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Sample records for ewe litter size

  1. Mutation in the protease cleavage site of GDF9 increases ovulation rate and litter size in heterozygous ewes and causes infertility in homozygous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C J H; McNeilly, A S; Benavides, M V; Melo, E O; Moraes, J C F

    2014-10-01

    Litter size (LS) in sheep is determined mainly by ovulation rate (OR). Several polymorphisms have been identified in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene that result in an increase in OR and prolificacy of sheep. Screening the databank of the Brazilian Sheep Breeders Association for triplet delivery, we identified flocks of prolific Ile de France ewes. After resequencing of GDF9, a point mutation (c.943C>T) was identified, resulting in a non-conservative amino acid change (p.Arg315Cys) in the cleavage site of the propeptide. This new allele was called Vacaria (FecG(v) ). A flock of half-sib ewes was evaluated for OR in the first three breeding seasons, and Vacaria heterozygotes had higher OR (P < 0.001), averaging 2.1 ± 0.1 when compared to 1.2 ± 0.1 in wild-type ewes. The OR was also influenced by age, increasing in the second and third breeding seasons (P < 0.001). In flocks segregating this allele, the LS was higher in mutant sheep (P < 0.001), averaging 1.61 ± 0.07 in heterozygotes and 1.29 ± 0.03 in wild-type ewes. Analysis of homozygote reproductive tract morphology revealed uterine and ovarian hypoplasia. Ovarian follicles continue to develop up to small antral stages, although with abnormal oocyte morphology and altered arrangement of granulosa cells. After the collapse of the oocyte in most follicles, the remaining cells formed clusters that persisted in the ovary. This SNP is useful to improve selection for dam prolificacy and also as a model to investigate GDF9 post-translation processing and the fate of the follicular cells that remain after the oocyte demise. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....... adverse consequences for animal welfare of Danish breeding for large litter sizes due to increased piglet mortality and the subsequent attempts to reverse these consequences by breeding for number of live piglets at day five rather than number of piglets born. By this change of breeding goal it seems...

  3. Genetic components of litter size variability in sheep

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    Chevalet Claude

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical selection for increasing prolificacy in sheep leads to a concomitant increase in its variability, even though the objective of the breeder is to maximise the frequency of an intermediate litter size rather than the frequency of high litter sizes. For instance, in the Lacaune sheep breed raised in semi-intensive conditions, ewes lambing twins represent the economic optimum. Data for this breed, obtained from the national recording scheme, were analysed. Variance components were estimated in an infinitesimal model involving genes controlling the mean level as well as its environmental variability. Large heritability was found for the mean prolificacy, but a high potential for increasing the percentage of twins at lambing while reducing the environmental variability of prolificacy is also suspected. Quantification of the response to such a canalising selection was achieved.

  4. Genetic parameters for litter size in sheep: natural versus hormone-induced oestrus

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    Bodin Loys

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The litter size in Suffolk and Texel-sheep was analysed using REML and Bayesian methods. Litters born after hormonal induced oestrus and after natural oestrus were treated as different traits in order to estimate the genetic correlation between the traits. Explanatory variables were the age of the ewe at lambing, period of lambing, a year*flock-effect, a permanent environmental effect associated with the ewe, and the additive genetic effect. The heritability estimates for litter size ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 using REML in bi-variate linear models. Transformation of the estimates to the underlying scale resulted in heritability estimates from 0.12 to 0.17. Posterior means of the heritability of litter size in the Bayesian approach with bi-variate threshold models varied from 0.05 to 0.18. REML estimates of the genetic correlations between the two types of litter size ranged from 0.57 to 0.64 in the Suffolk and from 0.75 to 0.81 in the Texel. The posterior means of the genetic correlation (Bayesian analysis were 0.40 and 0.44 for the Suffolk and 0.56 and 0.75 for the Texel in the sire and animal model respectively. A bivariate threshold model seems appropriate for the genetic evaluation of prolificacy in the breeds concerned.

  5. GENETIC CONTRIBUTION OF RAM ON LITTER SIZE IN ŠUMAVA SHEEP

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    Jitka Schmidová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to quantify the service sire effect in terms of (co variance components of born and weaned lambs number and to propose models for the potential inclusion of this effect in the linear equations for breeding value estimation. The database with 21,324 lambings in Šumava sheep from 1992- 2013 was used. The basic model equation for the analysis of variance of litter size contained effects of ewe´s age at lambing, contemporary group, permanent environmental effect of ewe and direct additive genetic effect of ewe. Two modifications of the basic model were used for estimation of service sire effect. The proportions of variance for the service sire effect for number of born and weaned lambs were 2.1% and 2.0%, when service sire was not included into relationship matrix; while included into the relationship matrix and dividing effect into genetic contribution and permanent environment effect refer that nongenetic effect seems to be bigger than genetic (0.013 vs. 0.009 for number of born and 0.017 vs. 0.004 for number of weaned. Changes in other variance components were relatively low, except of contemporary group. Model including service sire effect as a simple random effect without genetic relationship matrix inclusion is recommended for genetic evaluation of litter size traits.

  6. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

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    Ferenc Vilisics

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1, and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2 of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for P. scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  7. Predicting climate change impacts on polar bear litter size

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Péter K.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Klanjšček, Tin; Lewis, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the ecological impacts of climate warming is critical for species conservation. Incorporating future warming into population models, however, is challenging because reproduction and survival cannot be measured for yet unobserved environmental conditions. In this study, we use mechanistic energy budget models and data obtainable under current conditions to predict polar bear litter size under future conditions. In western Hudson Bay, we predict climate warming-induced litter size de...

  8. One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  9. Analysis of litter size and average litter weight in pigs using a recursive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel; Thompson, Robin

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one......-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods. As parameterized in this work, the RMM tests for the presence of a recursive relationship between additive genetic values, permanent environmental effects, and specific environmental effects of litter size......, on average piglet weight. The equivalent standard mixed model tests whether or not the covariance matrices of the random effects have a diagonal structure. In Landrace, posterior predictive model checking supports a model without any form of recursion or, alternatively, a SMM with diagonal covariance...

  10. Goat breeding structure and repeatability of litter size in smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and sixteen (116) does from 22 randomly selected smallholder herds in Kano and environs were surveyed to evaluate the goat breeding herd structure and to estimate the repeatability of litter size. The study revealed that the average herd size of smallholder goats in the study area is 15.5 goats. The average ...

  11. Variance component estimates for alternative litter size traits in swine.

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    Putz, A M; Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Knauer, M T

    2015-11-01

    Litter size at d 5 (LS5) has been shown to be an effective trait to increase total number born (TNB) while simultaneously decreasing preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal litter size day for selection (i.e., other than d 5). Traits included TNB, number born alive (NBA), litter size at d 2, 5, 10, 30 (LS2, LS5, LS10, LS30, respectively), litter size at weaning (LSW), number weaned (NW), piglet mortality at d 30 (MortD30), and average piglet birth weight (BirthWt). Litter size traits were assigned to biological litters and treated as a trait of the sow. In contrast, NW was the number of piglets weaned by the nurse dam. Bivariate animal models included farm, year-season, and parity as fixed effects. Number born alive was fit as a covariate for BirthWt. Random effects included additive genetics and the permanent environment of the sow. Variance components were plotted for TNB, NBA, and LS2 to LS30 using univariate animal models to determine how variances changed over time. Additive genetic variance was minimized at d 7 in Large White and at d 14 in Landrace pigs. Total phenotypic variance for litter size traits decreased over the first 10 d and then stabilized. Heritability estimates increased between TNB and LS30. Genetic correlations between TNB, NBA, and LS2 to LS29 with LS30 plateaued within the first 10 d. A genetic correlation with LS30 of 0.95 was reached at d 4 for Large White and at d 8 for Landrace pigs. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.07 to 0.13 for litter size traits and MortD30. Birth weight had an h of 0.24 and 0.26 for Large White and Landrace pigs, respectively. Genetic correlations among LS30, LSW, and NW ranged from 0.97 to 1.00. In the Large White breed, genetic correlations between MortD30 with TNB and LS30 were 0.23 and -0.64, respectively. These correlations were 0.10 and -0.61 in the Landrace breed. A high genetic correlation of 0.98 and 0.97 was observed between LS10 and NW for Large White and

  12. Predicting climate change impacts on polar bear litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Péter K; Derocher, Andrew E; Klanjscek, Tin; Lewis, Mark A

    2011-02-08

    Predicting the ecological impacts of climate warming is critical for species conservation. Incorporating future warming into population models, however, is challenging because reproduction and survival cannot be measured for yet unobserved environmental conditions. In this study, we use mechanistic energy budget models and data obtainable under current conditions to predict polar bear litter size under future conditions. In western Hudson Bay, we predict climate warming-induced litter size declines that jeopardize population viability: ∼28% of pregnant females failed to reproduce for energetic reasons during the early 1990s, but 40-73% could fail if spring sea ice break-up occurs 1 month earlier than during the 1990s, and 55-100% if break-up occurs 2 months earlier. Simultaneously, mean litter size would decrease by 22-67% and 44-100%, respectively. The expected timeline for these declines varies with climate-model-specific sea ice predictions. Similar litter size declines may occur in over one-third of the global polar bear population.

  13. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  14. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next...... day,D7: seven days after). Supplementary, we evaluated dam body condition (weight, score), nipple activity and health at separation. The two treatment groups had an equal litter size at the time of separation(7w: 5.5 ± 0.17; 8 w: 5.5 ± 0.17 kits; P = 0.76). Likewise, there was no significant...

  15. Genetic parameters for litter size in Black Slavonian pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorput, D.; Gorjanc, G.; Dikic, M.; Lujovic, Z.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for litter size of Black Slavonian pigs using the repeatability, multiple trait, and random regression models, and to consider the possibility to increase litter size in Black Slavonian pigs by selection. A total of 4,733 litter records from the first to the sixth parity from sows that farrowed between January 1998 and December 2010 were included in the analysis. Individual record consisted of the following variables: breeding organisation (eight regions), parity (1-6), service boar, and farrowing season (monthyear interaction). Estimation of all the covariance components with three different models was based on the residual maximum likelihood method. Estimate of additive genetic variance and heritability for number of piglets born alive with repeatability model was 0.23 and 0.10, respectively. Estimates of additive genetic variance with multiple trait and random regression model were in a wider range from 0.05 to 0.65 across parities, and heritabilities were estimated in the range between 0.03 and 0.26. Estimates of phenotypic and additive genetic correlations were much smoother with random regression model in comparison with multiple trait model. Due to unexpected changes of variances along trajectory obtained with multiple trait and random regression model, the best option for genetic evaluation of litter size for now could be the use of repeatability model. With increasing number of data with proper data structure alternative modelling of litter size of Black Slavonian pig using multiple trait and random regression model could be taken into consideration. (Author)

  16. The Impact of Group Size on Welfare Indicators of Ewes during Pregnancy.

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    Xavier Averós

    Full Text Available Group size (GS and space allowance have major implications for the welfare of production species, however their effects are often confounded. In a previous study we investigated the impact of varying space allowance at constant GS. In the present work we report the consequences of varying GS on pregnant ewes while controlling space allowance. We housed ewes at 6 (GS6 or 12 ewes/enclosure (GS12, while controlling space allowance to 1.5 m2/ewe (3 enclosures/treatment, and necessarily varying enclosure size. Therefore, when indicating GS effects we implicitly reflect a confounding effect with that of enclosure size. Movement, use of space, behaviour, serum cortisol concentration and body condition score (BCS were collected during the last 12 gestation weeks. Movement, use of space, and behaviour were collected every other week, during 2 days/week, using 10 minute continuous scan samplings. Blood was collected during weeks 10, 13, 17, and 21 of gestation, and BCS during weeks 15 and 21. Data were analysed using repeated measures, generalized linear mixed models, with GS, week, and their interaction as fixed effects, and enclosure as random effect. GS mainly affected movement and use of space. GS12 ewes walked longer distances using longer steps (P<0.001. An interaction GS by week was observed for angular dispersion (P<0.0001, which was smaller for GS12 from week 10 onwards. Initial restlessness levels were lower for GS12, as shown by the reduced frequency of location changes (P<0.0001. Furthest and mean neighbour distances increased with GS (P<0.0001. The effect of GS on behaviour was only evident for eating behaviour as an interaction with gestation week (P<0.05. Changes in behaviour, movement and use of space along the study indicated an activity peak during weeks 3 to 5. Cortisol changes during gestation (P<0.01 also reflected this activity peak, while BCS (P<0.001 reflected normal physical condition changes during pregnancy. Although the

  17. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

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    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  18. Impact if hyperprolific line of litter size in multiplication herd

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    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperprolific line is considered to be maximally effective in pursuit of progress in sow’s reproduction. Hyperprolific line efficiency is commonly evaluated in regard of breeding herd progress. We decided to study how effective it is with respect to increasing of litter size in multiplication herd. Our study is specific by using the data from practice, concretely it is based on the information about the ancestor of sows in multiplication herd. The ancestors could be the member either hyperprolific line or normal line. The information about performances of sows breed in multiplication herd was known. The mixed linear models in SAS for Windows 9.1.2. were conducted to statistical analysis. Our results indicated that no significant effect on litter size was achieved by selection criteria used in the hyperprolific line creation. In studied population no differences between TNB, NBA or NW were found on the 1st as well as on the 1st–5th litters. As we have mentioned above, the study is specific by using the data from practice. Therefore the studied population size is limited. It is necessary to take into consideration when the results are applied. Nevertheless, the results shown that other studies with larger population should be done to reevaluate the selection criteria.

  19. Cesarean section in the sow: A retrospective analysis of litter size and stillbirth rate

    OpenAIRE

    Friendship, Robert M.; Metzger, Kenneth R.; Robinson, Nancy P.; Doig, Gordon S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the litter size and stillbirth rate associated with cesarean-derived litters and to examine the relationship between the number of previous cesarean sections a sow had experienced and litter size. The records of 856 cesarean sections during a ten-year period from 1978 to 1988 were examined. The mean litter size was 10.6 ± 3.2 and the mean number of stillborn pigs per litter was 0.2 ± 0.8. The low level of stillbirth observed in this study provides supp...

  20. Genetic parameters for canalisation analysis of litter size and litter weight traits at birth in mice

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    Salgado Concepción

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research was to explore the genetic parameters associated with environmental variability for litter size (LS, litter weight (LW and mean individual birth weight (IW in mice before canalisation. The analyses were conducted on an experimental mice population designed to reduce environmental variability for LS. The analysed database included 1976 records for LW and IW and 4129 records for LS. The total number of individuals included in the analysed pedigree was 3997. Heritabilities estimated for the traits under an initial exploratory approach varied from 0.099 to 0.101 for LS, from 0.112 to 0.148 for LW and from 0.028 to 0.033 for IW. The means of the posterior distribution of the heritability under a Bayesian approach were the following: 0.10 (LS, 0.13 (LW and 0.03 (IW. In general, the heritabilities estimated under the initial exploratory approach for the environmental variability of the analysed traits were low. Genetic correlations estimated between the trait and its variability reached values of -0.929 (LS, -0.815 (LW and 0.969 (IW. The results presented here for the first time in mice may suggest a genetic basis for variability of the evaluated traits, thus opening the possibility to be implemented in selection schemes.

  1. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  2. Effect of genotype, sex and litter size on growth and basic traits of carcass quality of light lambs

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    Jan Kuchtík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effect of genotype (Romanov breed: n = 26, and F1 crossbreds of Suffolk-Romanov: n = 29, sex (males: n = 37 and females: n = 18 and litter size (singles: n = 6, twins: n = 16, triples: n = 21 and quadruplets: n = 12 on growth and basic carcass quality traits of light lambs was carried out at an organic sheep farm in Kuklík over the years 2007 and 2008. Throughout the experiment the lambs were reared with their mothers, indoors. The weaning of lambs was carried out just before slaughter. The daily feeding ration of the lambs consisted of the mother’s milk (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum, whereas the lambs had free access to the feedstuff of their mothers.The daily feeding ration of the ewes consisted of haylage (2.5 kg/ewe, meadow hay (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum. The genotype (G and the sex (S had not a significant effect on growth of lambs in the period from birth till the slaughter. On the other hand the litter size (LS had a highly significant effect on this trait, whilst the highest daily gain in above-mentioned period was found in singles (157 g. Concerning the carcass traits the G had a significant effect only on carcass dressing percentage while the S had a significant effect only on proportion of kidney. Nevertheless the LS had a significant effect on carcass dressing percentage and the proportions of skin, kidney and kidney fat. In conclusion it can be completed that the fatness scores of all individual carcasses were relatively very low which is important for good realisation of the carcasses on the market.

  3. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, William K; Elvira, Alba; van Kempen, Lute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aptroot, André; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-04-01

    Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We hypothesized that differences in litter flammability among gymnosperms are determined by litter particle size effects on litterbed packing. We performed a mesocosm fire experiment comparing 39 phylogenetically wide-ranging gymnosperms, followed by litter size and shape manipulations on two chemically contrasting species, to isolate the underlying mechanism. The first-order control on litter flammability was, indeed, litter particle size in both experiments. Most gymnosperms were highly flammable, but a prominent exception was the non-Pinus Pinaceae, in which small leaves abscised singly produced dense, non-flammable litterbeds. There are two important implications: first, ecosystems dominated by gymnosperms that drop small leaves separately will develop dense litter layers, which will be less prone to and inhibit the spread of surface litter fire. Second, some of the needle-leaved species previously considered to be flammable in single-leaf experiments were among the least flammable in litter fuel beds, highlighting the role of the litter traits of species in affecting surface fire regimes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Litter size at birth in purebred dogs--a retrospective study of 224 breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Kaja Sverdrup; Tønnessen, Ragnhild; Nødtvedt, Ane; Indrebø, Astrid

    2011-03-15

    Despite the long history of purebred dogs and the large number of existing breeds, few studies of canine litter size based upon a large number of breeds exist. Previous studies are either old or include only one or a few selected breeds. The aim of this large-scale retrospective study was to estimate the mean litter size in a large population of purebred dogs and to describe some factors that might influence the litter size. A total of 10,810 litters of 224 breeds registered in the Norwegian Kennel Club from 2006 to 2007 were included in the study. The overall mean litter size at birth was 5.4 (± 0.025). A generalized linear mixed model with a random intercept for breed revealed that the litter size was significantly influenced by the size of the breed, the method of mating and the age of the bitch. A significant interaction between breed size and age was detected, in that the expected number of puppies born decreased more for older bitches of large breeds. Mean litter size increased with breed size, from 3.5 (± 0.04) puppies in miniature breeds to 7.1 (± 0.13) puppies in giant breeds. No effect on litter size was found for the season of birth or the parity of the bitch. The large number of breeds and the detail of the registered information on the litters in this study are unique. In conclusion, the size of the breed, the age of the bitch and the method of mating were found to influence litter size in purebred dogs when controlling for breed, with the size of the breed as the strongest determinant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Components of litter size in gilts with different prolactin receptor genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Evans, G.J.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral estrus and components of litter size at Day 35/36 of pregnancy were studied in gilts with prolactin receptor (PRLR) genotype AA (n = 9), AB (n = 25), and BB (n = 22). This PRLR polymorphism (two alleles, A and B) has been associated with litter size, although it is not known whether the

  6. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) breeders and producers in many countries. Whilst this has economic and environmental benefits for the pig industry, there are also implications for pig welfare. Certain management interventions are used when litter size ro...

  7. Observations on litter size, parturition and maternal behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    congestion of the brain and spinal chord), in the postparturient period with evidence of ... Table 1 Least squares means (± SE) for the effects of breed, year and age on the reproductive performance of Dormer and SA Mutton ...... of feeding lupin grain supplements to lambing ewes grazing wheat stubble. Proc. Aust Soc. Anim.

  8. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    , in a number of ways, large litter size is a risk factor for decreased animal welfare in pig production. Increased litter size is associated with increased piglet mortality, which is likely to be associated with significant negative animal welfare impacts. In surviving piglets, many of the causes of mortality...... with large litters are being implemented. An important mitigation strategy is genetic selection encompassing traits that promote piglet survival, vitality and growth. Sow nutrition and the minimisation of stress during gestation could also contribute to improving outcomes in terms of piglet welfare......Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that...

  9. Litter size variation in hypothalamic gene expression determines adult metabolic phenotype in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10-12 and small (3-4 litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood.

  10. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pertoldi, Cino; Larsen, Peter Foged

    2014-01-01

    Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2...... and F3) after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly...... caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females...

  11. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirstrup Janne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2 and F3 after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females.

  12. Effective population size and inbreeding depression on litter size in rabbits. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Baselga, M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to use demographic and litter size data on four Spanish maternal lines of rabbits (A, V, H and LP), as a case study, in order to: (i) estimate the effective population size of the lines, as a measure of the rate of increase of inbreeding, and (ii) study whether the inbreeding effect on litter size traits depends on the pattern of its accumulation over time. The lines are being selected for litter size at weaning and are kept closed at the same selection nucleus under the same selection and management programme. The study considered 47,794 l and a pedigree of 14,622 animals. Some practices in mating and selection management allow an increase of the inbreeding coefficient lower than 0.01 per generation in these lines of around 25 males and 125 females. Their effective population size (Ne) was around 57.3, showing that the effect of selection, increasing the inbreeding, was counterbalanced by the management practices, intended to reduce the rate of inbreeding increase. The inbreeding of each individual was broken down into three components: old, intermediate and new inbreeding. The coefficients of regression of the old, intermediate and new inbreeding on total born (TB), number born alive (NBA) and number weaned (NW) per litter showed a decreasing trend from positive to negative values. Regression coefficients significantly different from zero were those for the old inbreeding on TB (6.79 ± 2.37) and NBA (5.92 ± 2.37). The contrast between the coefficients of regression between the old and new inbreeding were significant for the three litter size traits: 7.57 ± 1.72 for TB; 6.66 ± 1.73 for NBA and 5.13 ± 1.67 for NW. These results have been interpreted as the combined action of purging unfavourable genes and artificial selection favoured by the inbreeding throughout the generations of selection. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    .01), indicative of dam hunger/metabolic burden in the preceding period. We found no signs of nipple/inflammation problems, evaluated visually and by Infrared Thermography (IRT) measuring surface temperatures of active teats.Dams separated at litter age 7 weeks had higher concentrations of cortisol metabolites...

  14. Vocal mother-offspring communication in guinea pigs: females adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trillmich Fritz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknown whether this difference depends on processes induced during pregnancy or is influenced post-natally by the number of pups present. We here tested with playback-experiments using pup separation calls whether mothers with cross-fostered large experimental litters (four-pup-litters were more responsive to offspring calls and maintained responsiveness for longer than mothers with small experimental litters (two-pup-litters. Mothers were tested when two pups were suckling i.e. when both teats were occupied. Results Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger to broadcast pup separation calls than those with two-pup litters. Additionally, we tested the mothers' responsiveness to pup separation calls in the absence of their pups on day 8 and 20 of lactation. Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger and showed no decrease in responsiveness from day 8 to 20, whereas mothers of two-pup litters responded less and decreased responsiveness from day 8 to 20. Mothers of four-pup litters also weaned their pups 5 days later than those of two-pup litters. Conclusion Measured by their response to pup calls and by time to weaning, guinea pig mothers adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size. This behaviour is likely to be an adaptive strategy in resource allocation during reproduction.

  15. Precipitation pulse size and frequency controls on dryland litter decomposition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurupas, K. L.; Throop, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drylands are an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, accounting for 40% of the land area and 20% of the soil organic C globally. Litter decomposition is a key biogeochemical process, controlling C and nutrient cycling. While simple decomposition models successfully predict decomposition rates in many systems based on climate variables, there is a disconnect between the modeled and measured rates decomposition in drylands. This disconnect may stem from abiotic factors of importance in drylands, such as photodegradation and soil-litter mixing, not being taken into account. Soil-litter mixing can accelerate decomposition, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Potential mechanisms include microclimate buffering, physical abrasion, and enhanced microbial colonization. Recent work suggests that litter decomposition is remarkably insensitive to climate variables, at least when variables are presented as long temporal-scale values (e.g., annual precipitation). We hypothesized that decomposition would be more strongly affected by litter moisture content than total precipitation (PPT) alone. Thus, frequent, small PPT pulses would accelerate decomposition more than larger, but infrequent pulses. Furthermore, soil-litter mixing would enhance decomposition by buffering litter moisture content. To test the combined influence of soil-litter mixing and PPT pulses on decomposition, we incubated litter and soil in a semi-controlled greenhouse which simulated dryland summer temperatures. Two litter types (grass and shrub) were incubated under two levels of soil-litter mixing (no mixing and complete soil-litter mixing) and with 16 different PPT treatments (a factorial combination of four PPT pulses sizes and four PPT frequencies). We measured instantaneous CO2 flux throughout the 30 day incubation and mass loss at the end of the incubation. Shrub litter decomposed faster than grass litter. Flux rates generally peaked at day 8 and declined thereafter. CO2

  16. Effect of stage of maturity of grass at harvest on intake, chewing activity and distribution of particle size in faeces from pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on the intake of grass silage, eating and ruminating activity and the distribution of faecal particle size in ewes during late pregnancy. A total of 18 Swedish Finull × Dorset 85 ± 8 kg (mean ± s.d.) ewes bearing t...

  17. Does litter size variation affect models of terrestrial carnivore extinction risk and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor S Devenish-Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variation in both survival and reproduction has the potential to influence extinction risk. Especially for rare or threatened species, reliable population models should adequately incorporate demographic uncertainty. Here, we focus on an important form of demographic stochasticity: variation in litter sizes. We use terrestrial carnivores as an example taxon, as they are frequently threatened or of economic importance. Since data on intraspecific litter size variation are often sparse, it is unclear what probability distribution should be used to describe the pattern of litter size variation for multiparous carnivores. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used litter size data on 32 terrestrial carnivore species to test the fit of 12 probability distributions. The influence of these distributions on quasi-extinction probabilities and the probability of successful disease control was then examined for three canid species - the island fox Urocyon littoralis, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Best fitting probability distributions differed among the carnivores examined. However, the discretised normal distribution provided the best fit for the majority of species, because variation among litter-sizes was often small. Importantly, however, the outcomes of demographic models were generally robust to the distribution used. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide reassurance for those using demographic modelling for the management of less studied carnivores in which litter size variation is estimated using data from species with similar reproductive attributes.

  18. Seasonality in oestrus and litter size in an assistance dog breeding colony in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Eleanor E; Moxon, Rachel S; England, Gary C W; Wood, James L N; Morters, Michelle K

    2017-10-07

    Evidence of seasonality in oestrus in bitches within specialist breeding programmes, such as those for assistance dogs, may support colony management through tailoring the distribution of resources required for breeding throughout the year. However, at present there are conflicting data regarding seasonality in oestrus (and litter size) in domestic dogs. The primary objective of this study was to investigate seasonal variations in oestrus and litter size in a large assistance dog breeding colony in the UK in order to optimise colony management. The authors analysed the annual distribution of 3624 observations of oestrus collected from 568 brood bitches from January 2005 to June 2014. The authors also evaluated the relationship between month and litter size for 1609 litters observed during the same period. There was no evidence of regular seasonal variations in oestrus or litter size by meteorological season or month. The lack of seasonality in oestrus may be a function of dogs in the UK, particularly valuable breeding bitches, being exposed to fairly constant environmental conditions throughout the year as a consequence of artificial light and heating during the winter months. The authors' findings suggest that special consideration of the annual distribution of oestrus and litter size is unnecessary for the management of assistance dog breeding colonies similar to those in the UK. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Energy intake and milk production in mink (Mustela vison)--effect of litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A H; Hansen, K B; Wamberg, S; Kristensen, N B

    2001-01-01

    Energy intake and milk production were measured in 12 mink dams raising litters of 3, 6 and 9 kits one to four weeks post partum by means of balance experiments and measurements of milk intake of the kits by the water isotope dilution technique. The dams were fed ad libitum on a conventional wet mink diet (DM: 323 g/kg; CP: 173 g/kg; ME: 4.4 MJ/kg). Milk samples collected from dams with corresponding litter sizes and lactation weeks, and body composition of kits nursed by these dams, were analysed for content of DM, ash, N and fat. The ME and drinking water consumption were higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The N and water balances as well as the live weight of dams were not affected by litter size. Daily milk production was higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The DM, N and fat content of the milk increased during lactation, but were not affected by litter size. Individual kit live weight was higher in litters of 3 than in litters of 6 and 9 kits four weeks post partum. The DM and fat content of the kits were lowest in kits from litters of 9 kits, whereas these kits had the highest protein content. Daily ME for maintenance of kits and the efficiency of utilisation of ME in milk for body gain were estimated to 356 kJ/kg0.75, kp approximately 0.53 and kf approximately 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, daily milk production increased with increasing litter size, but not in proportion to the number of kits, indicating that milk production limits the growth rate of the young. In the fourth week of lactation, milk production was not different between dams nursing 6 or 9 kits, indicating a maximum capacity.

  20. Heterosis and genetic variation in the litter size of purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    animals originating from different farms. Effect of heterosis, color type, and variance components were estimated using Average information REML (AI-REML) algorithm implemented in the DMU package for analyzing multivariate mixed models. Females from 7 generations that gave birth to at least 1 offspring...... were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2) , common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  1. Manipulation of rat litter size during suckling influences cortical spreading depression after weaning and at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-de-Melo, Ana Paula; Cavalcanti, Janaynna de Brito; Barros, Anamaria Santos; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional conditions early in life constitute one environmental factor that can influence brain electrophysiological features. Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a brain electrophysiological phenomenon that can be altered by the early nutritional status of organism. SD-velocity changes were presently studied in young (30-40 days old) and adult (90-120 days) rats suckled in litters formed by 3, 6, or 12 pups (called respectively small (S), medium (M) and large (L) litters). Body weights and SD propagation velocities in the 3 groups varied, respectively in an inverse and direct way, in relation to the litter sizes. The present investigation provides the first systematic description of the effectiveness of favorable and unfavorable lactation conditions (respectively suckling in S and L litters) in altering cortical SD-propagation. The results confirm previous evidence in favor of permanent or at least long-lasting SD-changes associated to the prevailing nutritional status during the period of fast brain development.

  2. Notes on gestation periods and litter size in the arenicolous buthid scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1828) (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    OpenAIRE

    LK Ross

    2009-01-01

    The following notes on gestation periods and litter size in seven specimens of Leiurus quinquestriatus are presented as observational data. Specimens of Leiurus quinquestriatus from southern Egypt and southern Israel were mated in the laboratory during 2007; afterwards, gestation periods and litter sizes of all females were recorded. Previous studies on this species reported that the gestation period ranged from 150 to 155 days and that litter size was between 12 and 99 offspring. In the pres...

  3. Nurse capacity, fertility, and litter size in crossbred sows and genetic correlation to purebred sow information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B; Christensen, O F; Velander, I

    2016-05-01

    In pigs litter size has increased during the last decades and number of weaned piglets is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop a new trait of nurse capacity (NC) of crossbred sows viewed as crossbred performances in the two purebred parent lines, and estimate the genetic correlation to fertility and litter size five days after birth. An experiment recording phenotypes of crossbred sows was conducted in three large production herds with 11,247 first litter Danish Landrace x Yorkshire sows. All terminal sires used were Duroc AI boars. The experiment was running from 2010 to 2013. At farrowing, the total number born (TNB) was recorded. Five days after farrowing the litter size of the biological mother (LS5) was recorded. During the first three days after farrowing the number of piglets at each nurse sow was equalized to 14 piglets and after three weeks the NC was recorded and defined as the number of piglets nursed. Additional records on TNB and LS5 from related sows in nucleus and multiplier herds were added to obtain a data set with both purebred and crossbred information. A reduced animal model including both purebred and crossbred records was used and parameters were estimated. The results show that NC recorded on crossbred first litter sows had heritabilities of 0.05 and 0.07 for crossbred performance in the purebred populations of Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and crossbreds show that nearly 50% of genetic gain in the purebred populations was transferred to crossbreds. Unfavorable genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and NC in crossbreds were observed. For LS5 the genetic (co)variances show that 61% of the genetic gain in the two purebred lines was transferred to the commercial pig production of crossbred first litter sows, but no statistically significant genetic correlation to NC was obtained.

  4. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, R; Baselga, M; Blas, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a line selected for reproductive longevity (LP) to confront productive challenges compared to a line selected during 31 generations for litter size at weaning (V). A total of 133 reproductive rabbit does were used (72 and 61 from LP and V lines,...

  5. Genotype by environment interaction for litter size in pigs as quantified by reaction norms analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, P W; Su, G

    2008-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure was used to estimate linear reaction norms (i.e. individual G × E plots) on 297 518 litter size records of 121 104 sows, daughters of 2040 sires, recorded on 144 farms in North and Latin America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The method allowed for simultaneous estimation of al...

  6. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on litter size in a commercial setting, NPB project #14-238

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litter size is influenced by ovulation rate, fertilization rate, embryo mortality and uterine capacity. Of these, the most limiting factor is uterine capacity, because increased ovulation rate results in increased number of embryos on day 30 of gestation, but this advantage is lost during later gest...

  8. Estimation of direct response to truncation selection of litter size in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of direct response to truncation selection of litter size in largewhite flock of swine in MidWestern Nigeria. ... Correlation coefficient among the traits was low and not significant with reproduction (FRINT) and LITSZ being negatively correlated. LITSZ, WWT and FRINT showed positive response to selection while ...

  9. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Peer-reviewed paper: Proc. 43rd Congress of the South African Society for Animal Science. 471. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows. D.O. Umesiobi. Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology,. Free State, Private Bag X20539, ...

  10. Improving Genetic Evaluation of Litter Size Using a Single-step Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Ostersen, Tage

    A recently developed single-step method allows genetic evaluation based on information from phenotypes, pedigree and markers simultaneously. This paper compared reliabilities of predicted breeding values obtained from single-step method and the traditional pedigree-based method for two litter size...... for genotyped animals but also for non-genotyped animals....

  11. Factors affecting birth weight, litter size and survival rates of goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For instance, the Sahel Goat (SG) doe has the largest birth weight followed by Red Sokoto (RS) and least the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. However, litter size was significantly (p<0.001) highest in WAD followed by RS and lowest in SG does. Body condition score of does significantly (p<0.001) influenced both birth ...

  12. Accounting for lactation length and weaning-to-conception interval in genetic evaluations for litter size in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, D; Brisbane, J R; Laforest, J P

    2000-07-01

    Effects of lactation length and weaning-to-conception interval on the subsequent litter size of purebred sows were estimated using an animal model. Data on 2,847 Landrace sows with 7,125 litters born between January 1989 and May 1997 and on 1,234 Yorkshire sows with 2,999 litters born between January 1990 and May 1997 were obtained from two Canadian selection herds. Sows having a lactation of less than 14 d (MMEW) were usually not mated until their second estrus, whereas sows weaned after at least 14 d of lactation (later weaning) were usually mated on their first estrus. Litter size included both number of pigs born alive and those stillborn. Linear, quadratic, and logarithmic effects of lactation length were tested. The effect of weaning-to-conception interval on litter size was modeled using an approach based on threshold variables and an approach using segmented polynomials. Results indicated linear and logarithmic effects of lactation length on subsequent litter size for Yorkshire and Landrace breeds, respectively. Litter size decreased as weaning-to-conception interval increased up to 7 and 10 d for Yorkshire and Landrace, respectively, then increased with further increases in weaning-to-conception interval up to 35 and 30 d for the two breeds, and then remained constant. The MMEW sows did not have lower subsequent litter sizes than later-weaned sows because the negative effect of a shorter lactation was offset by the positive effect of a longer weaning-to-conception interval. However, average time spent open per parity was longer for MMEW sows than for later-weaned sows. Both lactation length and weaning-to-conception interval should be considered in models for the genetic evaluation of litter size in purebred swine. Segmented polynomials can be used to predict litter size as a continuous function of weaning-to-conception interval or to derive weaning-to-conception interval adjustment factors for litter size.

