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Sample records for evolutionary engineering approach

  1. Ligament tissue engineering: an evolutionary materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T; Freeman, Joseph W

    2005-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is important for knee stabilization. Unfortunately, it is also the most commonly injured intra-articular ligament. Due to poor vascularization, the ACL has inferior healing capability and is usually replaced after significant damage has occurred. Currently available replacements have a host of limitations, this has prompted the search for tissue-engineered solutions for ACL repair. Presently investigated scaffolds range from twisted fiber architectures composed of silk fibers to complex three-dimensional braided structures composed of poly (L-lactic acid) fibers. The purpose of these tissue-engineered constructs is to apply approaches such as the use of porous scaffolds, use of cells, and the application of growth factors to promote ligament tissue regeneration while providing mechanical properties similar to natural ligament.

  2. An evolutionary metabolic engineering approach for enhancing lipogenesis in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leqian; Pan, Anny; Spofford, Caitlin; Zhou, Nijia; Alper, Hal S

    2015-05-01

    Lipogenic organisms provide an ideal platform for biodiesel and oleochemical production. Through our previous rational metabolic engineering efforts, lipogenesis titers in Yarrowia lipolytica were significantly enhanced. However, the resulting strain still suffered from decreased biomass generation rates. Here, we employ a rapid evolutionary metabolic engineering approach linked with a floating cell enrichment process to improve lipogenesis rates, titers, and yields. Through this iterative process, we were able to ultimately improve yields from our prior strain by 55% to achieve production titers of 39.1g/L with upwards of 76% of the theoretical maximum yield of conversation. Isolated cells were saturated with up to 87% lipid content. An average specific productivity of 0.56g/L/h was achieved with a maximum instantaneous specific productivity of 0.89g/L/h during the lipid production phase in fermentation. Genomic sequencing of the evolved strains revealed a link between a decrease/loss of function mutation of succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, uga2, suggesting the importance of gamma-aminobutyric acid assimilation in lipogenesis. This linkage was validated through gene deletion experiments. This work presents an improved host strain that can serve as a platform for efficient oleochemical production. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Evolutionary Engineering Design Approach for Mixed-Domain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Hu, J.; Seo, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to engineering design of mixed-domain dynamic systems. The approach aims at system-level design and has two key features: first, it generates engineering designs that satisfy predefined specifications in an automatic manner; second, it can design systems belonging...... to different or mixed physical domains, such as electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal systems and/or a mixture of them. Two important tools are used in this approach, namely, bond graphs and genetic programming. Bond graphs are useful because they are domain independent, amenable to free...

  4. Evolutionary approaches for the reverse-engineering of gene regulatory networks: A study on a biologically realistic dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidrol Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring gene regulatory networks from data requires the development of algorithms devoted to structure extraction. When only static data are available, gene interactions may be modelled by a Bayesian Network (BN that represents the presence of direct interactions from regulators to regulees by conditional probability distributions. We used enhanced evolutionary algorithms to stochastically evolve a set of candidate BN structures and found the model that best fits data without prior knowledge. Results We proposed various evolutionary strategies suitable for the task and tested our choices using simulated data drawn from a given bio-realistic network of 35 nodes, the so-called insulin network, which has been used in the literature for benchmarking. We assessed the inferred models against this reference to obtain statistical performance results. We then compared performances of evolutionary algorithms using two kinds of recombination operators that operate at different scales in the graphs. We introduced a niching strategy that reinforces diversity through the population and avoided trapping of the algorithm in one local minimum in the early steps of learning. We show the limited effect of the mutation operator when niching is applied. Finally, we compared our best evolutionary approach with various well known learning algorithms (MCMC, K2, greedy search, TPDA, MMHC devoted to BN structure learning. Conclusion We studied the behaviour of an evolutionary approach enhanced by niching for the learning of gene regulatory networks with BN. We show that this approach outperforms classical structure learning methods in elucidating the original model. These results were obtained for the learning of a bio-realistic network and, more importantly, on various small datasets. This is a suitable approach for learning transcriptional regulatory networks from real datasets without prior knowledge.

  5. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved industrially important properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Z Petek; Turanli-Yildiz, Burcu; Alkim, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ulkü

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following a brief introduction to the 'rational' metabolic engineering approach and its limitations such as extensive genetic and metabolic information requirement on the organism of interest, complexity of cellular physiological responses, and difficulties of cloning in industrial strains, evolutionary engineering is discussed as an alternative, inverse metabolic engineering strategy. Major evolutionary engineering applications with S. cerevisiae are then discussed in two general categories: (1) evolutionary engineering of substrate utilization and product formation and (2) evolutionary engineering of stress resistance. Recent developments in functional genomics methods allow rapid identification of the molecular basis of the desired phenotypes obtained by evolutionary engineering. To conclude, when used alone or in combination with rational metabolic engineering and/or computational methods to study and analyze processes of adaptive evolution, evolutionary engineering is a powerful strategy for improvement in industrially important, complex properties of S. cerevisiae. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, M; Brilot, B; Nettle, D.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other ...

  7. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other species, is to prepare the individual to detect and deal with threats. We use a signal detection framework to show that the threshold for expressing the anxiety response ought to vary with the probability of threats occurring, and the individual's vulnerability to them if they do occur. These predictions are consistent with major patterns in the epidemiology of anxiety. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.

  8. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieviant Jane A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. Results We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. Conclusions A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic

  9. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Sean C; Bartley, Bryan A; Lieviant, Jane A; Sauro, Herbert M

    2010-11-01

    One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR) within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits including point mutations, small insertions and

  10. Evolutionary engineering by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot-Pelletier, Damien; Martin, Vincent J J

    2014-05-01

    An upsurge in the bioeconomy drives the need for engineering microorganisms with increasingly complex phenotypes. Gains in productivity of industrial microbes depend on the development of improved strains. Classical strain improvement programmes for the generation, screening and isolation of such mutant strains have existed for several decades. An alternative to traditional strain improvement methods, genome shuffling, allows the directed evolution of whole organisms via recursive recombination at the genome level. This review deals chiefly with the technical aspects of genome shuffling. It first presents the diversity of organisms and phenotypes typically evolved using this technology and then reviews available sources of genetic diversity and recombination methodologies. Analysis of the literature reveals that genome shuffling has so far been restricted to microorganisms, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with an overepresentation of antibiotics- and biofuel-producing microbes. Mutagenesis is the main source of genetic diversity, with few studies adopting alternative strategies. Recombination is usually done by protoplast fusion or sexual recombination, again with few exceptions. For both diversity and recombination, prospective methods that have not yet been used are also presented. Finally, the potential of genome shuffling for gaining insight into the genetic basis of complex phenotypes is also discussed.

  11. Evolutionary Theories in Environmental and Resource Economics: Approaches and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Gowdy, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in evolutionary theory have important implications for environmental economics. A short overview is offered of evolutionary thinking in economics. Subsequently, major concepts and approaches in evolutionary biology and evolutionary economics are presented and compared. Attention is

  12. Improved Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Engineering Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinn-Tsong Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm is proposed for solving mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear problems in engineering design. The proposed Latin square quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (LSQEA combines Latin squares and quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA. The novel contribution of the proposed LSQEA is the use of a QGA to explore the optimal feasible region in macrospace and the use of a systematic reasoning mechanism of the Latin square to exploit the better solution in microspace. By combining the advantages of exploration and exploitation, the LSQEA provides higher computational efficiency and robustness compared to QGA and real-coded GA when solving global numerical optimization problems with continuous variables. Additionally, the proposed LSQEA approach effectively solves mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear design optimization problems in which the design variables are integers, discrete values, and continuous values. The computational experiments show that the proposed LSQEA approach obtains better results compared to existing methods reported in the literature.

  13. Multiobjective Optimization of Rocket Engine Pumps Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2001-01-01

    A design optimization method for turbopumps of cryogenic rocket engines has been developed. Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) is used for multiobjective pump design optimizations. Performances of design candidates are evaluated by using the meanline pump flow modeling method based on the Euler turbine equation coupled with empirical correlations for rotor efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, a single stage centrifugal pump design and multistage pump design optimizations are presented. In both cases, the present method obtains very reasonable Pareto-optimal solutions that include some designs outperforming the original design in total head while reducing input power by one percent. Detailed observation of the design results also reveals some important design criteria for turbopumps in cryogenic rocket engines. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the EA-based design optimization method in this field.

  14. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  15. Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped-pa...

  16. An evolutionary approach to military history

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    Xabier Rubio Campillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new way of analysing the concept of change within the field of military history. The proposal is based on the use of complex adaptive systems and evolutionary theory. We introduce the concepts of selection, adaptation and coevolution to explain how war is managed in different societies, and game theory to explore decision-making processes of commanders. We emphasize the value of integrating formal modeling and computational simulations in order to apply the approach to real case studies. Our conclusions outline the advantages of an evolutionary military history in the difficult task of understanding the causes of transformation in past battlefields and armies.

