tailored and to which extent they might prevent the full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder.

  17. Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking in congeneric hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbo, S D; Dhabhar, F S; Viswanathan, K; Saul, A; Nelson, R J

    2003-11-01

    Sex differences in immune function are well documented. These sex differences may be modulated by social and environmental factors. Individuals of polygynous species generally exhibit more pronounced sex differences in immune parameters than individuals of monogamous species, often displaying an energetic trade-off between enhanced immunity and high mating success. During winter, animals contend with environmental conditions (e.g. low temperatures and decreased food availability) that evoke energetic-stress responses; many mammals restrict reproduction in response to photoperiod as part of an annual winter coping strategy. To test the hypothesis that extant sex and species differences in immune surveillance may be modulated by photoperiod, we examined leukocyte numbers in males and females of two closely related hamster species (Phodopus). As predicted, uniparental P. sungorus exhibited a robust sex difference, with total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells higher in females than males, during long days when reproduction occurs, but not during short days when reproduction usually stops. In contrast, biparental male and female P. campbelli exhibited comparable leukocyte numbers during both long and short days. To study sex differences in stress responses, we also examined immune cell trafficking in response to an acute (2 h) restraint stressor. During stressful challenges, it appears beneficial for immune cells to exit the blood and move to primary immune defense areas such as the skin, in preparation for potential injury or infection. Acute stress moved lymphocytes and monocytes out of the blood in all animals. Blood cortisol concentrations were increased in P. sungorus females compared to males at baseline (52%) and in response to restraint stress (38%), but only in long days. P. campbelli males and females exhibited comparable blood cortisol and stress responses during both long and short days. Our results suggest that interactions among

  18. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  19. Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, D.R.; Liu, L.; Bunn, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001

  20. Genetic regulation of sex differences in songbirds and lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adulthood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology. PMID:26833833

  1. Sex Differences in the Pharmacokinetics of Antidepressants : Influence of Female Sex Hormones and Oral Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, Valerie A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Jiawan, Vincent C. R.; Melgert, Barbro N.

    Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. Moreover, the symptoms they experience also show sex differences: women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and show more severe symptoms than men. Likewise, the response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy appears to have sex

  2. Sex-related differences in attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    The sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities is a continuing topic of major interest. Besides, the influences of trends over time and possible effects of sex steroid and assessment time on cognition have expanded the necessity to re-evaluate differences between men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between men and women in a strongly controlled experiment. In total, 28 men and 25 women were investigated. Variables of body temperature and heart rate were assessed. A cognitive test battery was used to assess attention (visual search, unpredictable task switching as well as complex visual search and predictable task switching tests) and memory (forced visual memory, forward digit span and free recall test). The differences in heart rate and body temperatures between men and women were not significant. There were no differences in the mean values of attention and memory abilities between men and women. Coefficients of variation of unpredictable task switching response and forward digit span were lower (Pattention task incorrect response and negatively correlated (Pmemory task. Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Accounting for sex differences in PTSD: A multi-variable mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte M; Hansen, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Approximately twice as many females as males are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about why females report more PTSD symptoms than males. Prior studies have generally focused on few potential mediators at a time and have often used methods that were not ideally suited to test for mediation effects. Prior research has identified a number of individual risk factors that may contribute to sex differences in PTSD severity, although these cannot fully account for the increased symptom levels in females when examined individually. The present study is the first to systematically test the hypothesis that a combination of pre-, peri-, and posttraumatic risk factors more prevalent in females can account for sex differences in PTSD severity. The study was a quasi-prospective questionnaire survey assessing PTSD and related variables in 73.3% of all Danish bank employees exposed to bank robbery during the period from April 2010 to April 2011. Participants filled out questionnaires 1 week (T1, N=450) and 6 months after the robbery (T2, N=368; 61.1% females). Mediation was examined using an analysis designed specifically to test a multiple mediator model. Females reported more PTSD symptoms than males and higher levels of neuroticism, depression, physical anxiety sensitivity, peritraumatic fear, horror, and helplessness (the A2 criterion), tonic immobility, panic, dissociation, negative posttraumatic cognitions about self and the world, and feeling let down. These variables were included in the model as potential mediators. The combination of risk factors significantly mediated the association between sex and PTSD severity, accounting for 83% of the association. The findings suggest that females report more PTSD symptoms because they experience higher levels of associated risk factors. The results are relevant to other trauma populations and to other trauma-related psychiatric disorders more prevalent in females, such as depression

  4. Sex differences in salivary cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST): A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny J W; Ein, Natalie; Peck, Katlyn; Huang, Vivian; Pruessner, Jens C; Vickers, Kristin

    2017-08-01

    Some, but not all studies using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have demonstrated evidence in support of sex differences in salivary cortisol. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to examine sex differences in salivary cortisol following exposure to the TSST. We further explored the effects of modifications to the TSST protocol and procedural variations as potential moderators. We searched articles published from January, 1993 to February, 2016 in MedLine, PsychINFO, and ProQuest Theses and Dissertations. This meta-analysis is based on 34 studies, with a total sample size of 1350 individuals (640 women and 710 men). Using a random effects model, we found significant heterogeneity in salivary cortisol output across sexes, such that men were observed to have higher cortisol values at peak and recovery following the TSST compared to women. Modifications to the sampling trajectory of cortisol (i.e., duration of acclimation, peak sampling time, and duration of recovery) significantly moderated the heterogeneity across both sexes. Further, there are observed sex differences at various time points of the reactive cortisol following the TSST. Lastly, current results suggest that these sex differences can be, at least in part, attributed to variations in methodological considerations across studies. Future research could advance this line of inquiry by using other methods of analyses (e.g., area under the curve; AUC), in order to better understand the effects of methodological variations and their implications for research design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex differences in empathy for pain: What is the role of autonomic regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Lincoln M; Giummarra, Melita J

    2017-10-01

    Empathy involves both affective and cognitive components whereby we understand, and express concerns for, the experiences of others. Women typically have superior trait empathy compared with men, which seems to have a neurological basis with sex differences in the structure and function of neural networks involved in empathy. This study investigated sex differences in empathy for pain using the Empathy for Pain Scale, and examined whether these trait differences were associated with disruptions in autonomic regulation, specifically via the parasympathetic nervous system (measured through the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; RMSSD) both at rest and during a socioevaluative stress task (i.e., the serial sevens task). Compared with men, women reported higher empathic concern (Cohen's r = .25) and affective distress (Cohen's d = 0.65) toward another in pain. In both men and women, there was a decrease in lnRMSSD in the stress task compared to rest. Sex moderated the relationship between resting lnRMSSD and self-reported empathic concern. Specifically, there was no clear association between empathic concern and lnRMSSD in men whereas in women there was a negative relationship, with lower resting lnRMSSD associated with higher empathic concern, and higher lnRMSSD associated with lower levels of empathic concern that were similar to men. These findings suggest that empathic feelings may result from poorer psychophysiological regulation, and concur with previous research displaying sex-specific relationships between resting heart rate variability and emotion regulation abilities. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Sex and Employment-Setting Differences in Work-Family Conflict in Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.

  7. Sex differences in jealousy: a population-based twin study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walum, Hasse; Larsson, Henrik; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E

    2013-10-01

    According to the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, the challenge for women to ensure paternal investment increased their jealousy response to emotional infidelity, whereas paternal uncertainty exerted selective pressures that shaped men to become more distressed by sexual infidelity. Several studies have investigated whether the effect of these sexually dimorphic selection pressures can be detected in contemporary human populations, with conflicting results. To date, no genetically informed studies of sex differences in jealousy have been conducted. We used data from the Screening Across the Lifespan of Twins Younger (SALTY) sample, containing information concerning self-rated jealousy from 3,197 complete twin pairs collected by the Swedish Twin Registry. Intra-class correlations and structural equation models were used to assess the genetic influence on jealousy and to investigate sex differences at genetic level. We saw a highly significant sex effect on the relationship between infidelity types, indicating that men, relative to women, reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. The twin models revealed significant heritabilities for both sexual (32%) and emotional (26%) jealousy. The heritabilities were of a similar magnitude in both sexes, and no qualitative sex differences could be detected. We show for the first time that variance in jealousy is to some extent explained by genetic factors. Even though our results from the mean value analyses are in line with the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, we could not identify any sex differences on a genetic level.

  8. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  9. Sex differences in visual attention to erotic and non-erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Meana, Marta; Strauss, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    It has been suggested that sex differences in the processing of erotic material (e.g., memory, genital arousal, brain activation patterns) may also be reflected by differential attention to visual cues in erotic material. To test this hypothesis, we presented 20 heterosexual men and 20 heterosexual women with erotic and non-erotic images of heterosexual couples and tracked their eye movements during scene presentation. Results supported previous findings that erotic and non-erotic information was visually processed in a different manner by both men and women. Men looked at opposite sex figures significantly longer than did women, and women looked at same sex figures significantly longer than did men. Within-sex analyses suggested that men had a strong visual attention preference for opposite sex figures as compared to same sex figures, whereas women appeared to disperse their attention evenly between opposite and same sex figures. These differences, however, were not limited to erotic images but evidenced in non-erotic images as well. No significant sex differences were found for attention to the contextual region of the scenes. Results were interpreted as potentially supportive of recent studies showing a greater non-specificity of sexual arousal in women. This interpretation assumes there is an erotic valence to images of the sex to which one orients, even when the image is not explicitly erotic. It also assumes a relationship between visual attention and erotic valence.