  13. Response to selection for litter size in Danish Landrace pigs: a Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C S; Gianola, D; Sorensen, D A; Jensen, J; Christensen, A; Rutledge, J J

    1994-05-01

    A replicated selection experiment aimed at increasing litter size (total number of pigs born per litter) in Danish Landrace pigs was conducted from 1984 to 1991. The experiment included two selection and two control lines. In each generation, 30 and 14 first litters were produced in selection and control lines, respectively, and dams produced two litters. Each replicate, consisting of one selection and one control line, was founded from 60 families chosen randomly from the population at large. Family selection was practiced, and the criterion was the predicted breeding value for litter size computed using a repeatability animal model, and taking into account all available information. The data consisted of 947 records from 523 dams (424 dams had two litters) representing five cycles of selection of increased litter size. Data were analyzed from a Bayesian perspective, based on marginal posterior distributions of genetic parameters of interest. Marginalization was achieved using Gibbs sampling, with a single chain length of 1 205 000. After discarding the first 5 000 iterations, a sample was drawn every ten iterations, so 120 000 samples in total were saved. Densities were estimated and plotted, and summary statistics were computed from the estimated densities. The posterior means (± standard error) of heritability and repeatability were 0.22 ± 0.06 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. These point estimates of genetic parameters were within the range of literature values, although on the high side. The posterior mean (± standard error) of genetic response to selection, defined as the difference between the mean breeding values of the selected lines and that of the base population, was 1.37 ± 0.43 pigs after five cycles of selection. The regression (through the origin) of breeding values in the selected lines on generation was 0.25 ± 0.08 pigs. Several informative priors constructed from information obtained with field data in this population were used to examine

  14. Comparison of immune response to lipopolysaccharide of rabbit does selected for litter size at weaning or founded for reproductive longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrian, S; Blas, E; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate differences in maternal lines to the immune response of reproductive rabbit does, a total of 64 animals of two different lines: (1) founded for hyper-longevity and litter size criteria (LP) and (2) selected for litter size at weaning (V) were used. Females were subjected to three diff...

  15. Notes on gestation periods and litter size in the arenicolous buthid scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1828 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LK Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following notes on gestation periods and litter size in seven specimens of Leiurus quinquestriatus are presented as observational data. Specimens of Leiurus quinquestriatus from southern Egypt and southern Israel were mated in the laboratory during 2007; afterwards, gestation periods and litter sizes of all females were recorded. Previous studies on this species reported that the gestation period ranged from 150 to 155 days and that litter size was between 12 and 99 offspring. In the present study, gestation periods in specimens from both geographic regions varied from 155 to 227 days and litter sizes were between 35 and 87 offspring. The current contribution expands on previously published data on gestation periods and supports previously reported litter size in Leiurus quinquestriatus.

  16. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The evaluated boars were born from Polish Synthetic Line 990 sows of 2–4 parity and litters with 11–. 13 piglets. On the first day after birth, litters of 80 sows were standardized to 8 (40 litters) or 12 (40 litters) piglets per sow. Before the standardization of litters, all piglets were individually weighed. Each litter.

  17. Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Nævdal, Eric; Bøe, Knut Egil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of.

  18. Uterine blood flow in sows: effects of pregnancy stage and litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Père, M C; Etienne, M

    2000-01-01

    Female pigs were assigned to three groups at 94 days of age: a control group (CTR), a group undergoing the ligation and severing of the left oviduct (LIG), and a group undergoing right hysteroovariectomy (HHO). They were inseminated at 307 days of age. At 35 days of pregnancy, an ultrasonic transit time flow probe was implanted around the middle artery of one uterine horn in 33 sows and uterine blood flow was measured during thirteen 24-h periods between 44 and 111 days. Despite large differences in ovulation rate per uterine horn (4.8, 8.3 and 16.9 in the LIG, CTR and HHO groups, respectively), variation of litter size was considerably reduced with advancement of pregnancy (3.0, 6.6 and 10.8 foetuses per uterine horn at 35 days, and 3.0, 5.8 and 4.9 at 112 days (slaughter), respectively). Uterine blood flow increased linearly during pregnancy. It was lower in the LIG sows (0.82 to 1.74 L x min(-1) x horn(-1) from 44 to 111 days) than in the CTR and HHO sows (1.22 to 2.84 and 1.09 to 2.63 L x min(-1) x horn(1), respectively). It was more closely related to litter weight than to litter size and amounted to 0.42 L x min(-1) x kg foetus(-1) at 111 days. Uterine blood flow per foetus decreased when litter size increased. It increased from 0.31 to 0.72, 0.26 to 0.60 and 0.20 to 0.43 L x min(-1) x foetus(-1) from 44 to 111 days when there were 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 8 foetuses in the uterine horn, respectively. This explains why piglets from large litters are lighter at birth.

  19. DNA methylation patterns and gene expression associated with litter size in Berkshire pig placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hye Hwang

    Full Text Available Increasing litter size is of great interest to the pig industry. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression, resulting in livestock phenotypes such as disease resistance, milk production, and reproduction. We classified Berkshire pigs into two groups according to litter size and estimated breeding value: smaller (SLG and larger (LLG litter size groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression were analyzed using placenta genomic DNA and RNA to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs associated with litter size. The methylation levels of CpG dinucleotides in different genomic regions were noticeably different between the groups, while global methylation pattern was similar, and excluding intergenic regions they were found the most frequently in gene body regions. Next, we analyzed RNA-Seq data to identify DEGs between the SLG and LLG groups. A total of 1591 DEGs were identified: 567 were downregulated and 1024 were upregulated in LLG compared to SLG. To identify genes that simultaneously exhibited changes in DNA methylation and mRNA expression, we integrated and analyzed the data from bisulfite-Seq and RNA-Seq. Nine DEGs positioned in DMRs were found. The expression of only three of these genes (PRKG2, CLCA4, and PCK1 was verified by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, we observed the same methylation patterns in blood samples as in the placental tissues by PCR-based methylation analysis. Together, these results provide useful data regarding potential epigenetic markers for selecting hyperprolific sows.

  20. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both...... the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  1. Analysis on DNA sequence of GPR54 gene and its association with litter size in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G L; Chu, M X; Fang, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Li, N

    2011-08-01

    The kisspeptin/GPR54 pathway is crucial in the process of puberty onset. Six pairs of primers were designed to clone goat GPR54 and scan polymorphisms and one pair of primers to detect polymorphisms of GPR54 in sexual precocious and sexual late-maturing goat breeds. A DNA fragment of 4258 bp of goat GPR54 was obtained, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1137 bp and encodes 378 amino acids, having a high homology with other mammals. The protein was predicted to have seven transmembrane regions. There were no base pair variation in exons 1-4 and three base changes (G4014A, G4136A and C4152T) in exon 5 by sequencing and the three mutations may have some correlation with sexual precocity in goats. For the 4152 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype TT and CT had 1.02 and 0.84 (P0.05) was found in litter size between TT and CT genotypes in Jining Grey goat. For the other two loci, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between different genotypes in Jining Grey goats. The present study preliminarily indicated an association between allele T of the 4152 locus in GPR54 and high litter size in Jining Grey goats.

  2. Reproductive characteristics of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing system

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    Sabri Gül

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproductive responses of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing (CAMAL system. Ewes were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The first group (control group consists of 20 ewes exposed to rams in September under conventional management system while the second group (CAMAL were divided into four sub-flocks contain 20 head of ewes each one were exposed to rams to obtain three lambing in two years with different breeding and lambing months. In CAMAL ewes, oestrus was synchronized using intra-vaginal sponges with progesterone and PMSG administration. Results revealed that within CAMAL group, the percentage of animals in heat, onset of oestrus, litter size, birth weight and weaning weight were affected by mating months. September and November were the most appropriate months for oestrus ratio (97.5 % and litter size (1.18 and 0.98, respectively. Lambs of control group were heavier at birth and weaning than those of CAMAL group. On the other hand lamb yield was not affected statistically by the CAMAL administration.

  3. Oxidative Damage Does Not Occur in Striped Hamsters Raising Natural and Experimentally Increased Litter Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory assumes that animals can balance the allocation of limited energy or resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction and somatic maintenance, while consequently maximizing their fitness. However, somatic damage caused by oxidative stress in reproductive female animals is species-specific or is tissue dependent. In the present study, several markers of oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and malonadialdehyde, MDA) and antioxidant (catalase, CAT and total antioxidant capacity, T-AOC) were examined in striped hamsters during different stages of reproduction with experimentally manipulated litter size. Energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and UCP3 in skeletal muscle were also examined. H2O2 and MDA levels did not change in BAT and liver, although they significantly decreased in skeletal muscle in the lactating hamsters compared to the non-reproductive group. However, H2O2 levels in the brain were significantly higher in lactating hamsters than non-reproductive controls. Experimentally increasing litter size did not cause oxidative stress in BAT, liver and skeletal muscle, but significantly elevated H2O2 levels in the brain. CAT activity of liver decreased, but CAT and T-AOC activity of BAT, skeletal muscle and the brain did not change in lactating hamsters compared to non-reproductive controls. Both antioxidants did not change with the experimentally increasing litter size. RMR significantly increased, but BAT UCP1 mRNA expression decreased with the experimentally increased litter size, suggesting that it was against simple positive links between metabolic rate, UCP1 expression and free radicals levels. It may suggest that the cost of reproduction has negligible effect on oxidative stress or even attenuates oxidative stress in some active tissues in an extensive range of animal species. But the increasing reproductive effort may cause oxidative

  4. Record litter size in the Eurasian Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris

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    Veronica Mari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the literature, litter size in red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris ranges between 1-6 offspring. Here we report a record litter size, in Europe, of 7 young (6 males, 1 female, marked in the nest when 10-14 days old, in a high-elevation mountain pine habitat, Lombardy Alps (Northern Italy. We discuss implications of extreme winter conditions for life-history strategies and possible trade-offs between high reproductive investment and short life-span. Riassunto Dimensione eccezionale della cucciolata di scoiattolo comune (Sciurus vulgaris. Dai dati di letteratura, il numero di esemplari per cucciolata nello scoiattolo comune Sciurus vulgaris varia generalmente da 1 a 6. Nel presente lavoro viene riportata per la prima volta in Europa la segnalazione di una cucciolata di 7 esemplari (6 maschi e 1 femmina, che sono stati marcati nel nido all’età di 10-14 giorni. Il nido è stato individuato in un habitat forestale dominato da pino mugo nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, in Lombardia. Vengono prese in esame le implicazioni che le condizioni estreme, nel periodo invernale, possono avere sulle strategie riproduttive dello scoiattolo comune.

  5. Calcium availability influences litter size and sex ratio in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

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    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available The production of offspring typically requires investment of resources derived from both the environment and maternal somatic reserves. As such, the availability of either of these types of resources has the potential to limit the degree to which resources are allocated to reproduction. Theory and empirical studies have argued that mothers modify reproductive performance relative to exogenous resource availability and maternal condition by adjusting size, number or sex of offspring produced. These relationships have classically been defined relative to availability of energy sources; however, in vertebrates, calcium also plays a critical role in offspring production, as a considerable amount of calcium is required to support the development of offspring skeleton(s. We tested whether the availability of calcium influences reproductive output by providing female white-footed mice with a low-calcium or standard diet from reproductive maturity to senescence. We then compared maternal skeletal condition and reproductive output, based on offspring mass, offspring number and litter sex ratio, between dietary treatments. Mothers on the low-calcium diet exhibited diminished skeletal condition at senescence and produced smaller and strongly female-biased litters. We show that skeletal condition and calcium intake can influence sex ratio and reproductive output following general theoretical models of resource partitioning during reproduction.

  6. Selection for number of live piglets at five-days of age increased litter size and reduced mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjarne; Madsen, Per; Henryon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    . The heritabilities of maternal effect on litter size were 0.079 and 0.095 in Landrace and Yorkshir e. The heritabilities of maternal effect on piglet-mortality rates were 0.069 and 0.082 in Landrace and Yorkshire. The genetic correlation between litter size and mortality rate were unfavourable; and the estimates......-netic gain has reduced the piglet mortality rate by 4 %-points in Landrace and Yorkshire from 2004 to 2010. The genetics gain was confirmed by decreased phenotypic annual mortality rates in the breeding and multiplier herds....

  7. EFFECT OF IMMUNIZATION OF RABBIT WITH ZONA PELLUCIDA ANTIGEN ON CONCEPTION RATE AND LITTER SIZE

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    O. Fayemi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty mature female rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was immunized with zona pellucida (ZP antigen and the second group was injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS at the corresponding time of immunization (control group. When bred by male rabbits, the conception rate in the immunized group (30% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than 100% recorded for the unimmunized (control group. The litter size was 1.67 ± 0.50 for the immunized group and was significantly lower than 7.3 ± 0.82 for the control group (P< 0.001. It is concluded that ZP antigens may become better candidates for contraception than steroids.

  8. Ovulation rate and litter size in gilts immunized against androstenedione and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, D L; Rorie, R; Brown, D; Maxwell, C; Miller, F; Wright, S; Brown, A

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the immunization of gilts against ovarian steroids on ovulation rate and litter size. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = five gilts/treatment) at 165+/-1.6 d of age were immunized against either carrier (Control), androstenedione, or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. Age at puberty and estrous cycle length averaged 208+/-5.5 (P = 0.67) and 20.3+/-2.8 d (P = 0.41), respectively, and were not affected by treatment. The androstenedione- and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone immunized gilts had higher (P gilts than in the Controls (12.6 vs 10.5+/-0.6, P gilts can be increased by immunization against 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone.

  9. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID

  10. Effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection on litter size in young Etawah-cross does

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    N.M Artiningsihi

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of twins and/or multiple births in 20 heads of young Etawah-cross does was studied following oestrous synchronization using intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterorle acetate (Repromap for 15 days . Twenty four hours priorto sponges withdrawal, the does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG at dose rates of 0 (Group A, 10 (Group B, 15 (Group C and 20 iu/kg (Group D body weight. Amature buck fitted with an apron was used to detect the onset of oestrus at every four hours. The oestrous doe was naturally mated twice, 12 hours after onset of oestrus and 10 hours later. About 3-5 days after oestrus, all does were subjected to mid-ventral laparoscopy to detect ovulation rate . Two months after mating all does were subjected to pregnancy test using diagnostic ultrasonography. Results showed that all does exhibited clear sign of oestrus. The onset of oestrus occurred 15-43 hours after sponges withdrawal or 39-59 hours after PMSG injection. Does injected with PMSG (Groups B, C and D showed oestrus 16-21 hours earlier (P0 .05 than that of control (Group A . However, there was no significant differences among the PMSG-treated groups . Ovulation rates increased from 1.0 in Group Ato 1.8 in Group B and 2.6 in bah Groups Cand D. Average litter size in Groups A, B, C and D were 1.0, 1.8, 2.4 and 1.0, respectively. It was concluded that injection of 15 iu PMSG/kg body weight gave the best result for increasing litter size in young Etawah-cross does .

  11. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

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    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  12. Short- and long-term effects of litter size manipulation in a small wild-derived rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto Hürlimann, Mikko; Stier, Antoine; Scholly, Olivier; Criscuolo, François; Bize, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Iteroparous organisms maximize their overall fitness by optimizing their reproductive effort over multiple reproductive events. Hence, changes in reproductive effort are expected to have both short- and long-term consequences on parents and their offspring. In laboratory rodents, manipulation of reproductive efforts during lactation has however revealed few short-term reproductive adjustments, suggesting that female laboratory rodents express maximal rather than optimal levels of reproductive investment as observed in semelparous organisms. Using a litter size manipulation (LSM) experiment in a small wild-derived rodent (the common vole; Microtus arvalis), we show that females altered their reproductive efforts in response to LSM, with females having higher metabolic rates and showing alternative body mass dynamics when rearing an enlarged rather than reduced litter. Those differences in female reproductive effort were nonetheless insufficient to fully match their pups’ energy demand, pups being lighter at weaning in enlarged litters. Interestingly, female reproductive effort changes had long-term consequences, with females that had previously reared an enlarged litter being lighter at the birth of their subsequent litter and producing lower quality pups. We discuss the significance of using wild-derived animals in studies of reproductive effort optimization. PMID:24671828

  13. Flammability across the gymnosperm phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornwell, W.K.; Elvira, A.; van Kempen, L.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Aptroot, A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Fire is important to climate, element cycles and plant communities, with many fires spreading via surface litter. The influence of species on the spread of surface fire is mediated by their traits which, after senescence and abscission, have 'afterlife' effects on litter flammability. We

  14. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  15. Relationship between polymorphisms in exon 10 of FSHR gene and litter size in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X D; Zhu, H Y; Zhou, J; Wang, N; Zhou, N; Huang, L; Wu, T; Feng, Y F; Ding, Y Y; Yin, Z J

    2015-07-27

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior pituitary, can regulate ovarian function through the FSH receptor (FSHR). To evaluate the effects of the FSHR gene on reproductive traits in pigs, polymorphisms in exon 10 of the FSHR gene were observed by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism, and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (C1491T, G1885A, and C1977T) in exon 10 of the porcine FSHR gene, and 3 genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) for C1491T and 2 haplotypes (D and E) for G1885A and C1977T were identified. Further analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes associated with reproductive traits including total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA) was carried out in 3 pig populations including Berkshire, Wannan Black (a Chinese indigenous pig breed), and BW pigs (two-way crossbred pigs produced from Berkshire ♂ and Wannan Black pig ♀). The results showed that the TNB and NBA of Wannan Black pigs with the AB genotype were significantly higher than in AA genotype sows (P pigs with the DE genotype were significantly higher than the DD and EE genotype sows (P DD > EE. The results showed that polymorphisms in exon 10 of the FSHR gene had a significant effect on litter size traits of Wannan Black and Berkshire pigs. These results can be applied for marker-assisted selection in the 2 swine breeds.

  16. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  17. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... In addition, piglets reared in large litters have lower growth rates during lactation .... Semen was collected using the gloved hand technique from a boar trained to .... greater number of muscle fibres and their dominance when ...

  18. Characteristics of organic pig farms in selected European countries and their possible influence on litter size and piglet mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunier, Armelle; Dippel, Sabine; Bochicchio, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Better knowledge of piglet losses around birth and during lactation, and the role of litter size, housing and management characteristics, should help to identify critical points and hence to improve the situation in organic pig farms. For this purpose, a project was initiated in five EU countries...... collecting interview data, measures of animal and housing characteristics and production records. This paper presents results regarding production characteristics from 82 herds. Among them, 42 farms were included in an analysis based on the production records. Based on sows’ housing system during the first 2...... characteristics were used after binary transformation when necessary. Three types of indoor farms and two types of outdoor farms were identified. Regarding litter size at birth and weaning, there was no clear difference between all types of indoor farms and one type of outdoor farms, whereas the second type...

  19. Effect of breed, sex and litter size on growth and meatiness and fattiness in vivo in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hošek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was the evaluation of the effects of breed (Suffolk, Merinoladschaf, Oxford Down and Charollais, sex and litter size (singles, twins and triplets on growth. The study was carried out on the farm in Žabčice in 2007. Within the frame of evaluation of meatiness and fattiness in vivo in lambs the following ultrasound measurements were carried out: depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (Dm.l.l.t. and fat thickness (FT. Ultrasound measurements was done between last pectoral and first lumbar vertebrae after tease out of wool, by ultrasound Aloka SSD 500 with 5 MHz linear probe. The breed had not a significant effect on all growth parameters under study. On the ot­her hand the sex and the litter size had a significant effect on some growth parameters under study, whereas both these factors had a significant effect on live body weight at 100 days of age of lambs and on daily gain in the period from 30 to 70 days of age. The litter size had a significant effect on Dm.l.l.t. of lambs at the age of 70 and 100 days. On the other hand the breed had a signifcant effect on Dm.l.l.t. only at the age of 100 days. The breed, sex and litter size had a significant effect on FT of lambs at the age of 70 days. On the other hand all the factors under study had not significant effect on FT of lambs at the age of 100 days.

  20. Polymorphisms on SSC15q21-q26 Containing QTL for reproduction in Swine and its association with litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Du

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several quantitative trait loci (QTL for important reproductive traits (ovulation rate have been identified on the porcine chromosome 15 (SSC15. To assist in the selection of positional candidate swine genes for these QTL on SSC15, twenty-one genes had already been assigned to SSC15 in a previous study in our lab, by using the radiation hybrid panel IMpRH. Further polymorphism studies were carried out on these positional candidate genes with four breeds of pigs (Duroc, Erhualian, Dahuabai and Landrace harboring significant differences in reproduction traits. A total of nineteen polymorphisms were found in 21 genes. Among these, seven in six genes were used for association studies, whereby NRP2 polymorphism was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 associated with litter-size traits. NRP2 might be a candidate gene for pig-litter size based on its chromosome location (Du et al., 2006, significant association with litter-size traits and relationships with Sema and the VEGF super families.

  1. Two mutations in the 5'-flanking region of the KITLG gene are associated with litter size of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X P; Hou, J X; Lei, Y N; Gao, T Y; Song, Y X; Wang, J G; Cao, B Y

    2015-06-01

    In this study, Xinong Saanen (SN) and Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goat breeds were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking region of the KITLG gene by DNA sequencing and primer-introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction. Two novel SNPs (g.13090G>T and g.13664C>A) were identified (GenBank Accession no. KM658964). Furthermore, g.13090G>T and g.13664C>A loci were closely linked in SN and GZ breeds (r(2) > 0.33). Association analysis results showed that g.13090G>T and g.13664C>A SNPs significantly affected litter size (P < 0.05). The litter size of individuals with the combined genotype GG/CC from both dairy goat breeds was greater than that of individuals with TT/AA in average parity (P < 0.05). Known biochemical and physiological functions, along with our results, indicated that GG/CC could be used in marker-assisted selection to choose individuals with greater litter size from both breeds. These results extend the spectrum of genetic variation in the caprine KITLG gene and may contribute to genetic resources and breeding of goats. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. A random regression model in analysis of litter size in pigs | Lukovi& ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dispersion parameters for number of piglets born alive (NBA) were estimated using a random regression model (RRM). Two data sets of litter records from the Nemščak farm in Slovenia were used for analyses. The first dataset (DS1) included records from the first to the sixth parity. The second dataset (DS2) was extended ...

  3. Assessing effective population size, coancestry and inbreeding effects on litter size using the pedigree and SNP data in closed lines of the Iberian pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silió, L; Barragán, C; Fernández, A I; García-Casco, J; Rodríguez, M C

    2016-04-01

    The complete pedigree of two closed Iberian pig lines (Gamito and Torbiscal), with 798 and 4077 reproducers, has been used to measure the evolution of coancestry (f) and inbreeding (F) for autosomal and X-linked genes along 16 and 28 respective equivalent discrete generations. At the last generation, the mean values of each line were f = 0.41 and 0.22, F = 0.35 and 0.18, fX  = 0.46 and 0.22 and FX  = 0.47 and 0.19, respectively. Other calculated parameters were the effective number of founders (final values, 6.8 and 35.2) and non-founders (1.5 and 2.4), founder genome equivalents (1.2 and 2.3) and effective population size (16.0 and 57.7). Measures of Torbiscal effective size based on rates of coancestry (66.1), inbreeding (65.0) and linkage disequilibrium (71.0) were estimated from whole-genome SNP genotyping data. Values of new and old inbreeding and their respective rates by generation were computed to detect purging effects of natural selection. The analysis of 6854 Torbiscal litters showed significant negative impacts of new and fast inbreeding on litter size, as expected from the purging hypothesis: -0.20 born piglets per litter by a 10% of new inbreeding, and -0.03 and -0.02 piglets by 1% of total and new inbreeding rates, respectively. The analysis performed on 1274 litters of the Gamito line failed to show purging effects. The only significant results were reductions in -0.91 and -0.17 piglets by a 10% of old and X-linked genes inbreeding, respectively. These results may be useful for some practical issues in conservation programs of farm or captive wild animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The contribution of dominance and inbreeding depression in estimating variance components for litter size in Pannon White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, I; Gorjanc, G; Curik, I; Farkas, J; Kiszlinger, H; Szendrő, Zs

    2013-08-01

    In a synthetic closed population of Pannon White rabbits, additive (VA ), dominance (VD ) and permanent environmental (VPe ) variance components as well as doe (bF d ) and litter (bF l ) inbreeding depression were estimated for the number of kits born alive (NBA), number of kits born dead (NBD) and total number of kits born (TNB). The data set consisted of 18,398 kindling records of 3883 does collected from 1992 to 2009. Six models were used to estimate dominance and inbreeding effects. The most complete model estimated VA and VD to contribute 5.5 ± 1.1% and 4.8 ± 2.4%, respectively, to total phenotypic variance (VP ) for NBA; the corresponding values for NBD were 1.9 ± 0.6% and 5.3 ± 2.4%, for TNB, 6.2 ± 1.0% and 8.1 ± 3.2% respectively. These results indicate the presence of considerable VD . Including dominance in the model generally reduced VA and VPe estimates, and had only a very small effect on inbreeding depression estimates. Including inbreeding covariates did not affect estimates of any variance component. A 10% increase in doe inbreeding significantly increased NBD (bF d  = 0.18 ± 0.07), while a 10% increase in litter inbreeding significantly reduced NBA (bF l  = -0.41 ± 0.11) and TNB (bF l  = -0.34 ± 0.10). These findings argue for including dominance effects in models of litter size traits in populations that exhibit significant dominance relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams....... Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit...... growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit ( PLitter size affected kit vitality...

  6. Effects of catechins on litter size, reproductive performance and antioxidative status in gestating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Fan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of catechins on reproductive performance, antioxidative capacity and immune function of gestating sows. A total of 60 cross-bred (Landrace × Large White multiparious sows were blocked by body weight, parity and backfact and randomly allocated to 1 of 5 treatments: 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg catechins. Dietary treatments were imposed from mating to d 40 of gestation of sows. At farrowing, litter total born, born alive, dead, and normal-(healthy piglets, ≥0.85 kg and low-birth weight piglets ( 0.05. Sows received 200 mg catechin per kg diets showed a reduction (P < 0.05 of the serum MDA level at farrowing compared with all other treatments. Sows received all the levels of catechin showed a reduction (P < 0.05 of serum H2O2 level compared with sows received the control diet on both d 40 of gestation and farrowing. Our results demonstrated that the catechins may be a potential antioxidant to increase the reproductive performance and antioxidative capacity of sows when it was added into diets during the early gestation.

  7. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  8. Litter size determines the number of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area of Sprague Dawley lactating dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jozelia Gomes Pacheco; Duarte, Jessica Catharine Gomes; Diniz, Giovanne Baroni; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni

    2017-11-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone [MCH] is an important neuromodulator related to motivated behaviors. The MCH-containing neurons are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and incerto-hypothalamic area. In the medial preoptic area [MPOA], a key region for the regulation of maternal behavior, Pmch mRNA expression and MCH synthesis can be detected exclusively during the lactation period. As litter size affects different parameters of maternal physiology, the aim of this study was to verify whether litter size can modulate the number of MCH-containing neurons in the MPOA of lactating rats. The dams were divided into the following groups: postpartum day 12, 15, or 19, with a large, small or reduced litter. Our results show that the number of MCH-immunoreactive neurons in the MPOA is positively correlated with the number of pups in the litter and that artificially reducing the number of pups can also decrease the number of MCH-immunoreactive neurons in the MPOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Perioperative Analgesia on Litter Size in Crl:CD1(ICR) Mice Undergoing Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, David R; Myers, Page H; Goulding, Eugenia H; Blankenship, Terry L; Grant, Mary F; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on litter size of 2 analgesics used perioperatively during mouse embryo transfer surgery. Day 2.5 pseudopregnant CD1 mice (n = 96) were divided equally into 2 analgesic treatment groups and a saline control group. Each mouse received a single, subcutaneous dose of buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg), flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg), or saline immediately after induction of anesthesia with 2.5% isoflurane. Each mouse then was prepared for aseptic surgery. Blastocysts had previously been collected from C57BL/6NCrl female mice that were synchronized and superovulated by using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated with C57BL/6NTac male mice 3.5 d before collection. Viable blastocysts were pooled, and 8 were selected arbitrarily and transplanted into the right uterine horn of each pseudopregnant CD1 mouse. Mice were monitored throughout pregnancy, and the number of pups at birth was documented. No statistically significant difference was found between the 3 groups. These results indicate that perioperative analgesic treatment with buprenorphine or flunixin in the CD1 mouse undergoing embryo transfer is not associated with increased embryonic loss. PMID:20819387

  10. Passive aeration composting of chicken litter: effects of aeration pipe orientation and perforation size on losses of compost elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A; Osunade, James A

    2011-01-01

    A passive aeration composting study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aeration pipe orientation (PO) and perforation size (PS) on some physico-chemical properties of chicken litter (chicken manure + sawdust) during composting. The experimental set up was a two-factor completely randomised block design with two pipe orientations: horizontal (Ho) and vertical (Ve), and three perforation sizes: 15, 25 and 35 mm diameter. The properties monitored during composting were pile temperature, moisture content (MC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total carbon (C(T)), total nitrogen (N(T)) and total phosphorus (P(T)). Moisture level in the piles was periodically replenished to 60% for efficient microbial activities. The results of the study showed that optimum composting conditions (thermophilic temperatures and sanitation requirements) were attained in all the piles. During composting, both PO and PS significantly affected pile temperature, moisture level, pH, C(T) loss and P(T) gain. EC was only affected by PO while N(T) was affected by PS. Neither PO nor PS had a significant effect on the C:N ratio. A vertical pipe was effective for uniform air distribution, hence, uniform composting rate within the composting pile. The final values showed that PO of Ve and PS of 35 mm diameter resulted in the least loss in N(T). The PO of Ho was as effective as Ve in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). Similarly, the three PSs were equally effective in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). In conclusion, the combined effects of PO and PS showed that treatments Ve35 and Ve15 were the most effective in minimizing N(T) loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) American Cancer Society: What is the Ewing Family of Tumors? Disease InfoSearch: Ewing's Sarcoma KidsHealth from Nemours MalaCards: ewing ... II: interactions between two members of the TET family, EWS and hTAFII68, and subunits of ... Park YK. Ewing sarcoma: a chronicle of molecular pathogenesis. Hum Pathol. 2016 May 28. ...

  13. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  14. sarcome d'ewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... TEp/TDM au FDg-18F apparaît plus sensible que la scintigraphie osseuse pla- naire et tomographique aux bisphosphonates-99mTc dans la récidive du sarco- me d'Ewing à localisations ostéomédullaires. À propos d'une observation de sar- come d'Ewing à localisation initiale mandibulaire et récidive ...

  15. A synergistic negative effect of gestational smoke-exposure and small litter size on rat placental efficiency, vascularisation and angiogenic factors mRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Smoking increases the risk of pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion and low birth weight (LBW. By cigarette smoke exposure (gestational day, GD3-17, normal-litter-size pregnancy with low birth weight (NP-LBW and small-litter-size pregnancy with normal birth weight (SP-NBW in rats were induced. The placental weight in SP-NBW was twice the weight of the normal in contrast with the smaller placenta in NP-LBW. Compared with the normal, placental efficiency (expressed as fetus-to-placenta weight ratio and placental vascularisation were significantly decreased in smoke exposed placentas with more obvious decrease in SP-NBW. For NP-LBW, decreased placental vascularisation was due to decreased labyrinth vascularisation which was caused by both decreased number density and diameter of fetal capillary. For SP-NBW, decreased placental vascularisation was due to reduced proportion of labyrinth in placenta and decreased labyrinth vascularisation which was caused by decreased fetal capillary number density. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed a tendency for decreased placental mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1 and tyrosine kinase receptor-2 (Tie2 in NP-LBW(P<0.1, and the tendency became obvious in SP-NBW(P<0.05. A tendency for decreased placental mRNA level of fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(Flt1 and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2 was also observed in SP-LBW(P<0.1. Our data demonstrated the synergistic negative effect of gestational smoke-exposure and small litter size on placental efficiency, placental vascularisation and placental angiogenic growth factor mRNA expression in rat.

  16. Genetic parameters for androstenone and skatole as indicators of boar taint and their relationship to production and litter size traits in Danish Landrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I. H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    to production and litter size traits. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The concentrations were log-transformed to align phenotypic measures to a normal distribution. Heritability estimates for Log...... genetic correlations with the production traits. Most noticeable, a favorable genetic correlation of -0.20 between meat percentage and Log(skatole) was estimated and hence continued selection for lean pigs can also slowly reduce the level of boar taint if the desired carcass weight is kept constant...

  17. Genome-wide association analyses using a Bayesian approach for litter size and piglet mortality in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Su, Guosheng; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Janss, Luc; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2016-06-18

    Litter size and piglet mortality are important traits in pig production. The study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for litter size and mortality traits, including total number of piglets born (TNB), litter size at day 5 (LS5) and mortality rate before day 5 (MORT) in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire pigs by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The phenotypic records and genotypes were available in 5,977 Landrace pigs and 6,000 Yorkshire pigs born from 1998 to 2014. A linear mixed model (LM) with a single SNP regression and a Bayesian mixture model (BM) including effects of all SNPs simultaneously were used for GWAS to detect significant QTL association. The response variable used in the GWAS was corrected phenotypic value which was obtained by adjusting original observations for non-genetic effects. For BM, the QTL region was determined by using a novel post-Gibbs analysis based on the posterior mixture probability. The detected association patterns from LM and BM models were generally similar. However, BM gave more distinct detection signals than LM. The clearer peaks from BM indicated that the BM model has an advantage in respect of identifying and distinguishing regions of putative QTL. Using BM and QTL region analysis, for the three traits and two breeds a total of 15 QTL regions were identified on SSC1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13 and 14. Among these QTL regions, 6 regions located on SSC2, 3, 6, 7 and 13 were associated with more than one trait. This study detected QTL regions associated with litter size and piglet mortality traits in Danish pigs using a novel approach of post-Gibbs analysis based on posterior mixture probability. All of the detected QTL regions overlapped with regions previously reported for reproduction traits. The regions commonly detected in different traits and breeds could be resources for multi-trait and across-bred selection. The proposed novel QTL region analysis method would be a good alternative to detect and define QTL

  18. Fukushima simulation experiment: assessing the effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal 137Cs radiation exposure on litter size, sex ratio, and biokinetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Todo, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the transgenerational effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, 18 generations of mice were maintained in a radioisotope facility, with free access to drinking water containing (137)CsCl (0 and 100 Bq/ml). The (137)Cs distribution in the organs of the mice was measured after long-term ad libitum intake of the (137)CsCl water. The litter size and the sex ratio of the group ingesting the (137)Cs water were compared with those of the control group, for all 18 generations of mice. No significant difference was noted in the litter size or the sex ratio between the mice in the control group and those in the group ingesting the (137)Cs water. The fixed internal exposure doses were ∼160 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g in the muscles and other organs, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. The influence of dominant lethal mutations on litter size and body weight and the consequent impact on transgenerational carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, Paul B. [RiskMuTox, 131 Clemson Drive, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8077 (United States)]. E-mail: pbs@mac.com; Earhart, Vicki S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8077 (United States); Raymer, G. Douglas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8077 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The reported untreated mouse control data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assessment of dominant damage (ADD) experiments demonstrate a strong negative correlation between body weight at 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks of age and number in litter at 3 weeks of age. Independently from the above finding, mother mice are also shown to differ substantially as to the mean weights of their litters. Much literature suggests that, as a general rule (a) heavier mice are more likely to develop spontaneous and induced tumors earlier and (b) caloric restriction decreases body weights and tumor incidences and increases longevity. The above findings make it likely that many experiments that have been interpreted to demonstrate radiation-induced transgenerational carcinogenesis have instead merely illustrated a confounding effect of extensive induced dominant lethality. That is, because of induced dominant lethality, experimental groups contain heavier mice or rats, which accordingly develop more spontaneous tumors at a faster rate than control groups, with the increased tumor rates having nothing to do with induction of dominant tumor mutations. Our findings prompt suggestions as to possible modifications in the analysis and experimental design of such experiments.

  20. Progress on major genes for high fecundity in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyue LIU,Zhangyuan PAN,Xiangyu WANG,Wenping HU,Ran DI,Yaxing YAO,Mingxing CHU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of major genes affecting fecundity in sheep flocks throughout the world has been demonstrated. Three major genes whose mutations can increase ovulation rate have been discovered, and all related to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily. The mutant FecB of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B has an additive effect on ovulation rate. Six mutations (FecXI, FecXH, FecXG, FecXB, FecXL, FecXR of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 related with fertility have been identified that share the same mechanism. All the mutants can increase ovulation rate in heterozygotes and cause complete sterility in homozygotes. Homozygous ewes with two new mutations (FecXGr, FecXO of BMP15 had increased ovulation rate without causing sterility. There are five mutations in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 associated with sheep prolificacy where FecGE and FecGF have additive an effect on ovulation rate and litter size. The newly identified β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4GALNT2 gene of FecL is proposed as a new mechanism of ovulation rate regulation in sheep. Woodlands is an X-linked maternally imprinted gene which increases ovulation rate. In addition, several putative major genes need to be verified. This review is focused on the identification of the mutations and mechanisms whereby the major genes affecting ovulation rate.