  17. An Evolutionary Psychology Approach to Consumer Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZURINA BT MOHAIDIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour can be explained not only through experience and environments but also by incorporating evolutionary explanation. Consumer behaviour could not be understood accurately without infusing Darwinian evolutionary theory which has contributed in the knowledge of human nature. Evolutionary psychology revolves around the human’s evolved mental and the impact on human’s traits and behaviour where the influence of the environment to our genes would determine our individual behaviour and traits, resulting in variation among us. Foraging which is a part of behavioural ecology involves many sequences or repetitions of animals’ activities and decision making which is useful to relate these patterns of activities to the decisions made in human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate the similarities of human consumption and ecological behaviour by employing interpretative and comparative approach. It is hoped that by applying the evolutionary theory in explaining consumer choice, this study is able to contribute to the development of behavioural ecology in human consumption. The analysis of the data is done aggregately for 200 consumers and individually for 20 consumers, who have purchased four product categories over a year. This study concludes that the theories of evolutionary psychology can fit to the consumers’ buying behaviour implicating its usefulness in explaining the consumers’ choice.

  18. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where so...

  19. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  20. An evolutionary developmental approach to cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Törnberg, Anton; Törnberg, Petter

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental theories in biology see the processes and organization of organisms as crucial for understanding the dynamic behavior of organic evolution. Darwinian forces are seen as necessary but not sufficient for explaining observed evolutionary patterns. We here propose that the same arguments apply with even greater force to culture vis-à-vis cultural evolution. In order not to argue entirely in the abstract, we demonstrate the proposed approach by combining a set of different models into a provisional synthetic theory and by applying this theory to a number of short case studies. What emerges is a set of concepts and models that allow us to consider entirely new types of explanations for the evolution of cultures. For example, we see how feedback relations--both within societies and between societies and their ecological environment--have the power to shape evolutionary history in profound ways. The ambition here is not to produce a definitive statement on what such a theory should look like but rather to propose a starting point along with an argumentation and demonstration of its potential.

  1. Engineering reduced evolutionary potential for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Brian A; Hammerling, Michael J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2014-07-01

    The field of synthetic biology seeks to engineer reliable and predictable behaviors in organisms from collections of standardized genetic parts. However, unlike other types of machines, genetically encoded biological systems are prone to changes in their designed sequences due to mutations in their DNA sequences after these devices are constructed and deployed. Thus, biological engineering efforts can be confounded by undesired evolution that rapidly breaks the functions of parts and systems, particularly when they are costly to the host cell to maintain. Here, we explain the fundamental properties that determine the evolvability of biological systems. Then, we use this framework to review current efforts to engineer the DNA sequences that encode synthetic biology devices and the genomes of their microbial hosts to reduce their ability to evolve and therefore increase their genetic reliability so that they maintain their intended functions over longer timescales.

  2. Engineering approaches to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Melody A; Hirosue, Sachiko; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2012-08-22

    As the science of immunology grows increasingly mechanistic, motivation for developing quantitative, design-based engineering approaches has also evolved, both for therapeutic interventions and for elucidating immunological pathways in human disease. This has seeded the nascent field of "immunoengineering," which seeks to apply engineering analyses and design approaches to problems in translational immunology. For example, cell engineers are creating ways to tailor and use immune cells as living therapeutics; protein engineers are devising new methods of rapid antibody discovery; biomaterials scientists are guiding vaccine delivery and immune-cell activation with novel constructs; and systems immunologists are deciphering the evolution and maintenance of T and B cell receptor repertoires, which could help guide vaccine design. The field is multidisciplinary and collaborative, with engineers and immunologists working together to better understand and treat disease. We discuss the scientific progress in this young, yet rapidly evolving research area, which has yielded numerous start-up companies that are betting on impact in clinical and commercial translation in the near future.

  3. An evolutionary perspective on health psychology: New approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D.; Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understand...

  4. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely ‘cultural’ fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted. PMID:21041203

  5. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  6. Stem cell evolutionary paradigm and cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Z

    2017-09-01

    Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique". Similarly, the diversification of these single-cell eukaryotes and acquiring of complex life cycle allowed/conditioned by the increase of O2 in atmosphere (and consequently in the water environment) represents a prototype for the phenomenon of commitment/differentiation. This point of view allowed to predict the ex-vivo behavior of stem cells with respect to the O2 availability and metabolic profile which enabled to conceive the successful protocols of stem cell expansion and ex vivo conditioning based on "respecting" this relationship between the anaerobiosis and stemness. In this review, the basic elements of this paradigm and a possible application in cell engineering were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. An evolutionary perspective on health psychology: new approaches and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell

    2012-12-20

    Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.

  8. An Evolutionary Perspective on Health Psychology: New Approaches and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Tybur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of “health,” as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory. We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.

  9. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Kelly, Scott A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:26041111

  10. Organisations’ evolutionary dynamics: a group dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Vargas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombian entrepreneurs’ straggling, reactionary and inertial orientation has been inconsistently lustified by the availability of internal and leveraged resources, a concept intensifying deficient technological capacity. Company activity (seen as being a socioeconomic unit has been integrally orientated within an evolutionary framework by company identity and cohesion as well as adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms. The present document uses a group dynamics’ model to illustrate how knowledge-based strategic orientation and integration for innovation have become an imperative for development, from slight leverage, distinguishing between two evolutionary company forms: traditional economic (inertial, as they introduce sporadic incremental improvements and modern companies (dynamic and radical innovators. Revealing conclusions obtained from such model may be used for intervening in and modernising company activity.

  11. Evolutionary programming as a platform for in silico metabolic engineering

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    Förster Jochen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through genetic engineering it is possible to introduce targeted genetic changes and hereby engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, owing to the complexity of metabolic networks, both in terms of structure and regulation, it is often difficult to predict the effects of genetic modifications on the resulting phenotype. Recently genome-scale metabolic models have been compiled for several different microorganisms where structural and stoichiometric complexity is inherently accounted for. New algorithms are being developed by using genome-scale metabolic models that enable identification of gene knockout strategies for obtaining improved phenotypes. However, the problem of finding optimal gene deletion strategy is combinatorial and consequently the computational time increases exponentially with the size of the problem, and it is therefore interesting to develop new faster algorithms. Results In this study we report an evolutionary programming based method to rapidly identify gene deletion strategies for optimization of a desired phenotypic objective function. We illustrate the proposed method for two important design parameters in industrial fermentations, one linear and other non-linear, by using a genome-scale model of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potential metabolic engineering targets for improved production of succinic acid, glycerol and vanillin are identified and underlying flux changes for the predicted mutants are discussed. Conclusion We show that evolutionary programming enables solving large gene knockout problems in relatively short computational time. The proposed algorithm also allows the optimization of non-linear objective functions or incorporation of non-linear constraints and additionally provides a family of close to optimal solutions. The identified metabolic engineering strategies suggest that non-intuitive genetic modifications span

  12. An evolutionary economics approach to ecosystem dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, V.B; Angeren, van J.; Brinkkemper, S.

    2013-01-01

    Biology and evolution lie at the heart of the ecosystem metaphor that is recurrently applied in the digital era. Although the evolution and analogy with evolutionary biology is acknowledged within the research domains of business ecosystems and digital ecosystems, several key definitions and

  13. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  14. Evolutionary swarm neural network game engine for Capture Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xindi; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K; Wunsch, Donald C

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of the current board position is critical in computer game engines. In sufficiently complex games, such a task is too difficult for a traditional brute force search to accomplish, even when combined with expert knowledge bases. This motivates the investigation of alternatives. This paper investigates the combination of neural networks, particle swarm optimization (PSO), and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to train a board evaluator from zero knowledge. By enhancing the survivors of an EA with PSO, the hybrid algorithm successfully trains the high-dimensional neural networks to provide an evaluation of the game board through self-play. Experimental results, on the benchmark game of Capture Go, demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm can be more powerful than its individual parts, with the system playing against EA and PSO trained game engines. Also, the winning results of tournaments against a Hill-Climbing trained game engine confirm that the improvement comes from the hybrid algorithm itself. The hybrid game engine is also demonstrated against a hand-coded defensive player and a web player. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Ane T; Engelhard, Georg H; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Eikeset, Anne M; Enberg, Katja; Jørgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries. PMID:26430388

  16. The Use of Evolutionary Approaches to Understand Single Cell Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei eLuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of environmental bacteria and archaea remain uncultivated, yet their genome sequences are rapidly becoming available through single cell sequencing technologies. Reconstructing metabolism is one common way to make use of genome sequences of ecologically important bacteria, but molecular evolutionary analysis is another approach that, while currently underused, can reveal important insights into the function of these uncultivated microbes in nature. Because genome sequences from single cells are often incomplete, metabolic reconstruction based on genome content can be compromised. However, this problem does not necessarily impede the use of phylogenomic and population genomic approaches that are based on patterns of polymorphisms and substitutions at nucleotide and amino acid sites. These approaches explore how various evolutionary forces act to assemble genetic diversity within and between lineages. In this mini-review, I present examples illustrating the benefits of analyzing single cell genomes using evolutionary approaches.