  10. Support for the microgenderome invites enquiry into sex differences

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Amy; Butt, Henry; Ball, Michelle; Lewis, Donald P.; Bruck, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microgenderome defines the interaction between microbiota, sex hormones and the immune system. Our recent research inferred support for the microgenderome by showing sex differences in microbiota-symptom associations in a clinical sample of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This addendum expands upon the sex-specific pattern of associations that were observed. Interpretations are hypothesized in relation to genera versus species-level an...

  11. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  12. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  13. A heads up on concussions: are there sex-related differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Emily M; Luo, Xuan; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are a major concern for physicians in athletes of all ages. Specifically, sports-related concussions are becoming an all-too-common injury among female athletes. The incidence of concussions among female athletes has likely increased over the past few decades because of an increase in sports participation afforded by Title IX. It would be useful for physicians to have general knowledge of concussions and their potential sex-related differences. This review article summarizes the current body of research concerning sex-related differences in concussion epidemiology and outcomes. A literature search was performed using PubMed and included all articles published from 1993 to present, with a predominant focus on research conducted over the past fifteen years. Additional articles were found using the bibliography from articles found through the PubMed search. Several articles have compared incidence, severity of neurological deficit, constellation of symptoms, and length of recovery post-concussion in males and females. However, the literature does not unanimously support a significant sex-related difference in concussions. Lack of consensus in the literature can be attributed to differences between patient populations, different tools used to study concussions, including subjective or objective measures, and differences in mechanisms of injury. We conclude that concussions are a serious injury in both male and female athletes, and physicians should have a very high index of suspicion regardless of sex, because there currently is not sufficient consensus in the literature to institute sex-related changes to concussion management. Current research may suggest a sex-related difference pertaining to sports-related concussions, but further evaluation is needed on this topic.

  14. Screening for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population with Specific Focus on Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Corbisiero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often overlooked in adults; moreover, the problem seems to be even more critical in women. In the present, observational screening study, a clinical, particularly adult outpatient population was examined regarding frequency and severity of a likely ADHD, whereby sex differences were of particular interest.Methods224 participants, 146 men and 78 women, were included. Based on data recorded with the self-rating WHO screening instrument Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1, it was examined how many participants were conspicuous for adult ADHD by exceeding a predefined cutoff value (COV (COV ≥ 4 for ASRS-6, and ≥12 for ASRS-18. To examine frequency distributions, χ2 tests were conducted. For the inferential statistical comparison of means, t-tests for independent samples or Mann–Whitney U tests were calculated.Results34.4% of the sample was screened positive in the ASRS-v1.1 screener short version, ASRS-6, while 17.4% were conspicuous in the symptom checklist, ASRS-18. There were indeed more men screened positive, but the difference in the frequency between the sexes was not statistically significant, indicating a balanced sex ratio. Further, severity of ADHD core symptoms inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity was examined by comparing ASRS-18 symptom subscale scores. In concordance with the hypothesis, men and women did not differ in severity of symptoms.ConclusionResults indicate that women might be affected by ADHD in a comparable manner as men; this emphasizes the importance for the awareness of ADHD in both sexes in clinical practice.

  15. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  16. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  17. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences in the influence of body mass index on anatomical architecture of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Hamadani, K; Bhatt, R; Fling, C; Alaverdyan, M; Torgerson, C; Ashe-McNalley, C; Van Horn, J D; Naliboff, B; Tillisch, K; Sanmiguel, C P; Labus, J S

    2017-08-01

    The brain has a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters. Structural and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in a sample of 124 individuals (61 males and 63 females). Graph theory was applied to calculate anatomical network properties (centrality) for regions of the reward, salience and sensorimotor networks. General linear models with linear contrasts were performed to test for BMI and sex-related differences in measures of centrality, while controlling for age. In both males and females, individuals with high BMI (obese and overweight) had greater anatomical centrality (greater connectivity) of reward (putamen) and salience (anterior insula) network regions. Sex differences were observed both in individuals with normal and elevated BMI. In individuals with high BMI, females compared to males showed greater centrality in reward (amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) and salience (anterior mid-cingulate cortex) regions, while males compared to females had greater centrality in reward (putamen) and sensorimotor (posterior insula) regions. In individuals with increased BMI, reward, salience and sensorimotor network regions are susceptible to topological restructuring in a sex-related manner. These findings highlight the influence of these regions on integrative processing of food-related stimuli and increased ingestive behavior in obesity, or in the influence of hedonic ingestion on brain topological restructuring. The observed sex differences emphasize the importance of

  19. Sex differences in a virtual water maze: an eye tracking and pupillometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Jackson, Carl P T; Skelton, Ron W

    2008-11-21

    Sex differences in human spatial navigation are well known. However, the exact strategies that males and females employ in order to navigate successfully around the environment are unclear. While some researchers propose that males prefer environment-centred (allocentric) and females prefer self-centred (egocentric) navigation, these findings have proved difficult to replicate. In the present study we examined eye movements and physiological measures of memory (pupillometry) in order to compare visual scanning of spatial orientation using a human virtual analogue of the Morris Water Maze task. Twelve women and twelve men (average age=24 years) were trained on a visible platform and had to locate an invisible platform over a series of trials. On all but the first trial, participants' eye movements were recorded for 3s and they were asked to orient themselves in the environment. While the behavioural data replicated previous findings of improved spatial performance for males relative to females, distinct sex differences in eye movements were found. Males tended to explore consistently more space early on while females demonstrated initially longer fixation durations and increases in pupil diameter usually associated with memory processing. The eye movement data provides novel insight into differences in navigational strategies between the sexes.

  20. Men, women…who cares? A population-based study on sex differences and gender roles in empathy and moral cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baez

    Full Text Available Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802 when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334 completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.

  1. Men, women…who cares? A population-based study on sex differences and gender roles in empathy and moral cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Prats, María; Mastandueno, Ricardo; García, Adolfo M.; Cetkovich, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles. PMID:28632770

  2. Men, women…who cares? A population-based study on sex differences and gender roles in empathy and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Prats, María; Mastandueno, Ricardo; García, Adolfo M; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.

  3. Sex differences in the timing of identification among children and adults with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, S.; Mandell, S.; Wijnker-Holmes, B.; Venderbosch, S.; Rem, D.; Stekelenburg, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    To examine differences by sex in the timing of identification of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), survey data were collected in the Netherlands from 2,275 males and females with autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome and PDD-NOS. Among participants <18 years of age, females with

  4. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  5. Sex differences in the outcomes of stent implantation in mini-swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunio, Mie; Wong, Gee; Markham, Peter M; Edelman, Elazer R

    2018-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been noted in cardiovascular anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment responses, yet we continued to drive evaluation of vascular device development in animal models without consideration of animal sex. We aimed to understand sex-related differences in the vascular responses to stent implantation by analyzing the pooled data of endovascular interventions in 164 Yucatan mini-swine (87 female, 77 male). Bare metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES) were implanted in 212 coronary arteries (63 single BMS implantation, 68 single DES implantation, 33 overlapped BMS implantation, and 48 overlapped DES implantation). Histomorphological parameters were evaluated from vascular specimens at 3-365 days after stent implantation and evaluated values were compared between female and male groups. While neointima formation at all times after implantation was invariant to sex, statistically significant differences between female and male groups were observed in injury, inflammation, adventitial fibrosis, and neointimal fibrin deposition. These differences were observed independently, i.e., for different procedure types and at different follow-up timings. Only subtle temporal sex-related differences were observed in extent and timing of resolution of inflammation and fibrin clearance. These subtle sex-related differences may be increasingly important as interventional devices meld novel materials that erode and innovations in drug delivery. Erodible materials may act differently if inflammation has a different temporal sequence with sex, and drug distribution after balloon or stent delivery might be different if the fibrin clearance speaks to different modes of pharmacokinetics in male and female swine.

  6. Investigating sex differences in psychological predictors of snack intake among a large representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; Verhoeven, Aukje A C; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-03-01

    It is often assumed that there are substantial sex differences in eating behaviour (e.g. women are more likely to be dieters or emotional eaters than men). The present study investigates this assumption in a large representative community sample while incorporating a comprehensive set of psychological eating-related variables. A community sample was employed to: (i) determine sex differences in (un)healthy snack consumption and psychological eating-related variables (e.g. emotional eating, intention to eat healthily); (ii) examine whether sex predicts energy intake from (un)healthy snacks over and above psychological variables; and (iii) investigate the relationship between psychological variables and snack intake for men and women separately. Snack consumption was assessed with a 7d snack diary; the psychological eating-related variables with questionnaires. Participants were members of an Internet survey panel that is based on a true probability sample of households in the Netherlands. Men and women (n 1292; 45 % male), with a mean age of 51·23 (sd 16·78) years and a mean BMI of 25·62 (sd 4·75) kg/m2. Results revealed that women consumed more healthy and less unhealthy snacks than men and they scored higher than men on emotional and restrained eating. Women also more often reported appearance and health-related concerns about their eating behaviour, but men and women did not differ with regard to external eating or their intentions to eat more healthily. The relationships between psychological eating-related variables and snack intake were similar for men and women, indicating that snack intake is predicted by the same variables for men and women. It is concluded that some small sex differences in psychological eating-related variables exist, but based on the present data there is no need for interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating to target different predictors according to sex.