  1. Physiological adaptations to reproduction. I. Experimentally increasing litter size enhances aspects of antioxidant defence but does not cause oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Pichaud, Nicolas; King, Edith D Aloise; Brooks, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Life history theory suggests that investment in reproduction can trade off against growth, longevity and both reproduction and performance later in life. One possible reason for this trade-off is that reproduction directly causes somatic damage. Oxidative stress, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in relation to cellular defences, can correlate with reproductive investment and has been implicated as a pathway leading to senescence. This has led to the suggestion that this aspect of physiology could be an important mechanism underlying the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. We manipulated female reproductive investment to test whether oxidative stress increases with reproduction in mice. Each female's pups were cross-fostered to produce litters of either two or eight, representing low and high levels of reproductive investment for wild mice. No differences were observed between reproductive groups at peak lactation for several markers of oxidative stress in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle. Surprisingly, oxidative damage to proteins was lower in the livers of females with a litter size of eight than in females with two pups or non-reproductive control females. While protein oxidation decreased, activity levels of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased in the liver, suggesting this may be one pathway used to protect against oxidative stress. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting correlative relationships and suggest that oxidative stress does not increase with enhanced reproductive effort during lactation.

  2. Polymorphisms of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes and their relationships with litter size in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingxing; Xiao, Chaoting; Feng, Tao; Fu, Yan; Cao, Guiling; Fang, Li; Di, Ran; Tang, Qianqian; Huang, Dongwei; Ma, Yuehui; Li, Kui; Li, Ning

    2012-03-01

    The KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes were studied as candidate genes for the prolificacy in sheep. Four pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 1 of KiSS-1 gene and exon 1, exon 2 and partial exon 5 of GPR54 gene in high fecundity breeds (Small Tail Han and Hu sheep) and low fecundity breeds (Dorset, Texel and Corriedale sheep) by PCR-SSCP. Polymorphisms in exon 1 of KiSS-1 gene were detected in prolific Small Tail Han sheep (AA, AB and BB genotypes) and Hu sheep (AA and CC genotypes), no polymorphism was found in low fecundity sheep breeds (only AA genotype). Polymorphisms in exon 2 of GPR54 gene were detected in prolific Hu sheep (DD and EE genotypes) and no polymorphism was found in prolific Small Tail Han sheep and low fecundity sheep breeds (only DD genotype). No polymorphism was detected in exon 1 and partial exon 5 of GPR54 gene in five sheep breeds. The polymorphic genotypes were sequenced. While compared the BB genotype with the AA genotype, one nucleotide mutation (G1035A) was detected, which resulted in amino acid change, Val25Met. Five nucleotide mutations were detected from AA to CC genotype (C981T, C996T, T997C, C1034G, C1039T), and among them four caused amino acid changes, that is, Arg7Trp, Phe12Leu, Asn24Lys, Ala26Val. While compared the EE genotype with the DD genotype, two nucleotide mutations (T2360C, A2411C) were detected, which gave rise to amino acid changes, Met90Thr and Asp107Ala, respectively. Genotype frequencies of AA, BB and AB were 0.62, 0.05 and 0.33 in Small Tail Han sheep, respectively. The Small Tail Han sheep ewes with genotype BB or AB had 0.88 (P 0.05) lambs more than those with genotype AB. These results preliminarily indicated that the KiSS-1 gene may have some association with prolificacy in sheep.

  3. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Vaginoscopy in Ewes Utilizing a Laparoscopic Surgical Port Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Easley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginoscopy allows for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the vaginal vault. A laparoscopic surgical port device and rigid telescope were utilized for serial vaginoscopy in 8 healthy anesthetized ewes. Vaginoscopy examinations were performed in each ewe at days 1, 14, and 28. This technique was well-tolerated and facilitated carbon dioxide vaginal inflation, complete vaginal examination, identification of the cervix, and targeted biopsy collection. No complications were encountered during or following the vaginoscopy procedures. The laparoscopic port device was well-suited to the ewe vulvar size. This technique could be applied to clinical evaluation in ewes for the purposes of examination, biopsy, culture, foreign body removal, and minor surgical procedures.

  5. Suckling in litters with different sizes, and early and late swimming exercise differentially modulates anxiety-like behavior, memory and electrocorticogram potentiation after spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-11-28

    Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L 6 and L 12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised. Behavioral tests (open field - OF and object recognition - OR) were conducted between P77 and P80. Between P90 and P120, ECoG was recorded for 2 hours. After this 'baseline' recording, CSD was elicited every 30 minutes over the course of 2 hours. Early swimming enhanced the number of entries and the percentage of time in the OF-center (P < 0.05). In animals that swam later, this effect occurred in the L6 group only. Compared to the corresponding sedentary groups, OR-test showed a better memory in the L6 early exercised rats, and a worse memory in all other groups (P < 0.05). In comparison to baseline values, ECoG amplitudes after CSD increased 14-43% for all groups (P < 0.05). In the L 6 condition, early swimming and late swimming, respectively, reduced and enhanced the magnitude of the post-CSD ECoG potentiation in comparison with the corresponding L 6 no-exercised groups (P < 0.05). Our data suggest a differential effect of early- and late-exercise on the behavioral and electrophysiological parameters, suggesting an interaction between the age of exercise and the nutritional status during lactation.

  6. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  7. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cranston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0 and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a “Moderate’ or ‘Unrestricted’ nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning. The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM/ha (Moderate and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted. Results There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05 on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  8. Circannual body reserve dynamics and metabolic profile changes in Romane ewes grazing on rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Gozzo de Figuereido, V; Foulquie, D; Jousserand, E; Autran, P; Camous, S; Tesniere, A; Bocquier, F; Jouven, M

    2014-01-01

    Throughout an entire year, 41 Romane ewes reared in an extensive rangeland were used to investigate temporal changes in body reserves (BRs) and profiles of related metabolites and metabolic hormones. Ewes were allocated to homogeneous groups according to BW and BCS and were distributed by parity (primiparous [PRIM], n = 21; multiparous [MULT], n = 20) and litter size (LSi; lambing singletons [SING], n = 21 or TWINS, n = 20). The feeding system was based on rotational grazing of rangeland paddocks and progressive supplementation with hay, silage, and barley at late pregnancy during the winter. Individual BW, BCS, plasma NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), glucose, insulin, leptin, and triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored at -56, -12, 8, 49, 76, 107, 156, 195, 216, 246, and 301 d relative to lambing. The BR mobilization was observed from late pregnancy to the end of suckling and varied as a function of the ewe energy balance but also because of transitions from fertilized to native rangeland paddocks and by supplementation. Contrarily, BR accretion occurred from weaning, during the dry-off, and until the start of the next pregnancy. Lipolysis was well reflected by NEFA, β-OHB, and T3 kinetics. Mean BW (but not mean BCS) was affected by parity (MULT > PRIM), whereas both BW and BCS were influenced by LSi (SING > TWINS) but only for MULT. The most drastic BW loss was observed during the mid-suckling period (49 d in milk [DIM]) in all ewes. The lack of effects of LSi in PRIM but not in MULT was also evident in the majority of blood plasma kinetics, which were affected (P MULT by TWINS; 99.91 vs 85.52 ng/dL) and during suckling (111.7 ± 4.18 ng/dL). Lamb BW was affected at birth and weaning by parity (MULT > PRIM) and LSi (SING > TWINS). Overall, temporal changes in BR were directly affected by the transition of physiological states and feeding levels, whereas individual responses were predetermined by parity. In MULT, the reactivity and magnitude of response was

  9. Leukocyte changes in pregnant Yankasa ewes experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy and trypanosomosis are associated with leukocyte changes. The leukocyte response of pregnant Yankasa ewes during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection was determined using twenty pregnant ewes. They ewes were divided into 3 groups with 6 ewes in group A, while groups B and C were made up of ...

  10. Haematological evaluation of pregnant ewes fed broiler - litter based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood is a transport medium for the body which plays an active role in sustainability and survival of the organism. Haematological indices reflect the effect of dietary treatments on the animal especially the type and amount of feed ingested and available for the animal to meet its body requirements. A study was carried out for ...

  11. Species mixture effects on flammability across plant phylogeny: the importance of litter particle size and the special role for non-Pinus Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Cornwell, William K; van Pomeren, Marinda; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-11-01

    Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability. We conducted controlled laboratory burns for 34 phylogenetically wide-ranging species and 34 random two-species mixtures from them. Generally, phylogenetic distance did not predict species mixture effects on flammability. Across the plant phylogeny, most species were flammable except those in the non-Pinus Pinaceae, which shed small needles producing dense, poorly ventilated litterbeds above the packing threshold and therefore nonflammable. Consistently, either positive or negative dominance effects on flammability of certain flammable or those non-flammable species were found in mixtures involving the non-Pinus Pinaceae. We demonstrate litter particle size is key to explaining species nonadditivity in fuelbed flammability. The potential of certain species to influence fire disproportionately to their abundance might increase the positive feedback effects of plant flammability on community flammability state if flammable species are favored by fire.

  12. Use of meta-analysis to combine candidate gene association studies: application to study the relationship between the ESR PvuII polymorphism and sow litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Leopoldo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the application of meta-analysis on livestock candidate gene effects. The PvuII polymorphism of the ESR gene is used as an example. The association among ESR PvuII alleles with the number of piglets born alive and total born in the first (NBA1, TNB1 and later parities (NBA, TNB is reviewed by conducting a meta-analysis of 15 published studies including 9329 sows. Under a fixed effects model, litter size values were significantly lower in the "AA" genotype groups when compared with "AB" and "BB" homozygotes. Under the random effects model, the results were similar although differences between "AA" and "AB" genotype groups were not clearly significant for NBA and TNB. Nevertheless, the most noticeable result was the high and significant heterogeneity estimated among studies. This heterogeneity could be assigned to error sampling, genotype by environment interaction, linkage or epistasis, as referred to in the literature, but also to the hypothesis of population admixture/stratification. It is concluded that meta-analysis can be considered as a helpful analytical tool to synthesise and discuss livestock candidate gene effects. The main difficulty found was the insufficient information on the standard errors of the estimated genotype effects in several publications. Consequently, the convenience of publishing the standard errors or the concrete P-values instead of the test significance level should be recommended to guarantee the quality of candidate gene effect meta-analyses.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for Ewing sarcoma may cause side effects. Five types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Surgery Targeted therapy High-dose chemotherapy ...

  14. General Information about Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for Ewing sarcoma may cause side effects. Five types of standard treatment are used: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Surgery Targeted therapy High-dose chemotherapy ...

  15. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

  16. Improving basic and translational science by accounting for litter-to-litter variation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E; Essioux, Laurent

    2013-03-22

    Animals from the same litter are often more alike compared with animals from different litters. This litter-to-litter variation, or "litter effects", can influence the results in addition to the experimental factors of interest. Furthermore, sometimes an experimental treatment can only be applied to whole litters rather than to individual offspring. An example is the valproic acid (VPA) model of autism, where VPA is administered to pregnant females thereby inducing the disease phenotype in the offspring. With this type of experiment the sample size is the number of litters and not the total number of offspring. If such experiments are not appropriately designed and analysed, the results can be severely biased as well as extremely underpowered. A review of the VPA literature showed that only 9% (3/34) of studies correctly determined that the experimental unit (n) was the litter and therefore made valid statistical inferences. In addition, litter effects accounted for up to 61% (p<0.001) of the variation in behavioural outcomes, which was larger than the treatment effects. In addition, few studies reported using randomisation (12%) or blinding (18%), and none indicated that a sample size calculation or power analysis had been conducted. Litter effects are common, large, and ignoring them can make replication of findings difficult and can contribute to the low rate of translating preclinical in vivo studies into successful therapies. Only a minority of studies reported using rigorous experimental methods, which is consistent with much of the preclinical in vivo literature.

  17. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  18. Radiological Findings of Primary Retroperitoneal Ewing Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulusan, S.; Koc, Z.; Tuba Canpolat, E.; Colakoglu, T. [Depts. of Radiology, Pathology, and General Surgery, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-09-15

    Ewing sarcomas are most commonly located in bone, while extra skeletal involvement of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. We describe the radiologic and pathological findings in an adult patient with retroperitoneal extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma. Keywords: Color Doppler ultrasound; computed tomography; extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound.

  19. Spinal Ewing sarcoma: Misleading appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.B.; Siegel, M.J.; Griffith, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    The plain radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) findings in two unusual cases of spinal Ewing sarcoma are reported. Radiographic features resembling neuroblastoma in one case and aneurysmal bone cyst in the other were present. These findings may be misleading and distinguishing characteristics in each case are discussed.

  20. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  1. Study of mutations available in first-halfexon 2 of GDF9 gene in crossbred sheep born from crossing of Romanov rams with Kermani ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Khodabakhshzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For decreasing the numberofbreedingewes onpastures and prevention of demolition pastures, Animal breedingprograms are necessary on genes with major effects on litter size in Iranian sheep breeds for Identify effective candidate genes on these economical traits .The GDF9 gene is one of the most important effective factors on litter size in sheep. The aim of the present study was to identify G2, G3 and G4 mutations in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in crossbred sheep (Romanov rams×Kermani ewes using PCR-SSCP. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of 121 crossbred individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted using salting-out method. Partial region of exon 2 (633 bp segments of GDF9 gene was amplified with designed specific primers. The single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP patterns of PCR products were studied using acrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver-nitrate staining method. Finally, we obtained 5 banding patterns 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 with frequencies of 0.314, 0.024, 0.289, 0.232 & 0.141, respectively. The sequencing results showed presence 5 mutations in the studied population.

  2. Pulse frequency and soil-litter mixing alter the control of cumulative precipitation over litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, François-Xavier; Kurupas, Kelsey L; Throop, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Macroclimate has traditionally been considered the predominant driver of litter decomposition. However, in drylands, cumulative monthly or annual precipitation typically fails to predict decomposition. In these systems, the windows of opportunity for decomposer activity may rather depend on the precipitation frequency and local factors affecting litter desiccation, such as soil-litter mixing. We used a full-factorial microcosm experiment to disentangle the relative importance of cumulative precipitation, pulse frequency, and soil-litter mixing on litter decomposition. Decomposition, measured as litter carbon loss, saturated with increasing cumulative precipitation when pulses were large and infrequent, suggesting that litter moisture no longer increased and/or microbial activity was no longer limited by water availability above a certain pulse size. More frequent precipitation pulses led to increased decomposition at high levels of cumulative precipitation. Soil-litter mixing consistently increased decomposition, with greatest relative increase (+194%) under the driest conditions. Collectively, our results highlight the need to consider precipitation at finer temporal scale and incorporate soil-litter mixing as key driver of decomposition in drylands. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Litter quality mediated nitrogen effect on plant litter decomposition regardless of soil fauna presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Chao, Lin; Yang, Qingpeng; Wang, Qingkui; Fang, Yunting; Wang, Silong

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen addition has been shown to affect plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. The way that nitrogen deposition impacts the relationship between plant litter decomposition and altered soil nitrogen availability is unclear, however. This study examined 18 co-occurring litter types in a subtropical forest in China in terms of their decomposition (1 yr of exposure in the field) with nitrogen addition treatment (0, 0.4, 1.6, and 4.0 mol·N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ) and soil fauna exclusion (litter bags with 0.1 and 2 cm mesh size). Results showed that the plant litter decomposition rate is significantly reduced because of nitrogen addition; the strength of the nitrogen addition effect is closely related to the nitrogen addition levels. Plant litters with diverse quality responded to nitrogen addition differently. When soil fauna was present, the nitrogen addition effect on medium-quality or high-quality plant litter decomposition rate was -26% ± 5% and -29% ± 4%, respectively; these values are significantly higher than that of low-quality plant litter decomposition. The pattern is similar when soil fauna is absent. In general, the plant litter decomposition rate is decreased by soil fauna exclusion; an average inhibition of -17% ± 1.5% was exhibited across nitrogen addition treatment and litter quality groups. However, this effect is weakly related to nitrogen addition treatment and plant litter quality. We conclude that the variations in plant litter quality, nitrogen deposition, and soil fauna are important factors of decomposition and nutrient cycling in a subtropical forest ecosystem. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Genetic parameters for litter size, piglet growth and sow's early growth and body composition in the Chinese-European line Tai Zumu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, M; Riquet, J; Bahon, D; Sourdioux, M; Canario, L

    2015-08-01

    Genetics of piglet growth in association with sow's early growth and body composition were estimated in the Tai Zumu line. Piglet and sow's litter growth traits were calculated from individual weights collected at birth and at 3 weeks of age. Sow's litter traits included the number of piglets born alive (NBA), the mean piglet weight (MW) and the standard deviation of weights within the litter (SDW). Sow's early growth was measured by the age at 100 kg (A100), and body composition included backfat thickness (BF100). A main objective of this study was to estimate separately the direct genetic effect (d) and the maternal genetic effect (m) on piglet weight and daily weight gain during lactation. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood methodology based on animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.19 for NBA, 0.15 and 0.26 for SDW and MW at 3 weeks and 0.42 and 0.70 for A100 and BF100. The NBA was almost independent from SDW. Conversely, the A100 and BF100 were correlated unfavourably with SDW (rg piglet weight at birth and daily weight gain accounted for 12% (h(²) (d) = 0.02) and 50% (h(²) (d) = 0.11) of the genetic variance, respectively. The association between d and m for piglet weight was not different from zero at birth (rg = 0.19, SE = 0.27), but a strong antagonism between d and m for daily weight gain from birth to 3 weeks was found (rg = -0.41, SE = 0.17). Substantial direct and maternal genetic effects influenced piglet growth until weaning in opposite way. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  6. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  7. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  8. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . Additionally, the amount of dam calls after separation decreased with the litter size (P=0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal motivation. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in studies of the optimal separation age in mink....

  9. Compaction of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, M; Fasina, O O; Fulton, J; Wood, C W

    2010-01-01

    Poultry litter, a combination of accumulated chicken manure, feathers and bedding materials, is a potential feedstock for bioenergy and other value-added applications. The use of this waste product has been historically limited to within few miles of the place of generation because of its inherent low density. Compaction is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the litter. This study therefore investigates the effect of moisture content (19.8-70.7%, d.b.) and pressure (0.8-8.4 MPa) on the compaction characteristics of poultry litter. Results obtained showed that the initial density of densified poultry litter, energy required for compaction and the strength of the densified material after 2 months of storage were significantly (Ppoultry litter.

  10. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  11. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 125 pregnant ewes were used to investigate live mass change during late pregnancy and lactation, while wool production (derived from 10 x 10 cm midrib squares tattooed on the right side of the ewes) was studied with 57 of these ewes. Data from 130 lambs, alive on the ewes at weaning, were used to determine ...

  12. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pcalm 1.83; nervous 1.57; Pcalm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pcalm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect differences in energy utilisation.

  13. Influence of Tree Characters and Climate on Litter Characteristics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litter production and decomposition rates have great importance in maintaining the fertility of the soil. The study was carried out to determine the relationship tree characters (girth size, canopy radius, tree height, leaf area and number of primary branches), litter production and quality, and climatic variables among stands of ...

  14. Litter Decomposition Rates, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains decomposition rates for litter of Salicornia pacifica, Distichlis spicata, and Deschampsia cespitosa buried at 7 tidal marsh sites in 2015....

  15. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  16. Immature rumen fluke cause deaths of ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-26

    Ewe deaths due to immature rumen flukeAmyloidosis in a Suffolk-cross lambHaemonchosis in Valais blacknose ewesDeaths and diarrhoea due to Salmonella Reading in 26-week-old giltsFeline dysautonomia in a kittenThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  17. Effects of Physical Size of Clinoptilolite on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Litter Quality of Broiler Chickens in the Growing Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizadian Kavan B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 448 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were assigned to seven treatments with four replicates, each containing 16 chicks. The birds were reared from d 21 to 42 and effects of physical sizes (ad libitum by a basal commercial broiler diet with 3050 Kcal/Kg ME and 19.06% CP/Kg from 21 to 42 d. The chickens which received clinoptilolite (1.5% with particle size of 0.4-0.8 mm showed a significant increase in body weight gain compared to the control group birds receiving no  clinoptilolite (P

  18. High Efficacy of Preoperative Low-Dose Radiotherapy with Sanazole (AK-2123 for Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Sakabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from Ewing's sarcoma of bone. We report a case of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma with several systemic problems. A 69-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of a rapidly enlarging mass in the right thigh. Because preoperative radiotherapy with sanazole (AK-2123 contributed the tumor mass reduction down to 40% in size, the tumor was successfully resected with clear surgical margins and repaired with a musculocutaneous flap. The high efficacy of pre-operative low-dose radiotherapy with sanazole was histologically confirmed that the resected tumor specimen involved no viable tumor cells and showed 100% necrosis. Based on clinical outcomes in this case, the combined modality of pre-operative low-dose radiotherapy with hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and adequate surgical resection might provide for the useful clinical application of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma treatment.

  19. Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis: changes over 25 years in treatment and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, J. M.; Oldenburger, F.; de Kraker, J.; van Bunningen, B. N.; van der Eijken, J. W.; Delemarre, J. F.; Staalman, C. R.; Voûte, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The pelvic localisations of Ewing's sarcoma have the worst prognosis due to large size at diagnosis, frequent distant metastases, radiosensitive organs next to the tumour and difficult surgery. The purpose of the present study was to analyse treatment results over a period of 25 years and to

  20. Udder and linear body measurement in ewes and does in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the results of the present study, it could be recommended that partial milk yield could possibly be determined based on udder size and teat length in extensively managed does and ewes respectively. Kid's heart girth could be a good indicator of doe's milk production. Keywords: Udder, linear body measurement, ...

  1. Adverbial Placement in Ewe: A Role and Reference Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looks at adverbial placement and interpretation in Ewe. It takes from English adverbial placement in which several positions are possible. Implicitly, it looks at what is the same compared to English and what is different when we look at adverbials in Ewe. The study looks at Ewe adverbials from a Role and ...

  2. Adverbial Placement in Ewe: A Role and Reference Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a description of Ewe adverb placement and interpretation from an RRG (Role and Reference Grammar) perspective. Ewe is a member of the Kwa branch of Niger Congo languages. It is also described as a dialect of GBE (Capo 1982). GBE is a cluster of five languages; Aja,. Ewe, Fon, Gen, and Phla-Phera.

  3. Aesthetics of Africanmusic and dance revisited: Acase of the ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the aesthetics of Ewe music and dance from a multidisciplinary perspective, and the biological, socioeconomic, religious, and political factors that shape Ewe music and dance and form the basis of their evaluation. It focuses on the Ewe music and dance and culture but draws from other African cultures.

  4. Taste preferences of west African dwarf ewes at different trimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taste preferences of pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) ewes were studied at different trimester periods using the multiple choice preference test method. A total of twelve WAD ewes of average body weight of 15.96 ± 4.17 kg, divided into two groups (A and B) were used for the study. Six pregnant ewes (in group A) served ...

  5. Genetic and environmental parameters for ewe productivity in Merinos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 3272 lambing records collected on 818 ewes born from 689 dams and sired by 371 rams were used in the evaluation of ewe lifetime productivity (total number born, number weaned and total weight weaned). These records were collected from ewes born from 1969 to 1994 and which gave birth during the period ...

  6. Short Communications The effect of shearing pregnant ewes prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About half of the 50-5 winter-lambing SA Mutton Merino ewes were shorn at four or fewer weeks prior to lambing at the Outeniqua. Experimental farm near George in July-August 1991 and 1992.The rernaining ewes, with a 6 - 7-month fleece, were only crutched. The reproduction of all these ewes was monitored, while data ...

  7. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  8. Modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual para descrever o tamanho da leitegada Random regression models with different residual variance structures for describing litter size in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Cavalcante-Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual, a fim de se buscar a melhor modelagem para a característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer (TLN. Utilizaram-se 1.701 registros de TLN, que foram analisados por meio de modelo animal, unicaracterística, de regressão aleatória. As regressões fixa e aleatórias foram representadas por funções contínuas sobre a ordem de parto, ajustadas por polinômios ortogonais de Legendre de ordem 3. Para averiguar a melhor modelagem para a variância residual, considerou-se a heterogeneidade de variância por meio de 1 a 7 classes de variância residual. O modelo geral de análise incluiu grupo de contemporâneo como efeito fixo; os coeficientes de regressão fixa para modelar a trajetória média da população; os coeficientes de regressão aleatória do efeito genético aditivo-direto, do comum-de-leitegada e do de ambiente permanente de animal; e o efeito aleatório residual. O teste da razão de verossimilhança, o critério de informação de Akaike e o critério de informação bayesiano de Schwarz apontaram o modelo que considerou homogeneidade de variância como o que proporcionou melhor ajuste aos dados utilizados. As herdabilidades obtidas foram próximas a zero (0,002 a 0,006. O efeito de ambiente permanente foi crescente da 1ª (0,06 à 5ª (0,28 ordem, mas decrescente desse ponto até a 7ª ordem (0,18. O comum-de-leitegada apresentou valores baixos (0,01 a 0,02. A utilização de homogeneidade de variância residual foi mais adequada para modelar as variâncias associadas à característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer nesse conjunto de dado.The objective of this work was to compare random regression models with different residual variance structures, so as to obtain the best modeling for the trait litter size at birth (LSB in swine. One thousand, seven hundred and one records of LSB were analyzed. LSB was analyzed by means of a

  9. Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F.; Long, Nathan M.; Shasa, Desiree R.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P gestation, whereas fetal size and weight did not differ among dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P gestation, whereas plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, insulin, and cortisol remained elevated in MO vs. CON and MOI ewes and fetuses, glucose concentrations were elevated in both MO and MOI fetuses compared with CON fetuses, which was associated with elevated placental GLUT3 expression in both groups. These data are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese/overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics. PMID:23921140

  10. The Effect of the Litter Materials on Broiler Chickens Welfare and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Gençoğlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the quality and types of the litter material and its effect on the welfare and performance of the broiler chickens. Since the most suitable broiler rearing system is on the littered floor, the litter material is of great importance. Demand for litter material is also increasing, depending on the development in broiler production. Straws, wood shavings, and sawdust are widely used as litters material. Beside these, materials such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflower, rice, hazelnut, maize, soya, peanut, cotton and sugarcane are used purely or mixed as a litters material. The quality of the litter is determined with the litter moisture, pH, ammonium nitrate content, caking level and water holding capacity. The ideal litter material should have a moisture content of 20-25%, a pH of 8-10, and ammonia content should not exceed 25 ppm. The thickness of the litter changes between 2 and 10 cm according to the type of the litter, and size of it should not exceed 0.6 cm. Increase in the litter moisture increases pH, NH3 concentration and caking. The type of litter material effects on the performance, welfare, health, behavior and product quality of broiler chickens. In addition, there are negative effects of litter materials on carcass defects, foot-leg problems, breast blisters or bruises, decrease in living power, and increase of microorganism development due to litter moisture, increase of gas and dust formation in poultry. These adverse effects cause large economic losses in intensive enterprises. For this reason, the quality and type of litter material is very important in broiler rearing.

  11. Ultrasonographic findings in the ovine udder during lactogenesis in healthy ewes or ewes with pregnancy toxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagianni, Mariana S; Gouletsou, Pagona G; Valasi, Irene; Petridis, Ioannis G; Giannenas, Ilias; Fthenakis, George C

    2015-08-01

    Objective of the study was to record, by means of ultrasonographic examination, changes occurring during lactogenesis in the udder of healthy ewes and of ewes with pregnancy toxaemia. The work was carried out in 28 ewes, 16 with pregnancy toxaemia (group A) and 12 healthy controls (group B). B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic examination of the udder of ewes was performed. During the last month of pregnancy, grey-scale intensity values of mammary parenchyma in group A were significantly greater than in group B (P = 0.007), as was also the progressive increase in grey-scale intensity values in both groups (P 0.35). Differences between group A and group B in all other haemodynamic parameters studied were not significant, neither throughout the last month of pregnancy (P > 0.25), nor during the first week of lactation (P > 0.06). However, their progressive changes during the last month of pregnancy were significant (P < 0.02).

  12. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFDARIAN

    South African Society for Animal Science. 229. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different oestrous synchronisation treatments outside the natural breeding season. M. Safdarian. 1#. , M. Kafi. 2 and M. Hashemi. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, Research Centre for Agriculture and Natural Resources, ...

  13. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (PMSG/PROG/PMSG) were included in the crperinrent because of preliminary success with this tre'atrnent irr post partum cattle (Lishman, unpublished). Seven ewes ovulated following the second PMSG injection. but none were detected in oestrus. Further. although corpora lutea had a nornral lifi:-span, peak progesterclne ...

  14. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oestrous cycles of the ewes in each group were synchronized using one of the following hormonal treatments: T1 - intramuscular (im) administration of 20 mg progesterone acetate in oil every second day for a 12-day period and an im administration of 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on day 12; ...

  15. Hypocalcemia in ewes after a drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.A.; Constable, P.D.; Napthine, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    A marked increase in the incidence of hypocalcemia of ewes 2 to 6 weeks before lambing was observed in the Western District of Victoria, following the break of the severe 1982/3 drought. A similar observation was made after the 1968 drought. In western Victoria, hypocalcemia is usually seen annually as sporadic cases or in sporadic outbreaks associated with some predisposing stress. After the drought broke in 1983, many farms reported cases of hypocalcemia in ewes. The incidence of hypocalcemia on the 9 farms the authors studied varied from 1 to 8% of all ewes, with some mobs having an incidence of over 10%. Detailed investigation of 9 farms that affected sheep were grazing pasture of unusually low calcium (Ca) content. Near record rains fell after the drought broke in late March 1983 resulting in luxuriant pasture growth with subterranean clover Trifolium subterraneum and capeweed Arctotheca calendula the dominant species. Cases of hypocalcemia commenced in May 1983 reaching a peak in June-July corresponding with flocks' lambing times, and continued into August. Most occurred spontaneously in mature ewes. A few farms experienced many cases during prelambing crutching.

  16. Descriptive characterization of a Nigerian heterogeneous rabbit population - factors affecting litter traits

    OpenAIRE

    Oseni, S.O.; Ajayi, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of female body weight at conception (FWC), season of mating (SM), type of mating (TM) and litter size at birth (LSB) on the litter performance in a heterogeneous Nigerian population of rabbits. Data on 116 litters from 10 bucks and 48 does across three parities were analysed. Reproductive traits evaluated included LSB, number born alive (NBA), litter sizes and weights at 7, 14 and 21 d post-kindling, pre-weaning survival rate (SR) and daily weight gain of kits ...

  17. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Pallowance until late pregnancy, this did not affect the behaviours that lead to the establishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  18. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  19. Childhood Ewing Sarcoma of the Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaar, Ahmad S; Zamzam, Manal; Abdalla, Badr; Magdi, Ranin; El-Kinaai, Naglaa

    2015-08-01

    In the span of the last 48 years, only 33 cases of children with orbital Ewing sarcoma have been reported. This study is to present 3 cases that were admitted to Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357, during the period from 2009 to 2013. We have 2 cases treated using the hospital standard Ewing sarcoma treatment protocol, to completion, whereas the third discontinued treatment. All tumors have confirmed CD99 positivity, although translocation (11;22) was positive in 1 patient and negative in the third. With earlier diagnosis and adequate surgical resection and integration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy 1 patient survived for about 4 years, whereas the other 2 cases died due to disease progression or recurrence.

  20. An Unusual Location of Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Geens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. ES also occurs as a primary soft tissue neoplasm without involvement of bone. We report the second case of extraosseous (EO ES emerging from the omentum and a review of the relevant literature. EO ES should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms in the abdomen.

  1. An Unusual Location of Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Lisanne; Robays, Johan Van; Geert, Verswijvel; der Speeten, Kurt Van

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. ES also occurs as a primary soft tissue neoplasm without involvement of bone. We report the second case of extraosseous (EO) ES emerging from the omentum and a review of the relevant literature. EO ES should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms in the abdomen. PMID:23898272

  2. FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES’ BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups’ intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

  3. Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas

    2010-08-04

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Centrifugal spreader mass and nutrients distribution patterns for application of fresh and aged poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, W D; Skowrońska, M; Bomke, A A

    2014-06-15

    A spin-type centrifugal spreader was evaluated using fresh and aged poultry litter upon dry mass, product nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), incubation study soil available N and particle size distribution patterns. Relative to the aged litter (37% moisture content), the fresh litter (17% moisture content) had greater litter, the broadcast fresh litter resulted in higher coefficients of variation (CV) over its transverse distance, a narrower calculated space distance between passes for uniform spread and lower soil available N concentrations. For nitrogen application over the broadcast transverse distance the fresh litter displayed a high R(2) best fit 4th order polynomial distribution pattern, while the aged litter showed high R(2) best fit 6th order polynomial distribution pattern. A soil incubation study of the fresh and aged broadcast litter resulted in a more variable or lower R(2) best fit 2nd order polynomial distribution pattern. For both the fresh and aged litter, the calculated distance between passes to achieve a uniform mass distribution was greater than that required for the broadcast of soil available N. For the fresh litter, the soil available N and litter P concentration levels strongly correlated (relatively high p and R(2) values) with the litter this relationship was not as significant. In addition to reducing the health risk (i.e. pathogens, antibiotic residues and resistant bacteria) and/or environment issues (particulate fallout onto waterways, adjacent fields and/or residences) our study mass, particulate and N distribution patterns results suggest that poultry litter should be allowed to age before broadcast application is attempted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovulatory response and embryo quality in Katahdin ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the superovulatory response (SR), embryo quality and embryonic development in Katahdin ewes that received a dietary supplement of palm oil (PO). Ten ewes were assigned to receive 35 g palm oil (n = 10, PO3) and 10 to receive 70 g palm oil (n = 10, PO6) for 25 days. On day 0, the ...

  6. Factors affecting reproduction in Merino ewes of the Tygerhoek flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Turner & Dolling, 1965; Atkins, 1980; Olivier, 1982; Fourie. & Heydenrych, 1983). Reproduction in ewes is also affected by birth type. Multiple born ewes tend to be superior to singles (Turner, 1969; Van der Westhuysen, 1973; Kritzinger, Stindt & Van der West- huysen, 1984). Contradictory results were, however, reported.

  7. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-14

    Apr 14, 1988 ... within 24 h from birth. In the case of twins, the smaller of the two lambs was removed and reared by hand. After they had been weighed, the ewes and their lambs were allocated at random to the respective treatment groups and the ewes given the first daily supplement directly into the rumen.

  8. The Relationship between Milk Constituents of Lactating Ewes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between milk constituents of ewes and linear body measurements of their lambs maintained under a semi-intensive management system. Twenty-eight ewes comprising 10 Yankasa (YA), 8 West African Dwarf (WAD) and 10 crossbred (YAxWAD) sheep with body ...

  9. lh) in ewes deprived of prolactin during lactaticin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study aimed to ertablish whether prolactin secretion in lactating ewes influences the release of LH, and the respoffe of the ovary to gonadotropin stimulation. 20 Merino ewes which tambed over an eight-day penod u'ere diyided into two comparable groups of l0 animals. Between day l0 and 20 post-parlurn the lactaiing ...

  10. PLASMA LUTEINIZING HORIIONE LEVEIS IN EWES FAILING TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyclfu ewes (or;stnts). Tebh 2. Plssna LH leyets in alr;esnous ewa conthrmtsly osnciatd with mnls and silrtib erres islatd lrcm aa,ms. Plane of nutrition drning hctatiqr. Reproductiro state during lactatiqr. Age of ... not exhibiting oestrus during lactation (A) compared to dioestrous levels of two randomly selected cycling ewes (B).

  11. Tumor - host immune interactions in Ewing sarcoma : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on various aspects of tumor - host (immune) interactions in Ewing sarcoma patients with the aim to obtain leads for immunotherapeutic or targeted treatment strategies. We demonstrate a key role for interferon gamma (IFNg) in enhancing both Ewing sarcoma immunogenicity and

  12. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes grazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of copper and selenium supplementationi n SA Mutton Merino ewes, kept on pastures with low copper and selenium concentrations, was investigated. Ewes which came into oestrus and conceived during March to April, were found to have concentrations of plasma copper of 60 to 80 pg /dl. Inadequare copper ...