  17. An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik

    2005-01-01

    assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...

  18. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  19. The Many Faces of Leadership: An Evolutionary-Psychology Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Grabo, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological studies have shown that facial appearance matters in the people we select as leaders. An evolutionary-psychology approach suggests that facial cues serve as inputs into an adaptive, context-sensitive followership psychology. That is, leadership suitability may be contingent upon

  20. Combined electronic structure and evolutionary search approach to materials design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Bligaard, Thomas; Ruban, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We show that density functional theory calculations have reached an accuracy and speed making it possible to use them in conjunction with an evolutionary algorithm to search for materials with specific properties. The approach is illustrated by finding the most stable four component alloys out of...

  1. An evolutionary morphological approach for software development cost estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A; Oliveira, Adriano L I; Soares, Sergio; Meira, Silvio

    2012-08-01

    In this work we present an evolutionary morphological approach to solve the software development cost estimation (SDCE) problem. The proposed approach consists of a hybrid artificial neuron based on framework of mathematical morphology (MM) with algebraic foundations in the complete lattice theory (CLT), referred to as dilation-erosion perceptron (DEP). Also, we present an evolutionary learning process, called DEP(MGA), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) to design the DEP model, because a drawback arises from the gradient estimation of morphological operators in the classical learning process of the DEP, since they are not differentiable in the usual way. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed model using five complex SDCE problems and three well-known performance metrics, demonstrating good performance of the DEP model to solve SDCE problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary Trends of Developer Coordination: A Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Joblin, Mitchell; Apel, Sven; Mauerer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Software evolution is a fundamental process that transcends the realm of technical artifacts and permeates the entire organizational structure of a software project. By means of a longitudinal empirical study of 18 large open-source projects, we examine and discuss the evolutionary principles that govern the coordination of developers. By applying a network-analytic approach, we found that the implicit and self-organizing structure of developer coordination is ubiquitously described by non-ra...

  3. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  4. Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empiricists, and stimulate exchange of ideas between the two groups of researchers. Second, we aimed to stimulate cross-fertilization between different scientific fields that study personality, namely behavioural ecology, psychology, genomics, quantitative genetics, neuroendocrinology and developmental biology. Third, we aimed to foster the application of an evolutionary framework to the study of personality. PMID:21078646

  5. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

      The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems (ICAEES 2014) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of use of artificial intelligence and evolutionary algorithms in engineering systems. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  6. An Evolutionary Ontology Approach for Community-Based Competency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baer, Peter; Meersman, Robert; Zhao, Gang

    In this article we describe an evolutionary ontology approach that distinguishes between major ontology changes and minor ontology changes. We divide the community in three (possibly overlapping) groups, i.e. facilitators, contributors, and users. Facilitators are a selected group of domain experts who represent the intended community. These facilitators define the intended goals of the ontology and will be responsible for major ontology and ontology platform changes. A larger group of contributors consists of all participating domain experts. The contributors will carry out minor ontology changes, like instantiation of concepts and description of concept instances. Users of the ontology may explore the ontology content via the ontology platform and/or make use of the published ontology content in XML or HTML format. The approach makes use of goal and group specific user interfaces to guide the ontology evolution process. For the minor ontology changes, the approach relies on the wisdom of crowds.

  7. Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering Robust Techniques for Forecasting, Trading and Hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Iba, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    “Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering” presents the state of the art techniques in Financial Engineering using recent results in Machine Learning and Evolutionary Computation. This book bridges the gap between academics in computer science and traders and explains the basic ideas of the proposed systems and the financial problems in ways that can be understood by readers without previous knowledge on either of the fields. To cement the ideas discussed in the book, software packages are offered that implement the systems described within. The book is structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. Chapters 1 and 2 describe evolutionary computation. The third chapter is an introduction to financial engineering problems for readers who are unfamiliar with this area. The following chapters each deal, in turn, with a different problem in the financial engineering field describing each problem in detail and focusing on solutions based on evolutio...

  8. Design of an Evolutionary Approach for Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A novel evolutionary approach is proposed for effective intrusion detection based on benchmark datasets. The proposed approach can generate a pool of noninferior individual solutions and ensemble solutions thereof. The generated ensembles can be used to detect the intrusions accurately. For intrusion detection problem, the proposed approach could consider conflicting objectives simultaneously like detection rate of each attack class, error rate, accuracy, diversity, and so forth. The proposed approach can generate a pool of noninferior solutions and ensembles thereof having optimized trade-offs values of multiple conflicting objectives. In this paper, a three-phase, approach is proposed to generate solutions to a simple chromosome design in the first phase. In the first phase, a Pareto front of noninferior individual solutions is approximated. In the second phase of the proposed approach, the entire solution set is further refined to determine effective ensemble solutions considering solution interaction. In this phase, another improved Pareto front of ensemble solutions over that of individual solutions is approximated. The ensemble solutions in improved Pareto front reported improved detection results based on benchmark datasets for intrusion detection. In the third phase, a combination method like majority voting method is used to fuse the predictions of individual solutions for determining prediction of ensemble solution. Benchmark datasets, namely, KDD cup 1999 and ISCX 2012 dataset, are used to demonstrate and validate the performance of the proposed approach for intrusion detection. The proposed approach can discover individual solutions and ensemble solutions thereof with a good support and a detection rate from benchmark datasets (in comparison with well-known ensemble methods like bagging and boosting). In addition, the proposed approach is a generalized classification approach that is applicable to the problem of any field having multiple conflicting

  9. Design of an evolutionary approach for intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    A novel evolutionary approach is proposed for effective intrusion detection based on benchmark datasets. The proposed approach can generate a pool of noninferior individual solutions and ensemble solutions thereof. The generated ensembles can be used to detect the intrusions accurately. For intrusion detection problem, the proposed approach could consider conflicting objectives simultaneously like detection rate of each attack class, error rate, accuracy, diversity, and so forth. The proposed approach can generate a pool of noninferior solutions and ensembles thereof having optimized trade-offs values of multiple conflicting objectives. In this paper, a three-phase, approach is proposed to generate solutions to a simple chromosome design in the first phase. In the first phase, a Pareto front of noninferior individual solutions is approximated. In the second phase of the proposed approach, the entire solution set is further refined to determine effective ensemble solutions considering solution interaction. In this phase, another improved Pareto front of ensemble solutions over that of individual solutions is approximated. The ensemble solutions in improved Pareto front reported improved detection results based on benchmark datasets for intrusion detection. In the third phase, a combination method like majority voting method is used to fuse the predictions of individual solutions for determining prediction of ensemble solution. Benchmark datasets, namely, KDD cup 1999 and ISCX 2012 dataset, are used to demonstrate and validate the performance of the proposed approach for intrusion detection. The proposed approach can discover individual solutions and ensemble solutions thereof with a good support and a detection rate from benchmark datasets (in comparison with well-known ensemble methods like bagging and boosting). In addition, the proposed approach is a generalized classification approach that is applicable to the problem of any field having multiple conflicting

  10. Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2012-01-01

    We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux's theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung's Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein's synaptic melioration, Adam's selfish synapse, and Calvin's replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price's covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

  11. Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisantha Thomas Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity and variability as the most powerful mechanism in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples of why parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is efficient are given. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

  12. Evolutionary programming as a platform for in silico metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel; Förster, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Background Through genetic engineering it is possible to introduce targeted genetic changes and hereby engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, owing to the complexity of metabolic networks, both in terms of structure and regulation...... of close to optimal solutions. The identified metabolic engineering strategies suggest that non-intuitive genetic modifications span several different pathways and may be necessary for solving challenging metabolic engineering problems......., it is often difficult to predict the effects of genetic modifications on the resulting phenotype. Recently genome-scale metabolic models have been compiled for several different microorganisms where structural and stoichiometric complexity is inherently accounted for. New algorithms are being developed...

  13. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-04-22

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.

  14. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  15. Rethinking engineering education the CDIO approach

    CERN Document Server

    Crawley, Edward F; Östlund, Sören; Brodeur, Doris R; Edström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach to engineering education that integrates a comprehensive set of personal, interpersonal, and professional engineering skills with engineering disciplinary knowledge in order to prepare innovative and entrepreneurial engineers.  The education of engineers is set in the context of engineering practice, that is, Conceiving, Designing, Implementing, and Operating (CDIO) through the entire lifecycle of engineering processes, products, and systems. The book is both a description of the development and implementation of the CDIO model and a guide to engineering programs worldwide that seek to improve the education of young engineers.   Provides an overview of the CDIO approach, then chapters organized according to the CDIO Standards; Includes in each chapter objectives, discussion questions, case studies and clear diagrams to support key concepts and processes; Avoids the jargon of education specialists and clearly explains education terms in the context of their initial presentatio...

  16. Evolutionary algorithms and metaheuristics in civil engineering and Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, David

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on civil and structural engineering and construction management applications. The contributions constitute modified, extended and improved versions of research presented at the  minisymposium organized by the editors at the ECCOMAS conference on this topic in Barcelona 2014.