  7. Sex similarities and differences in risk factors for recurrence of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M; Aggen, Steven H; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-11-27

    Major depression (MD) occurs about twice as often in women as in men, but it is unclear whether sex differences subsist after disease onset. This study aims to elucidate potential sex differences in rates and risk factors for MD recurrence, in order to improve prediction of course of illness and understanding of its underlying mechanisms. We used prospective data from a general population sample (n = 653) that experienced a recent episode of MD. A diverse set of potential risk factors for recurrence of MD was analyzed using Cox models subject to elastic net regularization for males and females separately. Accuracy of the prediction models was tested in same-sex and opposite-sex test data. Additionally, interactions between sex and each of the risk factors were investigated to identify potential sex differences. Recurrence rates and the impact of most risk factors were similar for men and women. For both sexes, prediction models were highly multifactorial including risk factors such as comorbid anxiety, early traumas, and family history. Some subtle sex differences were detected: for men, prediction models included more risk factors concerning characteristics of the depressive episode and family history of MD and generalized anxiety, whereas for women, models included more risk factors concerning early and recent adverse life events and socioeconomic problems. No prominent sex differences in risk factors for recurrence of MD were found, potentially indicating similar disease maintaining mechanisms for both sexes. Course of MD is a multifactorial phenomenon for both males and females.

  8. Sex differences in DNA methylation of the cord blood are related to sex-bias psychiatric diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Mariana; Bastos, Laura Caroline; Tahira, Ana Carolina; Bastos, Elen Pereira; Euclydes, Veronica Luiza Vale; Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther; de Baumont, Angelica; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Gouveia, Gisele; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Escobar, Ana Maria Ulhoa; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Brentani, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are well documented, with exposure to stress during gestation differentially impacting females and males. We explored sex-specific DNA methylation in the cord blood of 39 females and 32 males born at term and with appropriate weight at birth regarding their potential connection to psychiatric outcomes. Mothers were interviewed to gather information about environmental factors (gestational exposure) that could interfere with the methylation profiles in the newborns. Bisulphite converted DNA was hybridized to Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Excluding XYS probes, there were 2,332 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs) between sexes, which were enriched within brain modules of co-methylated CpGs during brain development and also differentially methylated in the brains of boys and girls. Genes associated with the DMSs were enriched for neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly for CpG sites found differentially methylated in brain tissue between patients with schizophrenia and controls. Moreover, the DMS had an overlap of 890 (38%) CpG sites with a cohort submitted to toxic exposition during gestation. This study supports the evidences that sex differences in DNA methylation of autosomes act as a primary driver of sex differences that are found in psychiatric outcomes.

  9. A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-12-01

    In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect histories assessed for PTSD in adulthood. Across all types of abuse/neglect, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk. Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD.

  10. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Gruhn

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway.

  11. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.

  12. Orexins Mediate Sex Differences in the Stress Response and in Cognitive Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Laura A; Cornfeld, Amanda; Luz, Sandra; Valentino, Rita; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2017-04-15

    Women are twice as likely as men to experience stress-related psychiatric disorders. The biological basis of these sex differences is poorly understood. Orexins are altered in anxious and depressed patients. Using a rat model of repeated stress, we examined whether orexins contribute to sex differences in outcomes relevant to stress-related psychiatric diseases. Behavioral, neural, and endocrine habituation to repeated restraint stress and subsequent cognitive flexibility was examined in adult male and female rats. In parallel, orexin expression and activation were determined in both sexes, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine transcription factors acting at the orexin promoter. Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs were used to inhibit orexin activation throughout repeated restraint to determine if the stress-related impairments in female rats could be reduced. Female rats exhibited impaired habituation to repeated restraint with subsequent deficits in cognitive flexibility compared with male rats. Increased orexin expression and activation were observed in female rats compared with male rats. The higher expression of orexin messenger RNA in female rats was due to actions of glucocorticoid receptors on the orexin promoter, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Inhibition of orexins using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in female rats throughout repeated restraint abolished their heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responsivity and reduced stress-induced cognitive impairments. Orexins mediate the impairments in adaptations to repeated stress and in subsequent cognitive flexibility exhibited by female rats and provide evidence for a broader role for orexins in mediating functions relevant to stress-related psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. When Do Friends Prevent Friends from Hooking Up Intoxicated? An Examination of Sex Differences and Hypothetical Intoxication in Peer Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.

  14. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  15. Sex differences in stroke: a socioeconomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbari A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Delbari,1 Farzane Keyghobadi,2 Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1,3 Fariba Keyghobadi,2 Reza Akbari,2 Houman Kamranian,2 Mohammad Shouride Yazdi,2 Sayed Shahaboddin Tabatabaei,1 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad4 1Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Khorasan, Iran; 3Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing™, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Neurobiology, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Care Sciences and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: A number of studies have explored the issue of sex differences in stroke from biomedical perspective; however, there are still large gaps in the existing knowledge. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions between men and women may explain the part of the sex differences in incidence and outcomes of stroke. Methods: All stroke participants aged ≥60 years admitted in Vaseie Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran, from March 21, 2013, until March 20, 2014, were included in this study. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm stroke. A series of χ2 tests were performed and Statistical Program for Social Sciences, Version 21.0, was used to investigate the potential differences between older men and women in stroke incidence and outcomes. Results: A total of 159 incident stroke cases were documented during 1 year. The annual rate of stroke was statistically significantly higher in elderly women than in elderly men (401 vs 357 per 100,000; P<0.001. Female elderly participants had significantly lower socioeconomic status, poorer living conditions, and higher lifetime history of depression, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus than their male counterparts. Conclusion: The findings from this study

  16. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  17. Can the sex differences in disgust sensitivity account for the sex differences in blood-injection-injury fears?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, BO; Arrindell, WA; Lohr, JM

    Recent research has shown a positive relationship between disgust sensitivity and blood-injection-injury (BII) fears. This line of research has also found that females report higher levels of BII fears and disgust sensitivity than males. The present study sought to determine if the sex difference in

  18. An fMRI study of sex differences in regional activation to a verbal and a spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, R C; Alsop, D; Glahn, D; Petty, R; Swanson, C L; Maldjian, J A; Turetsky, B I; Detre, J A; Gee, J; Gur, R E

    2000-09-01

    Sex differences in cognitive performance have been documented, women performing better on some phonological tasks and men on spatial tasks. An earlier fMRI study suggested sex differences in distributed brain activation during phonological processing, with bilateral activation seen in women while men showed primarily left-lateralized activation. This blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI study examined sex differences (14 men, 13 women) in activation for a spatial task (judgment of line orientation) compared to a verbal-reasoning task (analogies) that does not typically show sex differences. Task difficulty was manipulated. Hypothesized ROI-based analysis documented the expected left-lateralized changes for the verbal task in the inferior parietal and planum temporal regions in both men and women, but only men showed right-lateralized increase for the spatial task in these regions. Image-based analysis revealed a distributed network of cortical regions activated by the tasks, which consisted of the lateral frontal, medial frontal, mid-temporal, occipitoparietal, and occipital regions. The activation was more left lateralized for the verbal and more right for the spatial tasks, but men also showed some left activation for the spatial task, which was not seen in women. Increased task difficulty produced more distributed activation for the verbal and more circumscribed activation for the spatial task. The results suggest that failure to activate the appropriate hemisphere in regions directly involved in task performance may explain certain sex differences in performance. They also extend, for a spatial task, the principle that bilateral activation in a distributed cognitive system underlies sex differences in performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Human Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Geary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin’s (1871 theory of sexual selection and the associated mechanisms of intrasexual competition (e.g., male-male competition and intersexual choice (e.g., female choice of mates have guided the scientific study of sex differences in hundreds of non-human species. These mechanisms and several recent advances in our understanding of the evolution and expression of sex differences in non-human species are described. The usefulness of this theory for approaching the study human sex differences is illustrated with discussion of patterns of women’s mate preferences and choices and with discussion of men’s one-on-one and coalitional competition. A comparison of these aspects of intersexual choice and intrasexual competition in humans and non-human species is provided, as is discussion of cultural variation in the expression of these behaviors. cultural influences (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974.

  20. The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Lee

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL, the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL, and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK, which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the different sex types of C. papaya L., were genotyped using high-resolution melting (HRM. The three loci were examined regarding the profiles of the third whorl, as described below. CpSVPL, which had one SNP associated with the three sex genotypes, was highly expressed in the male and female sterile flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers that lacked the fourth whorl structure. CpCAF1AL, which had three SNPs associated with the male genotype, was highly expressed in male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, and had no AS-seqs, whereas it exhibited low expression and an AS-seqs in intron 11 in abnormal hermaphrodite flowers. Conversely, carpellate flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers showed low expression of CpSVPL and AS-seqs in introns 5, 6, and 7 of CpSERK, which contained four SNPs associated with the female genotype. Specifically, the CpSERK and CpCAF1AL loci exhibited no AS-seq expression in the third whorl of the male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, respectively, and variance in the AS-seq expression of all other types of flowers. Functional mapping of the third whorl of normal hermaphrodites indicated no AS-seq expression in CpSERK, low CpSVPL expression, and, for CpCAF1AL, high expression and no AS

  1. Students’ Spatial Performance: Cognitive Style and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.

  2. Gender differences in sex life issues – A population-based study of migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojanlatva Ansa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. Methods The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years. Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline and 19 626 to the follow-up questionnaire (75.8% response rate. We examined as to how the perceptions of sex life of those suffering from migraine changed during a 5-year follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the data of the responses on self-reported migraine in the baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 2 977, 79.2% women. Each person with migraine was assigned a gender- and age-matched control in the analysis. Results All three outcome variables tended to decrease in value. Importance of sex life was higher among men with migraine than among their controls. Among women migraine lessened interest in sex life. Conclusion Our findings suggested that migraine has a different impact on sex life among women from that among men.