  13. Genetic parameters for ewe reproduction with objectively measured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ewe reproduction with objectively measured wool traits in Elsenburg Merino flock. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... in the Western Cape, South Africa, were used to investigate the genetic parameters for ewe reproduction traits and their relationship with objectively measured wool traits.

  14. Effects of exogenous oxytocin on cervical penetration of Iranian ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has no significant effect on induced cervix penetration by OT. Therefore, this dose is the applicable dose for the cervix dilation and transcervical artificial insemination and embryo recovery in Iranian ewes. Key words: Iranian ewes, oxytocin, cervical dilation, transcervical artificial insemination, transcervical embryo transfer.

  15. Conception rate and fecundity of Dohne Merino ewes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-formulated creep feed and lick was provided to the lambs and ewes, respectively, on an ad libitum basis. The experimental animals ... However, the sustainability of such a system needs to be tested further to determine the effect of the accelerated system on the productive lifespan of the ewes. Keywords: Accelerated ...

  16. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent selection for multiple rearing ability from the same base population. ... likely than those in the H line to graze. The latter group of ewes was more likely to stand with their offspring at this stage. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 57-65 ...

  17. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  18. Leaf litter quality drives litter mixing effects through complementary resource use among detritivores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, V.C.A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berg, M.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Berendse, F.

    2013-01-01

    To comprehend the potential consequences of biodiversity loss on the leaf litter decomposition process, a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms is necessary. Here, we hypothesize that positive litter mixture effects occur via complementary resource use, when litter species complement

  19. Leaf litter quality drives litter mixing effects through complementary resource use among detritivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, V.C.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berg, M.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Berendse, F.

    2013-01-01

    To comprehend the potential consequences of biodiversity loss on the leaf litter decomposition process, a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms is necessary. Here, we hypothesize that positive litter mixture effects occur via complementary resource use, when litter species complement

  20. Universal Distribution of Litter Decay Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, D. C.; Rothman, D. H.

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of litter is the result of many physical, chemical and biological processes. The high variability of these processes likely accounts for the progressive slowdown of decay with litter age. This age dependence is commonly thought to result from the superposition of processes with different decay rates k. Here we assume an underlying continuous yet unknown distribution p(k) of decay rates [1]. To seek its form, we analyze the mass-time history of 70 LIDET [2] litter data sets obtained under widely varying conditions. We construct a regularized inversion procedure to find the best fitting distribution p(k) with the least degrees of freedom. We find that the resulting p(k) is universally consistent with a lognormal distribution, i.e.~a Gaussian distribution of log k, characterized by a dataset-dependent mean and variance of log k. This result is supported by a recurring observation that microbial populations on leaves are log-normally distributed [3]. Simple biological processes cause the frequent appearance of the log-normal distribution in ecology [4]. Environmental factors, such as soil nitrate, soil aggregate size, soil hydraulic conductivity, total soil nitrogen, soil denitrification, soil respiration have been all observed to be log-normally distributed [5]. Litter degradation rates depend on many coupled, multiplicative factors, which provides a fundamental basis for the lognormal distribution. Using this insight, we systematically estimated the mean and variance of log k for 512 data sets from the LIDET study. We find the mean strongly correlates with temperature and precipitation, while the variance appears to be uncorrelated with main environmental factors and is thus likely more correlated with chemical composition and/or ecology. Results indicate the possibility that the distribution in rates reflects, at least in part, the distribution of microbial niches. [1] B. P. Boudreau, B.~R. Ruddick, American Journal of Science,291, 507, (1991). [2] M

  1. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production.

  2. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in radiological findings: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Sun Seob [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Ewing's sarcoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is extremely rare and constitutes only 1% of all Ewing's sarcoma cases. Usually, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the carnium manifests as an expansile osteolytic malignant bone tumor with or without intracranial extension. We report here the radiological findings of a case of Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in an 18-year-old man.

  4. Litter chemistry prevails over litter consumers in mediating effects of past steel industry activities on leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucisine, Pierre; Lecerf, Antoine; Danger, Michaël; Felten, Vincent; Aran, Delphine; Auclerc, Apolline; Gross, Elisabeth M; Huot, Hermine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Muller, Serge; Nahmani, Johanne; Maunoury-Danger, Florence

    2015-12-15

    Soil pollution has adverse effects on the performance and life history traits of microorganisms, plants, and animals, yet evidence indicates that even the most polluted sites can support structurally-complex and dynamic ecosystems. The present study aims at determining whether and how litter decomposition, one of the most important soil ecological processes leaf, is affected in a highly trace-metal polluted site. We postulated that past steel mill activities resulting in soil pollution and associated changes in soil characteristics would influence the rate of litter decomposition through two non-exclusive pathways: altered litter chemistry and responses of decomposers to lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. We carried out a litter-bag experiment using Populus tremula L. leaf litter collected at, and allowed to decompose in, a trace metal polluted site and in three unpolluted sites used as controls. We designed a fully-factorial transplant experimental design to assess effects of litter origin and exposure site on the rate of litter decomposition. We further determined initial litter chemistry, fungal biomass, mesofauna abundance in litter bags, and the soil macrofauna community. Irrespective of the site of litter exposure, litter originating from the polluted site had a two-fold faster decomposition than litter from the unpolluted sites. Litter chemistry, notably the lignin content, seemed most important in explaining the degradation rate of the leaf litter. Abundance of meso and macro-detritivores was higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted sites. However, litter decomposition proceeded at similar rates in polluted and unpolluted sites. Our results show that trace metal pollution and associated soil and litter changes do not necessarily weaken consumer control on litter decomposition through lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. FOXM1 is an oncogenic mediator in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christensen

    Full Text Available Ewing Family Tumors (Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor are common bone and soft tissue malignancies of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Chromosomal translocation in these tumors produces fusion oncogenes of the EWS/ETS class, with EWS/FLI1 being by far the most common. EWS/ETS chimera are the only well established driver mutations in these tumors and they function as aberrant transcription factors. Understanding the downstream genes whose expression is modified has been a central approach to the study of these tumors. FOXM1 is a proliferation associated transcription factor which has increasingly been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FOXM1 is expressed in Ewing primary tumors and cell lines. Reduction in FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines results in diminished potential for anchorage independent growth. FOXM1 expression is enhanced by EWS/FLI1, though, unlike other tumor systems, it is not driven by expression of the EWS/FLI1 target GLI1. Thiostrepton is a compound known to inhibit FOXM1 by direct binding. We show that Thiostrepton diminishes FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines and this reduction reduces cell viability through an apoptotic mechanism. FOXM1 is involved in Ewing tumor pathogenesis and may prove to be a useful therapeutic target in Ewing tumors.

  6. Ewing sarcoma versus osteomyelitis: differential diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Glodny, B.; Rudisch, A.; Trieb, T.; Loizides, A.; Judmaier, W.; Schocke, M.F. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, D. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    To find and evaluate characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns for the differentiation between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis. We identified 28 consecutive patients referred to our department for MRI (1.5 T) of an unclear bone lesion with clinical symptoms suggestive of Ewing sarcoma or osteomyelitis. MRI scans were re-evaluated by two experienced radiologists, typical MR imaging features were documented and a diagnostic decision between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis was made. Statistical significance of the association between MRI features and the biopsy-based diagnosis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. The most clear-cut pattern for determining the correct diagnosis was the presence of a sharp and defined margin of the bone lesion, which was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, but in none of the patients with osteomyelitis (P < 0.0001). Contrast enhancing soft tissue was present in all cases with Ewing sarcoma and absent in 4 patients with osteomyelitis (P = 0.0103). Cortical destruction was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, 4 patients with osteomyelitis did not present any cortical reaction (P = 0.0103). Cystic or necrotic areas were identified in 13 patients with Ewing sarcoma and in 1 patient with osteomyelitis (P = 0.004). Interobserver reliability was very good (kappa = 1) in Ewing sarcoma and moderate (kappa = 0.6) in patients with osteomyelitis. A sharp and defined margin, optimally visualized on T1-weighted images in comparison to short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images, is the most significant feature of Ewing sarcoma in differentiating from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Sani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring, August and October (401 samples in summer. California Mastitis Test (CMT, milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial culture and CMT as were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in our study was around 12% (in one year. Of 144 (18.2% and 47 (11.72% positive samples in CMT, 134 (16.94% and 44 (10.97% samples were positive for bacterial culture in spring and summer, respectively. Comparison of results of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM and healthy ewes in spring and summer showed that WBC counts, total protein concentrations and plasma fibrinogen in both groups of ewes were significantly higher in spring than summer (P˂0.05. The results of the present study indicated that when interpreting hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM should be consider the effect of season on these parameters.

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DOS FATORES AMBIENTAIS SOBRE O TAMANHO DA LEITEGADA AO NASCER E TAXA DE MORTALIDADE À DESMAMA DE LEITÕES NO BREJO PARAIBANO INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND OF MORTALITY RATE AT WEANING OF PIGS IN PARAÍBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Sayori Murata

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a influência dos fatores ambientais sobre o tamanho da leitegada ao nascer e a taxa de mortalidade à desmama de leitões no Brejo Paraibano. Para isso, utilizaram-se dados provenientes de fichas zootécnicas do rebanho da Granja SUPASA no município de Guarabira, Estado da Paraíba, e procedeu-se à análise das fichas zootécnicas do plantel de suínos puros das raças Landrace e Large White e dos animais mestiços (Landrace x Large White, nascidos no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram estudadas as seguintes características: o número de leitões nascidos por leitegada (tamanho da leitegada ao nascer e a taxa de mortalidade dos leitões pré-desmame, em relação à raça da mãe, mês e ano de parição e sexo dos leitões. Após o estudo dos dados coletados, verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre raças para o tamanho da leitegada, a saber: a raça Landrace e os mestiços apresentaram um maior número de leitões nascidos por leitegada do que a Large White; o ano e o mês de parição exerceram efeito significativo sobre o tamanho da leitegada ao nascer, assim como a taxa de mortalidade à desmama. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eficiência produtiva, mortalidade, raças, reprodução, suínos This experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of the environmental and genetic factors on the litter size and mortality rate at birth and weaning f pigs in Paraíba, Brazil. The Zootechnical data was collected from farm SUPASA, in the district of Guarabira, state of Paraíba, Brasil. They were analyzed the data of pure swine Landrace and Large White and crossed animals (Landrace x Large White, born in the period from 1995 to 1996. The following characteristics were evaluated number of born pigs per litter (piglets born alive and the rate of mortality of the pigs at weaning, in relation to the mother’s race, month and year of parturition, and sex of the pigs. After the studies of the collected data significant

  9. Determinants of Littering: An Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Salim Khawaja; Anwar Shah

    2013-01-01

    Littering, the improper disposal of small quantities of waste, is one of the main causes of environmental degradation. To protect the environment from this degradation, we need to factor out the determinants of littering behaviour. In this study, we conduct a controlled laboratory experiment to examine whether people would avoid littering if the social cost of this behaviour was internalised. Based on the microeconomic theory relating to externality, we test whether penalising littering decre...

  10. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  11. Effect of different housing systems on triidothyronine in chhotanagpuri ewes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verma, R.K; Ishwar, A.K; Sinha, M.P; Bharti, A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 24 non-pregnant parous chhotanagpuri ewes to see the effect of different housing system on the level of Triidothyronine ([T.sub.3]) and Thyroxine ([T.sub.4]) hormones...

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC. Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further.

  13. How Much Is Poultry Litter Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Rita I.; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.; Hamm, Sandra J.

    2006-01-01

    Land-applying poultry litter to nutrient-deficient soils instead of commercial fertilizer could absorb nutrients from concentrated poultry production areas and help crop farmers. A survey of potential litter users showed that although farmers have used/are interested in using litter, there are still some problems that prevent the market from fully developing.

  14. Estimating a Demand Function for Poultry Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Rita I.; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Excess poultry litter could be a sustainable source of crop nutrients outside of nutrient-saturated regions if crop farmers are willing to utilize it. Using nearly 150 observations of actual poultry litter purchases in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri we estimate a demand function for poultry litter produced in northwest Arkansas.

  15. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen litter bags were used for the studies. The litter bags were numbered and placed on the field (above ground) on 26th April 2005. Three bags were retrieved randomly from the field at 20-day intervals for 120 days. The nutrient concentration in L. leucocephala followed the trend N > P > Mg > Ca > K > Na for leaf litter ...

  16. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Yu; Peng, Yan; Li, Jun; Tan, Bo; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN) in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage) and the growing season (early and late). After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  17. Impacts of pesticides and natural stressors on leaf litter decomposition in agricultural streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    surveyed pesticide contamination and rates of leaf litter decomposition in 14 1st and 2nd order Danish streams using litter bags with coarse and ¿ne mesh sizes. Two sites differing in physical habitat complexity were sampled in each stream, and we used this approach to differentiate the effects...... of pesticides between sites with uniform (silt and sand) and more heterogeneous physical properties. Microbial litter decomposition was reduced by a factor two to four in agricultural streams compared to forested streams, and we found that the rate of microbial litter decomposition responded most strongly...... to pesticide toxicity for microorganisms and not to eutrophication. Moreover, the rate of microbial litter decomposition was generally 50% lower at sites with uniform physical habitats dominated by soft substrate compared to the sites with more heterogeneous physical habitats. The rate of macroinvertebrate...

  18. Decrease in body surface temperature before parturition in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Atusi

    2017-04-21

    This study investigated the correlation between the body surface temperature (BST) and core body temperature of ewes and changes in BST during the prepartum stage in pregnant ewes. Four non-pregnant adult ewes were used in the first experiment. The BST of the upper neck, vaginal temperature (VT), and ambient temperature (AT) were measured every 10 min for seven days and analyzed for correlations. The mean (± SD) BST and VT of ewes during the study period were 35.4 ± 1.7°C and 39.1 ± 0.4°C, respectively, with a correlation of r = 0.62, P < 0.001. This finding suggested that the BST was associated with core body temperature in ewes. In the subsequent experiment, seven pregnant ewes in their third trimester were used to evaluate changes in BST measured at the upper neck 72 h before parturition. The mean BST at -24-0 h (0 h = time of parturition) was significantly lower than that at -72- -48 h and -48- -24 h (P < 0.05). The BST tended to decrease toward parturition; all BST measurements at -16- -3 h were significantly lower than those at -72 h (P < 0.05). A clear circadian rhythm in the BST was observed at two days and the day before parturition and an unclear circadian rhythm was observed on the day of parturition. Therefore, these findings indicate that the BST also decreases before parturition, as do vaginal and rectal temperatures.

  19. Effects of anthropogenic heavy metal contamination on litter decomposition in streams - A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Koricheva, Julia; Duarte, Sofia; Niyogi, Dev K; Guérold, François

    2016-03-01

    Many streams worldwide are affected by heavy metal contamination, mostly due to past and present mining activities. Here we present a meta-analysis of 38 studies (reporting 133 cases) published between 1978 and 2014 that reported the effects of heavy metal contamination on the decomposition of terrestrial litter in running waters. Overall, heavy metal contamination significantly inhibited litter decomposition. The effect was stronger for laboratory than for field studies, likely due to better control of confounding variables in the former, antagonistic interactions between metals and other environmental variables in the latter or differences in metal identity and concentration between studies. For laboratory studies, only copper + zinc mixtures significantly inhibited litter decomposition, while no significant effects were found for silver, aluminum, cadmium or zinc considered individually. For field studies, coal and metal mine drainage strongly inhibited litter decomposition, while drainage from motorways had no significant effects. The effect of coal mine drainage did not depend on drainage pH. Coal mine drainage negatively affected leaf litter decomposition independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for wood decomposition, but sample size was low. Considering metal mine drainage, arsenic mines had a stronger negative effect on leaf litter decomposition than gold or pyrite mines. Metal mine drainage significantly inhibited leaf litter decomposition driven by both microbes and invertebrates, independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for microbially driven decomposition, but sample size was low. Overall, mine drainage negatively affects leaf litter decomposition, likely through negative effects on invertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of soil organic matter via biochemical and physical pathways of litter mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Soong, Jennifer L.; Horton, Andrew J.; Campbell, Eleanor E.; Haddix, Michelle L.; Wall, Diana H.; Parton, William J.

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The pool size depends on the balance between formation of soil organic matter from decomposition of plant litter and its mineralization to inorganic carbon. Knowledge of soil organic matter formation remains limited and current C numerical models assume that stable soil organic matter is formed primarily from recalcitrant plant litter. However, labile components of plant litter could also form mineral-stabilized soil organic matter. Here we followed the decomposition of isotopically labelled above-ground litter and its incorporation into soil organic matter over three years in a grassland in Kansas, USA, and used laboratory incubations to determine the decay rates and pool structure of litter-derived organic matter. Early in decomposition, soil organic matter formed when non-structural compounds were lost from litter. Soil organic matter also formed at the end of decomposition, when both non-structural and structural compounds were lost at similar rates. We conclude that two pathways yield soil organic matter efficiently. A dissolved organic matter-microbial path occurs early in decomposition when litter loses mostly non-structural compounds, which are incorporated into microbial biomass at high rates, resulting in efficient soil organic matter formation. An equally efficient physical-transfer path occurs when litter fragments move into soil.

  1. [Soluble organic carbon in plant litters on Loess Plateau: content and biodegradability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-yang; Zhou, Jian-bin; Xia, Zhi-min; Chen, Xing-li

    2010-12-01

    The litters of eight plant species from the Loess Plateau were cut into pieces with 2 mm and 1 cm in size, and extracted with distilled water and 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2 to determine the soluble organic carbon (SOC) content. In the meantime, a 7-day indoor incubation test was conducted at (25 +/- 3) degrees C to investigate their biodegradability. The SOC content and the ratio of SOC to total carbon (SOC/TC) in the litters were 18.20-156.82 g x kg(-1) and 4.21%-32.84%, respectively. Shrub litter had a slightly higher SOC content than tree litter, while grass litter had the lowest SOC content. After 7-day incubation, the biodegradation rate of SOC in the plant litters ranged from 44.5% to 80.6% (62.9% on average), and decreased in the order of shrub > tree > grass. By the end of the incubation, the proportion of soluble organic matter in solution had a significant increasing trend, which was related to the rapid biodegradation of labile composition in the litters. The higher content and higher biodegradation rate of SOC in plant litters might play important roles in nutrient cycling and energy flow during the vegetation restoration on Loess Plateau.

  2. Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F; Long, Nathan M; Shasa, Desiree R; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2013-10-01

    Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics.

  3. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  4. Riparian plant litter quality increases with latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Graça, Manuel A S; Tonin, Alan M; Pérez, Javier; J Swafford, Andrew; Ferreira, Verónica; Landeira-Dabarca, Andrea; A Alexandrou, Markos; Gessner, Mark O; McKie, Brendan G; Albariño, Ricardo J; Barmuta, Leon A; Callisto, Marcos; Chará, Julián; Chauvet, Eric; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Frainer, André; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie E; Iwata, Tomoya; Mathooko, Jude; M'Erimba, Charles; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Swan, Christopher M; Yule, Catherine M; Pearson, Richard G

    2017-09-05

    Plant litter represents a major basal resource in streams, where its decomposition is partly regulated by litter traits. Litter-trait variation may determine the latitudinal gradient in decomposition in streams, which is mainly microbial in the tropics and detritivore-mediated at high latitudes. However, this hypothesis remains untested, as we lack information on large-scale trait variation for riparian litter. Variation cannot easily be inferred from existing leaf-trait databases, since nutrient resorption can cause traits of litter and green leaves to diverge. Here we present the first global-scale assessment of riparian litter quality by determining latitudinal variation (spanning 107°) in litter traits (nutrient concentrations; physical and chemical defences) of 151 species from 24 regions and their relationships with environmental factors and phylogeny. We hypothesized that litter quality would increase with latitude (despite variation within regions) and traits would be correlated to produce 'syndromes' resulting from phylogeny and environmental variation. We found lower litter quality and higher nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in the tropics. Traits were linked but showed no phylogenetic signal, suggesting that syndromes were environmentally determined. Poorer litter quality and greater phosphorus limitation towards the equator may restrict detritivore-mediated decomposition, contributing to the predominance of microbial decomposers in tropical streams.

  5. Marine litter prediction by artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Can Elmar; Ergin, Aysen; Williams, Allan T; Koc, Levent

    2004-03-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques of neural network and fuzzy systems were applied as alternative methods to determine beach litter grading, based on litter surveys of the Antalya coastline (the Turkish Riviera). Litter measurements were categorized and assessed by artificial intelligence techniques, which lead to a new litter categorization system. The constructed neural network satisfactorily predicted the grading of the Antalya beaches and litter categories based on the number of litter items in the general litter category. It has been concluded that, neural networks could be used for high-speed predictions of litter items and beach grading, when the characteristics of the main litter category was determined by field studies. This can save on field effort when fast and reliable estimations of litter categories are required for management or research studies of beaches--especially those concerned with health and safety, and it has economic implications. The main advantages in using fuzzy systems are that they consider linguistic adjectival definitions, e.g. many/few, etc. As a result, additional information inherent in linguistic comments/refinements and judgments made during field studies can be incorporated in grading systems.

  6. Effect of space allowance and flooring on the behavior of pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, S G; Øyrehagen, O; Bøe, K E

    2017-05-01

    Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group. All groups were exposed to each treatment for 7 d. The ewes were video recorded for 24 h at the end of each treatment period and general activity, lying position in the pen, and social lying position were scored every 15 min. Displacements and aggressive interactions were scored continuously from 1030 to 1430 h. Mean lying time ( allowance increased from 0.75 to 1.50 m/ewe. Further increasing the space allowance to 2.25 m/ewe, however, had no effect on these parameters. Sitting was observed only in the 0.75 m/ewe treatment. Type of flooring had no significant effect on general activity. Ewes in the straw bedding treatment spent more time lying in the middle of the pen than ewes on expanded metal ( allowance had no significant effect on this parameter. The proportion of time spent lying against side walls increased ( allowance was increased. In general, the distance between the ewes when lying significantly increased when space allowance increased from 0.75 to 1.50 m/ewe. Total number of displacements when lying ( allowance increased from 0.75 to 1.50 m/ewe and further slightly decreased, although the decrease was significant only for displacements when lying, when space allowance increased to 2.25 m/ewe. Low-ranked ewes were not exposed to more aggressive behavior than high-ranked ewes. In conclusion, increasing space allowance from 0.75 to 1.50 m/ewe had positive effects on activity and behavior in pregnant ewes, but further increasing space allowance to

  7. Transplacental transport of netobimin metabolites in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofol, C; Carretero, A; Fernandez, M; Navarro, M; Sautet, J; Ruberte, J; Arboix, M

    1995-01-01

    Neither netobimin (NTB) nor its metabolite albendazole (ABZ) were found in plasma after an oral administration of 20 mg/kg of NTB to pregnant ewes during the last third of gestation. ABZ metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were found in plasma 30 min and 2 h, respectively, after administration. The maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of ABZSO was detected at 11.6 +/- 1.0 h and for ABZSO2 at 16.5 +/- 2.3 h. The plasma levels of the latter remained constant for 36 h, and decreased as ABZSO was removed from the blood. Jugular plasma levels of both metabolites did not differ significantly from those observed in the ovarian vein, suggesting that there were no exchanges between foetal and placental tissues. Both metabolite concentrations were similar in the umbilical vein and artery and in the amniotic and allantoic fluids, their values were half the maternal plasma concentration, leading to the conclusion that there was transplacental movement of metabolites. Both metabolites reached the foetus and could be responsible for the teratogenicity of NTB in sheep.

  8. Like or Dislike? Impact of Facebook on Ewing Sarcoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstuhl, Paul; Schippinger, Michael; Liebmann, Paul; Leithner, Andreas; Bernhardt, Gerwin

    2016-08-25

    An increasing number of patients are raising their voices in online forums to exchange health-related information. Facebook is the leading social media platform with more than 1 billion international daily users recorded in the summer of 2015. Facebook has a dynamic audience and is utilized in a number of ways, discussing medical issues being one of them. Ewing sarcoma mainly affects teenagers and young adults. Additionally, many individuals within this age group are regular users of Facebook. However, little is known about the impact of this modern way of communication via Web-based platforms on patients with Ewing sarcoma and their social environment. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare Ewing sarcoma patients' and relatives' behavior on Facebook to draw conclusions regarding the impact of Facebook on Ewing sarcoma treatment. We examined a Facebook group named "Ewing Sarcoma Awareness" that is used to exchange information for both patients and relatives regarding Ewing sarcoma. A self-designed questionnaire was used to compare patients' and relatives' answers. Additionally, we analyzed all processes (posts, likes, threads, links) in the group for 6 consecutive months. A total of 65 members of the Facebook group (26 patients, 39 relatives) out of 2227 international group members participated in our study. More than 70% (46/65) of all participants reported that they use the group Ewing Sarcoma Awareness as a source of information about Ewing sarcoma. Of the participants, 89% (58/65) agreed on our scale from a little to a lot that being in contact with other affected people through the group makes it easier to handle the diagnosis. In this study, 20% (13/65) of all participants reported that the group affected their choice of treatment and 15% (10/65) of participants were influenced in the selection of their specialist. Regarding the recommendation of the Facebook group toward other people, significant differences (P=.003) were found comparing patients

  9. The First European Interdisciplinary Ewing Sarcoma Research Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich eKovar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA provides an interaction platform for stakeholders in research and care of children with cancer. Among ENCCA aims is the establishment of biology-based prioritization mechanisms for the selection of innovative targets, drugs, and prognostic markers for validation in clinical trials. Specifically for sarcomas, there is a burning need for novel treatment options since current chemotherapeutic treatment protocols have met their limits. This is most obvious for metastatic Ewing sarcoma, where long term survival rates are still below 20%. Despite significant progress in our understanding of Ewing sarcoma biology, clinical translation of promising laboratory results has not taken place due to fragmentation of research and lack of an institutionalized discussion forum. To fill this gap, ENCCA assembled 30 European expert scientists and 5 North American opinion leaders in December 2011 to exchange and critically discuss the state of the art in Ewing sarcoma research and latest results from the bench, and to propose biological studies and novel promising therapeutics for the upcoming European EWING2008 and EWING2012 clinical trials.

  10. Association between litterers' profile and littering behavior: A chi-square approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmui, Mas'udah; Zaki, Suhanom Mohd; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Mokhtar, Noorsuraya Mohd; Harith, Siti Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Littering is not a novelty, yet a prolonged issue. The solutions have been discussed for a long time; however this issue still remains unresolved. Littering is commonly associated with littering behavior and awareness. The littering behavior is normally influenced by the litter profile such as gender, family income, education level and age. Jengka Street market, which is located in Pahang, is popularly known as a trade market. It offers diversities of wet and dry goods and is awaited by local residents and tourists. This study analyzes association between litterers' profile and littering behavior. Littering behavior is measured based on factors of trash bin facilities, awareness campaign and public littering behavior. 114 respondents were involved in this study with 62 (54.39%) are female aged more than 18 years old and majority of these female respondents are diploma holders. In addition, 78.95% of the respondents have family income below than RM3,000.00 per month. Based on the data analysis, it was found that first-time visitors littered higher than frequent visitors, lack of providing trash bin facilities contributes to positive littering behavior and there is a significant association between litterers' age and littering behavior by using chi-square approach.

  11. Effects of breed on milk fatty acid profile in dairy ewes, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its conversion into cis-9, trans-11 CLA were more intense in the Turcana breed ewes. In conclusion, breed has a strong effect on the FA composition of ewe milk fat, and on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, in particular. The results obtained, support the sustainable use of animal genetic resources to improve the milk fat quality of ewes.

  12. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B.

    2017-01-01

    associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three pediatric tumor types, we identified Ewing sarcoma-specific interactions of a diverse set of targeted agents...... including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong...... and IGF1R inhibitors. The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents. The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 88...

  13. Adult Intramedullary Ewing Sarcoma of the Proximal Hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Gongidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma of bone is classically a permeative lesion in the diaphysis of long bones in children. While they occur primarily in children and adolescents, they can be seen in young adults in their 20s, but these are typically seen in flat bones. The permeative nature of the lesion can elicit new bone formation creating a partially sclerotic appearance, cortical expansion presenting as a “Codman triangle,” or have an “onion-skin” type of aggressive periosteal reaction/periostitis. Ewing sarcoma is rarely seen without an associated soft-tissue mass and is even rarer to just have benign-appearing periostitis (e.g., thick, uniform, or wavy cortex. We present such a case of Ewing sarcoma in a young adult confined to just the medullary metadiaphysis without cortical erosion or soft-tissue mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the radiology literature.

  14. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  15. Targeting glutathione S-transferase M4 in Ewing sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeng eZhuo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor. Although the 5-year survival rate of localized disease approaches 75%, the prognosis of metastatic and/or therapy-resistant disease remains dismal despite the wide use of aggressive therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4 in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. GSTM4 is required for oncogenic transformation and mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing analyses of Ewing sarcoma cells and combined our results with publicly-available datasets to demonstrate that GSTM4 is a major GST specifically expressed in Ewing sarcoma. Pharmacological inhibition of GSTM4 activity using a pan GST inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio hexanol (NBDHEX, significantly limited cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation of Ewing sarcoma cells. Moreover, combined use of NBDHEX and etoposide synergistically increased cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for GSTM4 as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that GSTM4 limits apoptosis owing to its ability to interact with Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1 and inhibit signaling via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase axis. To exploit our observation that GSTM4 expression is specifically up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma, we tested the effect of a GSTM4-activated anti-cancer agent, O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonylpiperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K, on tumor growth and survival. We found that JS-K robustly decreased Ewing sarcoma cell viability and xenograft tumor growth, and improved overall survival of xenograft mice. Our data suggest that GSTM4 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of high GSTM4-expressing Ewing sarcoma. Strategies that combine standard chemotherapy with agents that inhibit GSTM4, or that are activated by GSTM4, or that block GSTM4

  16. Ewing Sarcoma of the Kidney: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Arruda Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma and primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET are high-grade malignant tumors typically found in children and adolescents. These tumors belong to the family of small round cell tumors and are of neuroectodermal origin. Primary Ewing sarcoma of the kidney is rare and because of that is an infrequent differential diagnosis in urologic malignancies. Renal PNET mostly presents with nonspecific symptoms such as hematuria and abdominal pain. The imaging findings are uncharacteristic. The diagnosis is based on the histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular pathologic findings. Once PNET has been diagnosed, multimodal treatment is indicated. Despite all treatment options, the prognosis of those with metastatic disease is poor.

  17. The effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate detritivores and leaf litter decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Buckingham

    Full Text Available High severity wildfire events are a feature of forests globally and are likely to be more prevalent with climate change. As a disturbance process, fire has the potential to change important ecological functions, such as decomposition, through its impact on biodiversity. Despite the recognised importance of decomposition in terms of fuel loads and energy flow, little is known about the post-fire effects of fire severity on decomposition by litter-dwelling macroinvertebrate detritivores. We tested the hypotheses that: 1 increasing fire severity is associated with decreased rates of leaf litter decomposition by macroinvertebrate detritivores; and 2 the abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate detritivores decreases with increasing fire severity, while body size increases. We used a litterbag experiment at long-unburnt, ground-burnt and crown-burnt sites (n = 7 for all treatments to test the effect of fire severity on: a macroinvertebrate-driven break-down of litter fuel loads; and b the size and abundance of macroinvertebrate detritivores three years after fire. Microhabitat conditions differed among fire severity classes. Macroinvertebrate exclusion reduced litter decomposition by 34.7%. Macroinvertebrate detritivores were larger and less abundant following higher severity fires, possibly as a result of fire-induced changes in habitat structure. Opposing effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate abundance and body size resulted in both similar detritivore biomass and, most interestingly, no differences in leaf litter decomposition under different fire severities. This suggests that the diversity of macroinvertebrates enhances functional resilience of litter decomposition to fire and that litter-breakdown is not inhibited within three years following a high severity fire in this forest type and where recolonisation sources are readily available. We found no support for the hypothesis that high severity fires reduce litter decomposition and

  18. Observations on serum thyroxine concentrations in lambs and ewes to assess iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, K A; Caple, I W; Davies, W D; McDonald, J W

    1980-01-01

    Thyroxine levels in serum of lambs and ewes were measured to determine their usefulness in assessing iodine nutrition of sheep. Lambs born on properties with no history of goitre had serum thyroxine concentrations more than twice that recorded in their mothers. These high values decreased to a level similar to that in the ewes after 8 weeks. In goitrous lambs younger than 2 weeks old, serum thyroxine concentrations were less than their ewe levels. Lambs born to ewes supplemented with iodine during pregnancy had higher thyroxine levels than lambs of control ewes. A survey of 80 flocks of ewes in Victoria showed that 40% had a low mean thyroxine concentration (less than 50 nmol/l), but only one of these properties had reported an outbreak of goitre. It is suggested that serum thyroxine levels in newborn lambs may provide a more sensitive indicator of hypothyroidism associated with iodine deficiency than ewe levels.

  19. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  20. Role of litter decomposition sensitivity to water content in non-additive litter mixture effect: theoretical demonstration and validation with a peatland litter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogo, Sébastien; Leroy, Fabien; Zoccatelli, Renata; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we showed theoretically that differences in litter water content, evaporation rate and reaction rate sensitivity to water content can give account of non-additive litter mixture effect. More specifically two litters with the same dependence to litter water content and contrasted water content, and 2 litters with contrasted decomposition sensitivity to litter water content can exert synergistic mixture effect on decomposition when the 2 litters interact. In these situations, water can flow from the wettest to the driest litter, changing the whole reaction rate without changing the whole litter water content. The reaction rate increase of the litter receiving the water was relatively more important than the reaction rate decrease of the litter supplying the water. These theoretical considerations were validated with experimental data. Sphagnum rubellum and Molinia caerulea decompose faster in measured mixture than expected from the rates obtained in monoculture incubation. Sphagnum rubellum litter can contain more water, which evaporates at a slower rate than Molinia caerulea. It is thus proposed that water flowed from Sphagnum rubellum litter to the Molinia caerulea litter, with a substantial increase of the decomposition of the latter. The physical and biochemical litter characteristics towards water explains a fraction of the synergistic effect of mixing the 2 litters, which suggests that other factors intervene in this effect, such as the carbon substrate.

  1. Det litterært uhyggelige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    En indkredsning af det uhyggelige som en kvalitet ved litterære tekster og med en eksemplarisk læsning af en novelle af Naja Marie Aidt, "Bryllupsrejse"......En indkredsning af det uhyggelige som en kvalitet ved litterære tekster og med en eksemplarisk læsning af en novelle af Naja Marie Aidt, "Bryllupsrejse"...

  2. Collecting marine litter during regular fish surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der M.T.; Hal, van R.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine litter monitoring on the IBTS survey of 2014 and the BTS survey of 2013. Since 2013 marine litter is collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) and Dutch Beam Trawl Survey (BTS) following a protocol developed by ICES. The composition

  3. Leaf litter mixtures alter microbial community development: mechanisms for non-additive effects in litter decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Chapman

    Full Text Available To what extent microbial community composition can explain variability in ecosystem processes remains an open question in ecology. Microbial decomposer communities can change during litter decomposition due to biotic interactions and shifting substrate availability. Though relative abundance of decomposers may change due to mixing leaf litter, linking these shifts to the non-additive patterns often recorded in mixed species litter decomposition rates has been elusive, and links community composition to ecosystem function. We extracted phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs from single species and mixed species leaf litterbags after 10 and 27 months of decomposition in a mixed conifer forest. Total PLFA concentrations were 70% higher on litter mixtures than single litter types after 10 months, but were only 20% higher after 27 months. Similarly, fungal-to-bacterial ratios differed between mixed and single litter types after 10 months of decomposition, but equalized over time. Microbial community composition, as indicated by principal components analyses, differed due to both litter mixing and stage of litter decomposition. PLFA biomarkers a15∶0 and cy17∶0, which indicate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, in particular drove these shifts. Total PLFA correlated significantly with single litter mass loss early in decomposition but not at later stages. We conclude that litter mixing alters microbial community development, which can contribute to synergisms in litter decomposition. These findings advance our understanding of how changing forest biodiversity can alter microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate.