  17. Direct and Evolutionary Approaches for Optimal Receiver Function Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta Tuji

    Receiver functions are time series obtained by deconvolving vertical component seismograms from radial component seismograms. Receiver functions represent the impulse response of the earth structure beneath a seismic station. Generally, receiver functions consist of a number of seismic phases related to discontinuities in the crust and upper mantle. The relative arrival times of these phases are correlated with the locations of discontinuities as well as the media of seismic wave propagation. The Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity) is a major interface or discontinuity that separates the crust and the mantle. In this research, automatic techniques to determine the depth of the Moho from the earth's surface (the crustal thickness H) and the ratio of crustal seismic P-wave velocity (Vp) to S-wave velocity (Vs) (kappa= Vp/Vs) were developed. In this dissertation, an optimization problem of inverting receiver functions has been developed to determine crustal parameters and the three associated weights using evolutionary and direct optimization techniques. The first technique developed makes use of the evolutionary Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimization technique. The second technique developed combines the direct Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) and evolutionary Fitness Proportionate Niching (FPN) techniques by employing their strengths. In a previous study, Monte Carlo technique has been utilized for determining variable weights in the H-kappa stacking of receiver functions. Compared to that previously introduced variable weights approach, the current GA and GPS-FPN techniques have tremendous advantages of saving time and these new techniques are suitable for automatic and simultaneous determination of crustal parameters and appropriate weights. The GA implementation provides optimal or near optimal weights necessary in stacking receiver functions as well as optimal H and kappa values simultaneously. Generally, the objective function of the H-kappa stacking problem

  18. Software engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pressman, Roger S

    1997-01-01

    This indispensable guide to software engineering exploration enables practitioners to navigate the ins and outs of this rapidly changing field. Pressman's fully revised and updated Fourth Edition provides in-depth coverage of every important management and technical topic in software engineering. Moreover, readers will find the inclusion of the hottest developments in the field such as: formal methods and cleanroom software engineering, business process reengineering, and software reengineering.

  19. PARETO: A novel evolutionary optimization approach to multiobjective IMRT planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, Jason; McCurdy, Boyd; Potrebko, Peter; Champion, Heather; Cull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    In radiation therapy treatment planning, the clinical objectives of uniform high dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and low dose to the organs-at-risk (OARs) are invariably in conflict, often requiring compromises to be made between them when selecting the best treatment plan for a particular patient. In this work, the authors introduce Pareto-Aware Radiotherapy Evolutionary Treatment Optimization (pareto), a multiobjective optimization tool to solve for beam angles and fluence patterns in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. pareto is built around a powerful multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA), which allows us to treat the problem of IMRT treatment plan optimization as a combined monolithic problem, where all beam fluence and angle parameters are treated equally during the optimization. We have employed a simple parameterized beam fluence representation with a realistic dose calculation approach, incorporating patient scatter effects, to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach on two phantoms. The first phantom is a simple cylindrical phantom containing a target surrounded by three OARs, while the second phantom is more complex and represents a paraspinal patient. pareto results in a large database of Pareto nondominated solutions that represent the necessary trade-offs between objectives. The solution quality was examined for several PTV and OAR fitness functions. The combination of a conformity-based PTV fitness function and a dose-volume histogram (DVH) or equivalent uniform dose (EUD) -based fitness function for the OAR produced relatively uniform and conformal PTV doses, with well-spaced beams. A penalty function added to the fitness functions eliminates hotspots. Comparison of resulting DVHs to those from treatment plans developed with a single-objective fluence optimizer (from a commercial treatment planning system) showed good correlation. Results also indicated that pareto shows promise in optimizing the number

  20. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskar, M; Panigrahi, Bijaya; Das, Swagatam

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the first International Conference on International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems (ICAIECES -2015) held at Velammal Engineering College (VEC), Chennai, India during 22 – 23 April 2015. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. Researchers from academic and industry present their original work and exchange ideas, information, techniques and applications in the field of Communication, Computing and Power Technologies.

  1. A Modeling Approach to Teaching Evolutionary Biology in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Cynthia; Stewart, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the commitments and research that went into the design of a 9-week high school course in evolutionary biology designed to bring students to an understanding of the practice of evolutionary biology by engaging them in developing, elaborating, and using one of the discipline's most important explanatory models. (Contains 39 references.)…

  2. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose......-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling...

  3. A systematic approach to engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Fu, Shengli

    2012-06-01

    Engineering ethics education is a complex field characterized by dynamic topics and diverse students, which results in significant challenges for engineering ethics educators. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to determine what to teach and how to teach in an ethics curriculum. This is a topic that has not been adequately addressed in the engineering ethics literature. This systematic approach provides a method to: (1) develop a context-specific engineering ethics curriculum using the Delphi technique, a process-driven research method; and (2) identify appropriate delivery strategies and instructional strategies using an instructional design model. This approach considers the context-specific needs of different engineering disciplines in ethics education and leverages the collaboration of engineering professors, practicing engineers, engineering graduate students, ethics scholars, and instructional design experts. The proposed approach is most suitable for a department, a discipline/field or a professional society. The approach helps to enhance learning outcomes and to facilitate ethics education curriculum development as part of the regular engineering curriculum.

  4. Innovation in Healthcare Delivery: Commentary on an Evolutionary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Anthony L A

    2015-01-01

    Zwarenstein (2015) proposes a novel approach to healthcare innovation that parallels biological evolution, based on stimulation and reward of multiple small competing innovation projects conducted in the field by decentralized teams. Projects would be designed with explicit outcome targets and results would be widely disseminated and publicly available. More successful projects would be grown and spread. Critical to the model is accepting and reporting failure as well as success, for the benefit of future project design. Examining biological evolution for lessons for healthcare delivery innovation illuminates the need for diversity among healthcare systems to achieve optimum application of best practice interventions across jurisdictions with differing population, provider and facility characteristics. However, careful coordination will be needed to achieve the balance between diversity and harmony across jurisdictions necessary for effective governance and interaction. There are important methodological issues to be addressed to reduce the uncertainty inherent in comparisons of results among discrete innovation projects, especially when observed improvements over the baseline are modest. As well as evolutionary improvement in healthcare outcomes, the model should progressively increase decentralized capacity and expertise in innovation processes.

  5. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A; Hillary, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  6. An evolutionary computation approach to examine functional brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab eRoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN and the executive control network (ECN during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI; the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in

  7. Social Engineering a General Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using exceptional communication skills. Thus, five models of persuasion were identified, based on: simplicity, interest, incongruity, confidence and empathy, exploiting key factors which predispose people to fall victim to attacks of social engineering such as greed, self-interest, guilt or ignorance. It is well known fact that security is as strong as the weakest link in its chain (individuals therefore, beyond technical measures, staff training is the key to success in defending against such attacks.

  8. Evolutionary approaches to autism: an overview and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; Galis, F.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, which greatly reduces reproductive success. The combination of high heritability and low reproductive success raises an evolutionary question: why was autism not eliminated by natural selection? We review different perspectives on the

  9. A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, J S; Kazakov, V

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

  10. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  11. Externally heated valve engine a new approach to piston engines

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on a novel approach for generating mechanical energy from different, external heat sources using the body of a typical piston engine with valves. By presenting simple yet effective numerical models, the authors show how this new approach, which combines existing internal combustion technology with a lubrication system, is able to offer an economic solution to the problem of mechanical energy generation in piston engines. Their results also show that a stable heat generation process can be guaranteed outside of the engine. The book offers a detailed report on physical and numerical models of 4-stroke and 2-stroke versions of the EHVE together with different models of heat exchange, valves and results of their simulations. It also delivers the test results of an engine prototype run in laboratory conditions. By presenting a novel theoretical framework and providing readers with extensive knowledge of both the advantages and challenges of the method, this book is expected to inspire academic re...

  12. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vijayakumar, K; Panigrahi, Bijaya; Das, Swagatam

    2017-01-01

    The volume is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation in Engineering Systems (ICAIECES 2016) held at SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. This conference is an international forum for industry professionals and researchers to deliberate and state their research findings, discuss the latest advancements and explore the future directions in the emerging areas of engineering and technology. The book presents original work and novel ideas, information, techniques and applications in the field of communication, computing and power technologies.

  13. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  14. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  15. Comparing Two Approaches for Engineering Education Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade there have been two dominating models for reforming engineering education: Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL) and the CDIO Initiative. The aim of this paper is to compare the PBL and CDIO approaches to engineering education reform, to identify and explain similarities...... and differences. CDIO and PBL will each be defined and compared in terms of the original need analysis, underlying educational philosophy and the essentials of the respective approaches to engineering education. In these respects we see many similarities. Circumstances that explain differences in history...

  16. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  17. SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    2003-08-01

    Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics

  18. Location choice by households and polluting firms : An evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, BR; de Vries, FP

    This paper examines several policy regimes to deal with the problem of households suffering from environmental damage by firms in the same region. We employ an evolutionary framework to analyze migration movements in the course of time, since firms and households will not relocate immediately in

  19. Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Kazem, Anahita J N; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    ... of ideas between the two groups of researchers. Second, we aimed to stimulate cross-fertilization between different scientific fields that study personality, namely behavioural ecology, psychology, genomics, quantitative genetics, neuroendocrinology and developmental biology. Third, we aimed to foster the application of an evolutionary framework to the study of personality.