  3. Cognitive function and associated factors among older people in Taiwan: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive function and the risk and the protective factors by age and sex among Taiwanese older people. The data were from a nation-representative panel of older people in Taiwan. The participants completing both the 2003 and 2007 waves were included for analysis in this study (n=3228). Descriptive analysis and generalized linear model were applied, and the samples were stratified by age groups and by sex. The factors related to higher cognitive function at the intercept included being younger, male, higher education, and doing unpaid work. At the time slope, the age effect and physical function difficulties would reduce the cognitive function across time, while education and providing informational support would increase the cognitive function across time. There were age- and sex-differences in the factors related to cognitive function, particularly on the working status and social participation. Different health promotion strategies to target these populations should be accordingly developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena

    2014-09-01

    The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory - especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.

  5. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire lifespan. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.

  6. Sex differences in asthma in swimmers and tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes, independent of sport, have increased risk of developing asthma, but little is known about sex difference among adolescent athletes. Objective: To investigate and compare sex-related differences according to symptoms and treatment of asthma, allergy, and health among elite athletes and a reference group. Methods: Adolescent elite swimmers (n = 101), tennis players (n = 86), and a reference group (n = 1,628) responded to a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, al...

  7. Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2017-01-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sex differences in the weighting of metric and categorical information in spatial location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Mark P; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Hampson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    According to the Category Adjustment model, remembering a spatial location involves the Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical information about that location, with each cue weighted by its relative certainty. However, individuals may differ in terms of their certainty about each cue, resulting in estimates that rely more or less on metric or categorical representations. To date, though, very little research has examined individual differences in the relative weighting of these cues in spatial location memory. Here, we address this gap in the literature. Participants were asked to recall point locations in uniform geometric shapes and in photographs of complex, natural scenes. Error patterns were analyzed for evidence of a sex difference in the relative use of metric and categorical information. As predicted, women placed relatively more emphasis on categorical cues, while men relied more heavily on metric information. Location reproduction tasks showed a similar effect, implying that the sex difference arises early in spatial processing, possibly during encoding.

  9. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  10. Sex Differences in Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Opioid Withdrawal and Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Giovanni C; Carrion, Joseph; Patel, Krishna; Vilchez, Crystal; Veith, Jennifer; Brodie, Jonathan D; Dewey, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are currently the most common pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence. Interestingly, the clinical response to these drugs appears to be sex specific. That is, females exhibit superior therapeutic efficacy, defined as extended periods of abstinence and longer time to relapse, compared with males. However, the underlying metabolic effects of opioid withdrawal and replacement have not been examined. Therefore, using 18 FDG and microPET, we measured differences in regional brain glucose metabolism in males and females following morphine withdrawal and subsequent methadone or buprenorphine replacement. In both males and females, spontaneous opioid withdrawal altered glucose metabolism in regions associated with reward and drug dependence. Specifically, metabolic increases in the thalamus, as well as metabolic decreases in insular cortex and the periaqueductal gray, were noted. However, compared with males, females exhibited increased metabolism in the preoptic area, primary motor cortex, and the amygdala, and decreased metabolism in the caudate/putamen and medial geniculate nucleus. Methadone and buprenorphine initially abolished these changes uniformly, but subsequently produced their own regional metabolic alterations that varied by treatment and sex. Compared with sex-matched control animals undergoing spontaneous opioid withdrawal, male animals treated with methadone exhibited increased caudate/putamen metabolism, whereas buprenorphine produced increased ventral striatum and motor cortex metabolism in females, and increased ventral striatum and somatosensory cortex metabolism in males. Notably, when treatment effects were compared between sexes, methadone-treated females showed increased cingulate cortex metabolism, whereas buprenorphine-treated females showed decreased metabolism in cingulate cortex and increased metabolism in the globus pallidus. Perhaps the initial similarities in males and females underlie early therapeutic

  11. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. T cell subsets related with a sex difference in IL-5 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Kaori; Hamanaka, Yuka; Kawano, Tasuku; Ohkawara, Yuichi; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Before puberty, the prevalence and severity of asthma are higher in boys than in girls, but this pattern is reversed after puberty. The underlying mechanisms of these gender differences in asthma are not fully understood. Using murine models of allergic asthma, a sex difference in Th2 cytokine production has been suggested to contribute to the gender differences in asthma. Therefore, we determined which subsets of T cells are involved in the sex difference in Th2 cytokine production. Splenocytes from wild-type mice and CD4+ T cell-, CD8+ T cell-, and iNKT cell-deficient mice were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies for 3 days, and the concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ in the cultures were measured by ELISA. IL-5, but not IL-4 and IL-13, concentrations in culture derived from female wild-type mice were significantly higher than those in male wild-type mice. The sex difference in IL-5 concentrations was not observed in the cultures of splenocytes from CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-deficient mice. The disappearance of the sex differences in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-deficient mice was attributable to a decrease in IL-5 concentration in female mice and an increase in IL-5 concentration in male mice. In iNKT cell-deficient mice, the sex difference was still observed. There was no significant difference between the sexes in any type of mice with respect to IFN-γ production. There was a sex difference in IL-5 production by splenocytes stimulated by TCR activation. The difference might be attributable to sex differences in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell functions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Multi-site exploration of sex differences in brain reactivity to smoking cues: Consensus across sites and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Franklin, Teresa R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Gawrysiak, Michael; Betts, Jennifer; Farmer, Stacey; Guthier, Emily; Pater, Heather; Janes, Amy C; Wetherill, Reagan R

    2017-09-01

    Biological sex influences cigarette smoking behavior. More men than women smoke, but women have a harder time quitting. Sex differences in smoking cue (SC) reactivity may underlie such behavioral differences. However, the influence of sex on brain reactivity to SCs has yielded inconsistent findings suggesting the need for continued study. Here, we investigated the effect of sex on SC reactivity across two sites using different imaging modalities and SC stimulus types. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain responses to SC versus non-SC videos in 40 smokers (23 females) at the University of Pennsylvania. BOLD fMRI was used to assess brain responses to SC versus non-SC still images in 32 smokers (18 females) at McLean Hospital. Brain reactivity to SCs was compared between men and women and was correlated with SC-induced craving. In both cohorts, males showed higher SC versus non-SC reactivity compared to females in reward-related brain regions (i.e., ventral striatum/ventral pallidum, ventral medial prefrontal cortex). Brain activation during SC versus non-SC exposure correlated positively with SC-induced subjective craving in males, but not females. The current work provides much needed replication and validation of sex differences in SC-reactivity. These findings also add to a body of literature showing that men have greater reward-related brain activation to drug cues across drug classes. Such sex differences confirm the need to consider sex not only when evaluating SC-reactivity but when examining nicotine dependence etiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex differences in the association between dietary restraint, insulin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Gaiser, Edward C; Gu, Peihua; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-04-01

    Restrained food consumption may alter metabolic function and contribute to eventual weight gain; however, sex differences in these relationships have not been assessed. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between restrained eating and insulin resistance and the influence of body mass index and sex on this relationship in a large community sample of both men and women. We hypothesized that restrained eating would be related to insulin resistance and this relationship would be influenced by sex and body mass index. In this cross-sectional, observational study, we studied 487 individuals from the community (men N = 222, women N = 265), who ranged from lean (body mass index 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), N = 173), overweight (body mass index 25-29.9 kg/m(2), N = 159) to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2), N = 155) weight categories. We assessed restrained eating using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and obtained fasting morning plasma insulin and glucose on all subjects. In men, but not in women, restrained eating was related to homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, HOMA-IR was significantly higher in men who were high- versus low-restrained eaters (p = 0.0006). This study is the first to report sex differences with regard to the relationship between restrained eating and insulin resistance. Our results suggest that high restrained eating is associated with insulin resistance in men but not in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex differences in glucose levels: a consequence of physiology or methodological convenience? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  16. Role of Kidneys in Sex Differences in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Ximing; Qu, Helena Y; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Liying; Buggs, Jacentha; Pang, Bo; Wei, Jin; Liu, Ruisheng

    2017-12-01

    The significance of kidneys in regulation of sodium and water balance and hemodynamics has been demonstrated both in patients and animal models. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that kidneys play an essential role in control of sex differences in angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension. Kidney transplantations (KTXs) were performed between male (M) and female (F) C57BL/6 mice (donor→recipient: F→F, M→M, F→M, and M→F). Radiotelemetry transmitters were implanted for measurement of mean arterial pressure during the infusion of Ang II (600 ng·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Gene expressions and inflammatory responses in the transplanted grafts were assessed. We found that same-sex-KTX mice still exhibited sex differences in Ang II-dependent hypertension (31.3±0.8 mm Hg in M→M versus 12.2±0.6 mm Hg in F→F), which were reduced between males and females when they received kidneys of the opposite sex (32.9±1 mm Hg in M→F versus 22.3±0.7 mm Hg in F→M). The sex differences in gene expressions, including AT 1 R (angiotensin II receptor, type 1), AT 1 R/AT 2 R, ET-1 (endothelin-1), ETA (endothelin receptor type A), NHE3 (sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3), α-ENaC (α-epithelial sodium channel), and γ-ENaC, were unaltered in same-sex KTXs and much lessened in cross-sex KTXs. In addition, the cross-sex KTXs exhibited more robust inflammatory responses reflected by higher expression of IL-6 (interleukin 6), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α), and KC (keratinocyte-derived chemokine) than same-sex KTX. Our results indicate that kidneys play an essential role in sex differences of Ang II-dependent hypertension. KTX of male kidneys to females augmented the blood pressure response, whereas KTX of female kidneys to males attenuated the blood pressure response. The host's extrarenal systems modulate expressions of many genes and inflammatory response, which may also contribute to the sex differences in blood pressure regulation. © 2017 American Heart

  17. DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR STATUS OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX IN SCHOOL VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Batez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 45 children (25 girls and 20 boys age of 9 to 11, who have been training volleyball (one to three years in the club "Sportisimo pajp" in Novi Sad, were applied four motor tests. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the motor status of children of different sex in the school volleyball. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA determined a statistically significant difference in the whole system of analyzed motor variables depending on the sex on studied sample of child¬ren. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that girls had better results in va¬riables of flexibility and agility. Boys are better in standing long jump, while sta¬tistically significant differences between means in the speed of alternative movements between girls and boys the not found.