  4. Characterization of Forest Structure and an Assessment of Litter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Forest Structure and an Assessment of Litter Production, Accumulation and Litter-asscociated Invertebrates in Two Naturally Occuring Rhizophora mucronata Stands in Mauritius (Indian Ocean)

  5. Microbiological studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... species colonizing the ovine vagina and uterus; and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns will therefore .... metritis and endometritis and subsequent reduction in the reproductive capacities of these animals ... flora in some ewes, associated with endometritis. In a recent study in cows, Gani et al. (2008) ...

  6. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supplemented with enriched triticale. Supplementation tended to increase greasy and clean wool production per unit skin area, but no significant deviations from the control group were found. The birth mass of lambs bom from ewes fed the supplement, tended to be higher than in the control group. Lambs reared by.

  7. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes gnazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of copper and selenium supplementation in SA Mutton. Merino ewes, kept on pastures with low copper ... plasma copper, pregnancy, selenium supplementation,. Low copper concentrations are frequently ... very weak at birth, their mortality rate was high and growth rate poor (Van Niekerk & Van Niekerk, 1989c).

  8. Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    At the high stocking rate providing a creep for the lambs increased lamb growth significantly on the fescue and kikuyu pastures. These data (Table 2) indicate that from birth to weaning the ewes grazing the oat pastures gained the most weight followed by those on the Midmar + oats, Midmar, fescue and the Nui pasture ...

  9. Microsatellites with Macro-Influence in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Lessnick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous molecular abnormalities contribute to the genetic derangements involved in tumorigenesis. Chromosomal translocations are a frequent source of these derangements, producing unique fusion proteins with novel oncogenic properties. EWS/ETS fusions in Ewing sarcoma are a prime example of this, resulting in potent chimeric oncoproteins with novel biological properties and a unique transcriptional signature essential for oncogenesis. Recent evidence demonstrates that EWS/FLI, the most common EWS/ETS fusion in Ewing sarcoma, upregulates gene expression using a GGAA microsatellite response element dispersed throughout the human genome. These GGAA microsatellites function as enhancer elements, are sites of epigenetic regulation and are necessary for EWS/FLI DNA binding and upregulation of principal oncogenic targets. An increasing number of GGAA motifs appear to substantially enhance EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression, which has compelling biological implications as these GGAA microsatellites are highly polymorphic within and between ethnically distinct populations. Historically regarded as junk DNA, this emerging evidence clearly demonstrates that microsatellite DNA plays an instrumental role in EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional regulation and oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. This unprecedented role of GGAA microsatellite DNA in Ewing sarcoma provides a unique opportunity to expand our mechanistic understanding of how EWS/ETS fusions influence cancer susceptibility, prognosis and transcriptional regulation.

  10. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-06-09

    Jun 9, 2005 ... 5 and T RAJKUMAR. 1,. *. 1Department of Molecular Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Biochemistry, ... Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumour in south Indian patients; J. Biosci. 30 371–376]. 1. ... traditionally describes a group of undifferentiated pediatric sarcomas that ...

  11. Performance Characteristics of Lactating Djallonké Ewes Fed Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T240] and 76 g [T360]. This result suggest that supplementation of ewes had a significant effect (P<0.01) on the ADG of lambs as the level of supplementation increased. The results further indicate that supplementation of a basal rice straw diet ...

  12. Age trends in economically important traits of Merino ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were recorded for annual reproduction, wool traits and pre-joining live weight of between 992 (for staple strength) to approximately 1200 production records of Merino ewes over the period from 1997 to 2002. The resource population has been divergently selected from the same base since 1986, either for (H line) or ...

  13. progesterone concentration and content in the post-partum ewe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentrations and the absence of estrus. Furthermore. estrus activitv was probably inhibited by lactation, but the latter hacl no inf'luence on ovulatron. During spring. ovulation and oestrus ..... The breeding season and artificial light. 4. Studies on the reproduction of the ewe.5. Mating behaviour and pregnancv diagnosis.

  14. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Perko, B.; Rogelj, I.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0·2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day

  15. Genetic parameters for ewe reproduction with objectively measured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Reproduction is important for sustainable lamb production in Merino sheep. Data from a Merino flock maintained at Elsenburg Research Farm in the Western Cape, South Africa, were used to investigate the genetic parameters for ewe reproduction traits and their relationship with objectively ...

  16. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extent (All den & Whittaker, 1970). Despite claims that so-called 'rumen stimulating' supplements increase both feed intake and digestibility of low quality roughages. (Van Niekerk & Van der Merwe, 1966; Swart, Niemann,. Engels & Biel, 1971; Louw, 1978), the lactating ewes failed to consume more herbage in response.

  17. Localisation inhabituelle du sarcome d'Ewing des parties molles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ewing's sarcoma of soft parts is a rare mesenchymal tumor of poor prognosis. Receiving an early diagnosis increases the chance of survival. In the absence of clinical and radiological features, it seems necessary to include it in the differential diagnosis which includes all the primitive tumour of soft parts and to hypothesize ...

  18. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble. T.S. Brand, B. Aucamp, A. Durand. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science: 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 17-18). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... residues in a Mediterranean environment. Ph.D. Agric thesis. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Brand, T.S., Franck, F., Durand, A. & Coetzee, J., 1997. Use of varying combinations of energy and protein sources as supplementary feed for lambing ewes grazing cereal stubble. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 37,.

  20. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 17. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble. T.S. Brand. 1.

  1. Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Przemysław Herman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin—lipopolysaccharide (LPS —on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12 and long-night (LN; n = 12. Methods In both experiments, animals (n = 12 were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6 and LPS-treated (n = 6 one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. Results Endotoxin administration lowered (p<0.05 levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (p<0.05 cortisol concentrations after LPS treatment compared with animals from LN photoperiod. In the pineal gland of ewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05 serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland. Conclusion The present study showed that peripheral

  2. Marine litter on deep Arctic seafloor continues to increase and spreads to the North at the HAUSGARTEN observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mine B.; Krumpen, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie

    2017-02-01

    The increased global production of plastics has been mirrored by greater accumulations of plastic litter in marine environments worldwide. Global plastic litter estimates based on field observations account only for 1% of the total volumes of plastic assumed to enter the marine ecosystem from land, raising again the question 'Where is all the plastic? '. Scant information exists on temporal trends on litter transport and litter accumulation on the deep seafloor. Here, we present the results of photographic time-series surveys indicating a strong increase in marine litter over the period of 2002-2014 at two stations of the HAUSGARTEN observatory in the Arctic (2500 m depth). Plastic accounted for the highest proportion (47%) of litter recorded at HAUSGARTEN for the whole study period. When the most southern station was considered separately, the proportion of plastic items was even higher (65%). Increasing quantities of small plastics raise concerns about fragmentation and future microplastic contamination. Analysis of litter types and sizes indicate temporal and spatial differences in the transport pathways to the deep sea for different categories of litter. Litter densities were positively correlated with the counts of ship entering harbour at Longyearbyen, the number of active fishing vessels and extent of summer sea ice. Sea ice may act as a transport vehicle for entrained litter, being released during periods of melting. The receding sea ice coverage associated with global change has opened hitherto largely inaccessible environments to humans and the impacts of tourism, industrial activities including shipping and fisheries, all of which are potential sources of marine litter.

  3. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  4. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, hemangioma of bone. Radiology and pathology; Ewing-Sarkom, fibrogene Tumoren, Riesenzelltumor, Haemangiom des Skeletts. Radiologie und Pathologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Ostertag, H. [Klinikum Region Hannover GmbH, Pathologisches Institut, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Radiological imaging only reflects the anatomy and its pathological abnormalities. Therefore, the radiologist should be able to recognize the basic features of the pathological anatomy of bone tumors. This can only be learned working closely with a pathologist who is experienced in this field. On the other hand, the pathologist needs from the radiologist their diagnostic assessment with information on size, location, aggressiveness and the existence of a bone tumor's matrix, of the whole lesion, because he usually only receives a small part for examination in the form of a biopsy. In this article, the features and fundamentals (standards) of radiological-pathological cooperation as the mainstay for a precise diagnosis in bone tumors are outlined. The radiological appearance and the histopathological features behind it are presented for Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, and hemangioma of the bone. (orig.) [German] Radiologische Bilder spiegeln nichts anderes als die Anatomie und ihre pathologischen Abweichungen wider. Deshalb sollte der Radiologe die Grundzuege der pathologischen Anatomie auch von Knochentumoren kennen. Das kann er nur durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit einem auf diesem Gebiet erfahrenen Pathologen erlernen. Andererseits braucht der Pathologe vom Radiologen dessen diagnostische Einschaetzung mit Informationen ueber die Groesse, Lage, Aggressivitaet und das Vorhandensein einer Matrix eines Knochentumors und zwar von der gesamten Laesion, denn er bekommt inform einer Biopsie i. d. R. nur einen mehr oder weniger kleinen Teil zur Untersuchung. In diesem Beitrag werden die Grundzuege und Standards der radiologisch-pathologischen Zusammenarbeit aufgezeigt, auf denen eine praezise Diagnosestellung beruht. Radiologisches Erscheinungsbild und die dahintersteckenden - und erklaerenden - histopathologischen Merkmale werden fuer das Ewing-Sarkom, fuer fibrogene Tumoren, den Riesenzelltumor und das Haemangiom des Knochens

  6. Water, Rather than Temperature, Dominantly Impacts How Soil Fauna Affect Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen Release from Fresh Litter during Early Litter Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.

  7. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  8. Litter Fall and Its Decomposition in Sapium sebiferum Roxb.: An Invasive Tree Species in Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Jaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that high litter fall and its rapid decomposition are key traits of invasive species, litter fall and its decay in Sapium sebiferum Roxb. were studied in Palampur. For this, litter traps of dimension 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 were placed in under-canopy and canopy gap of the species. Litter fall was monitored monthly and segregated into different components. For litter decay studies, litter bags of dimension 25 × 20 cm2 with a mesh size 2 mm were used and the same were analyzed on a fortnightly basis. Litter fall in both under-canopy and canopy gap was highest in November (1.16 Mg ha−1 y−1 in under-canopy and 0.38 Mg ha−1 y−1 in canopy gap and lowest during March. Litter production in under-canopy and canopy gap was 4.04 Mg ha−1 y−1 and 1.87 Mg ha−1 y−1, respectively. These values are comparable to sal forest (1.7 t C ha−1 y−1, chir pine-mixed forest (2.1 t C ha−1 y−1, and mixed oak-conifer forest (2.8 t C ha−1 y−1 of the Western Himalaya. The decay rate, 0.46% day−1 in under-canopy and 0.48% day−1 in canopy gap, was also fast. Owing to this the species may be able to modify the habitats to its advantage, as has been reported elsewhere.

  9. An Approach to Litter Generation and Littering Practices in a Mexico City Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Muñoz-Cadena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in streets were examined in a Mexico City neighborhood, where litter presence causes major environmental problems affecting the population year after year. Interviews with neighborhood residents and item counts were carried out from 2010 to 2011. In all, 58% of interviewees reported generating RMSW at variable frequencies while 42% said they did not generate this kind of waste. Laziness, lack of vigilance by municipal authorities, no litter bins in streets, and imitation were the main causes identified by interviewees as reasons for littering. Potential litter generators may be of any age, educational level or income. Interviewees’ perception of RMSW generation was compared with item counts in the neighborhood studied.

  10. The measurement and reduction of urban litter entering stormwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes preliminary guidelines for the reduction of urban litter loads entering the drainage system by dealing with litter pollution at its source. Keywords: Litter management, Stormwater drainage systems, Water quality management, Source controls, Reduction of urban litter, Solid waste pollution control WaterSA ...

  11. An Approach to Litter Generation and Littering Practices in a Mexico City Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia E. Muñoz-Cadena; Pedro Lina-Manjarrez; Irma Estrada-Izquierdo; Eva Ramón-Gallegos

    2012-01-01

    Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in streets were examined in a Mexico City neighborhood, where litter presence causes major environmental problems affecting the population year after year. Interviews with neighborhood residents and item cou...

  12. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose

  14. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  15. Arst on patsiendi poolel / Galina Litter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litter, Galina, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Naistearst Galina Litter seadusest, mis lubab alaealistel ilma vanema nõusolekuta aborti teha. Vastus artiklile : Varro Vooglaid. Vanemate vastutus - kas reaalne või paljasõnaline? // Õpetajate Leht (2006) 13. okt., lk. 1, 7

  16. Linear loss of litter over time, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This table contains data on dry mass remaining in a subset of Salicornia pacifica and Deschampsia cespitosa litter bags removed over a series of time points spanning...

  17. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare...

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  19. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF POLICY REGULATIONS ON LAND APPLICATIONS OF POULTRY LITTER

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Cochran, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of the poultry industry in Arkansas has exploded in the past decade. As a result, approximately 1.5 million tons of litter are produced every year. Concerns about possible contamination of ground and surface water from land applications of poultry litter have been raised. This paper compares four policy scenarios in terms of their efficiency and practicality to manage land applications of poultry litter. The results indicate that a litter tax per ton of litter applied could achieve...

  1. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- fauna, with the highest contribution of micro-fauna (7.9%), meso-fauna (11.9%), and macro-fauna (22.7%) at the onset of freezing stage, deeply frozen stage, and thawing stage, respectively. The results demonstrated that soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  2. Farmer Willingness to Supply Poultry Litter for Energy Conversion and to Invest in an Energy Conversion Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kimberly L.; Roberts, Roland K.; Bazen, Ernest F.; Menard, R. Jamey; English, Burton C.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of poultry litter to energy can serve as a renewable energy source and provide an alternative to land application in areas where poultry production is intensive. Economies of size may limit a farmer’s ability to economically use on-farm conversion. Capital costs can be spread across several poultry farmers to convert poultry litter to energy in a centralized facility. This research determined influences on the amount of litter poultry producers will to sell to a centralized conve...

  3. Preliminary investigation of the transport of small plastic litter along a vegetated riverbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    Plastics are widely used in consumer products, due to its low cost, low weight and high durability compared to other types of materials. Contamination of marine ecosystems due to plastics (including microplastics) is a challenge that has received a lot of attention due to the significant risks it poses for the environment and human health. Plastics find their way to the ocean from land via the river system. Studying and obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the fate of plastic litter is therefore important in proactively devising methods to reduce their quantity or produce designs to trap plastic pollutants and prevent them from entering the ocean through estuaries. In this context, it is a common observation of hydraulic practitioners and field geomorphologists, that plastic litter can be trapped within riparian vegetation patches along streams or canals, which can be washed away in periods of high flows. To this goal this study aims to use a series of purpose specific physical experiments to examine the mechanisms of dispersion of plastic litter along the water surface of a channel with simulated riparian vegetation. The set of experiments are conducted in a recirculating flume with rigid riverbank and riparian vegetation modeled by a large number of acrylic rods, placed on the top of the riverbank section. Six different sizes of pieces of Styrofoam are used to simulate plastic litter. These are released from different locations upstream and in the vicinity of the riparian vegetation for various configurations (linear, staggered and random) of characteristic solid density. The trajectory of the plastic litter is recorded with a camera offering a top view of the arrangement. From the analysis of this a variety of results are obtained including transport metrics (including transport velocity and time to trapping) and litter-trapping location. The relation between the size of the litter, the vegetation configuration and the traveling

  4. Assessment of minimal residual disease in ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lars M; Smolarek, Teresa A; Sumegi, Janos; Marmer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Advances in molecular pathology now allow for identification of rare tumor cells in cancer patients. Identification of this minimal residual disease is particularly relevant for Ewing sarcoma, given the potential for recurrence even after complete remission is achieved. Using RT-PCR to detect specific tumor-associated fusion transcripts, otherwise occult tumor cells are found in blood or bone marrow in 20-30% of Ewing sarcoma patients, and their presence is associated with inferior outcomes. Although RT-PCR has excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying tumor cells, technical challenges may limit its widespread applicability. The use of flow cytometry to identify tumor-specific antigens is a recently described method that may circumvent these difficulties. In this manuscript, we compare the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches, present data on a third method using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and discuss issues affecting the further development of these strategies.

  5. Assessment of Minimal Residual Disease in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars M. Wagner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in molecular pathology now allow for identification of rare tumor cells in cancer patients. Identification of this minimal residual disease is particularly relevant for Ewing sarcoma, given the potential for recurrence even after complete remission is achieved. Using RT-PCR to detect specific tumor-associated fusion transcripts, otherwise occult tumor cells are found in blood or bone marrow in 20–30% of Ewing sarcoma patients, and their presence is associated with inferior outcomes. Although RT-PCR has excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying tumor cells, technical challenges may limit its widespread applicability. The use of flow cytometry to identify tumor-specific antigens is a recently described method that may circumvent these difficulties. In this manuscript, we compare the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches, present data on a third method using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and discuss issues affecting the further development of these strategies.

  6. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  7. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter...... decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8...

  8. Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrPSc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 µg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  9. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  10. lh) in ewes deprived of prolactin during lactaticin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After pooling the results obtained in the LC-treated and control ewr,s, it was evident that the area unCcr th.e LI{ curve in the animals which ovulaled i.n response-to Gn-RII 1303,8 190,9 **2) d.id not differ significaritly fronl that rneasurcd in theeweswhichfailedto ovulate (186,7 +33,0 **2). Six of the nine ewes (66,?h which ...

  11. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-14

    Apr 14, 1988 ... COWAN, R.T., ROBINSON, J.J., GREENHALGH, J.F.D.. & McHATTIE, 1.,1979. Body composition changes in lactating ewes estimated by serial slaughter and deuterium dilution. Anim. Prod. 29, 81. COWAN, R.T., ROBINSON, J.J. & McDONALD, 1.,1982. A note on the effects of body fatness and level of food.

  12. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen I. Pishas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal.

  13. The clinical use of biomarkers as prognostic factors in Ewing sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maldegem Annmeik M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common primary bone sarcoma with 900 new diagnoses per year in Europe (EU27. It has a poor survival rate in the face of metastatic disease, with no more than 10% survival of the 35% who develop recurrence. Despite the remaining majority having localised disease, approximately 30% still relapse and die despite salvage therapies. Prognostic factors may identify patients at higher risk that might require differential therapeutic interventions. Aside from phenotypic features, quantitative biomarkers based on biological measurements may help identify tumours that are more aggressive. We audited the research which has been done to identify prognostic biomarkers for Ewing sarcoma in the past 15 years. We identified 86 articles were identified using defined search criteria. A total of 11,625 patients were reported, although this number reflects reanalysis of several cohorts. For phenotypic markers, independent reports suggest that tumour size > 8 cm and the presence of metastasis appeared strong predictors of negative outcome. Good histological response (necrosis > 90% after treatment appeared a significant predictor for a positive outcome. However, data proposing biological biomarkers for practical clinical use remain un-validated with only one secondary report published. Our recommendation is that we can stratify patients according to their stage and using the phenotypic features of metastases, tumour size and histological response. For biological biomarkers, we suggest a number of validating studies including markers for 9p21 locus, heat shock proteins, telomerase related markers, interleukins, tumour necrosis factors, VEGF pathway, lymphocyte count, and a number of other markers including Ki-67.

  14. Targeting the p53 Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Neilsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins. Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas, with the majority of these sarcomas expressing a functional wild-type p53. In addition, the p53 downstream signaling pathways and DNA-damage cell cycle checkpoints remain functionally intact in these sarcomas. This paper summarizes recent insights into the functional capabilities and regulation of p53 in Ewing Sarcoma, with a particular focus on the cross-talk between p53 and the EWS-FLI1 gene rearrangement frequently associated with this disease. The development of several activators of p53 is discussed, with recent evidence demonstrating the potential of small molecule p53 activators as a promising systemic therapeutic approach for the treatment of Ewing Sarcomas with wild-type p53.

  15. Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, Emilie; Mounier, Jerome; Asmani, Katia; Jany, Jean-Luc; Barbier, Georges; Le Blay, Gwenaelle

    2011-12-02

    Knowledge of fungal diversity in the environment is poor compared with bacterial biodiversity. In this study, we applied the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) technique, combined with the amplification of the ITS1 region from fungal rDNA, for the rapid identification of major fungal species in 9 raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat, collected at different periods of the year. A total of 27 fungal species were identified. Yeast species belonged to Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Geotrichum, Kluyveromyces, Malassezia, Pichia, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon genera; and mold species belonged to Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Engyodontium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Torrubiella genera. Cow milk samples harbored the highest fungal diversity with a maximum of 15 species in a single sample, whereas a maximum of 4 and 6 different species were recovered in goat and ewe milk respectively. Commonly encountered genera in cow and goat milk were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida spp. (C. catenulata and C. inconspicua); whereas Candida parapsilosis was frequently found in ewe milk samples. Most of detected species were previously described in literature data. A few species were uncultured fungi and others (Torrubiella and Malassezia) were described for the first time in milk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Camelina sativa cake improved unsaturated fatty acids in ewe's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieślak, Adam; Zmora, Pawel; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia; Bielińska, Sylwia; Stanisz, Marek; Wójtowski, Jacek

    2011-08-30

    Camelina sativa cake (CSC), a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, in the case of ruminants, may improve the energy value of a diet and also increase the unsaturated fatty acid content in milk. Effects of basal diet (control), basal diet plus 30 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter (DM), basal diet plus 60 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter on milk production and the fatty acid composition of ewe's milk with particular emphasis on the monoenes and conjugated isomers of linoleic acid content were examined. Elevated concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids, the effect of an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids in the trans configuration, as well as the increased content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulted from CSC supplementation. Total saturated fatty acid concentration was decreased. Milk from CSC-supplemented ewes was characterized by increased levels of beneficial nutritional factors, including mono- and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and was also by lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Taking into consideration all the obtained results and recommended fat concentrations in a daily ruminant ration, we recommend supplementing a dairy ewe's diet with 30 g kg(-1) DM of CSC cake in practice. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  18. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  19. Influence of space allowance and housing conditions on the welfare, immune response and production performance of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Schena, Laura; Muscio, Antonio; Migliore, Raffaella; Sevi, Agostino

    2009-02-01

    The experiment used 45 Comisana ewes, divided into 3 groups of 15. The aim was to determine the effects of two different stocking densities and two different housing conditions on welfare, and on production performance of dairy ewes. The stocking densities tested were: high stocking density (1 x 5 m2/ewe, HD group) and low stocking density (3 m2/ewe, LD group); the two housing conditions tested were: ewes housed indoors (LD group, 3 m2/ewe) and ewes allowed to use an outdoor area (LDP group, 3 m2/ewe divided into 1 x 5 m2/ewe indoors and 1 x 5 m2/ewe outdoors). At the beginning of the experiment, and then every 2 months, the cell-mediated immune status of sheep was evaluated. One month after the beginning of the experiment, and 20 d later, the ewes were injected with chicken egg albumin (OVA) to assess their humoural immune responses. Starting from the beginning of the experiment and then monthly, behavioural activities of ewes were monitored using 15-min scans. After lamb weaning, milk yield from individual ewes was measured and milk composition analysed weekly. Housing conditions (low density reared ewes indoors v. low density reared ewes with free access to an outdoor area) affected cell-mediated response, which was higher in LDP than in LD ewes. Concentrations of anti-OVA IgG were mainly influenced by space allowance, with higher antibody titres in LD than in HD ewes throughout the experiment. Both housing conditions and space allowance affected sheep behavioural activities: a greater proportion of LDP ewes displayed standing and drinking behaviours than LD ewes, and a greater proportion of LD ewes was observed walking than HD ewes. Ewes allowed access to the outdoor area had a higher protein content and lower somatic cell count in their milk, whereas reduced space allowance led to a reduction in milk yield and an increase in somatic cell count of milk. Results indicate that both increased space allowance and availability of outdoor area can improve the welfare

  20. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with Veramix sponge (medroxyprogesterone acetate) or CIDR (natural progesterone) in combination with an injection of estradiol-17β on ovarian activity, endocrine profiles, and embryo yields in cyclic ewes superovulated in the multiple-dose Folltropin-V (porcine FSH) regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Szpila, Patrycja; Oliveira, Maria E F; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Kridli, Rami T; Zieba, Dorota A

    2015-10-15

    Follicular wave status at the beginning of exogenous FSH administration is an important contributor to variability in superovulatory responses in ruminants. Studies in ewes have shown a decrease in the number of ovulations when superovulation is initiated in the presence of ostensibly ovulatory-sized ovarian follicles. Hormonal ablation of large antral follicles with the progestin-estradiol (E2-17β) treatment significantly reduces this variability in superovulated anestrous ewes, but the effects of the treatment in cycling ewes have not yet been assessed. Sixteen Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes (November-December) received either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP)-releasing intravaginal sponges (60 mg) or controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices (containing 300 mg of natural progesterone) for 14 days (Days 0-14), with a single intramuscular injection of 350 μg of E2-17β on Day 6. The superovulatory treatment consisted of six injections of porcine FSH (Folltropin-V) given twice daily, followed by a bolus GnRH injection (50 μg intramuscular) on Day 15. There were no differences (P 0.05). A decline in maximum follicle size after an E2-17β injection was more abrupt in CIDR- compared with MAP-treated animals, and the ewes pretreated with exogenous progesterone had significantly more 3-mm follicles at the start of the superovulatory treatment. The metabolic clearance rate of exogenous E2-17β appeared to be greater in MAP-treated ewes, but circulating concentrations of porcine FSH failed to increase significantly after each Folltropin-V injection in CIDR-treated animals. The CIDR-treated ewes exceeded (P profiles between MAP- and CIDR-treated cyclic ewes receiving E2-17β before ovarian superstimulation, there were no differences in superovulatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Broiler litter management effects on the nutrient composition of the litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is a common practice in agriculture production. However, potential water quality concerns as a result of over application of poultry litter has risen as a major environmental issue in states with substantial poultry production. Fundamental to the ...

  2. Potential energy expenditure by litter-roosting bats associated with temperature under leaf litter during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2013-01-01

    In temperate portions of North America, some bats that remain active during winter undergo short periods of hibernation below leaf litter on the forest floor during episodes of below-freezing weather. These winter roosts may provide above-freezing conditions, but the thermal conditions under leaf litter are unclear. Further, little is known of the relationship between...

  3. Litter NSV; marine litter monitoring by northern fulmars (a pilot study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Meijboom, A.

    2002-01-01

    The northern fulmar is a seabird known to consume litter such as plastic. The Dutch government has asked for an investigation of the possibility to use stomach contents of beach-washed fulmars as a monitoring tool for the abundance of marine litter inthe North Sea. Such monitoring is of importance

  4. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22–0.32. We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04–0.25 and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering.

  5. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O'Connor, Abby; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22-0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04-0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering.

  6. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  7. Temperatures below leaf litter during winter prescribed burns: implications for litter-roosting bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Virginia L. McDaniel

    2015-01-01

    Some bat species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), roost for short periods beneath leaf litter on the forest floor during winter in the south-eastern USA, a region subjected to frequent fire. The variability in fuel consumption, the heterogeneous nature of burns, and the effects of litter and duff moisture on forest-floor...

  8. Effects of forest structure on litter production, soil chemical composition and litter-soil interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elivane Salete Capellesso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Litter production in forest ecosystems is a major indicator of primary productivity because litter helps incorporate carbon and nutrients from plants into the soil and is directly involved in plant-soil interactions. To our knowledge, few studies have investigated the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes in subtropical forest fragments. In this work, we determined forest structural parameters and assessed seasonal leaf litter input, leaf decomposition rate, litter quality and soil characteristics in two subtropical Atlantic Forest fragments. Litter production was greater in the native fragment with the higher species diversity (FN1. The two native fragments (FN1 and FN2 differed in basal area, volume and dominance in the upper stratum, which were positively correlated with litter production in FN1 but negatively correlated in FN2. Soil in FN1 exhibited higher contents of organic C, available phosphorus and exchangeable calcium, and the leaf litter had a higher C:N ratio. Although these results are consistent with a plant-soil feedback, which suggests the presence of a complementary effect, the dominance of certain families in subtropical forest fragments results in a selection effect on litter productivity and decomposition.

  9. Screening of seven microsatellite markers for litter size in Xinong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven microsatellite markers OarAE101, BM1329, OarHH55, BM143, BMS2508, OarAE129 and OarFCB11 closely associated with high reproduction trait in sheep were analyzed for polymorphisms in Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The results indicated that there were high genetic polymorphisms at six microsatellite loci.

  10. Early growth, survival and litter size in Ethiopian Horro sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Genetic analysis for birth and weaning weight was done by sire and animal models using AIREML (Gilmour et al.. 1995). Results and Discussion. Least square means of birth and weaning weight and predicted probability of survival are presented in. Table 1. Weaning age was 92.5±0.13 days. Overall birth and weaning ...

  11. Screening of seven microsatellite markers for litter size in Xinong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... between the chromosome region, as defined by marker alleles and FecB. The proximal half sheep chromosome 6 genetic linkage map that show the order of microsatellite markers and FecB is: McM53, OarJLlA, CENPE,. BM1329, FecB, OarAEl01, OarHH55, BM143 and. OarJMP36 (Lord et al., 1996, 1998).

  12. Record Litter Size for the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Muller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the morning of 25 September 2013, a large female bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, was landed in Port Victoria, Seychelles. It had been caught on an anchored long line set the previous evening, within 100 m of the main fishing quay. The female exhibited an unusually large girth for this heavy-set species. The shark ...

  13. Impact of parity on ewe vaginal mechanical properties relative to the nonhuman primate and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Katrina M; Moalli, Pamela A; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Barone, William R; Abramowitch, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    Parity is the leading risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. To assess the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vaginal tissue, researchers commonly use nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ewe as an alternative model by investigating the impact of parity on the ewe vaginal mechanical properties and collagen structure. Mechanical properties of 15 nulliparous and parous ewe vaginas were determined via uniaxial tensile tests. Collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline assay and collagen fiber thickness was analyzed using picrosirius red staining. Outcome measures were compared using Independent samples t or Mann-Whitney U tests. ANOVA (Gabriel's pairwise post-hoc test) or the Welch Alternative for the F-ratio (Games Howell post-hoc test) was used to compare data with previously published NHP and rodent data. Vaginal tissue from the nulliparous ewe had a higher tangent modulus and tensile strength compared with the parous ewe (p vagina elongated 42 % more than the nulliparous ewe vagina (p = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in collagen structure among ewe vaginas. The tangent modulus of the nulliparous ewe vagina was not different from that of the NHP or rodent (p = 0.290). Additionally, the tangent moduli of the parous ewe and NHP vaginas did not differ (p = 0.773). Parity has a negative impact on the mechanical properties of the ewe vagina, as also observed in the NHP. The ewe may serve as an alternative model for studying parity and ultimately prolapse development.

  14. Polymorphism of Prophet of Pit-1 gene and its relationship with litter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphism of Prophet of Pit-1 gene and its relationship with litter size of Small Tail Han sheep. QIUYUE LIU1, CAIXIA GENG2, MINGXING CHU1∗, HONGQUAN CHEN2, MEI JIN3, YINGJIE ZHANG4, RAN DI1,. TAO FENG1 and NING LI5. 1Key Laboratory of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and Germplasm Innovation of ...

  15. Influence of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation of pregnant ewes on maternal and fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes and insulin-containing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Yunusova, R; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Meyer, A M; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-03-01

    Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses

  16. Experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment effects on microbial litter decomposers in a marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark

    2011-01-01

    obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had...... of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles...

  17. Analysis of historical control litter parameters of reproduction toxicity studies in Sprague-Dawley derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Kast, A

    1989-04-01

    Control litter data from reproduction toxicity studies in SD derived rats bred in our closed colony were investigated for historical changes, differences due to study design or generations, seasonal variations and effects of vehicle-treatment. The litter size did not change visibly during the entire 16-year period, but the number of live fetuses differed significantly between study designs or generations. The fetal weight gradually increased during these years. The malformation rate decreased, while the rate of 14 th ribs remained stable. There were no seasonal variations and no effects of vehicle-treatment.

  18. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  19. Changes in the composition and fatty acid profile of Najdi ewes' milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial aimed to study the changes in the yield, composition, and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewes' milk during suckling and milking periods. Nineteen multiparous Najdi ewes were kept under identical management and feeding conditions during a 12-week trial that was divided into two periods. Milk samples were collected on ...

  20. The effect of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Kuran, M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes. Time of estrus of 3-5 years old Karayaka breed ewes was synchronized and mating was monitored to determine the day 0 of gestation. The ewes had similar body weights (47.8±0.7kg) and loin eye muscle values (thickness; 20.9±1.0mm and fat thickness; 4.7±0.5mm) at mating. The ewes were allocated into two treatment groups at day 30 of gestation; under-fed (UF; n=12) and well-fed (WF; n=13) groups. The ewes in UF group were fed with a diet to provide 50% of their daily requirement from day 30 to day 80 of gestation and 100% of their daily requirement during the rest of the gestation period. The ewes in WF group were fed at least 100% of their daily requirement throughout gestation. The singleton bearing ewes in the UF group had a lesser (Pgestation until day 80. The results of present study show that under-feeding of ewes during mid-gestation may cause an insufficient placental development and hence alter fetal development resulting in a reduced birth weight from singleton pregnancies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. reducing the partum.to-mating period in autumn lactating ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and/or synchronization of oestrus in farm animals (La- mond, 1964: Hunter, 1968; Wiltbank, 1970; Lamming, ... after parturition is unlikely to be followed by ovulation unless Ltl stimulation is provided, either from an ... 17 post partum resulted in ovulation in lactating ewes. A question which has arisen is whether zuch ewes ...

  2. Augmentation of luteal function in the lactating ewe after induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmentation of luteal function in the lactating ewe after induction of ovulation with a gonadropin releasing hormone. H.G. Pearson and A.W. Lishman. University of Natal, Pietermarirzbulg 3201, Republic of Sourh Aftica. Received 21 August 1989; accepted 5lu . 1990. Numerous studies have shown thar in the acyclic ewe, ...

  3. TiME OF OVULA nON IN THE KARAKUL EWE FOLLOWING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ovulation I'ollowing synchronization of oestrus in the ewe with progesterone impregnated sponges and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin is limited. Van Niekerk & Belonje. (1970) fomd that Merino ewes ovulate from 70 to 90 hours after the removal of intravaginal sponges impregnated with medroxyprogesterone.

  4. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  5. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, a case report on a rare diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraosseous or extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a very rare mesenchymal soft tissue malignancy. We report on a case of abdominal swelling in an 80-year-old woman caused by a large intra-abdominal EES. This case report illustrates that Ewing's sarcoma can occur in adults and elderly, and highlights the importance of ...

  6. TiME OF OVULA nON IN THE KARAKUL EWE FOLLOWING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sponges and pregnant mare serum (PMSG) on the length of oestrus. thl length of the interval from sponge withdrawal to the beginning of oestrus. the length of the interval from the beginning of oestrus to ovulat ion and the number of ovulations per ewe was investigated. Barren and post partum ewes were used during both ...

  7. Genetic evaluation of the probability of lambing in yearling Targhee ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the additive genetic control of lambing percentage in yearling Targhee ewes. The records of 3,103 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2011 and mated at approximately 7.5 mo of age were analyzed. Records included sire, dam, weaning weight, breeding pen, age of dam...

  8. Time-to-event analysis of mastitis at first-lactation in Valle del Belice ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Firlocchiaro, R.; Kaam, van J.B.C.H.M.; Riggio, V.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    A time-to-event study for mastitis at first-lactation in Valle del Belice ewes was conducted, using survival analysis with an animal model. The goals were to evaluate the effect of lambing season and level of milk production on the time from lambing to the day when a ewe experienced a test-day with

  9. Primary ewing sarcoma of the anterior mandible localized to the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, E.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Korones, D.N.; Pochal, W.F.; Philipone, E.M.; Zegarelli, D.J.; Yoon, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small, round blue-cell tumor of the bone that is usually located in the long bones and the pelvis. Fewer than 3% of all Ewing sarcomas originate in the head and neck region and these are mostly located in the posterior mandible. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl

  10. release of lh in ewes treated with progestogen and oestrogen during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RELEASE OF LH IN EWES TREATED WITH PROGESTOGEN AND OESTROGEN. DURING THE ANOESTROUS SEASON. Asynchrony between oestrus and ovulation might contribute to the poor fertility which is observed common- ly in ewes after the use of progestogens to synchronise oestrus or to induce out-of-season ...