  20. The Comparative Organismal Approach in Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Insights from Ascidians and Cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, William R

    2016-01-01

    Important contributions to evolutionary developmental biology have been made using the comparative organismal approach. As examples, I describe insights obtained from studies of Molgula ascidians and Astyanax cavefish. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An evolutionary medicine approach to understanding factors that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been published on the causes and mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the reason for the existence of COPD and the reasons why COPD develops in humans have hardly been studied. Evolutionary medical approaches are required to explain not only the proximate factors, such as the causes and mechanisms of a disease, but the ultimate (evolutionary) factors as well, such as why the disease is present and why the disease develops in humans. According to the concepts of evolutionary medicine, disease susceptibility is acquired as a result of natural selection during the evolutionary process of traits linked to the genes involved in disease susceptibility. In this paper, we discuss the following six reasons why COPD develops in humans based on current evolutionary medical theories: (1) evolutionary constraints; (2) mismatch between environmental changes and evolution; (3) co-evolution with pathogenic microorganisms; (4) life history trade-off; (5) defenses and their costs, and (6) reproductive success at the expense of health. Our perspective pursues evolutionary answers to the fundamental question, 'Why are humans susceptible to this common disease, COPD, despite their long evolutionary history?' We believe that the perspectives offered by evolutionary medicine are essential for researchers to better understand the significance of their work.

  2. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The stability concept of evolutionary game theory a dynamic approach

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    These Notes grew from my research in evolutionary biology, specifically on the theory of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS theory), over the past ten years. Personally, evolutionary game theory has given me the opportunity to transfer my enthusiasm for abstract mathematics to more practical pursuits. I was fortunate to have entered this field in its infancy when many biologists recognized its potential but were not prepared to grant it general acceptance. This is no longer the case. ESS theory is now a rapidly expanding (in both applied and theoretical directions) force that no evolutionary biologist can afford to ignore. Perhaps, to continue the life-cycle metaphor, ESS theory is now in its late adolescence and displays much of the optimism and exuberance of this exciting age. There are dangers in writing a text about a theory at this stage of development. A comprehensive treatment would involve too many loose ends for the reader to appreciate the central message. On the other hand, the current central m...

  4. Robust design of biological circuits: evolutionary systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Liou, Jing-Jia

    2011-01-01

    Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental molecular noise from the cellular context in the host cell. Based on evolutionary systems biology algorithm, the design parameters of target gene circuits can evolve to specific values in order to robustly track a desired biologic function in spite of intrinsic and environmental noise. The fitness function is selected to be inversely proportional to the tracking error so that the evolutionary biological circuit can achieve the optimal tracking mimicking the evolutionary process of a gene circuit. Finally, several design examples are given in silico with the Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust performance of the proposed design method. The result shows that the designed gene circuits can robustly track desired behaviors with minimal errors even with nontrivial intrinsic and external noise.

  5. An Evolutionary Computational Approach to Humanoid Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammika Suresh Hettiarachchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our work is centred on humanoid motion planning and balancing using evolutionary computational techniques. Evolutionary techniques, inspired by the Darwinian evolution of biological systems, make use of the concept of the iterative progress of a population of solutions with the aim of finding an optimally fit solution to a given problem. The problem we address here is that of asymmetric motion generation for humanoids, with the aim of automatically developing a series of motions to resemble certain predefined postures. An acceptable trajectory and stability is of the utmost concern in our work. In developing these motions, we are utilizing genetic algorithms coupled with heuristic knowledge of the problem domain. Unlike other types of robots, humanoids are complex in both construction and operation due to their myriad degrees of freedom and the difficulty of balancing on one or more limbs. The work presented in this paper includes the adopted methodology, experimental setup, results and an analysis of the outcome of a series of evolutionary experiments conducted for generating the said asymmetric motions.

  6. Evolutionary and anthropological approaches towards understanding human need for psychotropic and mood altering substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Human addiction to psychotropic and mood altering substances is an ongoing international problem. While the phenomenon of psychoactive drug use has received considerable theoretical attention there need to be more comparative approaches into this area. Evolutionary and anthropological approaches for understanding human need for psychotropic and mood altering substances offer the reader various insightful angles for analyzing this phenomenon. While evolutionary approaches investigate the evolutionary behaviors and mechanisms of human ancestral psychotropic use, anthropological approaches emphasize the social and religious meanings of individual drug use. While each approach proffers different ideas, a comparative approach, which is utilized in this study, may provide a novel and invaluable insight for understanding human need for psychotropic and mood-altering substances.

  7. A hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm approach for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of the proposed multi-objective AI-NSGA-II algorithm has been compared to that of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) and ... Department of Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India; Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong ...

  8. A hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm approach for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K MANUPATI

    1 Department of Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India. 2 Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The ... algorithm has been compared to that of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) and conventional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (CNSGA-II), ...

  9. An Evolutionary Approach to Regional Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar; Wallin, Torsten

    This article examines how the birth and the development of regional systems of innovation are connected with economic selection and points to implications for regional-level policies. The research questions are explored using an evolutionary model, which emphasises geographical spaces...... using computer simulations. The primary findings are, firstly, that the model generates predictions suited for empirical research on how economic selection influences cooperative behaviour of innovative factors. Secondly, we demonstrate how a region's entrepreneurial activity and growth can...... be controlled in a decentralised way by regions....

  10. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    research objectives of this study. Two independent coders then coded the video/audio recordings and the additional design data using Halfin's (1973) 17 mental processes for technological problem-solving. The results of this study indicated that the participants employed a wide array of mental processes when solving engineering design challenges. However, the findings provide a general analysis of the number of times participants employed each mental process, as well as the amount of time consumed employing the various mental processes through the different stages of the engineering design process. The results indicated many similarities between the students solving the problem, which may highlight voids in current technology and engineering education curricula. Additionally, the findings showed differences between the processes employed by participants that created the most successful solutions and the participants who developed the least effective solutions. Upon comparing and contrasting these processes, recommendations for instructional strategies to enhance a student's capability for solving engineering design problems were developed. The results also indicated that students, when left without teacher intervention, use a simplified and more natural process to solve design challenges than the 12-step engineering design process reported in much of the literature. Lastly, these data indicated that students followed two different approaches to solving the design problem. Some students employed a sequential and logical approach, while others employed a nebulous, solution centered trial-and-error approach to solving the problem. In this study the participants who were more sequential had better performing solutions. Examining these two approaches and the student cognition data enabled the researcher to generate a conceptual engineering design model for the improved teaching and development of engineering design problem solving.

  11. Evolutionary-based approaches for determining the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Habib; Tutunchian, Mohammad A.; Rezvani, Reza; Valizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Many hydrocarbon reservoirs are located near oceans which are covered by calcareous deposits. These sediments consist mainly of the remains of marine plants or animals, so calcareous soils can have a wide variety of engineering properties. Due to their local expansion and considerable differences from terrigenous soils, the evaluation of engineering behaviors of calcareous sediments has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in recent years. Deviatoric stress is one of the most important parameters directly affecting important shearing characteristics of soils. In this study, a dataset of experimental triaxial tests was gathered from two sources. First, the data of previous experimental studies from the literature were gathered. Then, a series of triaxial tests was performed on calcareous sands of the Persian Gulf to develop the dataset. This work resulted in a large database of experimental results on the maximum deviatoric stress of different calcareous sands. To demonstrate the capabilities of evolutionary-based approaches in modeling the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands, two promising variants of genetic programming (GP), multigene genetic programming (MGP) and gene expression programming (GEP), were applied to propose new predictive models. The models' input parameters were the physical and in-situ condition properties of soil and the output was the maximum deviatoric stress (i.e., the axial-deviator stress). The results of statistical analyses indicated the robustness of these models, and a parametric study was also conducted for further verification of the models, in which the resulting trends were consistent with the results of the experimental study. Finally, the proposed models were further simplified by applying a practical geotechnical correlation.

  12. Multiple von Neumann computers: an evolutionary approach to functional emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel system composed of multiple von Neumann computers and an appropriate problem environment is proposed and simulated. Each computer has a memory to store the machine instruction program, and when a program is executed, a series of machine codes in the memory is sequentially decoded, leading to register operations in the central processing unit (CPU). By means of these operations, the computer not only can handle its generally used registers but also can read and write the environmental database. Simulation is driven by genetic algorithms (GAs) performed on the population of program memories. Mutation and crossover create program diversity in the memory, and selection facilitates the reproduction of appropriate programs. Through these evolutionary operations, advantageous combinations of machine codes are created and fixed in the population one by one, and the higher function, which enables the computer to calculate an appropriate number from the environment, finally emerges in the program memory. In the latter half of the article, the performance of GAs on this system is studied. Under different sets of parameters, the evolutionary speed, which is determined by the time until the domination of the final program, is examined and the conditions for faster evolution are clarified. At an intermediate mutation rate and at an intermediate population size, crossover helps create novel advantageous sets of machine codes and evidently accelerates optimization by GAs.