  18. Sex differences in visual attention to sexually explicit videos: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takada, Shingo; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Hirai, Toshiaki; Matsushita, Masateru; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    Although men appear to be more interested in sexual stimuli than women, this difference is not completely understood. Eye-tracking technology has been used to investigate visual attention to still sexual images; however, it has not been applied to moving sexual images. To investigate whether sex difference exists in visual attention to sexual videos. Eleven male and 11 female healthy volunteers were studied by our new methodology. The subjects viewed two sexual videos (one depicting sexual intercourse and one not) in which several regions were designated for eye-gaze analysis in each frame. Visual attention was measured across each designated region according to gaze duration. Sex differences, the region attracting the most attention, and visually favored sex were evaluated. In the nonintercourse clip, gaze time for the face and body of the actress was significantly shorter among women than among men. Gaze time for the face and body of the actor and nonhuman regions was significantly longer for women than men. The region attracting the most attention was the face of the actress for both men and women. Men viewed the opposite sex for a significantly longer period than did women, and women viewed their own sex for a significantly longer period than did men. However, gaze times for the clip showing intercourse were not significantly different between sexes. A sex difference existed in visual attention to a sexual video without heterosexual intercourse; men viewed the opposite sex for longer periods than did women, and women viewed the same sex for longer periods than did men. There was no statistically significant sex difference in viewing patterns in a sexual video showing heterosexual intercourse, and we speculate that men and women may have similar visual attention patterns if the sexual stimuli are sufficiently explicit.

  19. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  1. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual

  2. Sex differences in handedness, asymmetry of the Planum Temporale and functional language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E.; Aleman, Andre; Somers, Metten; Boks, Marco P.; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated sex differences in language lateralization. Despite the large number of investigations, controversy about the presence of sex differences in lateralization remains. This study aims to provide a complete overview of sex differences in several reflections of language

  3. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Health Communication With Same-Sex and Other-Sex Friends in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian; Mehta, Clare; Alfonso, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Objective We examined health-related communication between same-sex and other-sex friends and how communication was related to health-related behavior. Participants Data from 243 emerging adults attending college ( Mage = 18.96, SD = 1.43; 55.6% male) were analyzed. Methods Participants completed measures assessing the frequency in which they talked about and made plans to engage in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors with friends, as well as how often they engaged in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors. Results In general, participants reported more health-related communication with same-sex friends. Health-related communication with same-sex friends was positively related to health behaviors for men and women. However, the pattern of results differed for men and women depending on the topic of communication and the behavior being examined. Conclusion Our study extends the literature by examining the role of sex of friends in health communication and planning and how interactions with friends relate to health-promoting behavior.

  5. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  6. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  7. Sex differences in ventricular-vascular coupling following endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A D; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Kappus, R M; Sun, P; Cook, M D; Harvey, I; Woods, J; Wilund, K; Fernhall, B

    2014-12-01

    Ventricular and vascular coupling is defined as the ratio of arterial elastance (Ea) to ventricular elastance (Elv) and describes the interaction between the heart and arterial system. There are sex differences in both arterial and ventricular function in response to both acute exercise and aerobic exercise training. To examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on elastances and the coupling ratio in young adult men and women. We hypothesized a reduction in the coupling ratio in both sexes due to a decrease in Ea that would be more pronounced in men and an increase in Elv that would be larger in women. Fifty-three healthy, young adults completed the study. Central pulse wave velocity and heart volumes were measured before and after an 8-week aerobic training intervention. Elastances were calculated as Ea = end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and Elv = end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume and indexed to body surface area. After the intervention, women augmented indexed and un-indexed Elv from 2.09 ± 0.61 to 2.52 ± 0.80 mmHg/ml, p 0.05). Women also reduced end-systolic pressure (from 91 ± 10 to 87 ± 10 mmHg), and both groups reduced central pulse wave velocity (from 6.0 ± 1.0 to 5.6 ± 0.6 m/s, p < 0.05). We conclude that after 8 weeks of aerobic training, only women reduced their coupling ratio due to an increase in Elv. This suggests that aerobic exercise training elicits sex-dependent changes in the coupling ratio in young, healthy individuals.

  8. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  9. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers' Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Niki Guerriero

    Full Text Available To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences.A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers' compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors.Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female, 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users.Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes.

  10. Sex differences in chronic stress responses and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Dominguez, Sky; Fisher, Daniel W; Dong, Hongxin

    2018-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified. In this review, we discuss a novel hypothesis whereby women's susceptibility to chronic stress also mediates increased risk for AD. As stress is a risk factor for AD, and women are twice as likely to develop mood disorders where stress is a major etiology, it is possible that sex dimorphisms in stress responses contribute to the increase in women with AD. In line with this, sex divergence in biochemical responses to stress have been noted along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and among known molecular effectors of AD, with crosstalk between these processes also being likely. In addition, activation of the cortical corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) signaling pathway leads to distinct female-biased increases in molecules associated with AD pathogenesis. Therefore, the different biochemical responses to stress between women and men may represent an intrinsic, sex-dependent risk factor for AD.

  11. Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Inclusivity to Normative Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference, cultural…

  12. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  13. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  14. Sex Differences in Preferences for Humor: A Replication, Modification, and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana S. E. Hone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006 to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006 findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by “sense of humor” can vary.

  15. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-02-10

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary.

  16. Eye tracking, strategies, and sex differences in virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nicolas E; Dahmani, Louisa; Konishi, Kyoko; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2012-01-01

    Reports of sex differences in wayfinding have typically used paradigms sensitive to the female advantage (navigation by landmarks) or sensitive to the male advantage (navigation by cardinal directions, Euclidian coordinates, environmental geometry, and absolute distances). The current virtual navigation paradigm allowed both men and women an equal advantage. We studied sex differences by systematically varying the number of landmarks. Eye tracking was used to quantify sex differences in landmark utilisation as participants solved an eight-arm radial maze task within different virtual environments. To solve the task, participants were required to remember the locations of target objects within environments containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 landmarks. We found that, as the number of landmarks available in the environment increases, the proportion of time men and women spend looking at landmarks and the number of landmarks they use to find their way increases. Eye tracking confirmed that women rely more on landmarks to navigate, although landmark fixations were also associated with an increase in task completion time. Sex differences in navigational behaviour occurred only in environments devoid of landmarks and disappeared in environments containing multiple landmarks. Moreover, women showed sustained landmark-oriented gaze, while men's decreased over time. Finally, we found that men and women use spatial and response strategies to the same extent. Together, these results shed new light on the discrepancy in landmark utilisation between men and women and help explain the differences in navigational behaviour previously reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Neuper, Christa; Schmidt, Reinhold; Wood, Guilherme; Kronbichler, Martin; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Koini, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Background Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related difference...

  18. At the Frontier of Epigenetics of Brain Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret M Mccarthy; Bridget M Nugent

    2015-01-01

    The notion that epigenetics may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain has garnered great enthusiasm but the reality in terms of actual advances has been slow. Two general approaches include the comparison of a particular epigenetic mark in males vs. females and the inhibition of key epigenetic enzymes or co-factors to determine if this eliminates a particular sex difference in brain or behavior. The majority of emphasis has been on candida...

  19. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  20. Sex Differences in Learned Helplessness: IV. An Experimental and Naturalistic Study of Failure Generalization and Its Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Dweck, Carol S.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the role of sex differences in learned helplessness in the generalization of failure experience. Subjects in experiment 1 were fifth graders and subjects in experiment 2 were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. (MP)

  1. Sex Differences in Implicit Association and Attentional Demands for Information about Infidelity1

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime W. Thomson; Shilpa Patel; Steven M. Platek; Todd K. Shackelford

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emot...

  2. [Fall risk factors and sex differences among community-dwelling elderly individuals in Japan. A Kameoka study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Taeko; Yamada, Yosuke; Yamada, Minoru; Nakaya, Tomoki; Miyake, Motoko; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yamagata, Emi; Date, Heiwa; Nanri, Hinako; Komatsu, Mitsuyo; Yoshinaka, Yasuko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Okayama, Yasuko; Kimura, Misaka

    2015-01-01

    Although factors associated with falls might differ between men and women, no large-scale studies were conducted to examine the sex difference of risk factors for falls in Japanese elderly. The purpose of this study was to examine fall risk factors and sex differences among community-dwelling elderly individuals using a complete survey of the geriatric population in Kameoka city. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 18,231 community-dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 years or over in Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, between July and August 2011, excluding people who were publicly certified with a long-term care need of grade 3 or higher. The questionnaire was individually distributed and collected via mail. Out of 12,159 responders (recovery rate of 72.2%), we analyzed the data of 12,054 elderly individuals who were not certified as having long-term care needs. The questionnaire was composed of basic attributes, a simple screening test for fall risk, the Kihon Check List with 25 items, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) index of competence with 13 items. These items were grouped into nine factors: motor function, malnutrition, oral function, houseboundness, forgetfulness, depression, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), intellectual activities, and social role. Of all the respondents, 20.8% experienced falls within the last year, and 26.6% were classified as having high fall risk. Fall risk increased with age in both sexes, and risk in all age groups was higher for women than for men. All factors were significantly associated with fall risk in both sexes. After controlling for these factors, a significant relationship was found between fall risk and motor function, malnutrition, oral function, forgetfulness, depression, and IADL in men and motor function, oral function, forgetfulness, depression, and IADL in women. The deterioration of motor function was associated with three-times-higher risk than non

  3. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  4. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  5. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanseng, Even J

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences.