  11. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pmastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pmastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pmastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Reproductive Performances in Turcana Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădeanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated by some authors that the administration of subcutaneous melatonin implants during a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performance in some sheep breeds. This study was conducted in Giarmata Mare, Timis County, on 78 lactating ewes and 75 dry ewes, which were individually inserted with implants containing 18 mg melatonin on 31 August 2009. Control group consisted of 100 lactating and dry ewes in equal proportions. The results shown that the main reproduction indices as prolificacy, birth rate and the lamb number productivity index are significantly (p < 0.05 higher in ewes from the experimental group, compared with ewes from the control group, and that treated ewes shortened the period of mating and lambing to half-time comparing to the control group. There is a suggestion that the use of melatonin implants Melovin ® type near the normal breeding season increases the reproductive performance of ewes from Turcana breed.

  13. Uterine Torsion in a West African Dwarf Ewe in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Uterine torsion, West African Dwarf Ewe, Ibadan A case of uterine torsion in a 21/2 year old pluriparous West Africa Dwarf (WAD) ewe raised semi intensively with adequate veterinary care before the death of the dam and the lamb is presented. The dam had been off feed for 3 days and was found straining a night ...

  14. stress-induced release of prolactin in cycling and anoestrous ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since stress has been shown to influence prolactin release in sheep, the secretion of this hormone during the oestrous cycle of the ewe was re-evaluated. At intervals of two hours, for a total period of 40 hours, blood samples were obtained from oestrous, inter-ewes, and from wethers. An acute ...

  15. Periosteal Ewing's Sarcoma: Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Kollender

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The origin of Ewing's sarcoma in a periosteal location is rare and not clearly documented. Other malignant bone tumors appear to have a somewhat better prognosis when confined between periosteum and bone. Is it the same for periosteal Ewing's sarcoma?

  16. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  17. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Eda N; Tonay, Arda M; Dede, Ayhan; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Öztürk, Bayram

    2013-04-01

    Beach debris abundance was estimated from surveys on 10 beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Debris was collected from 20 m long transects during four different seasons; sorted and categorized by type, usage and origin. Litter density varied from 0.085 to 5.058 items m(-2). Debris was mainly composed of unidentifiable small size (2-7 cm) plastic pieces and beverage-related litter such as bottles and bottle caps. About half of the labeled litter was of foreign origin, including 25 different countries, 23% of which are in the Black Sea region. The south-western Black Sea Coast seems to receive foreign litter from two main sources: land-based debris from the neighboring countries and seaborne debris due to international shipping. Standardized methodology and indicators need to be designated all over the Black Sea basin in order to quantify and qualify coastal litter pollution, monitor compliance with MARPOL and develop regionally effective mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  19. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  20. Utilization of mulberry leaves (Morus latifolia cv. Kokusou 21 in diets for dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Valle del Belice lactating ewes were divided into three homogeneous groups and fed ad libitum the following diets in a 3x3 Latin square design: sulla hay (HA; sulla hay and Mulberry leaves (M. leaves (HM; M. leaves (MU. DM intake of MU ewes was lower than that of HM ewes, with an intermediate level for HA ewes. HM ewes showed to prefer M. leaves to hay, but their need to balance the high protein and low NDF contents of M. leaves by eating hay also emerged. Milk yield increased as the dietary content of M. leaves increased In addition, the use of HM and MU diets led to higher milk fat and urea content in comparison with the HA diet. The results confirmed that M. leaves are a suitable fresh feeding source for sheep, and suggested to use them in association with fibre-rich feeds.

  1. Effect of undernutrition in foetal life on energy expenditure during gestation in ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, Malin P

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effect of early life undernutrition on late gestation energy expenditure (EEgest) was investigated in sheep. Ewes were fed either adequate (100%) or restricted (60%) energy and protein during late foetal life as well as during last trimester of gestation later in life, resulting...... development (EEconceptus) and homeorhetic adaptations in maternal metabolism (EEhomeorhetic). Late gestational energy and protein restriction reduced the EEgest in the AR ewes (4.1 MJ x d(-1)) but not in the RR ewes (5.2 MJ x d(-1)) compared with the AA ewes (6.8 MJ x d(-1)). Based on conceptus...... nutrient restriction in early life impairs the ability of ewes to respond to nutritional restriction in terms of energy expenditure of gestation....

  2. Consumption of a high-salt diet by ewes during pregnancy alters nephrogenesis in 5-month-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S H; Blache, D; Gregg, K; Revell, D K

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect kidney development in the foetus, which may lead to adverse consequences in the mature kidney. It was expected that high-salt intake by pregnant ewes would lead to a reduction in foetal glomerular number but that the ovine kidney would adapt to maintain homoeostasis, in part by increasing the size of each glomerulus. Merino ewes that were fed either a control (1.5% NaCl) or high-salt (10.5% NaCl) diet during pregnancy, as well as their 5-month-old offspring, were subjected to a dietary salt challenge, and glomerular number and size and sodium excretion were measured. The high-salt offspring had 20% fewer glomeruli compared with the control offspring (P salt offspring than in the control offspring (P 0.05), although the high-salt offspring produced urine with a higher concentration of sodium. Our results demonstrated that maternal high-salt intake during pregnancy affected foetal nephrogenesis, altering glomerular number at birth. However, the ability to concentrate and excrete salt was not compromised, which indicates that the kidney was able to adapt to the reduction in the number of glomeruli.

  3. Effects of immunizing ewes against bone morphogenetic protein 15 on their responses to exogenous gonadotrophins to induce multiple ovulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Jennifer L; Quirke, Laurel D; Lun, Stan; Heath, Derek A; Johnstone, Peter D; McNatty, Kenneth P

    2011-10-01

    Sheep with a heterozygous inactivating mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) gene experience an increased ovulation rate during either a natural oestrous cycle or a cycle in which exogenous FSH and eCG (gonadotrophins) are given to induce multiple ovulations. The primary aim of these studies was to determine whether ewes immunised against BMP15 would also show an improved superovulation rate following exogenous gonadotrophin treatment. A secondary aim was to determine the effects of BMP15 immunisation on ovarian follicular characteristics. In most ewes (i.e. > 75%) immunised with a BMP15-keyhole limpet haemocyanin peptide in an oil-based adjuvant in order to completely neutralise BMP15 bioactivity, there was no superovulation response to exogenous gonadotrophins. In ewes treated with exogenous gonadotrophins following a BMP15-BSA peptide immunisation in a water-based adjuvant to partially neutralise BMP15 bioactivity, the ovulation rate response was similar to the control superovulation treatment groups. Characterisation of follicular function revealed that the water-based BMP15-immunised animals had fewer non-atretic follicles 2.5-3.5 or > 4.5  mm in diameter compared with controls. Basal concentrations of cAMP were higher in granulosa cells from animals immunised against BMP15 than control animals. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of cAMP between granulosa cells from BMP15- and control-immunised animals when given FSH or hCG, although there were differences in the proportions of follicles in different size classes that responded to FSH or hCG. Thus, immunisation against BMP15 may have been causing premature luteinisation and thereby limiting the numbers of follicles recruited for ovulation following treatment with exogenous gonadotrophins.

  4. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Kidney Complicated by a Wunderlich Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manescu, Mihai Razvan; Sahyoun, Achraf; Froment, Nicolas; Crisan, Nicolae; Girot, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The Wunderlich syndrome found after the rupture of primitive renal Ewing's sarcoma is not a situation that we find often in everyday practice. The clinical findings are not specific, which is why the differential diagnosis must be made with a multitude of benign and malignant renal masses until the correct diagnosis can be made by the pathologist. The CT and MRI images are not characteristic. One treatment option is the multidisciplinary approach; however, the prognosis remains poor for patients with metastatic disease. PMID:25922782

  5. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Pošivák, Ján; Valocký, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P < 0.05) with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are cha...

  6. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between lamb and ewe traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated between lamb and ewe traits in a flock of Sabi sheep reared at the Matopos Research Station. Direct additive estimates of heritability were: 0.28 ? 0.04; 0.17 ? 0.00; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.39 ? 0.01; 0.59 ? 0.01; 0.50 ? 0.01; 0.68 ? .03; 0.12 ? 0.003; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.11 ? 0.00; 0.12 ?

  7. Coccidioides immitis osteomyelitis of the radius presenting as Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Joseph E; Switlick, Daniel N

    2008-06-01

    Coccidioides immitis osteomyelitis is a relatively rare manifestation of a disease that most commonly presents with pulmonary infection. Disseminated disease occurs in approximately 1% of infected individuals, with bony involvement in 10% to 50% of those patients with extrapulmonary infection. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with primarily osteoarticular complaints is frequently delayed, which may result in progression of disease and suboptimal results. This article discusses the successful treatment of a patient whose initial presentation was suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma of the proximal radius, but was found on biopsy to have coccidioidomycosis osteomyelitis. The patient was treated with surgical debridement and systemic as well as intralesional antifungal therapy.

  8. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  9. Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten selected tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litter decomposition processes in tropical rainforests are still poorly understood. Leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten contrasting tree species, Entandraphragma utile, Guibourtia tessmannii, Klainedoxa gabonensis, Musanga cecropioides, Panda oleosa, Plagiostyles africana, Pterocarpus soyauxii, ...

  10. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  11. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Litter decay rates are determined by lignin chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Talbot; Daniel J. Yelle; James Nowick; Kathleen K. Treseder

    2011-01-01

    Litter decay rates are often correlated with the initial lignin:N or lignin:cellulose content of litter, suggesting that interactions between lignin and more labile compounds are important controls over litter decomposition. The chemical composition of lignin may influence these interactions, if lignin physically or chemically protects labile components from microbial...

  13. Macro-detritivore identity drives leaf litter diversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, V.C.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berg, M.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Berendse, F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of leaf litter diversity for decomposition, an important process in terrestrial ecosystems, is much debated. Previous leaf litter-mixing studies have shown that non-additive leaf litter diversity effects can occur, but it is not clear why they occurred in only half of the studies and

  14. Subject Review Article : Broiler litter as feed for ruminants - Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, growth rate, milk production and feed efficiency were higher in animals (sheep, goats and cattle) fed broiler litter-based diet than in animals fed control diet (without broiler litter). This paper reviews the nutritional value, health hazard, processing techniques and factors affecting the acceptability of broiler litter as ...

  15. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  16. Dried rose ( Rosa damascena Mill.) dreg: an alternative litter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of using dried rose dreg (DRD) as an alternative litter material for broiler performance and microbiological characteristics of litter. A total of 225 day-old broiler chicks was raised on pine wood shavings (PS), DRD and PS+DRD until 42 days. The effects of litter ...

  17. Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove species Avicennia marina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove leaves were compared for different seasons, species (Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata) and sites in southern Mozambique. Mangrove leaf litter fall and decomposition was estimated using small mesh collecting-baskets and litter bags respectively in 2006 and ...

  18. Litter for life : assessing the multifunctional legacy of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Berg, Matty P.

    2017-01-01

    Litter drives a wide variety of important functions in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the role of litter in regulating community dynamics and ecosystem processes has mostly been studied in terms of litter presence or amount. Besides in biogeochemistry, we still do not know how

  19. Influence of Tourist Pressure on Beach Litter and Microbial Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    identified and the total number and weight of litter collected from La were 2261 and 72695 g, and that of Korle were 2691 and 43239 g, respectively. Plastic material dominated the total litter at 66% for Korle and 53% for La, respectively. The numbers of litter increased with increasing visitor pressure during the festive season ...

  20. Converting Poultry Litter into Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of animal manure is one of the biggest problems facing agriculture today. Now new technology has been designed to covert manure into environmentally friendly and highly valued activated carbon. When pelletized and activated under specific conditions, the litter becomes a highly porous mat...

  1. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling are essential for the functioning of an ... biochemical (i.e. intra system) nutrient cycling and food webs; this refers to both the physical and ..... (1998) suggested that microbial activity could be limited by litter moisture .... Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers on ...

  2. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  3. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  4. Economic instruments and marine litter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Papyrakis, E.; Boteler, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature on the economic instruments that can reduce marine litter. We assess their cost of implementation, level of effectiveness as well as indirect environmental and socio-economic effects (externalities) that may arise as a result of

  5. Solutions for global marine litter pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, Ansje; Savelli, Heidi; Beunen, Raoul; Kalz, Marco; Ragas, Ad; Van Belleghem, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro)plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other

  6. Ballonnen in zee = balloons as marine litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Releasing balloons seems harmless. However, remains of balloons, especially valves and ribbons are becoming a common and persistent type of marine litter found on beaches. Following Dutch Queens day 2007, large numbers of Dutch balloons were found in Normandy, France. Animals may become entangled in

  7. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Manzoni; Robert B. Jackson; John A. Trofymow; Amilcare Porporato

    2008-01-01

    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of ~2800 observations to show...

  8. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  9. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  10. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  11. The role of microbial communities in phosphorus cycling during litter decomposition in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret Sevilla, E.; Brodie, E.; Bouskill, N.; Hao, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient with a reduced availability in tropical forests. In these ecosystems, P is recycled highly efficiently through resorption and mineralization and P immobilization in the microbial biomass prevents its loss through occlusion in the soil mineral fraction. To improve models of ecosystem response to global change, further studies of the above and belowground plant and microbial traits related to P availability and uptake, are required. In tropical forests, high temperature and rainfall lead to some of the highest rates of litter decomposition on earth. Litter decomposition is a complex process mediated by a range of trophic groups: meso and microfauna initiate litter turnover through litter fragmentation facilitating colonization by fungi, and bacteria mediate the mineralization of organic matter and release of nutrients. To determine the important functional traits of these players in the efficient cycling of P in soils with low P availability, we are performing a leaf litter decomposition experiment in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Nylon litterbags with three mesh sizes (2mm, 20 μm and 0.45 μm) containing litter with different chemistry (tabonuco and palm) will be deployed on soil surface and sampled 6 times throughout 12 months. The use of different mesh sizes will allow us to identify the leading roles in litter turnover by physical allowance and/or exclusion of the decomposers. The 2 mm bags allow meso and microfauna, roots, fungi and bacteria. 20 μm bags will exclude fauna and roots and 0.45 μm only allow some bacteria. We hypothesize that fungi will dominate over bacteria in earlier stages of the decomposition with a higher production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. On the other hand, bacterial biomass is expected to increase with time. Qualitative changes in both fungal and bacterial communities along the decomposition process are also expected leading to changes in enzyme activity. We also postulate an

  12. Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.L.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-López, M.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Parmentier, H.K.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of airborne particles were measured inside and outside typical animal houses such as broilers, broiler breeders (both floor housing with litter); layers (floor housing system and aviary housing system); turkeys (floor housing with litter), pigs: fattening pigs

  13. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  14. Do physical plant litter traits explain non-additivity in litter mixtures? A test of the improved microenvironmental conditions theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkonen, M.A.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; van Hal, J.R.; Aerts, R.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition rates of plant litter mixtures often deviate from the averaged rates of monocultures of their component litter species. The mechanisms behind these non-additive effects in decomposition of litter mixtures are lively debated. One plausible explanation for non-additive effects is

  15. Do physical plant litter traits explain non-additivity in litter mixtures? A test of the improved microenvironmental conditions theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkonen, M.A.; Berg, M.P.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; van Hal, J.R.; Aerts, R.

    2013-01-01

    The decomposition rates of plant litter mixtures often deviate from the averaged rates of monocultures of their component litter species. The mechanisms behind these non-additive effects in decomposition of litter mixtures are lively debated. One plausible explanation for non-additive effects is

  16. Histological and Metabolic State of Dams Suckling Small Litter or MSG-Treated Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Capriglioni Cancian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL or normal litters (NL and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG, or saline (CON. SL Dams and MSG Dams presented an increase in WAT content and higher plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin, in relation to NL Dams and CON Dams, respectively. The MG of SL Dams and MSG Dams presented a high adipocyte content and reduced alveoli development and the milk of the SL Dams presented a higher calorie and triglyceride content, compared to that of the NL Dams. SL Dams presented a reduction in islet size and greater lipid droplet accumulation in BAT, in relation to NL Dams. SL Dams and MSG Dams present similar responses to offspring manipulation during lactation, resulting in changes in metabolic parameters. These alterations were associated with higher fat accumulation in BAT and changes in milk composition only in SL Dams.

  17. Association of lameness with milk yield and lactation curves in Chios dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Arsenos, Georgios; Valergakis, Georgios E; Banos, Georgios

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was twofold: (i) to quantify the differences in daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) between lame and non-lame dairy ewes and (ii) to determine the shape of lactation curves around the lameness incident. The overall study was a prospective study of lameness for the surveyed sheep population, with a nested study including the selection of matching controls for each lame ewe separately. Two intensively reared flocks of purebred Chios ewes and a total of 283 ewes were used. Data, including gait assessment and DMY records, were collected on a weekly basis during on-farm visits across the milking period. A general linear model was developed for the calculation of lactation curves of lame and non-lame ewes, whereas one-way ANOVA was used for the comparisons between lame ewes and their controls. Lameness incidence was 12.4 and 16.8% on Farms A and B, respectively. Average DMY in lame ewes was significantly lower (213.8 g, P < 0.001) compared with the rest of the flock, where DMY averaged 1.340 g. The highest DMY reduction in lame ewes was observed during the week 16 of the milking period (P < 0.001), whereas the reduction of DMY, for lame ewes, remained significant at P < 0.001 level from week 8 to week 28 of milking. Comparisons between lame and controls revealed that at the week of lameness diagnosis a significant DMY reduction (P ≤ 0.001) was observed in lame ewes (about 32.5%), which was maximised 1 week later (35.8%, P ≤ 0.001) and continued for several weeks after recovery, resulting in 19.3% lower TMY for lame ewes for the first 210 d of the milking period (P < 0.01). Moreover, at flock level, TMY for non-lame and lame ewes, as calculated by the general linear model, was 318.9 and 268.0 kg, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of significant financial losses in dairy sheep due to lameness which, however, need to be accurately estimated in further, more detailed, analyses.

  18. Effect of grape seed and skin supplement on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Amri, Mohamed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of grape seed and skin supplement (GSSS), on lactating dairy ewes' production. Ten dairy pregnant ewes from northern Tunisia were allocated to two groups: control diet (C) and supplemented with 20 % (w/w) GSSS. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks and took place after 2 months of lambing. During the experiment, daily milk yield and milk composition were determined. Supplementation of the diet with GSSS increased milk production (P milk fat nor protein. From these data, it is concluded that the inclusion of GSSS in sheep diets increased significantly ewes' milk yield.

  19. A typical case of hydrallantois accompanied by fetal monstrosity in a local ewe of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A full termed local ewe with the history of continuous straining with labored breathing for last 24 hours was presented. The animal was disinclined to move with tense and round abdomen which developed rapidly during last two weeks. Caesarean section revealed hydrallantois accompanied by multiple fetal congenital abnormalities. The ewe was under observation for four weeks. Metritis developed 12 days post-operation and was treated successfully. The ewe was found active on 25 days post-surgery with gain of extra 3 kg bodyweight.

  20. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  1. Influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna of deciduous forests of Ukraine’s steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The litter in a forest ecosystem acts as a trophic substrate, and at the same time it is the environment for litter invertebrates. But despite this fact, there has been very little research conducted on the influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna. The litter of steppe forests contains most types of integrated communities of forest ecosystems. This means that its thickness cannot avoid playing a significant role in the functioning of the ecosystem. Following to the standard methodologies, Invertebrates were collected using pit-fall traps in deciduous forests of Nikolaev, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Kharkiv oblasts, which are characterized by different types of geomorphological profile, different moisture conditions, soil salinity, tree crown and herbaceous vegetation density, soil texture and other factors. The total number of macrofauna increases in conditions where litter thickness exceeds40 mmin comparison with forest ecosystems with fragmented and average capacity litter. The number of litter macrofauna species also increases from 11–23 to 38 species on average when litter thickness increases to more than40 mm. The Shannon and Pielou diversity indexes show no definite tendencies to change in relation to changing degrees of litter thickness. At sites of greater thickness of the litter layer, the corresponding increase in the absolute number of litter mesofauna invertebrates is mostly due to saprophages, and the increase the number of species – due to zoophages. The optimum structure of domination was observed at sites with maximum thickness of litter. The proportion of large species shows no statistically significant change in relation to variations in litter thickness. The qualitative compound of the fauna at sites with thick litter changes mainly due to an increase in the number of Carabidae species.

  2. Subtidal littering: Indirect effects on soft substratum macrofauna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. AKOUMIANAKI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in macrofauna community structure, abundance and species richness were examined both before and one year after the deployment of plastic and glass bottles at littered (litter density: 16 items / 100 m2 and non-littered (control surfaces at three unimpacted coastal areas of the western Saronikos Gulf (Greece. In parallel, LOI% at the adjacent sediments and changes in the composition of feeding types of the megaepifauna that colonized the litter were examined across treatments. Significant changes in macrofauna community structure were demonstrated between before and after littering. At only one of the sites was there detected a significant difference in macrofauna community structure between control and littered plots after littering. This difference was linked with a significant increase in the abundance of opportunistic polychaete species and LOI% levels in the sediment surface due to the entrapment of macrophytal debris within the littered surface. The study did not show a consistent direct response of macroinfauna community to litter and the associated megafauna. Unlike the megafauna attracted by litter items, soft-substratum macrofauna is less responsive to the addition of novel hard substrates in adjacent sediments. Alternatively, it could be that the impact of littering with small items triggers a macrofauna response detectable in the long-run.

  3. Incorporating effects of forest litter in a snow process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. P.; Melloh, R.; Robinson, P.; Jordan, R.

    2000-12-01

    Net solar radiation often dominates the snow surface energy exchange during ablation in many conifer forests. Reflection of solar radiation from the snow surface depends not only on snow properties, but also on forest litter lying on and within the snowpack. We know of no validated model reported in the literature that accounts for the influence of forest litter on snow surface energy exchanges. The purpose of this work is to test an existing algorithm's ability to accumulate forest litter in snow layers and to predict the subsequent effect of litter on the snow surface albedo. Field studies in a conifer stand of red spruce-balsam fir in northern Vermont, USA, provided key data for validation, including subcanopy radiation, meteorology, snow depth, and images of litter accumulation. We ran the litter algorithm coupled with the snow model SNTHERM for the ablation season, and predictions compared well with measurements of snow depth, snow surface litter coverage, and snow surface albedo beneath the conifer canopy. Model results suggest that for this forest and ablation season, the current litter algorithm realistically distributes litter in the snowpack through time with validated effects on snow surface litter concentration and albedo. The poor relationship between mean wind speed and change in litter coverage on the snow surface suggest that, for this forest and ablation season, incorporating wind events into the algorithm will not improve the results.

  4. The effect of saprophagous macrofauna on litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous experiments show that feeding of the larvae of Bibionidae on lef litter cause short term increase of respiration but in long term the decomposition of bibio feces is slower than decomposition of litter from which feces were produced. To understand why excrements of decompose more slowly than leaf litter, we fed Bibio marci larvae the litter of tree species differing in litter quality (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and then measured respiration induced by litter and excrements. We also measured respiration induced by the same litter artificially modified to mimic faunal effects; the litter was modified by grinding, grinding with alkalinization to pH 11, grinding with coating by kaolinite, and grinding with both alkalinization and coating. Decomposition of excrements tended to be slower for willow and was significantly slower for oak and alder than for the corresponding litter. With oak, decomposition was slower for all artificially modified litter than for non-modified litter. The reduction in the decomposition was similar for excrements and for alder and willow litter that was ground, coated, and alkalinized. In alder, a similar reduction was found in ground and alkalinized litter. 13C NMR indicated that gut passage increases aliphatic components and decreases polysaccharides. Pyrolysis indicated that gut passage increases the ratio of guaiacyl to hydroxymethyl derivatives in lignin. Our findings indicate that the decreased decomposition rate of excrements might result from the removal of easily available polysaccharides, the increase in aliphatic components, an increase in the resistant components of lignin, the accumulation of microbial cell walls, and the binding of nitrogen into complexes with aromatic components. Several of these mechanisms are supported or determined by litter alkalinization during gut passage.

  5. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  6. Climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Pihlatie, Mari; Korhonen, Janne F. J.

    2016-01-01

    , and positively correlated with the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further.Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species or site of origin...... for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during the decomposition. Using mean annual air temperature, precipitation, soil water content and litter total specific leaf area as parameters we were able to predict the annual decomposition rate (k) accurately.......Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under future climate change is associated with large uncertainties in litter decomposition and the turnover of soil C and N. In addition, future conditions (especially altered precipitation regimes and warming) are expected to result in changes in vegetation...

  7. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F

    2015-01-01

    relations with characteristics of sow nutrition, litter size, farrowing, and composition of mammary secreta (independent variables). Litter size was positively related with both CY and MY in wk 1 to 4 (P protein concentration was negatively correlated with MY in all 4 wk (P ... indicated that high yielding sows were unable to maintain milk protein synthesis during lactation. Additionally, mean intake of ME prepartum (P MY and the BW of the sow on d 3 was included in the regression model for MY in wk 1 (P ... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...

  8. Tubuloglomerular feedback responses in offspring of dexamethasone-treated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anita J; Brown, Russell D; Brandon, Amanda E; Persson, A Erik G; Gibson, Karen J

    2017-10-01

    Via developmental programming, prenatal perturbations, such as exposure to glucocorticoids and maternal malnutrition alter kidney development and contribute to the development of hypertension. To examine the possibility that alterations in tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) contribute to the development of hypertension in offspring following maternal dexamethasone treatment (Dex) in early gestation, studies were conducted in fetal sheep and lambs. Pregnant ewes were infused with dexamethasone (0.48 mg/h) at 26-28 days gestation. No differences were observed in mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate. or electrolyte excretion rates between the Dex and Untreated fetuses or lambs. Gestational exposure to Dex markedly enhanced TGF sensitivity, as the turning point in Dex-treated fetuses was significantly lower (12.9 ± 0.9 nl/min; P dexamethasone-exposed offspring may contribute to the development of hypertension as adults. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. How does litter cover, litter diversity and fauna affect sediment discharge and runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Litter cover plays a major role in soil erosion processes. It is known that litter cover reduces erosivity of raindrops, decreases sediment discharge and lowers runoff volume compared to bare ground. However, in the context of biodiversity, the composition of litter cover, its effect on sediment discharge and runoff volume and their influence on soil erosion have not yet been analyzed in detail. Focusing on initial soil erosion (splash), our experimental design is designated to get a better understanding of these mechanisms. The experiments were carried out within the DFG research unit "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (BEF)-China" in subtropical China. The "New Integrated Litter Experiment (NILEx)" used as platform combining different subprojects of BEF-China dealing with "decomposition and nutrient cycling", "mechanisms of soil erosion" and "functional effects of herbivores, predators and saproxylics" in one experiment. In NILEx, 96 40cm x 40cm runoff plots on two hill slopes inside a castanea molissima forest plantation have been installed and filled with seven different types of litter cover. 16 one-species plots, 24 two-species plots, 4 four-species plots and 4 bare ground plots have been set up, each replicated once. We prepared 48 Plots with traps (Renner solution) for soil macrofauna (diplopods and collembola), so half of the plots were kept free from fauna while the other half was accessible for fauna. Rainfall was generated artificially by using a rainfall simulator with a continuous and stable intensity of 60 mm/h. Our experiments included two runs of 20 minutes duration each, both conducted at two different time steps (summer 2012 and autumn 2012). Runoff volume and sediment discharge were measured every 5 minutes during one rainfall run. Litter coverage and litter mass were recorded at the beginning (summer 2012) and at the end of the experiment (autumn 2012). Our results show that sediment discharge as well as runoff volume decreases

  10. The importance of PET/CT in the evaluation of patients with Ewing tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Brandão Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effective evaluation for the treatment of patients with Ewing tumors depends on the accuracy in the determination of the primary tumor extent and the presence of metastatic disease. Currently, no universally accepted staging system is available to assess Ewing tumors. The present study aimed at discussing the use of PET/CT as a tool for staging, restaging and assessment of therapeutic response in patients with Ewing tumors. In spite of some limitations of PET/CT as compared with anatomical imaging methods, its relevance in the assessment of these patients is related to the capacity of the method to provide further physiological information, which often generates important clinical implications. Currently, the assessment of patients with Ewing tumor should comprise a study with PET/CT combined with other anatomical imaging modalities, such as radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. The relation between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to nursing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a linear relation exists between the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) of nursing ewes in early lactation and the dietary chewing index (CI). This was investigated using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 nursing ewes in the first 4......–6 weeks after lambing, giving a total of 528 observations. The ewes were fed grass silage ad libitum separately, supplemented with concentrates or fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. The ewes were of different breeds, ranging from 2 to 7 years old, had a mean body weight (BW) in the first week...... = ME0 − k × ME02 × CIcor, where MEI is the daily intake of metabolizable energy, ME0 is the theoretical maximum energy intake capacity of the animal in a situation with no physical constraints on intake, and k represents the decline in MEI with increasing CIcor. The model included random variation...

  12. research note the early post partum reconception of anc.ora goat ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electro ejaculation) 48 and. 60 h after sponge withdrawal, regardles of oestrus detection. Following the final insemination 6 rants were introduced to the group to cover the ewes not on heat at the time of insemination. Approximately 3 days before.

  13. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pukáčová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum.   doi:10.5219/24

  14. Genome sequencing of Ewing sarcoma patients reveals genetic predisposition | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The largest and most comprehensive genomic analysis of individuals with Ewing sarcoma performed to date reveals that some patients are genetically predisposed to developing the cancer.  Learn more...

  15. stress-induced release of prolactin in cycling and anoestrous ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STRESS-INDUCED RELEASE OF PROLACTIN IN CYCLING AND ANOESTROUS EWES,. AND IN WETHERS. OPSOMMING: VRYSTELLING VAN PROLAKTIEN ONDER SPANNINGSTOESTANDE BY OOIE IN VERSKILLENDE STADIUMS VAN. REPRODUKSIE, EN BY HAMELS. Aangesien dit bekend is dat spanning die ...

  16. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  17. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on farms in different scrapie categories in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiríksson Tryggvi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies indicated decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on scrapie-afflicted farms. Other studies have shown decreased GPX activity in brain of prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the GPX activity in blood as well as the distribution of GPX-activity levels from ewes on farms in scrapie-afflicted areas in Iceland. Methods Blood samples were collected from 635 ewes (non-pregnant [n = 297] and pregnant [n = 338] on 40 farms in scrapie-afflicted areas during the years 2001–2005, for analysis of GPX activity. The farms were divided into three categories: 1. Scrapie-free farms (n = 14; 2. Scrapie-prone farms (earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms (n = 12; 3. Scrapie-afflicted farms (n = 14. For comparison, 121 blood samples were also collected from non-pregnant ewes on one farm (farm A in a scrapie-free area (scrapie never registered. Chi-square test was used to test for normal distribution of GPX-results, and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare GPX-results between categories. Results The GPX-results appeared to be biphasically distributed in ewes in all three scrapie categories and on farm A. The presumptive breaking point was about 300 units g Hb-1. About 30–50% of the GPX-results from ewes in all three scrapie categories were below 300 units g Hb-1 but only about 13% of the GPX-results from ewes on farm A. The mean GPX activity was highest on farm A, and was significantly lower on scrapie-prone farms than on scrapie-free or scrapie-afflicted farms (non-pregnant and pregnant ewes: P Conclusions 1 the distribution of GPX-results in blood of Icelandic ewes apparently has a biphasic character; 2 the GPX-results were higher in ewes on one farm in a scrapie-free area than in ewes on farms in the scrapie-afflicted areas; 3 GPX-activity levels were significantly lowest on earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms, which might have a

  18. Factors associated with fetal losses in ewe lambs on a New Zealand sheep farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, A L; Vallee, E; Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Heuer, C

    2015-11-01

    As part of a production study of ewe lambs on a large farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand in 2011, pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken twice by trans-abdominal ultrasonography at 68-103 and 97-132 days of gestation. At the second pregnancy diagnosis 257/3,790 (6.8%) ewe lambs had evidence of non-viable fetuses or absence of a pregnancy that was present at the previous pregnancy diagnosis (fetal loss). Serum antibody titres for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona appeared generally higher in 10 ewe lambs with fetal loss compared with 10 that were still pregnant. Histopathological investigation was not able to confirm that fetal loss was associated with leptospial infection. In the 2012-born cohort of ewe lambs 443 were vaccinated with a bivalent leptospirosis vaccine and 882 unvaccinated. Serum was collected from 124 non-vaccinated ewe lambs between January and December 2013 for measurement of antibodies to Leptospira serovar Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Less than 5% of these ewe lambs were seropositive until May, but by August 85% and 48% of animals were seropositive to Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona, respectively. Fetal loss in non-vaccinated ewe lambs was 78/882 (9%) compared with 23/443 (5%) in vaccinated ewe lambs. Combined data from the 2011- and 2012-born ewe lambs (n=5,115) were analysed using a logistic regression model and fetal loss as the dependent variable. In the final model fetal loss was associated with pre-mating bodyweight (p=0.003), weight change from pre-mating to initial pregnancy diagnosis (p<0.001), year born and leptospirosis vaccination status (p=0.013). Amongst the serologically monitored ewe lambs, there were associations between fetal loss and being seropositive to Leptospira serovar Pomona using titre cut-points of 1:48 and 1:768 (p<0.001). Low pre-mating weight and/or low weight gain from mating to pregnancy diagnosis was associated with increased

  19. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). The percentage of sperm with progressive motility was lower after incubation with vaginal mucus collected from estrous ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments both, 30 and 90 minutes after incubation (P = 0.0009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The sample incubated for 30 minutes with mucus from ewes treated with IS had a lower percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than all the other treatments (P < 0.0001). The percentage of sperm with functional membrane was significantly lower in the sample incubated for 30 minutes with vaginal mucus from ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments (P < 0.0001). After 90 minutes, the percentage was still lower than that in the sample collected from ewes during their spontaneous estrus (P = 0.0005). The lowest percentages of sperm with acrosome damage were observed in sperm incubated with mucus collected from sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.008, respectively). The percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa was

  20. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the sphenoid sinus with orbital and intracranial extension: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Senda; Kedous, Skander; Mahjoubi, Madiha; Dhambri, Sawssen; Attia, Zied; Touati, Slim

    2016-11-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a high-grade neuroectodermal primary bone tumor. This is the second primary bone tumor in children afterosteosarcoma and represents 4 to10% of cases. It can occur in all skeletal bones. However, the location at the facial bones is uncommon (1to2%) and extremely rare at the sphenoid sinus. We report the clinical results of a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma of the sphenoid with intraorbitaland intracranial extension.

  1. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Pukáčová; Lucia Poľaková; Eva Dudriková

    2010-01-01

    Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %), sec (48 %) a sed (48 %). Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%), Staphylococcus caprae (21.28%) were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %), Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%), Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %), a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 %) wer...

  2. Short Communication Effect of selenium-vitamin E injections of ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted on 90 Karacabey Merino ewes divided into three groups. The first group of ewes was treated with 5 mL 0.1% sodium selenate, the second with 5 mL 0.1% sodium selenate and 250 mg vitamin E, while the third one was a control group. The effect of intra-muscular injection of selenium (Se) ...

  3. Experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment effects on microbial litter decomposers in a marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O

    2011-02-01

    Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.

  4. Marine litter from circalittoral and deeper bottoms off the Maltese islands (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MIFSUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 2005 leg of the MEDITS trawl survey, benthic anthropogenic debris around the Maltese Islands (central Mediterranean was quantified for the first time, with the aim of studying its abundance and distribution in the area. 357 items were sampled from 3.5 km2 of swept area. Each item was recorded, measured and its planar and surface areas were estimated. Plastic (47%, metal and glass (13% respectively were the most prevalent types of litter in terms of number. Limestone slabs, sacks and fabric were the items with the highest planar and surface area per item. This suggests that it is also important to consider the size of debris items as well as numerical abundance in assessing impact of litter on benthic organisms. An attempt was made to correlate anthropogenic and environmental variables, including fishing activities and wave parameters, to litter abundance and distribution but no interpretable correlations were found, implying that litter abundance and distribution depends on factors other than those considered.