  13. Trust Dynamics in WSNs: An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigen Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor node (SN in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can decide whether to collaborate with others based on a trust management system (TMS by making a trust decision. In this paper, we study the trust decision and its dynamics that play a key role to stabilize the whole network using evolutionary game theory. When SNs are making their decisions to select action Trust or Mistrust, a WSNs trust game is created to reflect their utilities. An incentive mechanism bound with one SN’s trust degree is incorporated into this trust game and effectively promotes SNs to select action Trust. The replicator dynamics of SNs’ trust evolution, illustrating the evolutionary process of SNs selecting their actions, are given. We then propose and prove the theorems indicating that evolutionarily stable strategies can be attained under different parameter values, which supply theoretical foundations to devise a TMS for WSNs. Moreover, we can find out the conditions that will lead SNs to choose action Trust as their final behavior. In this manner, we can assure WSNs’ security and stability by introducing a trust mechanism to satisfy these conditions. Experimental results have confirmed the proposed theorems and the effects of the incentive mechanism.

  14. Introduction: integrating genetic and cultural evolutionary approaches to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G; Adger, David

    2011-04-01

    The papers in this special issue of Human Biology address recent research in the field of language evolution, both the genetic evolution of the language faculty and the cultural evolution of specific languages. While both of these areas have received increasing interest in recent years, there is also a need to integrate these somewhat separate efforts and explore the relevant gene-culture coevolutionary interactions. Here we summarize the individual contributions, set them in the context of the wider literature, and identify outstanding future research questions. The first set of papers concerns the comparative study of nonhuman communication in primates and birds from both a behavioral and neurobiological perspective, revealing evidence for several common language-related traits in various nonhuman species and providing clues as to the evolutionary origin and function of the human language faculty. The second set of papers discusses the consequences of viewing language as a culturally evolving system in its own right, including claims that this removes the need for strong genetic biases for language acquisition, and that phylogenetic evolutionary methods can be used to reconstruct language histories. We conclude by highlighting outstanding areas for future research, including identifying the precise selection pressures that gave rise to the language faculty in ancestral hominin species, and determining the strength, domain specificity, and origin of the cultural transmission biases that shape languages as they pass along successive generations of language learners.

  15. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Anja; van den Broek, Marcel; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  16. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brickwedde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion (“attenuation” of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  17. An evolutionary approach to regional systems of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar; Wallin, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    and production of intermediate goods. In particular we are concerned with how cooperative behaviour of technology producers is affected by the need to protect technological secrecies and of being financially constrained by firms demanding innovative input. Based on the theoretical model, we provide an analysis...... using computer simulations. The primary findings are, firstly, that the model generates predictions suited for empirical research on how economic selection influences cooperative behaviour of innovative actors. Secondly, we demonstrate how a region's entrepreneurial activity and growth can be controlled......This article examines how the birth and the development of regional systems of innovation are connected with economic selection and points to implications for regional-level policies. The research questions are explored using an evolutionary model, which emphasises geographical spaces...

  18. Wiener-Hammerstein system identification - an evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitali, Abdessamad; Giri, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying parametric Wiener-Hammerstein (WH) systems is addressed within the evolutionary optimisation context. Specifically, a hybrid culture identification method is developed that involves model structure adaptation using genetic recombination and model parameter learning using particle swarm optimisation. The method enjoys three interesting features: (1) the risk of premature convergence of model parameter estimates to local optima is significantly reduced, due to the constantly maintained diversity of model candidates; (2) no prior knowledge is needed except for upper bounds on the system structure indices; (3) the method is fully autonomous as no interaction is needed with the user during the optimum search process. The performances of the proposed method will be illustrated and compared to alternative methods using a well-established WH benchmark.

  19. Distribution of Marburg virus in Africa: An evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Sorrentino, Chiara; Veo, Carla; Fiaschi, Lisa; Gioffrè, Sonia; Ebranati, Erika; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin and geographical dispersion of Marburg virus, the first member of the Filoviridae family to be discovered. Seventy-three complete genome sequences of Marburg virus isolated from animals and humans were retrieved from public databases and analysed using a Bayesian phylogeographical framework. The phylogenetic tree of the Marburg virus data set showed two significant evolutionary lineages: Ravn virus (RAVV) and Marburg virus (MARV). MARV divided into two main clades; clade A included isolates from Uganda (five from the European epidemic in 1967), Kenya (1980) and Angola (from the epidemic of 2004-2005); clade B included most of the isolates obtained during the 1999-2000 epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and a group of Ugandan isolates obtained in 2007-2009. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of the whole genome was 3.3×10(-4) substitutions/site/year (credibility interval 2.0-4.8). The MARV strain had a mean root time of the most recent common ancestor of 177.9years ago (YA) (95% highest posterior density 87-284), thus indicating that it probably originated in the mid-XIX century, whereas the RAVV strain had a later origin dating back to a mean 33.8 YA. The most probable location of the MARV ancestor was Uganda (state posterior probability, spp=0.41), whereas that of the RAVV ancestor was Kenya (spp=0.71). There were significant migration rates from Uganda to the DRC (Bayes Factor, BF=42.0) and in the opposite direction (BF=5.7). Our data suggest that Uganda may have been the cradle of Marburg virus in Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale-multiphysics approaches for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetti, Gabriele; Peters, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Engineering applications often require the study of complex Multiphysics systems. In order to provide solutions for problems of industrial-environmental interest, methods that can capture the influence of all the different scales of composite phenomena must be developed. Due to these necessities multiscale and multiphysics approaches are rapidly becoming a standard in the mathematical-numerical description of engineering systems. The goal of the symposium is to bring together industrial and environmental researcher and practitioners, in order to discuss techniques that aim to solve this kind of heterogeneous problem in an highly efficient way.

  1. Evolutionary impact assessent: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laugen, A.T.; Engelhard, G.H.; Whitlock, R.; Mollet, F.M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial

  2. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure......Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many....... A framework is developed that is able to deal with data collection in non-homogeneous portfolios of buildings. Also incomplete data sets containing only little information on each fire event can be used for model calibration. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework, it is applied...

  3. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  4. A bioarchitectonic approach to the modular engineering of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2017-09-26

    Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions. By virtue of their potential for 'plug and play' into new contexts, modules can be viewed as units of both evolution and engineering. Through consideration of lessons learned from recent efforts to install new metabolic modules into cells and the emerging understanding of the structure, function and assembly of protein-based organelles, bacterial microcompartments, a structural bioengineering approach is described: one that builds from an architectural vocabulary of protein domains. This bioarchitectonic approach to engineering cellular metabolism can be applied to microbial cell factories, used in the programming of members of synthetic microbial communities or used to attain additional levels of metabolic organization in eukaryotic cells for increasing primary productivity and as the foundation of a green economy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. [Migraine and evolutionary theory: paths for a clinical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro-Gonzalez, L C

    2016-10-01

    Migraine is a very common disorder with a raising incidence. The theory of evolution allow us to explain the emergence of the disorder, due to the advantages that the overreactivity to stimulus provided to ancestral groups of Homo sapiens, and a greater presence of the disorder in modern societies, based in the interactions with external factors. Herein we analyze these points. Design of organisms and their responses to environmental factors emerge to improve survival. Thus pain and headache can be contemplated as homeostatic and adaptative responses. Below 10% of the population has no experience with headache and the migrainous phenotype is quite frequent in secondary headaches and in syndromic forms of migraine. These features can be understood under the next undergrounds: specific neurophysiological data (lack of habituation, sensibilization and low preactivation), genetic features (polygenic disorder with the implication of many gens with a low penetrance, that interact with the environment and are shared with comorbid disorders such as depression and anxiety); and environmental interactions in modern societies (increase in the number of estrogenic cycles and particularly overexposition to stress). A feature that was an evolutionary advantage has been transformed in a highly prevalent and disabling disorder in modern societies. It is the result of the interaction with internal (estrogenic cycles) and external (stress) stimuli. As a consequence, it becomes a mismatch disorder. The effects appear in childhood through epigenetics. Therefore, therapeutic interventions would yield greater benefits if whole populations were included in educative interventions incorporating these aspects.

  6. Enterprise architecture approach to mining companies engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilin’ Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As Russian economy is still largely oriented on commodities production, there are a lot of cities where mining and commodity-oriented enterprises are the backbone of city economy. The mentioned enterprises mostly define the life quality of citizens in such cities, thus there are high requirements for engineering of city-forming enterprises. The paper describes the enterprise architecture approach for management system engineering of the mining enterprises. The paper contains the model of the mining enterprise architecture, the approach to the development and implementation of an integrated management system based on the concept of enterprise architecture and the structure of information systems and information technology infrastructure of the mining enterprise.