  6. Sex differences in the play behavior of immature spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J M; Glickman, S E; Frank, L G; Beach, F A

    1990-09-01

    Social, locomotor, and object play were studied in a colony of five male and five female peer-reared spotted hyenas during 12 1-hr tests while the animals were 13-19 months of age. Animals were tested in both same-sex and mixed-sex groups and were stimulated to play by the introduction of fresh straw and sawdust bedding. Each test was videotaped and the frequency of each type of play was determined by a time sampling procedure. Females played more frequently than males, however, the category of play which was elevated depended upon the social context during testing. In same-sex tests the frequency of vigorous social play displayed by females markedly exceeded that by males, but no comparable sex difference appeared in mixed-sex tests. Females engaged in locomotor play more frequently than males in mixed-sex tests, but no comparable sex difference appeared in same-sex tests. No sex difference in object play was observed. Two male and two female hyenas were gonadectomized prior to the initiation of the present sequence of tests. The results suggest that gonadectomy during the prepubertal period does not affect the frequency of play behavior. However, the small sample sizes preclude any conclusive determination of the effects of these gonadectomies on play.

  7. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: assessing sex and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  8. Accounting for sex differences in PTSD: A multi-variable mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte M. Christiansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately twice as many females as males are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about why females report more PTSD symptoms than males. Prior studies have generally focused on few potential mediators at a time and have often used methods that were not ideally suited to test for mediation effects. Prior research has identified a number of individual risk factors that may contribute to sex differences in PTSD severity, although these cannot fully account for the increased symptom levels in females when examined individually. Objective: The present study is the first to systematically test the hypothesis that a combination of pre-, peri-, and posttraumatic risk factors more prevalent in females can account for sex differences in PTSD severity. Method: The study was a quasi-prospective questionnaire survey assessing PTSD and related variables in 73.3% of all Danish bank employees exposed to bank robbery during the period from April 2010 to April 2011. Participants filled out questionnaires 1 week (T1, N=450 and 6 months after the robbery (T2, N=368; 61.1% females. Mediation was examined using an analysis designed specifically to test a multiple mediator model. Results: Females reported more PTSD symptoms than males and higher levels of neuroticism, depression, physical anxiety sensitivity, peritraumatic fear, horror, and helplessness (the A2 criterion, tonic immobility, panic, dissociation, negative posttraumatic cognitions about self and the world, and feeling let down. These variables were included in the model as potential mediators. The combination of risk factors significantly mediated the association between sex and PTSD severity, accounting for 83% of the association. Conclusions: The findings suggest that females report more PTSD symptoms because they experience higher levels of associated risk factors. The results are relevant to other trauma populations and to other trauma

  9. Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kuan-Chia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health is vital to a child's learning in school and success in life. Therefore, early physical examination, and follow-up if necessary, would bring parents' attention to their child's health and would likely improve outcomes. The purposes of this study are twofold: to assess the health status of first-graders and to examine the health status differences between sexes, levels of residence urbanization, and quantity of available medical resources. Methods This is a comparative descriptive study. Data from the 2002 Student Entry Physical Examination (SEPE and Student Medical History Inventory (SMHI were obtained from 203 public and private elementary schools in northern Taiwan where a population of 53,053 students was included. Frequencies, independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA along with Scheff's post hoc test, and Pearson's correlation were conducted using SPSS. Results This study showed that 13.7% of students had at least one diagnosed disease from the SMHI reported by parents. Moreover, the SEPE indicated that 79.5% students had at least one health concern. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among the first-graders (69.6%, 27.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Research results show that there were significant differences in the prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and obesity between different sexes and among levels of urbanization. However, the quantity of available medical resources made no significant difference. Conclusion Elementary school entry physical examination is an important way to detect students' health problems. It is suggested that school health interventions consider students' health profiles along with their sex and level of urbanization in planning. More research is needed to find the risk factors of the health problems. Additionally, the creation of a school health committee is suggested to implement and evaluate the entry health examination program.

  10. Sex-related differences in attention and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities.

  11. A Tale of Two Types of Perspective Taking: Sex Differences in Spatial Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarampi, Margaret R; Heydari, Nahal; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in favor of males have been documented in measures of spatial perspective taking. In this research, we examined whether social factors (i.e., stereotype threat and the inclusion of human figures in tasks) account for these differences. In Experiment 1, we evaluated performance when perspective-taking tests were framed as measuring either spatial or social (empathetic) perspective-taking abilities. In the spatial condition, tasks were framed as measures of spatial ability on which males have an advantage. In the social condition, modified tasks contained human figures and were framed as measures of empathy on which females have an advantage. Results showed a sex difference in favor of males in the spatial condition but not the social condition. Experiments 2 and 3 indicated that both stereotype threat and including human figures contributed to these effects. Results suggest that females may underperform on spatial tests in part because of negative performance expectations and the character of the spatial tests rather than because of actual lack of abilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, J.F.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Mallory, M.L.; Mitchell, G.W.; Forbes, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ"1"5N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to examine the

  13. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provencher, J.F., E-mail: jennifpro@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H.G. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mitchell, G.W. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Forbes, M.R. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ{sup 15}N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to

  14. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  15. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  16. Sex differences in relational and overt aggression in the late elementary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Janet; Counts-Allan, Carla; Dunkel, Stephanie; Drew, Catherine Hardee; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Lopez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in relational and overt aggression among 3rd (n=176), 4th (n=179), and 5th graders (n=145) from three public schools (n=500; 278 girls) were examined. Nominations of relational aggression increased over time among 4th and 5th grade girls, but not among boys or 3rd grade girls. Among 3rd graders, boys received more nominations for relational aggression than girls. By the end of the 5th grade, girls received more relational aggression nominations than boys. There was also a significant rise in nominations of overt aggression among 5th grade girls, but not among 5th grade boys or younger boys and girls. As expected, boys were more likely than girls to be nominated for overt aggression at all grade levels. The findings are helpful for explaining inconsistencies of earlier research pertaining to sex differences in relational aggression and for advancing our understanding of the causes of aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the avian brain: functional implications for neural sex differences and sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and seasonal changes in the production of androgens, estrogens, and progestins seem to control sex-specific differentiation and seasonal changes in appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of birds. This results in profound sex differences in the quality (sex-specific) or quantity

  18. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulls HW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hailey W Bulls,1 Emily L Freeman,1 Austen JB Anderson,2 Meredith T Robbins,3 Timothy J Ness,3 Burel R Goodin1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST, while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24 and women (n=24 each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional

  19. U.S. masters track participation reveals a stable sex difference in competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O; Addona, Vittorio; Mead, Michael P

    2014-10-06

    It is well established that men are more likely than women to engage in direct competition, but it is unclear if this reflects social structural conditions or evolved predispositions. These hypotheses can be addressed by quantifying competitiveness in sports and testing if the sex difference is decreasing over time in the U.S., a society where social roles have converged. Study 1 assessed participation and the occurrence of relatively fast performances by masters runners (40-74 years old) at recent road races and track meets. Fast performances occurred over 20 times more often at track meets than at road races. Women comprised 55% of finishers at roads races but only 15-28% of finishers at track meets. Thus, the sex difference in masters track participation can serve as a measure of the sex difference in competitiveness. Study 2 used data from national championship meets and yearly rankings lists to test whether the sex difference in masters track participation decreased from 1988-2012. The sex difference decreased overall, but there was no evidence of change since the late 1990s. Therefore, the sex difference in the willingness to engage in direct sports competition appears to reflect both social structural conditions and evolved predispositions.

  20. Sex/gender and socioeconomic differences in the predictive ability of self-rated health for mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nishi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that the predictive ability of self-rated health (SRH for mortality varies by sex/gender and socioeconomic group. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this relationship in Japan and explore the potential reasons for differences between the groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analyses in the study were based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study's (AGES 2003 Cohort Study in Chita Peninsula, Japan, which followed the four-year survival status of 14,668 community-dwelling people who were at least 65 years old at the start of the study. We first examined sex/gender and education-level differences in association with fair/poor SRH. We then estimated the sex/gender- and education-specific hazard ratios (HRs of mortality associated with lower SRH using Cox models. Control variables, including health behaviors (smoking and drinking, symptoms of depression, and chronic co-morbid conditions, were added to sequential regression models. The results showed men and women reported a similar prevalence of lower SRH. However, lower SRH was a stronger predictor of mortality in men (HR = 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI: 2.14-2.80] than in women (HR = 1.88 [95% CI: 1.44-2.47]; p for sex/gender interaction = 0.018. The sex/gender difference in the predictive ability of SRH was progressively attenuated with the additional introduction of other co-morbid conditions. The predictive ability among individuals with high school education (HR = 2.39 [95% CI: 1.74-3.30] was similar to that among individuals with less than a high school education (HR = 2.14 [95% CI: 1.83-2.50]; p for education interaction = 0.549. CONCLUSIONS: The sex/gender difference in the predictive ability of SRH for mortality among this elderly Japanese population may be explained by male/female differences in what goes into an individual's assessment of their SRH, with males apparently weighting depressive symptoms more than

  1. Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Roth, Megan E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2002-11-01

    The recent focus on drug abuse in women has brought attention to numerous differences between women and men. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical findings of sex differences in drug abuse as well as mechanisms that may underlie these differences. Recent evidence suggests that the progression to dependence and abuse may differ between women and men; thus, different prevention and treatment strategies may be required. Similar sex differences in drug sensitivity and self-administration have been reported in laboratory animal studies. Females appear to be more vulnerable than males to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants, opiates, and nicotine during many phases of the addiction process (e.g. acquisition, maintenance, dysregulation-escalation, relapse). Male and female animals differ in their behavioral, neurological, and pharmacological responses to drugs. Although the role of sex in the mechanisms of drug action remains unclear, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, play a role in producing sex differences in drug abuse. Future research is necessary to provide information on how to design more effective drug abuse treatment programs and resources that are sex specific.