  5. Risks associated with preweaning mortality in 855 litters on 39 commercial outdoor pig farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KilBride, A L; Mendl, M; Statham, P; Held, S; Harris, M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Booth, H; Green, L E

    2014-11-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 39 outdoor breeding pig farms in England in 2003 and 2004 to investigate the risks associated with mortality in liveborn preweaning piglets. Researchers visited each farm and completed a questionnaire with the farmer and made observations of the paddocks, huts and pigs. The farmer recorded the number of piglets born alive and stillborn, fostered on and off and the number of piglets that died before weaning for 20 litters born after the visit. Data were analysed from a cohort of 9424 liveborn piglets from 855 litters. Overall 1274 liveborn piglets (13.5%) died before weaning. A mixed effect binomial model was used to investigate the associations between preweaning mortality and farm and litter level factors, controlling for litter size and number of piglets stillborn and fostered. Increased risk of mortality was associated with fostering piglets over 24h of age, organic certification or membership of an assurance scheme with higher welfare standards, farmer's perception that there was a problem with pest birds, use of medication to treat coccidiosis and presence of lame sows on the farm. Reduced mortality was associated with insulated farrowing huts and door flaps, women working on the farm and the farmer reporting a problem with foxes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of selective anthelmintic treatments on health and production parameters in Pelibuey ewes during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arece-García, Javier; López-Leyva, Yoel; González-Garduño, Roberto; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted from December to April 2013, with the aim of evaluating a system of selective antiparasitic treatments using the FAMACHA© color chart compared with a conventional suppressive deworming system every 30 days in Pelibuey ewes during lactation. For the study, 54 ewes were used. They were randomly divided into two groups: FAMACHA and chemical treatments. The ewes in the first group received selective treatment depending on the ocular mucosa coloration (FAMACHA) and body condition score (BCS), while in the second group (chemical) all the animals remained under routine deworming every 30 days. Fecal nematode egg counts, proportion of third-stage trichostrongylid larvae, body condition, coloration of the ocular mucosa, and packed cell volume in the ewes were determined, while in lambs only body weight (BW) was recorded. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in any of the studied variables between groups; however, the use of antiparasitic drugs was reduced during the experimental period in the FAMACHA group and no deaths of lambs or ewes were recorded. The results indicate that during the lactation of ewes, a strategy of selective treatments can be implemented without showing deterioration in major health and productive parameters of these animals.

  7. Rapid effects of melatonin on hormonal and behavioral stressful responses in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Malpaux, Benoît; Delagrange, Philippe; Spedding, Michael; Cornilleau, Fabien; Chesneau, Didier; Haller, József; Chaillou, Elodie

    2013-08-01

    Sheep are gregarious mammals with complex social interactions. As such, they are very sensitive to social isolation and constitute a relevant animal model to study specifically the biological consequences of social stress. We examined previously the behavioral and endocrine responses in ewes isolated socially in the familiar conspecific withdrawal model (FCW) and showed that stressful responses increased and maintenance behaviors decreased, confirming that social isolation is a strong stressor in sheep. Melatonin synchronizes seasonal and circadian rhythms; and several studies reported its implication in cognitive processes as emotion. Here we investigated its role in the modulation of social stressful responses. Firstly, we studied ewes in the FCW model during the day (characterized by low melatonin levels) and the night (characterized by high melatonin levels). We found lower stressful responses (significant lower levels of cortisol plasma, number of foot pawings, of circling attempts) during the night as compared to the day. To investigate whether these effects were due to melatonin or to darkness, we submitted ewes to FCW during the night with lights on, a condition that suppresses melatonin secretion. Ewes infused with melatonin under these conditions showed decreased stressful responses (significant lower levels cortisol plasma, number of vocalizations, time spent with the head out of the cage) as compared to ewes infused with saline. These findings demonstrate that melatonin diminishes the endocrine and behavioral impact of social isolation in ewes and support the idea that melatonin has a calming effect in socially stressful situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  9. Management of fetal dystocia caused by carpal flexion in ewe: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia or difficulty in parturition in a ewe may need veterinary assistance for the successful parturition. An adult ewe weighing 30 kg was presented to the Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of difficulty in giving birth. Physical examination of the ewe revealed that the animal was weak and in recumbent position. Head of a dead fetus was observed as protruding out from the vulva region. Through physical evaluation of the ewe by per vaginal examination, the condition was diagnosed as fetal dystocia. Treatment and management plans given to the ewe were episiotomy and manipulative delivery of the dead fetus via mutation and traction method. Post-operative treatment was given with Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt for 3 days, and Norodine (dosed at 1 mL/16-kg bwt once intramuscularly. The case was completely cured after 2 weeks. The risk of losing the lamb as well as the ewe increases with delay in treatment of dystocia.

  10. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P organic procedures on the sheep oocyte quality indicates that the total integration in the complete organic system improved the oocyte quality of ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  11. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry litter amendment: effects on litter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J T; Luka-McCafferty, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO4)3] amendment of poultry litters has been suggested as a best management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effects of poultry production. Past research has shown that alum treatment reduced NH3 emissions from litters, decreased the loss in runoff of P and trace metals from litter-amended soils, improved poultry health, and reduced the costs of poultry production. We conducted a large scale, "on-farm" evaluation of alum as a poultry (broiler) litter amendment on the Delmarva peninsula to determine the effect of alum on (i) litter properties and elemental composition and (ii) the solubility of several elements in litter that are of particular concern for water quality (Al, As, Cu, P, and Zn). Alum was applied over a 16-mo period to 97 poultry houses on working poultry farms; 97 houses on other farms served as controls (no alum). Litter samples were analyzed initially and after approximately seven alum applications. We found that alum decreased litter pH and the water solubility of P, As, Cu, and Zn. Alum-treated houses also had higher litter total N, NH4-N, and total S concentrations and thus a greater overall fertilizer value than litters from the control houses. Higher litter NH4-N values also suggest that alum reduced NH3 losses from litters. Thus, alum appears to have promise as a best management practice (BMP) for poultry production. Future research should focus on the long-term transformations of P, Al, As, Cu, and Zn in soils amended with alum-treated litters.

  13. Effect of lactic cultures on Escherichia coli in ewes' milk stored at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarri, F J; Nuñez, J A; de Paz, M; Nuñez, M

    1991-08-01

    The behaviour of Escherichia coli in pasteurized ewes' milk inoculated with different lactic starter cultures and incubated at temperatures in the range 4-16 degrees C for 96 h was investigated. Growth temperature of lactic starter cultures before inoculation had a significant effect on inhibition of E. coli. The growth temperature of lactic starter inoculum which resulted in the highest inhibitory activity was 24 degrees C. Size of lactic starter inoculum also significantly influenced growth of E. coli, with a higher inhibition for 1% inoculum than for 0.1% or 0.3% inocula. Single cultures of Lactococcus lactis showed a stronger inhibitory activity than single cultures of Leuconostoc cremoris or Leuconostoc dextranicum. A lactic starter culture comprising Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc cremoris and Leuconostoc dextranicum resulted in the strongest inhibition. Stimulation of E. coli by the lactic starter cultures was frequently recorded at 4 degrees C and 8 degrees C. However, none or a very limited growth of E. coli was seen at these temperatures.

  14. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2012-08-01

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)], nutritional plane [60% (restricted; RES), 100% (control; CON), or 140% (high; HIH)], and physiological stage at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7 per treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were transitioned to a common diet which met lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. In the absence of interactions (P > 0.10), main effects are reported. At parturition, stomach complex and liver masses were greatest for HIH, intermediate for CON, and least for RES (P 0.17) at parturition, jejunal cell percent proliferation was greatest in RES, intermediate in CON, and least in HIH (P ≤ 0.09) at d 20 lactation. At both stages, RES had less (P = 0.01) jejunal capillary area density than HIH and less (P ≤ 0.03) capillary surface density than CON and HIH. During lactation, jejunal capillary size was greater (P = 0.04) for ewes previously fed HSe compared with ASe. At parturition, ASe-HIH had greater (P nutritional plane and dietary Se during gestation and undergo changes postpartum when under similar lactational management.

  15. ROLE OF MICROORGANISM AND MICROFAUNA IN PLANT LITTER DECOMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Singh*, Anju Rani, Permod Kumar, Gyanika Shukla, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Though the fungi play a very significant role in the plant litter decomposition, studies revealed that the bacteria colonize the litters in the initial stages of decomposition. It has been observed that leaf species with low C:N ratio harbored higher number of bacteria than the more resistant species. The results of various workers outlined the development of the bacterial flora after litter fall due to improved moisture conditions but there is no change in the species composition. The plant ...

  16. Litter evenness influences short-term peatland decomposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nick J; McNamara, Niall P; Bardgett, Richard D

    2010-10-01

    There is concern that changes in climate and land use could increase rates of decomposition in peatlands, leading to release of stored C to the atmosphere. Rates of decomposition are driven by abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture, but also by biotic factors such as changes in litter quality resulting from vegetation change. While effects of litter species identity and diversity on decomposition processes are well studied, the impact of changes in relative abundance (evenness) of species has received less attention. In this study we investigated effects of changes in short-term peatland plant species evenness on decomposition in mixed litter assemblages, measured as litter weight loss, respired CO(2) and leachate C and N. We found that over the 307-day incubation period, higher levels of species evenness increased rates of decomposition in mixed litters, measured as weight loss and leachate dissolved organic N. We also found that the identity of the dominant species influenced rates of decomposition, measured as weight loss, CO(2) flux and leachate N. Greatest rates of decomposition were when the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris dominated litter mixtures, and lowest rates when the bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi dominated. Interactions between evenness and dominant species identity were also detected for litter weight loss and leachate N. In addition, positive non-additive effects of mixing litter were observed for litter weight loss. Our findings highlight the importance of changes in the evenness of plant community composition for short-term decomposition processes in UK peatlands.

  17. Fungal contamination of poultry litter: a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on microbial contaminants associated with various stages related to poultry and meat products processing, only a few reported on fungal contamination of poultry litter. The goals of this study were to (1) characterize litter fungal contamination and (2) report the incidence of keratinophilic and toxigenic fungi presence. Seven fresh and 14 aged litter samples were collected from 7 poultry farms. In addition, 27 air samples of 25 litters were also collected through impaction method, and after laboratory processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU/m³) and qualitative results were obtained. Twelve different fungal species were detected in fresh litter and Penicillium was the most frequent genus found (59.9%), followed by Alternaria (17.8%), Cladosporium (7.1%), and Aspergillus (5.7%). With respect to aged litter, 19 different fungal species were detected, with Penicillium sp. the most frequently isolated (42.3%), followed by Scopulariopsis sp. (38.3%), Trichosporon sp. (8.8%), and Aspergillus sp. (5.5%). A significant positive correlation was found between litter fungal contamination (CFU/g) and air fungal contamination (CFU/m³). Litter fungal quantification and species identification have important implications in the evaluation of potential adverse health risks to exposed workers and animals. Spreading of poultry litter in agricultural fields is a potential public health concern, since keratinophilic (Scopulariopsis and Fusarium genus) as well as toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genus) were isolated.

  18. Competence of Litter Ants for Rapid Biodiversity Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Saumya E. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Biodiversity Assessment approaches associated with focusing taxa have overcome many of the problems related to large scale surveys. This study examined the suitability of litter ants as a focusing taxon by checking whether diversity and species assemblages of litter ants reflect the overall picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter in two vegetation types: secondary forest and pine plantation in Upper Hanthana forest reserve, Sri Lanka. In each vegetation type, arthropods were sampled using three sampling methods (Winkler extraction, hand collection, and pitfall traps along three 100 m line transects. From the two sites, 1887 litter ants (34 species and 3488 litter arthropods (52 species were collected. Species assemblages composition of both ants and other arthropods differed significantly between the two sites (ANOSIM, p=0.001 with both groups generating distinct clusters for the two sites (SIMPROF, p=0.001. But there was no significant correlation (p>0.05 between abundance and richness of litter ants and those of other arthropods in both vegetation types. The overall finding suggests that the litter ants do not reflect the holistic picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter, but the quality of the habitat for the survival of all litter arthropods.

  19. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Enrichment and Litter Parity on Reproductive Performance and Behavior in BALB/c and 129/Sv Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Julia W; Moy, Sheryl S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Fletcher, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding species-appropriate environmental enrichment items to breeding cages of BALB/cAnNCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice. The 3 enrichment conditions were: 1) cotton nesting material; 2) nesting material plus a paper shelter and rolled paper bedding; and 3) an igloo dome with an exercise wheel in addition to the shelter-group enrichments. We measured litter size, litter survival to weaning age, average pup weight at 21 d, and the interlitter interval to evaluate reproductive performance. A random subset of the first- or second-litter offspring from each enrichment condition and strain was assessed in multiple behavioral tests. Enrichment significantly affected anxiety-like behavior and sociability, with the direction of change dependent on strain and sex. Litter parity had greater effects on some reproductive parameters than did the enrichment condition, and this effect was not solely due to a difference between the first compared with subsequent litters. The significant effects of litter parity on the number of pups born and weaned, female pup weight, and interlitter interval were dependent on the enrichment condition in BALB/c but not 129/Sv mice. Offspring from the first or second litter were included in a generational component to investigate whether enrichment effects on reproduction persist in adult offspring after transfer to a different facility for breeding. Natal cage enrichment had no effect on any reproductive parameter in the transferred mice. Overall, additional enrichment beyond nesting material had a beneficial effect on the interlitter interval in BALB/c mice and on the number of pups weaned in 129/Sv mice. PMID:27423144

  1. Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuel properties of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kaushlendra; Risse, L Mark; Das, K C; Worley, John; Thompson, Sidney

    2010-07-01

    Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon-dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 degrees C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500 degrees C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39 +/- 1.37 MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300 degrees C, which captured 68.71 +/- 9.37% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300 degrees C had 42 +/- 11 mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14 +/- 0.47% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79 +/- 5.45% at 500 degrees C.

  2. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  3. Litter quality and environmental controls of home-field advantage effects on litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G. F.; Freschet, G.T.; Ordonez, A.; Wardle, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis’ predicts that plant litter is decomposed faster than expected in the vicinity of the plant where it originates from (i.e. its ‘home’) relative to some other location (i.e. ‘away’) because of the presence of specialized decomposers. Despite growing evidence

  4. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  5. Fate of mercury in tree litter during decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pokharel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We performed a controlled laboratory litter incubation study to assess changes in dry mass, carbon (C mass and concentration, mercury (Hg mass and concentration, and stoichiometric relations between elements during decomposition. Twenty-five surface litter samples each, collected from four forest stands, were placed in incubation jars open to the atmosphere, and were harvested sequentially at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Using a mass balance approach, we observed significant mass losses of Hg during decomposition (5 to 23 % of initial mass after 18 months, which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg to the atmosphere through a gas-permeable filter covering incubation jars. Percentage mass losses of Hg generally were less than observed dry mass and C mass losses (48 to 63 % Hg loss per unit dry mass loss, although one litter type showed similar losses. A field control study using the same litter types exposed at the original collection locations for one year showed that field litter samples were enriched in Hg concentrations by 8 to 64 % compared to samples incubated for the same time period in the laboratory, indicating strong additional sorption of Hg in the field likely from atmospheric deposition. Solubility of Hg, assessed by exposure of litter to water upon harvest, was very low (<0.22 ng Hg g−1 dry mass and decreased with increasing stage of decomposition for all litter types. Our results indicate potentially large gaseous emissions, or re-emissions, of Hg originally associated with plant litter upon decomposition. Results also suggest that Hg accumulation in litter and surface layers in the field is driven mainly by additional sorption of Hg, with minor contributions from "internal" accumulation due to preferential loss of C over Hg. Litter types showed highly species-specific differences in Hg levels during decomposition suggesting that emissions, retention, and sorption of Hg are dependent on litter type.

  6. Imaging Features of Primary Tumors and Metastatic Patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors in Adults: A 17-Year Experience at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Seong Joon; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Jong Seok; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively analyze the spectrum of imaging features of the primary tumors and metastatic patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EES) in adults. We performed a computerized search of our hospital's data-warehouse from 1996 to 2013 using codes for Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors as well as the demographic code for ≥ 18 years of age. We selected subjects who were histologically confirmed to have Ewing sarcoma of extraskeletal origin. Imaging features of the primary tumor and metastatic disease were evaluated for lesion location, size, enhancement pattern, necrosis, margin, and invasion of adjacent organs. Among the 70 patients (mean age, 35.8 ± 15.6 years; range, 18-67 years) included in our study, primary tumors of EES occurred in the soft tissue and extremities (n = 20), abdomen and pelvis (n = 18), thorax (n = 14), paravertebral space (n = 8), head and neck (n = 6), and an unknown primary site (n = 4). Most primary tumors manifested as large and bulky soft-tissue masses (mean size, 9.0 cm; range, 1.3-23.0 cm), frequently invading adjacent organs (45.6%) and showed heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%), a well-defined (66.7%) margin, and partial necrosis/cystic degeneration (81.9%). Notably, 29 patients had metastatic disease detected at their initial diagnosis. The most frequent site of metastasis was lymph nodes (75.9%), followed by bone (31.0%), lung (20.7%), abdominal solid organs (13.8%), peritoneum (13.8%), pleura (6.9%), and brain (3.4%). Primary tumors of EES can occur anywhere and mostly manifest as large and bulky, soft-tissue masses. Lymph nodes are the most frequent metastasis sites.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  9. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ki Yong; Noh, Byeong-Joo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Youn Wha; Santini Araujo, Eduardo; Park, Yong-Koo

    2015-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  10. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Na

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs, using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. Results: We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. Conclusions: This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  11. Targeting the DNA Repair Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma (EWS is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis. PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using three different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice.

  12. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  13. Crude glycerin decreases nonesterified fatty acid concentration in ewes during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizel, D M; Susin, I; Gentil, R S; Ferreira, E M; de Souza, R A; Freire, A P A; Pires, A V; Ferraz, M V C; Rodrigues, P H M; Eastridge, M L

    2017-02-01

    Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring. Diets were isonitrogenous (13.0 ± 0.3% CP, DM basis), composed of concentrate and raw sugarcane bagasse (70:30 ratio, DM basis), and fed ad libitum daily. Crude glycerin (83.6% glycerol) levels were 0 or 10% (DM basis), corresponding to the experimental diets G0 and G10, respectively. From 8 until 56 d of lactation, DMI was determined. In the same period, once a week at 1000 h, the ewes were separated from the lambs and mechanically milked after intravenous administration of 10 IU of synthetic oxytocin. Three hours after the first milking, ewes were milked again and milk yield and composition were determined. Glucose, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were determined at -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d relative to lambing and insulin was determined at -14, -7, 0, and 7 d. Crude glycerin did not affect DMI (2.2 kg/d for G0 vs. 2.2 kg/d for G10; = 0.93) or milk production (171 g/3 h for G0 vs. 164 g/3 h for G10; = 0.66). However, there was a decrease ( = 0.01) in milk fat percentage (8.1% for G0 vs. 7.0% for G10) for ewes fed glycerin. Ewes fed the G10 diet had decreased ( glycerin increased glucose (5.61 mmol/L for G0 vs. 7.42 mmol/L for G10; glycerin improved energy balance of periparturient ewes, suggesting a reduced risk of developing clinical metabolic-related disorders. Crude glycerin can be added at 10% of ewes' diets without affecting DMI and milk yield.

  14. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  15. Genetic parameters for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and change in within-litter variation during suckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, L H; Rydhmer, L; Løvendahl, P; Grandinson, K

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for within-litter variation in birth weight and for change in within-litter variation in piglet weight during suckling. A further objective was to estimate maternal genetic correlations of these two traits with mortality, birth weight, growth, and number of piglets born alive. Data were obtained from Lövsta research station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and included 22,521 piglets born in 2,003 litters by 1,074 Swedish Yorkshire sows. No cross fostering was used in the herd. The following seven traits were analysed in a multivariate animal (sow) model: number of piglets born alive, within-litter SD in birth weight, within-litter SD in piglet weight at 3 wk of age, mean weight at birth, mean weight at 3 wk of age, proportion of stillborn piglets, and proportion of dead piglets during suckling. Maternal genetic variance for the change in within-litter SD in piglet weight during suckling was assessed from the estimated additive genetic covariance components by conditioning on within-litter SD in birth weight. Similarly, mean growth of piglets during suckling was assessed from the additive genetic covariance components by conditioning on mean weight at birth. The heritability for within-litter SD in birth weight was 0.08 and 0.06 for within-litter SD in piglet weight at 3 wk. The genetic correlation between these two traits was 0.71. Little maternal genetic variance was found for the change in within-litter SD in piglet weight during suckling, and opportunity for genetic improvement of this trait by selective breeding seems limited. The genetic correlation of within-litter SD in birth weight with proportion of dead piglets during suckling was 0.25 and of within-litter SD in birth weight with mean growth of piglets was -0.31. The maternal genetic variance and heritability found for within-litter SD in birth weight indicates that genetic improvement of this

  16. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, D; Lourenço, M; Souza, A; Bueno, A; Pereira, A; Sfeir, M; Santin, E

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and...

  17. Behaviour response of Namaqua Afrikaner, Dorper and South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2013, 43 (Issue 5, Supplement 1) ... which gives an indication of the total distance travelled by an individual lamb ..... litter size and periconceptional ewe nutrition on offspring behaviour ...

  18. Effects of fire frequency on litter decomposition as mediated by changes to litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D Ficken

    Full Text Available Litter quality and soil environmental conditions are well-studied drivers influencing decomposition rates, but the role played by disturbance legacy, such as fire history, in mediating these drivers is not well understood. Fire history may impact decomposition directly, through changes in soil conditions that impact microbial function, or indirectly, through shifts in plant community composition and litter chemistry. Here, we compared early-stage decomposition rates across longleaf pine forest blocks managed with varying fire frequencies (annual burns, triennial burns, fire-suppression. Using a reciprocal transplant design, we examined how litter chemistry and soil characteristics independently and jointly influenced litter decomposition. We found that both litter chemistry and soil environmental conditions influenced decomposition rates, but only the former was affected by historical fire frequency. Litter from annually burned sites had higher nitrogen content than litter from triennially burned and fire suppression sites, but this was correlated with only a modest increase in decomposition rates. Soil environmental conditions had a larger impact on decomposition than litter chemistry. Across the landscape, decomposition differed more along soil moisture gradients than across fire management regimes. These findings suggest that fire frequency has a limited effect on litter decomposition in this ecosystem, and encourage extending current decomposition frameworks into disturbed systems. However, litter from different species lost different masses due to fire, suggesting that fire may impact decomposition through the preferential combustion of some litter types. Overall, our findings also emphasize the important role of spatial variability in soil environmental conditions, which may be tied to fire frequency across large spatial scales, in driving decomposition rates in this system.

  19. Characterization of Forest Structure and an Assessment of Litter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    Many studies have cited mangroves as being among the most productive ecosystems of the world in terms of gross primary productivity and litter turnover, which forms a major food source for most estuarine animals. The present study aimed at characterizing the forest structure and assessing litter production, accumulation ...

  20. Radiation effects on moisture variation in ponderosa pine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive M. Countryman

    1977-01-01

    This exploratory study indicated that considerable variation in the moisture content of litter can occur within short horizontal distances. The variations ere found to be caused primarily by differences in the amount of solar radiation received by the litter and in the degree of cooling by radiation at night. Because actual fuel moisture lags behind equilibrium...

  1. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of breed and environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed on litter parameters of rabbits raised in a semi-humid environment was investigated using two hundred and twenty four (224) litter records collected between 1991 and 1997. New Zealand White ...

  2. The emission of volatile compounds from leaf litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derendorp, L.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf litter is available at the Earth’s surface in large quantities. During the decomposition of leaf litter, volatile compounds can be released into the atmosphere, where they potentially influence local air quality, atmospheric chemistry or the global climate. In this thesis the focus was on the

  3. Specific leaf area predicts dryland litter decomposition via two mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Guofang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Li; Pan, Xu; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    2018-01-01

    Litter decomposition plays important roles in carbon and nutrient cycling. In dryland, both microbial decomposition and abiotic degradation (by UV light or other forces) drive variation in decomposition rates, but whether and how litter traits and position determine the balance between these

  4. Influence of soil organisms on accuracy predicting leaf litter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To use Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in the study of litter decomposition in field conditions, it's essential to know the relative role of different environmental factors that may affect its accuracy. This study attempts to determine the effects of soil organisms on direct predicting by NIRS, the stage of litter decomposition, ...

  5. Decomposition of Cassava and Vegetable Cowpea leaf litters under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two related studies using three leaf residue types' cassava and vegetable cowpea leaves were carried out in the field and under controlled laboratory conditions to determine the rate of their decomposition using litter bag technique. The carbon dioxide evolution by the three leaf residues namely, Oven dry leaf litter, fresh ...

  6. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  7. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and ...

  8. Litterær æstetisk oplevelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Gitte

    -Georg Gadamer, John Dewey og Richard Shusterman. Begrebet æstetisk oplevelse udvides til at omfatte litteratur gennem inddragelse af Jan Mukařovskýs begrebsapparat, der kan placeres inden for æstetisk teori og receptionsteori, og defineres som en litterær æstetisk oplevelse. Den litterære æstetiske oplevelse er...

  9. Litter ammonia losses amplified by higher air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Broiler litter utilization has largely been associated with land application as fertilizer. Reducing ammonia (NH3) released from litter enhances its fertilizer value and negates detrimental impacts to the environment. A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effect of air flow var...

  10. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... The mean within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher CVBWT than gilts. To enhance profitability of pig ...

  11. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  12. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  13. Street littering in Nigerian towns: towards framework for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An aspect of solid waste management that has become almost intractable to local authorities in Nigeria is street littering. In a study carried out across the country in April/May 2008, this paper tried to expose some of the major factors that contribute to street littering. Six thousand subjects living along 120 streets (6 streets per ...

  14. THE FATE OF TANNINS IN CORSICAN PINE LITTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tannins are ubiquitous in higher plants and therefore also in litter and soils where they affect many biogeochemical processes. Despite this well recognized role, the fate of tannins in litter and mineral soils is hardly known as often only trace amounts, if any, of tannins are measured. In this

  15. Marine litter monitoring by northern fulmars: progress report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Meijboom, A.

    2003-01-01

    An earlier pilot study on litter contents in stomachs of fulmars indicated that this seabird can be used as a suitable indicator of levels of marine litter pollution on the North Sea off the Dutch coast. This progress report updates the existing dataset with data on fulmar stomach contents in the

  16. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay ( Schum. Supplemented with Duckweed ( sp. and sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zetina-Córdoba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of duckweed (DW supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI, presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4 in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH. Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05; however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05 were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05 on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05. However the period was significant (p<0.01, since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application.

  17. Reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes under dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes undergoing dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season, with and without association with management conditions (pre-mating shearing. Thirty-six ewes with an average body weight of 66 kg were used in the experiment. Treatments involved ewes receiving or not receiving concentrate supplementation (flushing, with groups subdivided according to the management condition to which animals were subjected: shearing or lack of it. Thus, ewes were divided into four treatments: flushed and shorn; flushed and unshorn; unflushed and shorn; and unflushed and unshorn. Flushing increased weight gain and body condition score, and when associated with shearing, it promoted anticipation of estrus. Fertility rate (86.05%, calving rate (77.77%, birth rate (113.83%, and type of birth (single: 82.29% and twin: 17.71% were not influenced. Birth weight (3.96 kg and prolificacy (1.25% also were not affected. Despite the lack of changes in reproductive traits, flushing adopted during the breeding season associated with shearing anticipated estrus in ewes.

  18. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  19. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  20. Effects of Lambing on Behaviour and Cortisol Levels in Postparturient Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that lambing process has on major behavioural patterns and cortisol levels in multiparous Turcana ewes during the first 21 days after parturition. At 14 hours following lambing, cortisol level was 7.78±0.47 µg/dl, and decreased to 5.08±0.72 µg/dl on the 7th day of the experiment (p≤0.05, then to 2.75±0.50 µg/dl on the day 14 (p≤0.05 and to 1.61±0.43 µg/dl in the last day of experiments (p>0.05. Differences in cortisol levels between single and twin lambing ewes were not significant (p>0.05, suggesting that either cortisol sampling could not be used as an indicator for assessing stress caused by the additional lamb(s in postparturient ewes, either in multiparous Turcana ewes rearing two lambs does not impose a great stress to the mothers’ organism. Both the major behavioural patterns and milk cortisol levels are influenced significantly by the lambing process in multiparous ewes during first 14 days following parturition. After two weeks, time devoted to feeding, rumination and resting behaviours tend to be less influenced by the lambing process.

  1. Gene Expression Music Algorithm-Based Characterization of the Ewing Sarcoma Stem Cell Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sebastian Staege

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene Expression Music Algorithm (GEMusicA is a method for the transformation of DNA microarray data into melodies that can be used for the characterization of differentially expressed genes. Using this method we compared gene expression profiles from endothelial cells (EC, hematopoietic stem cells, neuronal stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and defined a set of genes that can discriminate between the different stem cell types. We analyzed the behavior of public microarray data sets from Ewing sarcoma (“Ewing family tumors,” EFT cell lines and biopsies in GEMusicA after prefiltering DNA microarray data for the probe sets from the stem cell signature. Our results demonstrate that individual Ewing sarcoma cell lines have a high similarity to ESC or EC. Ewing sarcoma cell lines with inhibited Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1 oncogene retained the similarity to ESC and EC. However, correlation coefficients between GEMusicA-processed expression data between EFT and ESC decreased whereas correlation coefficients between EFT and EC as well as between EFT and MSC increased after knockdown of EWSR1-FLI1. Our data support the concept of EFT being derived from cells with features of embryonic and endothelial cells.

  2. Intracranial Dural Metastasis of Ewing's Sarcoma: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jin Na; Lee, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that can occur anywhere in the body, but it is most commonly observed in the long bones of the arms and legs, the pelvis and in the chest. The predominant sites of metastasis include the lung (38%), bone (including the spine; 31%), and the bone marrow (11%). Metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to the central nervous system (CNS) is relatively rare, and most of the previous reports have demonstrated involvement of the bony calvarium or brain parenchyma. We describe here the imaging findings of dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma, and these imaging findings have not been previously reported on in the medical literature. In conclusion, dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is very rare and its imaging characteristics are similar to those of a primary tumor, which mimic the findings of a schwannoma or meningioma. Despite its rarity, secondary Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses.

  3. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elghany Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes (r=0.69 to 0.72, P<0.05. There was significant (P<0.001 increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (r=0.84, P<0.01, while the relationship was negative in the control one (r=-0.89, P<0.01. Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth.

  4. Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Twardziok

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, with poor prognosis and outcome in ~70% of initial diagnoses and 10-15% of relapses. Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L. demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma. Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We recreated a total mistletoe effect by combining an aqueous extract (viscum and a triterpene extract (TT solubilized with cyclodextrins. Ewing sarcoma cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with viscum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, while viscumTT combination treatment generated a synergistic effect. Apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, evidenced by activation of both CASP8 and CASP9. We show that viscumTT treatment shifts the balance of apoptotic regulatory proteins towards apoptosis, mainly via CLSPN, MCL1, BIRC5 and XIAP downregulation. ViscumTT also demonstrated strong antitumor activity in a cell line- and patient-derived mouse model, and may be considered an adjuvant therapy option for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma.

  5. Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardziok, Monika; Kleinsimon, Susann; Rolff, Jana; Jäger, Sebastian; Eggert, Angelika; Seifert, Georg; Delebinski, Catharina I

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, with poor prognosis and outcome in ~70% of initial diagnoses and 10-15% of relapses. Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma. Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We recreated a total mistletoe effect by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) solubilized with cyclodextrins. Ewing sarcoma cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with viscum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, while viscumTT combination treatment generated a synergistic effect. Apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, evidenced by activation of both CASP8 and CASP9. We show that viscumTT treatment shifts the balance of apoptotic regulatory proteins towards apoptosis, mainly via CLSPN, MCL1, BIRC5 and XIAP downregulation. ViscumTT also demonstrated strong antitumor activity in a cell line- and patient-derived mouse model, and may be considered an adjuvant therapy option for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma.

  6. Litter decomposition patterns in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    María, Almagro; Jorge, López; María, Martínez-Mena

    2010-05-01

    Accumulation of soil carbon is mainly controlled by the balance between litter production and litter decomposition. While aboveground litter decomposition in mesic systems is thought to be controlled by climate, litter quality, and soil faunal interactions (Aerts, 1997), it is becoming increasingly evident that factors other than water availability, including photodegradation, physical fragmentation of litter, and soil movement may play central roles in determining rates of carbon and nutrient turnover in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Whitford et al., 2002; Austin and Vivanco, 2006; Throop and Archer, 2007). Decomposition and its controls were studied using the litter-bag method by exposing two different litter types (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) for a 20 month period in two Mediterranean ecosystems of the eastern Iberian Peninsula: 1) a ~ 150-yr-old forest stand, and 2) an abandoned agricultural field. Both sites are covered by a typical Mediterranean shrubland (Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus coccifera, and Juniperus oxycedrus) with scattered Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis). A single exponential decay model (Olson, 1963) fit the data well (R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.82). Litter types differed in their decomposition dynamics despite of similar initial content of C and N, and C:N ratios. Rosemary litter decomposed more rapidly than Aleppo pine litter across sites (R2 = 0.742; F= 132.18; Pofficinalis litter decay rates were 1.2 fold-higher in forest than in abandoned field site. Soil temperature or water availability could not explain the differences in decomposition rates between sites throughout the study period. Instead, there was a strong relationship across collection dates between decay rates and litterbag ash content, a conservative indicator of soil accumulation (Throop and Archer, 2007). Moreover, ash content was strongly correlated with the total duration of rainfall events across collection dates for both pine (R2= 0

  7. The addition of ground wheat straw as a fiber source in the gestation diet of sows and the effect on sow and litter performance for three successive parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Crenshaw, J D; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Easter, R A; Ewan, R C; Nelssen, J L; Miller, E R; Pettigrew, J E; Ellersieck, M R

    2009-03-01

    A regional experiment was conducted at 8 experiment stations, with a total of 320 sows initially, to evaluate the efficacy of adding 13.35% ground wheat straw to a corn-soybean meal gestation diet for 3 successive gestation-lactation (reproductive) cycles compared with sows fed a control diet without straw. A total of 708 litters were farrowed over 3 reproductive cycles. The basal gestation diet intake averaged 1.95 kg daily for both treatments, plus 0.30 kg of straw daily for sows fed the diet containing ground wheat straw (total intake of 2.25 kg/d). During lactation, all sows on both gestation treatments were fed ad libitum the standard lactation diet used at each station. Response criteria were sow farrowing and rebreeding percentages, culling factors and culling rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, sow BW and backfat measurements at several time points, and litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning. Averaged over 3 reproductive cycles, sows fed the diet containing wheat straw farrowed and weaned 0.51 more pigs per litter (P sows fed the control gestation diet. Sows fed the gestation diet containing wheat straw consumed more (P = 0.01) lactation diet per day than control sows. There were no gestation diet treatment differences for any sow fate criterion (farrowing and rebreeding percentages, and culling rate), any sow BW and backfat measurement, or the weaning-to-estrus interval. Lactation diet intake and all sow BW and backfat measurements increased with increasing parity. In conclusion, when the daily intake of the basal gestation diet was equalized for both treatments, the addition of 13.35% ground wheat straw to the gestation diet improved sow and litter performance, with increases in litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning compared with control sows and litters.

  8. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  9. Marine litter in bottom trawls off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-10-15

    Benthic marine litter along the Portuguese coast, was recorded in 14 trips on stern trawlers covering a distance of 2117 km and an area of 56.2 km(2), average depth range 90-349 m. 2034 items of marine litter were registered, 76% were plastics and 38.6% were originated from fishing related activities. Plastic was present in all the trawls and had the highest average density of all litter categories, 50 items km(-2). The highest density of marine litter (178.9 ± 64.0 items km(-2)) was found in the proximity of the Tagus river mouth, probably related to the high population density in the Lisbon metropolitan area. This study highlights the need to raise fishermen awareness for the adoption of good environmental practices that will contribute to the reduction of marine litter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

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    Yohan Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. Methods A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg, high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein. Results There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

  11. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Hosseindoust, Abdolreza; Shim, YoungHo; Kim, Minju; Kumar, Alip; Oh, Seungmin; Kim, YoungHwa; Chae, Byung-Jo

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein). There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

  12. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    , 47 and 44 g kg-1 h-1 and DM intake was 2.5, 2.1 and 1.5 kg d-1 for ECS, MCS and LCS silage, respectively. Faeces samples were collected during four days, washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved into six sieving fractions; bottom bowl (B), 0.106 (C), 0.212 (D), 0.5 (S), 1.0 (M) and 2.36 (O) mm...

  13. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminium availability in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, P.A.; Edwards, D.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication December 14, 2004. Research has shown that alum [Al2(SO4)3·14H2O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown.