  7. Design of an Evolutionary Approach for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    ensemble methods like bagging and boosting. In addition, the proposed approach is a generalized classification approach that is applicable to the problem of any field having multiple conflicting objectives, and a dataset can be represented in the form of labelled instances in terms of its features.

  8. Combining genetic and evolutionary engineering to establish C4 metabolism in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Heckmann, David; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding. We propose combining the bioengineering of well-understood traits with subsequent evolutionary engineering, i.e. mutagenesis and artificial selection. An existing mathematical model of C3-C4 evolution is used to choose the most promising path towards this goal. Based on biomathematical simulations, we engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express the central carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco only in bundle sheath cells (Ru-BSC plants), the localization characteristic for C4 plants. This modification will initially be deleterious, forcing the Ru-BSC plants into a fitness valley from where previously inaccessible adaptive steps towards C4 photosynthesis become accessible through fitness-enhancing mutations. Mutagenized Ru-BSC plants are then screened for improved photosynthesis, and are expected to respond to imposed artificial selection pressures by evolving towards C4 anatomy and biochemistry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Schizophrenia and Human Self-Domestication: An Evolutionary Linguistics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Di Pietro, Lorena; Barba, Marta; Lattanzi, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that entails social and cognitive deficits, including marked language problems. Its complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors, is still widely uncertain. SZ incidence has always been high and quite stable in human populations, across time and regardless of cultural implications, for unclear reasons. It has been hypothesized that SZ pathophysiology may involve the biological components that changed during the recent human evolutionary history, and led to our distinctive mode of cognition, which includes language skills. In this paper we explore this hypothesis, focusing on the self-domestication of the human species. This has been claimed to account for many human-specific distinctive traits, including aspects of our behavior and cognition, and to favor the emergence of complex languages through cultural evolution. The "domestication syndrome" in mammals comprises the constellation of traits exhibited by domesticated strains, seemingly resulting from the hypofunction of the neural crest. It is our intention to show that people with SZ exhibit more marked domesticated traits at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels. We also show that genes involved in domestication and neural crest development and function comprise nearly 20% of SZ candidates, most of which exhibit altered expression profiles in the brain of SZ patients, specifically in areas involved in language processing. Based on these observations, we conclude that SZ may represent an abnormal ontogenetic itinerary for the human faculty of language, resulting, at least in part, from changes in genes important for the domestication syndrome and primarily involving the neural crest. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Evolutionary engineering reveals divergent paths when yeast is adapted to different acidic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Feizi, Amir; Bisschops, Markus M. M.

    2017-01-01

    lactate degradation was crucial for tolerance to high concentrations of lactic acid. Our findings highlight the contribution of both the selection pressure and nature of the acid as a driver for directing the evolutionary path towards tolerance to low pH. The choice of carbon source was also an important......Tolerance of yeast to acid stress is important for many industrial processes including organic acid production. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of long term adaptation to acidic environments will be beneficial for engineering production strains to thrive under such harsh conditions....... Previous studies using gene expression analysis have suggested that both organic and inorganic acids display similar responses during short term exposure to acidic conditions. However, biological mechanisms that will lead to long term adaptation of yeast to acidic conditions remains unknown and whether...

  11. Improved xylose and arabinose utilization by an industrial recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using evolutionary engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, R.G.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Fonseca, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Results: Evolutionary engineering was used...... to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to ethanol in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the heterologous genes for xylose and arabinose utilization pathways integrated in the genome. The evolved strain TMB3130 displayed an increased consumption rate...... prolonged continuous culture in xylose and arabinose medium resulted in the improved transport of xylose and arabinose as well as increased levels of the enzymes from the introduced fungal xylose pathway. No mutation was found in any of the genes from the pentose converting pathways. Conclusion: To the best...

  12. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    ... others. Using a mean field approach, we define anevolutionary game framework to analyse the dynamics of civil and uncivil ways of interaction in online social networks and their consequences for collective welfare...

  13. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  14. Document Clustering Approach for Meta Search Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    The size of WWW is growing exponentially with ever change in technology. This results in huge amount of information with long list of URLs. Manually it is not possible to visit each page individually. So, if the page ranking algorithms are used properly then user search space can be restricted up to some pages of searched results. But available literatures show that no single search system can provide qualitative results from all the domains. This paper provides solution to this problem by introducing a new meta search engine that determine the relevancy of query corresponding to web page and cluster the results accordingly. The proposed approach reduces the user efforts, improves the quality of results and performance of the meta search engine.

  15. Inherit the Policy: A Sociocultural Approach to Understanding Evolutionary Biology Policy in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    South Carolina biology Indicator 5.6 calls for students to "Summarize ways that scientists use data from a variety of sources to investigate and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory" (South Carolina Department of Education, 2006). Levinson and Sutton (2001) offered a sociocultural approach to policy that considers cultural…

  16. Using a Contextual Approach in Teaching Evolutionary Theory and Its Attendant Controversy to Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Carol A.; Prischmann, Deirdre A.

    2003-01-01

    Develops activities based on pedagogical research that indicate that student engagement and comprehension are enhanced by methodologies that promote active participation, critical thinking, and an interdisciplinary, contextualist approach to teach evolutionary theory to students in an upper-division, capstone course. Provides critical thinking…

  17. Naturalizing Perception Developing the Gibsonian Approach to Perception along Evolutionary Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Chemero, Anthony

    We believe that one of the most important aspects of Gibson's ecological psychology is his attempted naturalization of perception, that is, his attempt to place perception in the context of evolutionary theory. However, the dominant neo-Gibsonian approach to perception has been criticized for being

  18. Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, James D.; Macdonald, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering are examined. The software development life cycle is a sequence of not so well-defined phases. Improved techniques for developing systems have been formulated over the past 15 years, but pressure continues to attempt to reduce current costs. Software development technology seems to be standing still. The primary objective of the knowledge-based approach to software development presented in this paper is to avoid problem areas that lead to schedule slippages, cost overruns, or software products that fall short of their desired goals. Identifying and resolving software problems early, often in the phase in which they first occur, has been shown to contribute significantly to reducing risks in software development. Software development is not a mechanical process but a basic human activity. It requires clear thinking, work, and rework to be successful. The artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering presented support the software development life cycle through the use of software development techniques and methodologies in terms of changing current practices and methods. These should be replaced by better techniques that that improve the process of of software development and the quality of the resulting products. The software development process can be structured into well-defined steps, of which the interfaces are standardized, supported and checked by automated procedures that provide error detection, production of the documentation and ultimately support the actual design of complex programs.

  19. An evolutionary computational approach for the dynamic Stackelberg competition problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Arboleda-Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stackelberg competition models are an important family of economical decision problems from game theory, in which the main goal is to find optimal strategies between two competitors taking into account their hierarchy relationship. Although these models have been widely studied in the past, it is important to note that very few works deal with uncertainty scenarios, especially those that vary over time. In this regard, the present research studies this topic and proposes a computational method for solving efficiently dynamic Stackelberg competition models. The computational experiments suggest that the proposed approach is effective for problems of this nature.

  20. Evolutionary Approach Based on Active Edges Detection for Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slatnia Sihem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for segmentation which vary strongly in their approach to the problem of image segmentation. In this paper, We specified the study in a particular segmentation method of radiological images based on the active edges detection. The optimize solutions was chosen as the genetic algorithm optimization method, and to compare this formalism with other existing methods, we chose a greedy algorithm is criterion for its timeliness. we propose a method of genetic active edge detection in images gray level. In fact, for the convergence of the edge to the object edges, we use the classic and the greedy method. Indeed, the proposed method is based on the active edges optimization using the genetic algorithms process to minimize a sum various energies, in order to evolve a population of snakes to an individual who has the minimum energy.

  1. An engine for global plant diversity: Highest evolutionary turnover and emigration in the American tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAntonelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that have generated the latitudinal biodiversity gradient and the continental differences in tropical biodiversity remains a major goal of evolutionary biology. Here we estimate the timing and direction of range shifts of extant flowering plants (angiosperms between tropical and non-tropical zones, and into and out of the major tropical regions of the world. We then calculate rates of speciation and extinction taking into account incomplete taxonomic sampling. We use a recently published fossil calibrated phylogeny and apply novel bioinformatic tools to code species into user-defined polygons. We reconstruct biogeographic history using stochastic character mapping to compute relative numbers of range shifts in proportion to the number of available lineages through time. Our results, based on the analysis of c. 22,600 species and c. 20 million geo-referenced occurrence records, show no significant differences between the speciation and extinction of tropical and non-tropical angiosperms. This suggests that at least in plants, the tropical biodiversity gradient primarily derives from other factors than differential rates of diversification. In contrast, the outstanding species richness found today in the American tropics (the Neotropics, as compared to tropical Africa and tropical Asia, is associated with significantly higher speciation and extinction rates. This suggests an exceedingly rapid evolutionary turnover, i.e. Neotropical species being formed and replaced by one another at unparalleled rates. In addition, tropical America stands out from other continents by having ‘pumped out’ more species than it received through most of the last 66 million years. These results imply that the Neotropics have acted as an engine for global plant diversity.