  2. Sex differences in stress-related receptors: ″micro″ differences with ″macro″ implications for mood and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), occur more frequently in women than in men. Emerging research suggests that sex differences in receptors for the stress hormones, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, contribute to this disparity. For example, sex differences in CRF receptor binding in the amygdala of rats may predispose females to greater anxiety following stressful events. Additionally, sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus arousal center combine to make females more sensitive to low levels of CRF, and less adaptable to high levels. These receptor differences in females could lead to hyperarousal, a dysregulated state associated with symptoms of depression and PTSD. Similar to the sex differences observed in CRF receptors, sex differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function also appear to make females more susceptible to dysregulation after a stressful event. Following hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation, GRs are critical to the negative feedback process that inhibits additional glucocorticoid release. Compared to males, female rats have fewer GRs and impaired GR translocation following chronic adolescent stress, effects linked to slower glucocorticoid negative feedback. Thus, under conditions of chronic stress, attenuated negative feedback in females would result in hypercortisolemia, an endocrine state thought to cause depression. Together, these studies suggest that sex differences in stress-related receptors shift females more easily into a dysregulated state of stress reactivity, linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The implications of these receptor sex differences for the development of novel pharmacotherapies are also discussed. PMID:23336736

  3. Sex differences in the association between perceived stress and adiposity in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Pamplin, John R; Forde, Allana T; Shelton, Rachel C

    2017-10-01

    Prior studies examining the association between perceived stress and adiposity have reported mixed findings, and sex differences have largely not been examined. We examined the relationship between perceived stress and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants (mean age 29 years; N = 14,044) completed the short form of Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale during a home visit. Height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed during the same visit. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. In the sample, 52% were male and 65% were identified as white. In adjusted linear regression analyses, a sex by Perceived Stress Scale interaction was noted (P stress was statistically significantly associated with lower BMI (β: -0.09; standard error [SE]: 0.05) and was associated with lower waist circumference, although not statistically significant (β: -0.18; SE: 0.10) among men. No associations were noted among women. In this nationally representative sample of young adults, perceived stress was associated with lower levels of adiposity among men. Noted differences could be attributed to different behavioral and coping strategies in response to stress between men and women as well as biological mechanisms which should be explored further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of studying sex differences in disease: The example of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Lisa C; Voskuhl, Rhonda

    2017-01-02

    To date, scientific research has often focused on one sex, with assumptions that study of the other sex would yield similar results. However, many diseases affect males and females differently. The sex of a patient can affect the risk for both disease susceptibility and progression. Such differences can be brought to the laboratory bench to be investigated, potentially bringing new treatments back to the clinic. This method of research, known as a "bedside to bench to bedside" approach, has been applied to studying sex differences in multiple sclerosis (MS). Females have greater susceptibly to MS, while males have worse disease progression. These two characteristics of the disease are influenced by the immune system and the nervous system, respectively. Thus, sex differences in each system must be studied. Personalized medicine has been at the forefront of research recently, and studying sex differences in disease fits with this initiative. This review will discuss the known sex differences in MS and highlight how investigating them can lead to new insights and potential treatments for both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Human Performance: Sex Differences and the Influence of the Menstrual Cycle (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    and Therapy , 1970, 8, 353-366. 20. Singer, G., & Montgomery, R. B. Comment on roles of activation and inhibition in sex differences in cognitive...preference, and the sex difference. Sex Roles, 1975,1, 15-32. 13. Nielsen, J. M., & Doyle, P. T. Sex-role sterotypes of feminists and nonfeminists. Sex Roles

  6. Sex and sexual orientation differences in personality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Lippa, Richard A; Zheng, Yong

    2011-06-01

    Using data from an Internet survey, we assessed masculinity-femininity (self-ascribed masculinity-femininity [Self-MF], gender-related interests, instrumentality, expressiveness) and Big Five personality traits in a Chinese sample of 201 heterosexual men, 220 homosexual men, 353 heterosexual women, and 215 homosexual women. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for gender-related interests and Self-MF. Homosexual-heterosexual differences in emotional stability were opposite for men and women, supporting the "gender shift" over the "social stress" hypothesis. Sex and sexual orientation differences in gender-related interests, Self-MF, and emotional stability observed in China were consistent with those found in other countries, suggesting possible biological influences. In contrast, group differences in other traits were more variable, suggesting possible cultural influences.

  7. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage. PMID:22074416

  8. Social status affects the degree of sex difference in the songbird brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Voigt

    Full Text Available It is thought that neural sex differences are functionally related to sex differences in the behaviour of vertebrates. A prominent example is the song control system of songbirds. Inter-specific comparisons have led to the hypothesis that sex differences in song nuclei size correlate with sex differences in song behaviour. However, only few species with similar song behaviour in both sexes have been investigated and not all data fit the hypothesis. We investigated the proposed structure-function relationship in a cooperatively breeding and duetting songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali. This species lives in groups of 2-10 individuals, with a dominant breeding pair and male and female subordinates. While all male and female group members sing duet and chorus song, a male, once it has reached the dominant position in the group, sings an additional type of song that comprises a distinct and large syllable repertoire. Here we show for both types of male-female comparisons a male-biased sex difference in neuroanatomy of areas of the song production pathway (HVC and RA that does not correlate with the observed polymorphism in song behaviour. In contrast, in situ hybridisation of mRNA of selected genes expressed in the song nucleus HVC reveals a gene expression pattern that is either similar between sexes in female-subordinate male comparisons or female-biased in female-dominant male comparisons. Thus, the polymorphic gene expression pattern would fit the sex- and status-related song behaviour. However, this implies that once a male has become dominant it produces the duetting song with a different neural phenotype than subordinate males.

  9. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Neuper, Christa; Schmidt, Reinhold; Wood, Guilherme; Kronbichler, Martin; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Koini, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation. We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23) and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00) to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory. No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task. Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  10. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Tschernegg

    Full Text Available Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation.We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23 and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00 to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory.No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task.Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  11. Sex differences in sensorimotor mu rhythms during selective attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, C; Dockstader, C; Cheyne, D; Tannock, R

    2010-12-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to investigate the effect of directed attention on sensorimotor mu (8-12 Hz) response (mu reactivity) to non-painful electrical stimulation of the median nerve in healthy adults. Mu desynchronization in the 10-12 Hz bandwidth is typically observed during higher-order cognitive functions including selective attentional processing of sensorimotor information (Pfurtscheller, Neuper, & Krauz, 2000). We found attention-related sex differences in mu reactivity, with females showing (i) prolonged mu desynchrony when attending to somatosensory stimuli, (ii) attentional modulation of the mu response based on whether attention was directed towards or away from somatosensory stimuli, which was absent in males, and (iii) a trend for greater neuronal excitability of the primary somatosensory region suggesting greater physiological responsiveness to sensory stimulation overall. Our findings suggest sex differences in attentional control strategies when processing somatosensory stimuli, whose salience may be greater for females. These sex differences in attention to somatosensory stimuli may help elucidate the well-documented sex biases in pain processing wherein females typically report greater sensitivity to experimental and clinical pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconsidering evolved sex differences in jealousy: comment on Harris (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J

    2005-01-01

    In a recent article, Harris (2003) concluded that the data do not support the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. Harris' review correctly identifies fatal flaws in three lines of evidence (spousal abuse, homicide, morbid jealousy), but her criticism of two other lines of evidence (self-report responses, psychophysiological measures) is based, in part, on a mischaracterization of the evolutionary psychological theory and a misunderstanding of the empirical implications of the theory. When interpreted according to the correct criterion (i.e., an interaction between sex and infidelity type), self-report studies (both forced-choice and non-forced choice) offer strong support for the existence of sex differences in jealousy. Psychophysiological data also offer some support, although these data are weakened by validity-related concerns. In addition, some refutational evidence cited by Harris (responses to real infidelity, responses under cognitive load) actually does not refute the theory. An integrative model that describes how jealousy might result from the interaction of sociocultural variables and evolved sex differences and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

  13. Population and sex differences in Drosophila melanogaster brain gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalán Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulation are thought to be crucial for the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Transcriptome analyses can be used to identify candidate genes for ecological adaptation, but can be complicated by variation in gene expression between tissues, sexes, or individuals. Here we use high-throughput RNA sequencing of a single Drosophila melanogaster tissue to detect brain-specific differences in gene expression between the sexes and between two populations, one from the ancestral species range in sub-Saharan Africa and one from the recently colonized species range in Europe. Results Relatively few genes (Cyp6g1 and CHKov1. Conclusions Analysis of the brain transcriptome revealed many genes differing in expression between populations that were not detected in previous studies using whole flies. There was little evidence for sex-specific regulatory adaptation in the brain, as most expression differences between populations were observed in both males and females. The enrichment of genes with sexually dimorphic expression on the X chromosome is consistent with dosage compensation mechanisms affecting sex-biased expression in somatic tissues.