  14. Litter mixture dominated by leaf litter of the invasive species, Flaveria bidentis, accelerates decomposition and favors nitrogen release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wei, Zishang; Huangfu, Chaohe; Chen, Xinwei; Yang, Dianlin

    2017-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage. During the initial stages of decomposition, all mixtures had a neutral effect on the mass loss; however, at later stages of decomposition, mixtures containing more invasive litter had synergistic effects on mass loss. Importantly, an increase in F. bidentis litter with a lower C:N ratio in mixtures led to greater net release of N over time. These results highlight the importance of trait dissimilarity in determining the decomposition rates of litter mixtures and suggest that F. bidentis could further synchronize N release from litter as an invasion proceeds, potentially creating a positive feedback linked through invasion as the invader outcompetes the natives for nutrients. Our findings also demonstrate the importance of species composition as well as the identity of dominant species when considering how changes in plant community structure influence plant invasion.

  15. Impact of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance of Santa Inês ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Amr S; Soltan, Yosra A; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Alencar, Severino M; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2016-06-01

    Twenty Santa Inês ewes used to evaluate effects of oral administration of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance were randomly grouped (n = 10 ewes/group) to control without propolis administration and propolis treated (3 g red propolis extract/ewe/day) 21 days before expected lambing date. Blood samples were collected weekly, and daily milk yield was recorded twice weekly until 7 weeks postpartum. Propolis administration increased (P Propolis supplementation increased (P propolis extract supported positively the transition of ewes from pregnancy to lactation with health benefits achieved for both of ewes and lambs performances.

  16. Melatonin Cytotoxicity Is Associated to Warburg Effect Inhibition in Ewing Sarcoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Sanchez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Melatonin kills or inhibits the proliferation of different cancer cell types, and this is associated with an increase or a decrease in reactive oxygen species, respectively. Intracellular oxidants originate mainly from oxidative metabolism, and cancer cells frequently show alterations in this metabolic pathway, such as the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis. Thus, we hypothesized that melatonin could also regulate differentially oxidative metabolism in cells where it is cytotoxic (Ewing sarcoma cells and in cells where it inhibits proliferation (chondrosarcoma cells. Ewing sarcoma cells but not chondrosarcoma cells showed a metabolic profile consistent with aerobic glycolysis, i.e. increased glucose uptake, LDH activity, lactate production and HIF-1α activation. Melatonin reversed Ewing sarcoma metabolic profile and this effect was associated with its cytotoxicity. The differential regulation of metabolism by melatonin could explain why the hormone is harmless for a wide spectrum of normal and only a few tumoral cells, while it kills specific tumor cell types.

  17. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  18. Clinical and biochemical parameters evaluation of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes from pantaneiro genetic group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane de Oliveira Feijó

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical biochemical profile of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes from pantaneiro genetic group. Twenty ewes were used, divided into two groups, PREGNANT (n = 13 and NON-PREGNANT (n = 7. Blood samples were collected weekly from five prepartum weeks to eight  postpartum weeks from pregnant ewes, and over eight consecutive weeks from NON-PREGNANT ewes, corresponding to the period of postpartum at PREGNANT ones. Analyses were performed to determine the concentrations of glucose, albumin, phosphorus, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, aspartate aminotrasferase (AST, urea, and cholesterol. During prepartum, the urea concentration was lower (27,82 mg/dL ±1,64 - P < 0,0001  and AST enzyme level was higher(80,93 U/L ±2,44 - P < 0,0001. During calving, increased concentrations of glucose (86,17mg/dL ±2,93 - P < 0,0001 were observed in relation to the other periods; while, during postpartum, phosphorus was reduced (4,79 mg/dL ±0,16- P < 0,0111 and BHB increased (2,37 mmol/L ±0,16- P < 0,0001. Albumin concentrations were lower in NON-PREGNANT ewes 2,22 g/dL ±0,06- P < 0,0001. The levels of the metabolites analyzed are similar to those found in other sheep breeds. The metabolic changes occur around parturition; therefore, for the prevention of metabolic disorders,it is important to have reference levels aiming to control biochemical parameters during the peripartum of pantaneiras ewes.

  19. [MRI diagnosis in longitudinal stress fractures: differential diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleit, D; Sommer, T; Textor, J; Flacke, S; Hasan, C; Steuer, K; Emous, D; Schild, H

    1999-01-01

    To compare MR imaging features of stress fractures, simulating malignancies, and Ewing sarcomas. MR imaging studies of 4 patients with longitudinal stress fractures of the tibia (n = 2) and the femur (n = 2) simulating malignancy were retrospectively compared with the MRI scans of 10 patients with histologically proven Ewing sarcoma (femur n = 5; tibia n = 3, fibula n = 1, humerus n = 1). The diagnosis of stress fractures was confirmed by follow-up examinations. An additional biopsy was performed in two patients. Despite negative x-ray examinations, MRI showed the fracture line in all patients with stress fractures. In these cases marrow edema was irregular and there was no well defined margin towards normal fatty marrow. In contrast Ewing sarcomas were sharply demarcated in 9/10 cases. Extraosseous enhancing soft tissue was found in Ewing sarcomas as well as in stress fractures. In stress fractures the enhancing mass was repair tissue. Areas of necrosis within the enhancing mass was seen in (8/10) Ewing sarcomas, only. In follow-up studies we observed a decrease of the marrow edema in patients with stress fractures. Occurrence of low signal areas in T1- and T2-weighted sequences within the initial enhanced extraosseous tissue corresponded to bony callus on x-rays films. Repair tissue in stress fractures can imitate malignancy. The irregularity of the marrow edema without well defined margins, the lack of necrosis in the small enhancing tissue and the proof of the fracture line in the MRI are criteria to differentiate stress fractures from Ewing sarcomas. Short-term follow up studies are helpful to underline the diagnosis.

  20. EFFECT OF SHEARING DURING PREGNANCY ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-PARTUM PERIOD OF EWES ON EXTENSIVE HUSBANDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Marques Guyoti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shearing during pregnancy has been described as a tool for improving productivity in sheep and for minimizing perinatal mortality in lambs through the increase of fetal development. This study assessed the effect of shearing around 74 days of gestation on the productive performance of ewes and lambs during the first month of life. Forty Corriedale ewes were inseminated in autumn in Southern Brazil. All ewes were kept together at the same pasture under extensive husbandry conditions. The ewes were randomly separated into two treatment groups: twenty animals were completely sheared at 74 ± 6 days of pregnancy, and twenty were kept without sheared during pregnancy, composing the control group. Ewes and their lambs were evaluated at three different times during the experiment: at birth, between 15 and 21 days post-partum and between 22 and 45 days post-partum. Ewes had their body condition score, body weight, placental weight, milk production and serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate measured, while lambs had hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate and glucose, as well as body weight at birth and until wean determined. Values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were lower and body weight at birth and at wean was higher in the group of lambs born from sheared ewes. Placenta weight was higher in sheared ewes. Body condition score and beta-hydroxybutyrate showed no differences between groups. Milk production of sheared ewes (1.26 L/day was higher than in control group (0.93 L/day. Shearing ewes at 74 days of pregnancy was efficient for the better development of lambs at post-birth, reducing perinatal mortality rates.

  1. Primary Ewing sarcoma of lumbar spine in an 8-year-old boy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Wook; Shin, Sung Jin; Nam, Kwang Woo; Seo, Kyu Bum; Kim, Gyeong Min

    2012-07-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the mobile spine is rare, but nevertheless, is the second most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in children. Furthermore, in contrast to long bone involvement, delays may occur because symptoms may not be present until neurological deficits occur. Here, we report a case of an 8-year-old boy with lower back pain and radicular pain on the posterior lower extremities with tingling and progressively reduced sensation in both feet. The patient initially seemed to have muscle sprain but was eventually diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma of the L5 vertebra with intraspinal extension.

  2. Molecular pathogenesis and targeted therapeutics in Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelleher Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ewing sarcoma/PNET is managed with treatment paradigms involving combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and sometimes radiation. Although the 5-year survival rate of non-metastatic disease approaches 70%, those cases that are metastatic and those that recur have 5-year survival rates of less than 20%. Molecularly targeted treatments offer the potential to further improve treatment outcomes. Methods A PUBMED search was performed from 1997 to 2011. Published literature that included the topic of the Ewing sarcoma/PNET was also referenced. Results Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R antagonists have demonstrated modest single agent efficacy in phase I/II clinical trials in Ewing sarcoma/PNET, but have a strong preclinical rationale. Based on in vitro and animal data, treatment using antisense RNA and cDNA oligonucleotides directed at silencing the EWS-FLI chimera that occurs in most Ewing sarcoma/PNET may have potential therapeutic importance. However drug delivery and degradation problems may limit this therapeutic approach. Protein-protein interactions can be targeted by inhibition of RNA helicase A, which binds to EWS/FLI as part of the transcriptional complex. Tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand induction using interferon has been used in preclinical models. Interferons may be incorporated into future chemotherapeutic treatment paradigms. Histone deacetylase inhibitors can restore TGF-β receptor II allowing TFF-β signalling, which appears to inhibit growth of Ewing sarcoma/PNET cell lines in vitro. Immunotherapy using allogeneic natural killer cells has activity in Ewing sarcoma/PNET cell lines and xenograft models. Finally, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as flavopiridol may be clinically efficacious in relapsed Ewing sarcoma/PNET. Conclusion Preclinical evidence exists that targeted therapeutics may be efficacious in the ESFT. IGF-1R antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in phase I

  3. Parturition induction in ewes by a progesterone receptor blocker, aglepristone, and subsequent neonatal survival: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, R G; Yavuz, A; Orman, A; Seker, I; Udum Küçükşen, D; Rişvanlı, A; Demiral, Ö O; Wehrend, A

    2017-01-01

    The clinical effects of aglepristone treatment to induce parturition in ewes and their newborns were reported. Three experimental groups were defined: group AG5 (n = 5), group AG10 (n = 5), and group CG (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 5, 10 mg/kg of aglepristone, and saline solution of ewes, respectively. Different parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Serum progesterone, oxytocin, and free and conjugated total estrogens were measured after treatments until parturition. No statistical difference was found from first aglepristone administration to onset of lambing between AG5 and AG10 (23.90 ± 6.20, 40.00 ± 6.71 hours). Parturition induction in two groups shortened the gestational length significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.003). Dystocia was observed in two ewes in group AG10. The placental weight showed statistically significant difference only between the AG10 and CG (P = 0.039), but no difference was observed in the placental expulsion period between the groups. Decrease in food consumption 24 to 36 hours after parturition in all ewes and skin necrosis in an ewe in group AG5 were observed. Progesterone concentration was significantly lower in AG5 than that in ewes in group AG10 and CG (P birth weight (4.29 ± 0.28 kg), which was significantly different from the induced groups. No significant difference of blood pH and blood gases values between groups was identified both at birth and 12 hours after parturition for lambs. Significant differences could clearly be observed in total protein and blood urea nitrogen and total protein findings 12 hours after parturition (P control lambing time without any side effects in either mothers or lambs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial induction of lactation in ewes: the involvement of progesterone and prolactin in lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, W J; Hooley, R D; McDowell, G H; Fell, L R

    1976-10-01

    An attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of prolactin and 'progesterone withdrawal' for lactogenesis. The experimental model system used was the ovariectomized, non-pregnant ewe induced to lactate artifically by treatment with trigger hormone (either oestrogen, glucocorticoid or oxytocin) alone or in combination with progesterone. It appears from the results that prolactin is important in the lactogenic responses elicited by oestrogen and oxytocin but not as important in the response elicited by glucocorticoid. Moreover, the results suggest that, in the ewe, an appropriate positive hormonal stimulus will overcome the inhibitory influence of progesterone on lactogenesis.

  5. Growth-promoting role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing sarcoma.

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    Layne Dylla

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs have been identified as potent regulators of both normal development and the hallmarks of cancer. Targeting of microRNAs has been shown to have preclinical promise, and select miR-based therapies are now in clinical trials. Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically aggressive pediatric cancer with little change in clinical outcomes despite improved chemotherapeutic regimens. There is a substantial need for new therapies to improve Ewing Sarcoma outcomes and to prevent chemotherapy-related secondary sequelae. Most Ewing Sarcoma tumors are driven by the EWS/Fli-1 fusion oncoprotein, acting as a gain-of-function transcription factor causing dysregulation of a variety of targets, including microRNAs. Our previous studies, and those of others, have identified upregulation of miRs belonging to the related miR-17~92a, miR-106b~25, and miR-106a~363 clusters in Ewing Sarcoma. However, the functional consequences of this have not been characterized, nor has miR blockade been explored as an anti-cancer strategy in Ewing Sarcoma. To simulate a potential therapeutic approach, we examined the effects of blockade of these clusters, and their component miRs. Using colony formation as a read-out, we find that blockade of selected individual cluster component miRs, using specific inhibitors, has little or no effect. Combinatorial inhibition using miR "sponge" methodology, on the other hand, is inhibitory to colony formation, with blockade of whole clusters generally more effective than blockade of miR families. We show that a miR-blocking sponge directed against the poorly characterized miR-106a~363 cluster is a particularly potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth in a subset of Ewing Sarcoma cell lines. We further identify upregulation of miR-15a as a downstream mechanism contributing to the miR-106a~363 sponge growth-inhibitory effect. Taken together, our studies provide support for a pro-oncogenic role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing Sarcoma, and

  6. Effect of weather conditions on somatic cell score in Sicilian Valle del Belice ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Portolano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis susceptibility of Valle del Belice ewes from the south of Sicily to temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, sun hours, air pressure, wind-speed and wind-direction measured by a public weather station was investigated using 65,848 test-day somatic cell score (SCS records of 5,237 ewes. All weather parameters had an effect on SCS in a regression approach. Extreme values of maximum and minimum temperaturehumidity indices resulted in increased SCS. Higher precipitation, solar radiation and sun hours resulted in increased SCS, whereas higher air pressure and wind speed resulted in reduced SCS.

  7. Mineral elements in milk of the West African dwarf ewes as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of ewe's milk from twenty West African dwarf ewes collected from day one after parturition showed that the cplostrum contained (mg/ l00ml) Ca 115.0 ± 1.82, P 65.8 ± 4 .08 Na 108.3 ± 2.0, K J63.2 ± 1.74, Mg 17.9 ± 0.78, CI217.7 ± 27.42,and{inmg/ litre) Fe 4.3±0.20, Cu 3 .2 ± 0.17 Mn 0.21 ± 0.03, Zn 13 .6 ;t 0.62, and ...

  8. Effect of mountain climatic elevation gradient and litter origin on decomposition processes: long-term experiment with litter-bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata; Niklińska, Maria; Chodak, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting soil organic matter decomposition. Mountain areas with vertical gradients of temperature and precipitation provide an opportunity to observe climate changes similar to those observed at various latitudes and may serve as an approximation for climatic changes. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of climatic conditions and initial properties of litter on decomposition processes and thermal sensitivity of forest litter. The litter was collected at three altitudes (600, 900, 1200 m a.s.l.) in the Beskidy Mts (southern Poland), put into litter-bags and exposed in the field since autumn 2011. The litter collected at single altitude was exposed at the altitude it was taken and also at the two other altitudes. The litter-bags were laid out on five mountains, treated as replicates. Starting on April 2012, single sets of litter-bags were collected every five weeks. The laboratory measurements included determination of dry mass loss and chemical composition (Corg, Nt, St, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cu, Zn) of the litter. In the additional litter-bag sets, taken in spring and autumn 2012, microbial properties were measured. To determine the effect of litter properties and climatic conditions of elevation sites on decomposing litter thermal sensitivity the respiration rate of litter was measured at 5°C, 15°C and 25°C and calculated as Q10 L and Q10 H (ratios of respiration rate between 5° and 15°C and between 15°C and 25°C, respectively). The functional diversity of soil microbes was measured with Biolog® ECO plates, structural diversity with phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Litter mass lost during first year of incubation was characterized by high variability and mean mass lost ranged up to a 30% of initial mass. After autumn sampling we showed, that mean respiration rate of litter (dry mass) from the 600m a.s.l site exposed on 600m a.s.l. was the highest at each tested temperature. In turn, the lowest mean

  9. Soil-Earthworm-Litter System Controls on the Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon in Eastern Deciduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; Johnston, C. T.; Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M.

    2009-12-01

    Our work seeks to identify how native and invasive earthworm (EW) activity alters the relative importance of physical, chemical, and biochemical protection mechanisms controlling SOM stabilization in deciduous Forests. Within forests of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in coastal Maryland, USA, wood and litter amendment plots were established in high and low EW activity areas within forests of different stand age and land use history to study EW impacts to litter-soil systems. Our previous work demonstrated that the plant biopolymer chemistry of both decayed litter and soil (0-5 cm) particulate organic matter (POM) is driven by differences in EW activity and is responsible for the differences observed in lignin and root aliphatic matter accumulation in this system. In the present study we compare soils to a depth of 15 cm among plots with 5 years of wood and litter amendment to track the control of EW activity on the vertical transport of litter and clay particle and their partitioning within soil physical fractions. Elemental C&N and δ13C, δ15N data will be presented from each depth in each core among both bulk soil and size-density separated soil fractions. Preliminary results from these analyses indicate the invasive EW feeding habits and activity are the major control on the degree of mixing of surface litter and deep soil in all of research plots. This work will have important implications for understanding how invasive EW will influence soil-atmosphere carbon budget in Northern North America in the future.

  10. Potential Rapid Effects on Soil Organic Matter Characteristics and Chemistry Following a Change in Dominant Litter Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S. E.; Filley, T.; Conyers, G.; Stott, D.; McCormick, M.; Whigham, D.; Taylor, D.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in vegetation structure are expected in forests globally under predicted future climate scenarios. Shifts in type or quantity of litter inputs, which will be associated with changes in plant community, may influence soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics. We altered litter inputs in a mixed-deciduous forest at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center beginning in May 2004: litter removal, leaf amendment, and wood amendment plots were established in three old (120-150 y) and three young (50-70 y) forests. Plots were amended with wood and leaves collected locally from the dominant tree species, tulip poplar (Lirodendron tulipifera). 0-5 cm A horizon soil was collected in November 2005, 18 months after initial treatment, and physically fractionated first by dispersal in HMP and size separation (53 μm) to remove silts and clays then the >53 μm fraction by density (1.4 g cm-3) in SPT to separate the organic debris (light fraction, LF) from the mineral material. Soil with the greatest amount of C present within the LF came from the wood amendment treatment (35.2 ± 0.1%), followed by the leaf amendment (27.7 ± 0.0%) and the litter removal (24.5 ± 0.0%) treatments. In a pattern opposite of the other treatments, leaf amended soil from the old sites had less C within LF than the young. Potentially, a priming effect from the leaf addition at the old sites resulted in increased decomposition of soil LF. While at the young sites, invasive earthworms potentially provided a rapid, direct mode for incorporation of fresh leaf inputs into LF. Preliminary data indicate differences in lignin and cutin/suberin decay rates during litter decomposition between old and young sites. An investigation into the biopolymer composition of LF will determine whether altering litter inputs will ultimately influence SOM dynamics at both the old and young forest sites.

  11. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  12. Renal artery stenosis after radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma; Radiotherapieinduzierte Nierenarterienstenose nach Behandlung eines Ewing-Sarkoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacconi, S.; Bieri, S. [Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Centre Hospitalier du Centre du Valais (CHCVs), Hopital de Sion (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    Background: the fact that therapeutic irradiation can induce significant stenosis in the arteries of the head, neck, and chest, as welt as in the aorta and the iliac arteries, is familiar in daily practice and well documented in the literature. By contrast, radiation-induced renal artery stenosis seems to be a less widely known complication. Patients and methods: the sudden onset of medically refractory arterial hypertension and coma in a 27-year-old man is reported, who had been treated at age 20 with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma in the lumbar region. This treatment had been performed at the hospital of Sion, Switzerland in 2001. Also, the relevant literature from 1965 to 2007 is reviewed to underscore various aspects of this problem and to demonstrate the clinical relevance of renal artery stenosis as a potential long-term sequela of radiotherapy. Conclusion: radiation-induced renal artery stenosis has only rarely been described in the literature, but arterial hypertension due to radiation-induced renal artery stenosis is a serious long-term sequela that can appear at a latency of up to 20 years after treatment. The paucity of reports presumably reflects the lesser frequency of radiotherapy for retroperitoneal tumors as compared to head-and-neck cancers, as well as lower awareness of the problem due to diagnostic bias in the era before CT and MRI were in routine use: at that time, carotid artery stenosis was easy to diagnose by ultrasonography, while radiation-induced renal artery stenosis, whose real incidence may well be higher, probably often went undetected. Thus, when a patient with a history of abdominal or retroperitoneal radiotherapy unexpectedly develops intractable hypertension, radiation-induced renal artery stenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  14. Effects of sow nutrition during gestation on within-litter birth weight variation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P H R F; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Knol, E F

    2012-05-01

    The increasing demand for efficiency in pork production requires great specialization of all sectors involved in this activity. In this context, the development of strategies that could reduce undesirable traits related with negative effects on piglet survival and postnatal growth and development are essential for the pig industry. Currently, special attention is given to variation in birth weight, as some evidences suggest an increased within-litter birth weight variation in modern sows. This variation has been shown to be associated with preweaning mortality, variable weights at weaning and deteriorated growth performance, which results in economic losses and lower efficiency. Therefore, understanding the factors that can influence the events that occur during gestation and that have an impact on the fetal growth and development are important to achieve better efficiency and also to develop strategies that can be used to achieve increased within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight. This study concludes that even at a given placental size, fetal growth may vary because of differences in placental vascularization and efficiency. Feeding extra feed or energy during late gestation only marginally improves birth weight, and positive effects are not consistent between different studies. The detrimental effects of protein restriction on fetal growth during early gestation may be due to altered placental and endometrial angiogenesis and growth, which leads to a reduction in placental-fetal blood flow, nutrient supply from mother to the fetuses and ultimately to fetal growth retardation. The number of studies that attempted to influence within-litter birth weight variation by means of sow nutrition during gestation is limited. Therefore, more research concerning sow nutrition during gestation associated with the provision of balanced diets to meet requirements of the sows and fetuses are still required. This knowledge may subsequently provide starting points for the

  15. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  16. Economic values for traits of meat sheep in medium to high production potential areas of the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Baker, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for meat sheep in smallholder production circumstances in the tropics. The traits considered were litter size, lambing frequency, pre-weaning, and post-weaning lamb survival to 12 months, ewe survival, lamb live weight at 12-month, mature ewe live weight,

  17. Reproductive Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep And Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive performance or 20 pregnant ewes and 20 pregnant does of West African Dwarf breed at village level in Ogun State, Nigeria were compared in a study which lasted for 8 months. Litter size in ewes was 1.50 while that of does was 1.85. The number of males produced by the two species out-numbered that of ...

  18. Milk production and physiological traits of ewes and goats housed indoor or grazing at different daily timing in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Todaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During a 6 week trial in summer, 3 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 5 Comisana ewes and 5 Rossa Mediterranea goats, grazed watered forage resources during day (D or night (N, or were housed indoor and supplied with mowed herbage(H. Maximum THI peaked at 94 at the end of July, and was almost constantly higher of 80. Milk yield was higher in N than in D and H goats, whereas N ewes produced more milk than H group, but their milk yield was higher than D ewes only in the period with the highest THI values. The lower urea in N goat milk, and the higher casein in N ewe milk, seem to indicate a better efficiency in dietary nitrogen utilization of night grazing animals. N ewes showed lower SCC in milk, and higher incidence of clotting milk samples, in comparison to other ewes. N goats and ewes showed lower rectal temperature and pulse rate in the afternoon and, among metabolic parameters, higher hematic level of sodium. Night grazing was confirmed to be a management practice for increasing heat tolerance, to which goats appeared to be more sensitive in terms of milk yield.

  19. Motivation to obtain a food reward of pregnant ewes in negative energy balance: behavioural, metabolic and endocrine considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, E; Waas, J R; Oliver, M H; McLeay, L M; Ferguson, D M; Matthews, L R

    2012-07-01

    Low food availability often coincides with pregnancy in grazing animals. This study investigated how chronic reductions in food intake affected feeding motivation, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in pregnant sheep, which might be indicative of compromised welfare. Ewes with an initial Body Condition Score of 2.7±0.3 (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) were fed to attain low (LBC 2.0±0.0,), medium (MBC 2.9±0.1) or high BCS (HBC 3.7±0.1) in the first trimester of pregnancy. A feeding motivation test in which sheep were required to walk a set distance for a palatable food reward was conducted in the second trimester. LBC and MBC ewes consumed more rewards (P=0.001) and displayed a higher expenditure (P=0.02) than HBC ewes, LBC ewes also tended to consume more rewards than MBC ewes (P=0.09). Plasma leptin and glucose concentrations were inversely correlated to expenditure (both Pmotivation and negative energy balance of low BCS ewes suggested an increased risk of compromised welfare. Imposing even a small cost on a food reward reduced motivation substantially in high BCS ewes (despite high intake when food was freely available). Assessment of a willingness to work for rewards, combined with measures of key metabolic and endocrine parameters, may provide sensitive barometers of welfare in energetically-taxed animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Okara as a protein supplement affects feed intake and milk composition of ewes and growth performance of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Harthan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the feeding value of wet okara as a protein supplement for lactating ewes with twin lambs was the objective. A 4 × 4 Latin square replicated 2× (4 sheep, 4 treatments, 4 periods per square; 2 squares was conducted to examine the influence of concentrate mix (okara or not and type of forage (silage or hay on ewe milk composition and growth of their lactating lambs. Treatment periods were 14 days (7 days adaptation and 7 days collection. Ewes (55 to 74.8 kg BW were fed 1 of 4 diets: wheat middling and corn concentrate with mixed grass hay (TSH, okara and corn with mixed grass hay (OSH, soybean and wheat middlings with hay crop silage (TSS, and okara and corn with hay crop silage (OSS. Ewes fed hay diets had lower forage dry matter intakes than ewes fed silage. Intake of okara supplement was higher (P < 0.05 with OSH (3.64 kg/d than with OSS (1.70 kg/d. There was no difference in supplement intake between TSH and TSS. There were no differences among diets for lamb daily gains or in ewe milk compositions among the diets. Okara is an effective source of protein for lactating ewes and their twin lambs.

  1. Micro-Environmental Stress Induces Src-Dependent Activation of Invadopodia and Cell Migration in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Bailey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic Ewing sarcoma has a very poor prognosis and therefore new investigations into the biologic drivers of metastatic progression are key to finding new therapeutic approaches. The tumor microenvironment is highly dynamic, leading to exposure of different regions of a growing solid tumor to changes in oxygen and nutrient availability. Tumor cells must adapt to such stress in order to survive and propagate. In the current study, we investigate how Ewing sarcoma cells respond to the stress of growth factor deprivation and hypoxia. Our findings reveal that serum deprivation leads to a reversible change in Ewing cell cytoskeletal phenotypes. Using an array of migration and invasion techniques, including gelatin matrix degradation invadopodia assays, we show that exposure of Ewing sarcoma cells to serum deprivation and hypoxia triggers enhanced migration, invadopodia formation, matrix degradation and invasion. Further, these functional changes are accompanied by and dependent on activation of Src kinase. Activation of Src, and the associated invasive cell phenotype, were blocked by exposing hypoxia and serum-deprived cells to the Src inhibitor dasatinib. These results indicate that Ewing sarcoma cells demonstrate significant plasticity in response to rapidly changing micro-environmental stresses that can result from rapid tumor growth and from necrosis-causing therapies. In response to these stresses, Ewing cells transition to a more migratory and invasive state and our data show that Src is an important mediator of this stress response. Our data support exploration of clinically available Src inhibitors as adjuvant agents for metastasis prevention in Ewing sarcoma.

  2. Udder size and milk production potentials of goats and sheep in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve adult lactating goats and sheep (2 to 2½ years old) comprising three groups of four each of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats and sheep and Yankasa ewes were used for a nine week trial. The animals kidded and lambed between January and March. During these periods, the udder sizes of the dams were measured ...

  3. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M. Beth; Chen, Jim Y.; Coleman, Jamie L.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Neel, Mike D.; Gold, Robert E.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. RESULTS On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. CONCLUSION Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic

  4. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M Beth; Chen, Jim Y; Coleman, Jamie L; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E; Neel, Mike D; Gold, Robert E; Kaufman, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic accuracy. Compared with percutaneous biopsy, open biopsy

  5. CD133 expression in chemo-resistant Ewing sarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovar Heinrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some human cancers demonstrate cellular hierarchies in which tumor-initiating cancer stem cells generate progeny cells with reduced tumorigenic potential. This cancer stem cell population is proposed to be a source of therapy-resistant and recurrent disease. Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT are highly aggressive cancers in which drug-resistant, relapsed disease remains a significant clinical problem. Recently, the cell surface protein CD133 was identified as a putative marker of tumor-initiating cells in ESFT. We evaluated ESFT tumors and cell lines to determine if high levels of CD133 are associated with drug resistance. Methods Expression of the CD133-encoding PROM1 gene was determined by RT-PCR in ESFT tumors and cell lines. CD133 protein expression was assessed by western blot, FACS and/or immunostaining. Cell lines were FACS-sorted into CD133+ and CD133- fractions and proliferation, colony formation in soft agar, and in vivo tumorigenicity compared. Chemosensitivity was measured using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium assays. Results PROM1 expression was either absent or extremely low in most tumors. However, PROM1 was highly over-expressed in 4 of 48 cases. Two of the 4 patients with PROM1 over-expressing tumors rapidly succumbed to primary drug-resistant disease and two are long-term, event-free survivors. The expression of PROM1 in ESFT cell lines was similarly heterogeneous. The frequency of CD133+ cells ranged from 2-99% and, with one exception, no differences in the chemoresistance or tumorigenicity of CD133+ and CD133- cell fractions were detected. Importantly, however, the STA-ET-8.2 cell line was found to retain a cellular hierarchy in which relatively chemo-resistant, tumorigenic CD133+ cells gave rise to relatively chemo-sensitive, less tumorigenic, CD133- progeny. Conclusions Up to 10% of ESFT express high levels of PROM1. In some tumors and cell

  6. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  7. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed v,an dragtigheid en laktasie op die vrywillige inname en verteerbaarheid von voere deur Merinoooie. M. Sc. (Land) Tesis Univ. Stellenbosch. HADJIPIERES, G. & HOLMES, W., 1966. Studies on feed intake and feed utilization by sheep. I. The voluntary feed intake of dry, pregnant and lactating ewes. J. agric Sci.

  8. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    que of Tilley and Terry (1963) was used with slight mo difications as suggested by Engels and Van der Merwe. (te6t). On the lucerne diet the total feed intake of the ewe plus lamb was measured. Feed intake of individual lambs was also measured immediatelv after weanins at four months of age. Results. The crude protein ...

  9. Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES).Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered t...

  10. The effect of stocking rate on the performance of ewes and lambs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of five different levels of SR was determined on the performance of South African. Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs when grazing irrigated ryegrass. Experimental procedure. Experimental terrain, pasture management and treat- ments. Italian ryegrass (cv. Midmar) was established on a 3.5ha.

  11. The Semantic Values of AÐE and LA in Ewe | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aɖe and la have multiple functions which are often realized by the position they occupy in various syntactic environments in Ewe, a Kwa language. Aɖe can function as an indefinite marker, a partitive marker or an indefinite pronoun. La can function as a definite marker, an agentive suffix, or a terminal particle. As a terminal ...

  12. Parturient behaviour of Djallonké ewes and West African dwarf does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parturient behaviour of 52 Djallonké ewes and 70 West African dwarf does was observed. The parameters recorded were the duration of parturition, posture during birth, presentation of the neonate at birth, and interventions during birth. The effects of parity, age and number of foetuses carried on the aforementioned ...

  13. A study of puberty in Romney ewe lambs by oestrus detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attainment of puberty in Romney ewe lambs was studied at Wye Sheep Research Unit of the Imperial College (University of London) in the U.K. 77% of females exposed to rams during the breeding season reached puberty. Ovulation effectively accompanied first behavioural oestrus. The evidence of silent ovulation before ...

  14. Ewing Sarcoma of the Cervical Epidural Space Presenting with Tetraplegia: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Raja K; Peethambaran, Anilkumar; Sunilkumar, Balakrishnan S; Balachandran Nair, Krishna G; Korde, Paresh; Jain, Sourabh Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is among the most frequented extremity osseous tumor in childhood. It was first described by James Ewing as diffuse endotheliomas in 1921. The name Ewing sarcoma was coined by Oberling in 1928 as a tribute to the legend who described this disease. ES exists in osseous and extraosseous forms. It shares much of its molecular typing with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); hence, they are regarded as different ends of the same molecular spectrum. ES, extraosseous ES, PNET, and Askins tumor are the other members of this family termed the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Extraosseous ES has been described in various locations of the spine, but its occurrence in the cervical epidural region is uncommon. A 12-year-old child presented to us with neck pain and progressive weakness of all 4 limbs. She was investigated and found to have a highly vascular lesion in the cervical epidural region extending from C2 to the C4 region. Embolization therapy was unsuccessful. She deteriorated and eventually had to undergo emergency surgery to decompress the spinal cord. The lesion was biopsied and diagnosed as extraosseous ES. After radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient regained most of the power in her limbs. Extraosseous ES is a rare tumor of the cervical cord in this age group. We report this case to highlight the difficulties encountered in the management of this variant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of lactic strains isolated from Algerian ewe's milk in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe's milk. Identification reveals the presence of nineteen strains (36%) of Lactobacillus sp., seventeen strains (32%) of Lactococcus sp., nine strains (17%) of Streptococcus thermophilus and eight strains (15%) of Leuconostoc sp.

  16. The value of Kikuyu foggage for overwintering dry ewes | De Villiers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) is a summer growing tropical pasture species well adapted to the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. Kikuyu foggage (standing hay) could play an important role in a fodder flow programme to sustain dry ewes during late winter after their lambs have been weaned in mid-winter. The potential of ...

  17. EFFECT TN EWES OF OESTROGEN PRIMING AND GnRH ON LH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT TN EWES OF OESTROGEN PRIMING AND GnRH ON LH RELEASE. AND LUTEAL FUNCTION DURING EARLY LACTATION IN SPRING. Receipt of MS 22-03-1979. C.D. Hamilton*, A.W. Lishman and P.A. Lamb. Department ol Animal Science, Universitlt ol'Natol, nercrmaitzburg, 3200. (Key words. Oestrogen ...

  18. Pregnancy rates after ewes were treated with estradiol-17beta and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical dilation may improve transcervical sheep embryo-transfer procedures, if the cervical dilation method does not reduce pregnancy rates. This experiment was conducted to determine whether estradiol-17beta-oxytocin treatment, which dilates the cervix in luteal-phase ewes, affects pregnancy rat...

  19. Effects of Breed on Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Ewes, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consumers, due to its positive effects on human health (Babayan & Rosenau, 1991; Haenlein, 2002,. Sretenovic et al., 2009). Nevertheless, there have been rather few studies carried out on the milk fatty acid profile of ewes; most studies being done on cow's milk. In addition, the majority of studies have focused primarily on ...

  20. Placental transfer of etomidate in pregnant ewes after an intravenous bolus dose and continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Laura; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Cristofol, Carles; Arboix, Margarida; García, Félix

    2008-03-01

    Etomidate (ETO) is a short-acting intravenous (IV) anaesthetic characterised by cardiopulmonary stability and favourable pharmacokinetics. Although ETO has been used satisfactorily in obstetrical anaesthesia, little is known about placental transfer and the drug's pharmacokinetics in the fetus. Placental transfer in pregnant ewes has been evaluated following the administration of an IV bolus of 1mg/kg ETO; and after a 1-h infusion of 100 microg/kg min(-1) ETO preceded by an IV bolus of 1mg/kg. In ewes, ETO concentration and AUC were higher than those found in fetuses. After the ETO bolus dose, the fetus:ewe AUC ratio was 0.45+/-0.32, and the mean residence time (MRT) was 20+/-7 min for dams and 22+/-3 min for the fetuses. After ETO infusion, the AUC ratio was 0.37+/-0.08, and MRT was 46+/-12 min for ewes and 46+/-22 min for fetuses. Although ETO crosses the placenta very rapidly and reaches the fetus in high amounts, a certain placental barrier effect limits its transfer. There is no evidence of cumulative effects of the drug in the fetus as fetal ETO elimination was as rapid as in the dam.