  14. Relevant sex appeals in advertising: Gender and commitment context differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even J. Lanseng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates differences in men’s and women’s attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1 and a romantic prime (study 2.Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men’s and women’s evolved mating preferences.

  15. Sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H. A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H. Susan J

    STUDY DESIGN. Cross-sectional population-based study. OBJECTIVE. To study sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain (MP): limited functioning, work leave or disability, and healthcare use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. MP is a major public health problem in developed countries due to

  16. Intrasexual competition at work : Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics in work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; 't Goor, Joel Aan; Solano, Alejandro C.

    Sex differences in jealousy-evoking rival characteristics in the relationship with a supervisor at work were examined in a community sample of 188 individuals from Argentina. Among men, the rivals' social dominance and communal attributes evoked the most jealousy, followed by physical dominance.

  17. [Gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Gómez-Gil, E; Vidal, A; Puig, O; Boget, T; Salamero, M

    2006-01-01

    To review scientific evidence on gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. Systematical search of related studies identified in Medline. Women outperform men on verbal fluency, perceptual speed tasks, fine motor skills, verbal memory and verbal learning. Men outperform women on visuospatial ability, mathematical problem solving and visual memory. No gender differences on attention and working memory are found. Researchers distinguish four methods to investigate hormonal influence on cognitive performance: a) patient with hormonal disorders; b) neuroimaging in individuals during hormone administration; c) in women during different phases of menstrual cycle, and d) in patients receiving hormonal treatment (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, postmenopausal women and transsexuals). The findings mostly suggest an influence of sex hormones on some cognitive functions, but they are not conclusive because of limitations and scarcity of the studies. There are gender differences on cognitive functions. Sex hormones seem to influence cognitive performance.

  18. Sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating addiction: a new synthesis and hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Jill B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review we propose that there are sex differences in how men and women enter onto the path that can lead to addiction. Males are more likely than females to engage in risky behaviors that include experimenting with drugs of abuse, and in susceptible individuals, they are drawn into the spiral that can eventually lead to addiction. Women and girls are more likely to begin taking drugs as self-medication to reduce stress or alleviate depression. For this reason women enter into the downward spiral further along the path to addiction, and so transition to addiction more rapidly. We propose that this sex difference is due, at least in part, to sex differences in the organization of the neural systems responsible for motivation and addiction. Additionally, we suggest that sex differences in these systems and their functioning are accentuated with addiction. In the current review we discuss historical, cultural, social and biological bases for sex differences in addiction with an emphasis on sex differences in the neurotransmitter systems that are implicated.

  19. The role of physical content in piagetian spatial tasks: Sex differences in spatial knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Susan L.

    Sex-related differences on Piagetian horizontality (water level) and verticality (plumb line) tasks were examined in 64 college students. It was hypothesized that females' difficulties on these Euclidean spatial problems are due not to differences in underlying spatial competence, but rather to differences in knowledge of task specific information about the physical properties of water levels and plumb lines. This was tested by presenting subjects with the standard water level and plumb line problems and also modified problems not requiring knowledge of physical principles (i.e., drawing straight up and down or straight across lines inside tipped rectangles). While males were expected to outperform females on the standard tasks, no sex differences were expected on the modified tasks. Results of an ANOVA on scores for horizontality and verticality each showed main effects for sex and task version but failed to reveal the hypothesized interaction. However, performance on the Euclidean spatial tasks was also considered in terms of overall success versus failure. While males were more successful than females in the standard format, males and females were equally successful in the modified, nonphysical, format. Hence, college aged males and females generally do not differ in spatial competence although they may be differentially influenced by task content. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice. It is emphasized that science educators must be especially aware of such task influences for females so that performance deficits are not mistaken for competence deficits.

  20. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 action within the dorsal raphe nucleus in stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Alexis R; Roland, Alison V; Fluharty, Jessica M; Marshall, Anikò; Chen, Alon; Daniels, Derek; Beck, Sheryl G; Bale, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from stress-related affective disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important link between stress and mood, in part through its signaling in the serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR). Development of CRF receptor-1 (CRFr1) antagonists has been a focus of numerous clinical trials but has not yet been proven efficacious. We hypothesized that sex differences in CRFr1 modulation of DR circuits might be key determinants in predicting therapeutic responses and affective disorder vulnerability. Male and female mice received DR infusions of the CRFr1 antagonist, NBI 35965, or CRF and were evaluated for stress responsivity. Sex differences in indices of neural activation (cFos) and colocalization of CRFr1 throughout the DR were examined. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology assessed sex differences in serotonin neuron membrane characteristics and responsivity to CRF. Males showed robust behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to DR infusion of NBI 35965 and CRF, whereas females were minimally responsive. Sex differences were also found for both CRF-induced DR cFos and CRFr1 co-localization throughout the DR. Electrophysiologically, female serotonergic neurons showed blunted membrane excitability and divergent inhibitory postsynaptic current responses to CRF application. These studies demonstrate convincing sex differences in CRFr1 activity in the DR, where blunted female responses to NBI 35965 and CRF suggest unique stress modulation of the DR. These sex differences might underlie affective disorder vulnerability and differential sensitivity to pharmacologic treatments developed to target the CRF system, thereby contributing to a current lack of CRFr1 antagonist efficacy in clinical trials. © 2013 Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  1. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  2. The neural basis of sex differences in sexual behavior: A quantitative meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Safron, Adam; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality as to its etymology presupposes the duality of sexes. Using quantitative neuroimaging meta-analyses, we demonstrate robust sex differences in the neural processing of sexual stimuli in thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. In a narrative review, we show how these relate to the well-established sex differences on the behavioral level. More specifically, we describe the neural bases of known poor agreement between self-reported and genital measures of female sexual arousal, of previously proposed male proneness to affective sexual conditioning, as well as hints of unconscious activation of bonding mechanisms during sexual stimulation in women. In summary, our meta-analytic review demonstrates that neurofunctional sex differences during sexual stimulation can account for well-established sex differences in sexual behavior. PMID:27742561

  3. Sex Differences and Emotion Regulation: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gardener, Elyse K. T.; Carr, Andrea R.; MacGregor, Amy; Felmingham, Kim L.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event...

  4. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  5. Sex differences in the inflammatory response of primary astrocytes to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Galindo María

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders show sex differences in incidence, age of onset, symptomatology or outcome. Astrocytes, one of the glial cell types of the brain, show sex differences in number, differentiation and function. Since astrocytes are involved in the response of neural tissue to injury and inflammation, these cells may participate in the generation of sex differences in the response of the brain to pathological insults. To explore this hypothesis, we have examined whether male and female astrocytes show a different response to an inflammatory challenge and whether perinatal testosterone influences this response. Methods Cortical astrocyte cultures were prepared from postnatal day 1 (one day after birth male or female CD1 mice pups. In addition, cortical astrocyte cultures were also prepared from female pups that were injected at birth with 100 μg of testosterone propionate or vehicle. Cultures were treated for 5 hours with medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS or with control medium. The mRNA levels of IL6, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10, TNFα, IL1β, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and translocator protein were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical significance was assessed by unpaired t-test or by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. Results The mRNA levels of IL6, TNFα and IL1β after LPS treatment were significantly higher in astrocytes derived from male or androgenized females compared to astrocytes derived from control or vehicle-injected females. In contrast, IP10 mRNA levels after LPS treatment were higher in astrocytes derived from control or vehicle-injected females than in those obtained from males or androgenized females. The different response of male and female astrocytes to LPS was due neither to differences in the basal expression of the inflammatory molecules nor to

  6. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, K.H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of

  7. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of

  8. Sex work, immigration and social difference

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Public discourses around ‘migrant sex workers’ are often more confident about what migrant sex workers signify morally (i.e. vulnerability, criminality) but are less clear about who the ‘migrant’ is. This thesis interrogates the implications of the ‘migrant sex worker’ category based on semi-structured interviews with 65 immigrant, migrant and racialised women in sex work and two support staff in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada during 2013–2014. Specifically, I employ an intersecti...

  9. Race and Sex Differences in Post-Myocardial Infarction Angina Frequency and Risk of 1-Year Unplanned Rehospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Connie N; Kaltenbach, Lisa A; Doll, Jacob A; Cohen, David J; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2017-02-07

    Race and sex disparities in in-hospital treatment and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have been described, but little is known about race and sex differences in post-MI angina and long-term risk of unplanned rehospitalization. We examined race and sex differences in post-MI angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization to identify factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization, testing for whether race and sex modify these relationships. Using TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome) data, we examined 6-week and 1-year angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization stratified by race and sex among MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization and tested for interactions among angina frequency, race, and sex. A total of 11 595 MI patients survived to 1 year postdischarge; there were 66.6% white male patients, 24.3% white female patients, 5.3% black male patients, and 3.8% black female patients. Overall, 29.7% had angina at 6 weeks, and 20.6% had angina at 1 year postdischarge. Relative to white patients, black patients were more likely to have angina at 6 weeks (female: 44.2% versus 31.8%; male: 33.5% versus 27.1%; both Prace or sex (adjusted 3-way P interaction =0.41). One-fifth of MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention report 1-year postdischarge angina, with black and female patients more likely to have angina and to be rehospitalized. Better treatment of post-MI angina may improve patient quality of life and quality of care and help to lower rates of rehospitalization overall and particularly among black and female patients, given their high prevalence of post-MI angina. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01088503. © 2017 American

  10. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  11. Sex differences in adults' motivation to achieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, S.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Posthuma, D.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis

  12. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory : Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    <