  2. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that forms of incivility-e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims-are spreading in the population of social networking sites' (SNS) users. Online social networks such as Facebook allow users to regularly interact with known and unknown others, who can behave either politely or rudely. This leads individuals not only to learn and adopt successful strategies for using the site, but also to condition their own behavior on that of others. Using a mean field approach, we define anevolutionary game framework to analyse the dynamics of civil and uncivil ways of interaction in online social networks and their consequences for collective welfare. Agents can choose to interact with others-politely or rudely-in SNS, or to opt out from online social networks to protect themselves from incivility. We find that, when the initial share of the population of polite users reaches a critical level, civility becomes generalized if its payoff increases more than that of incivility with the spreading of politeness in online interactions. Otherwise, the spreading of self-protective behaviors to cope with online incivility can lead the economyto non-socially optimal stationary states. JEL Codes: C61, C73, D85, O33, Z13. PsycINFO Codes: 2240, 2750.

  3. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antoci

    Full Text Available Evidence is growing that forms of incivility-e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims-are spreading in the population of social networking sites' (SNS users. Online social networks such as Facebook allow users to regularly interact with known and unknown others, who can behave either politely or rudely. This leads individuals not only to learn and adopt successful strategies for using the site, but also to condition their own behavior on that of others. Using a mean field approach, we define anevolutionary game framework to analyse the dynamics of civil and uncivil ways of interaction in online social networks and their consequences for collective welfare. Agents can choose to interact with others-politely or rudely-in SNS, or to opt out from online social networks to protect themselves from incivility. We find that, when the initial share of the population of polite users reaches a critical level, civility becomes generalized if its payoff increases more than that of incivility with the spreading of politeness in online interactions. Otherwise, the spreading of self-protective behaviors to cope with online incivility can lead the economyto non-socially optimal stationary states. JEL Codes: C61, C73, D85, O33, Z13. PsycINFO Codes: 2240, 2750.

  4. APPROACHES TO ENGINEER STABILITY OF BEETLE LUCIFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  5. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  6. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Segmenting healthcare terminology users: a strategic approach to large scale evolutionary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C; Briggs, K; Brown, P J

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare terminologies have become larger and more complex, aiming to support a diverse range of functions across the whole spectrum of healthcare activity. Prioritization of development, implementation and evaluation can be achieved by regarding the "terminology" as an integrated system of content-based and functional components. Matching these components to target segments within the healthcare community, supports a strategic approach to evolutionary development and provides essential product differentiation to enable terminology providers and systems suppliers to focus on end-user requirements.

  8. Software quality engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suryn, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Software quality stems from two distinctive, but associated, topics in software engineering: software functional quality and software structural quality. Software Quality Engineering studies the tenets of both of these notions, which focus on the efficiency and value of a design, respectively. The text addresses engineering quality on both the application and system levels with attention to Information Systems and Embedded Systems as well as recent developments. Targeted at graduate engineering students and software quality specialists, the book analyzes the relationship between functionality

  9. Engineering honours program : A different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Antoine waal; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg

    2011-01-01

    In September 2009 the department of Engineering of Fontys University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has started a pilot honours program for excellent engineering students called PRogram OUstanding Development (PROUD). Aim of this program is to give those engineering students, who have the

  10. An evolutionary approach for solving the job shop scheduling problem in a service industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Yousefi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an evolutionary-based approach based on the discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO algorithm is developed for finding the optimum schedule of a registration problem in a university. Minimizing the makespan, which is the total length of the schedule, in a real-world case study is considered as the target function. Since the selected case study has the characteristics of job shop scheduling problem (JSSP, it is categorized as a NP-hard problem which makes it difficult to be solved by conventional mathematical approaches in relatively short computation time.

  11. Mechanisms of bacterial morphogenesis: evolutionary cell biology approaches provide new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Caccamo, Paul D; Brun, Yves V

    2015-04-01

    How Darwin's "endless forms most beautiful" have evolved remains one of the most exciting questions in biology. The significant variety of bacterial shapes is most likely due to the specific advantages they confer with respect to the diverse environments they occupy. While our understanding of the mechanisms generating relatively simple shapes has improved tremendously in the last few years, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of complex shapes and the evolution of shape diversity are largely unknown. The emerging field of bacterial evolutionary cell biology provides a novel strategy to answer this question in a comparative phylogenetic framework. This relatively novel approach provides hypotheses and insights into cell biological mechanisms, such as morphogenesis, and their evolution that would have been difficult to obtain by studying only model organisms. We discuss the necessary steps, challenges, and impact of integrating "evolutionary thinking" into bacterial cell biology in the genomic era. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Similarity Measuring Approach For Engineering Materials Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doreswamy; Vanajakshi, M.N

    2010-01-01

    Advanced engineering materials design involves the exploration of massive multidimensional feature spaces, the correlation of materials properties and the processing parameters derived from disparate sources...

  13. Transmission Expansion Planning – A Multiyear Dynamic Approach Using a Discrete Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva J. T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP is to schedule a number of transmission projects along an extended planning horizon minimizing the network construction and operational costs while satisfying the requirement of delivering power safely and reliably to load centres along the horizon. This principle is quite simple, but the complexity of the problem and the impact on society transforms TEP on a challenging issue. This paper describes a new approach to solve the dynamic TEP problem, based on an improved discrete integer version of the Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO meta-heuristic algorithm. The paper includes sections describing in detail the EPSO enhanced approach, the mathematical formulation of the TEP problem, including the objective function and the constraints, and a section devoted to the application of the developed approach to this problem. Finally, the use of the developed approach is illustrated using a case study based on the IEEE 24 bus 38 branch test system.

  14. Climate change, phenological shifts, eco-evolutionary responses and population viability: toward a unifying predictive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    The debate on emission targets of greenhouse gasses designed to limit global climate change has to take into account the ecological consequences. One of the clearest ecological consequences is shifts in phenology. Linking these shifts to changes in population viability under various greenhouse gasses emission scenarios requires a unifying framework. We propose a box-in-a-box modeling approach that couples population models to phenological change. This approach unifies population modeling with both ecological responses to climate change as well as evolutionary processes. We advocate a mechanistic embedded correlative approach, where the link from genes to population is established using a periodic matrix population model. This periodic model has several major advantages: (1) it can include complex seasonal behaviors allowing an easy link with phenological shifts; (2) it provides the structure of the population at each phase, including the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes, allowing a link with evolutionary processes; and (3) it can incorporate the effect of climate at different time periods. We believe that the way climatologists have approached the problem, using atmosphere-ocean coupled circulation models in which components are gradually included and linked to each other, can provide a valuable example to ecologists. We hope that ecologists will take up this challenge and that our preliminary modeling framework will stimulate research toward a unifying predictive model of the ecological consequences of climate change.

  15. Reconstructing Networks from Profit Sequences in Evolutionary Games via a Multiobjective Optimization Approach with Lasso Initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary games (EG) model a common type of interactions in various complex, networked, natural and social systems. Given such a system with only profit sequences being available, reconstructing the interacting structure of EG networks is fundamental to understand and control its collective dynamics. Existing approaches used to handle this problem, such as the lasso, a convex optimization method, need a user-defined constant to control the tradeoff between the natural sparsity of networks and measurement error (the difference between observed data and simulated data). However, a shortcoming of these approaches is that it is not easy to determine these key parameters which can maximize the performance. In contrast to these approaches, we first model the EG network reconstruction problem as a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP), and then develop a framework which involves multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), followed by solution selection based on knee regions, termed as MOEANet, to solve this MOP. We also design an effective initialization operator based on the lasso for MOEA. We apply the proposed method to reconstruct various types of synthetic and real-world networks, and the results show that our approach is effective to avoid the above parameter selecting problem and can reconstruct EG networks with high accuracy.

  16. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  17. An alternative Approach to Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Havemann (retired June, 2000), Henrik

    2000-01-01

    as young and dynamic. Consequently, the new courses apply IT as a gateway to power engineering. The courses present the students with: (1) a meaningful, easy understandable power engineering problem; (2) a realistic set-up in the laboratory; and (3) a microprocessor system used as a tool to solve......In a drive to attract more students, three new courses have been introduced at the Department of Electric Power Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. Among many students, power engineering has a reputation of being old-fashioned and static, whereas information technology is regarded...... the problem. The students work mainly with programming but as the course develops they gain preliminary insight into the field of power engineering and experience that it is a broad field exploiting various advanced disciplines. In addition, course timing is highly important. Students must be confronted...

  18. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evolutionary approach for spatial architecture layout design enhanced by an agent-based topology finding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the automatic generation of a spatial architectural layout from a user-specified architectural program. The proposed approach binds a multi-agent topology finding system and an evolutionary optimization process. The former generates topology satisfied layouts for further optimization, while the latter focuses on refining the layouts to achieve predefined architectural criteria. The topology finding process narrows the search space and increases the performance in subsequent optimization. Results imply that the spatial layout modeling and the multi-floor topology are handled.

  20. Toward an integrative approach of cognitive neuroscientific and evolutionary psychological studies of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen

    2010-11-28

    This paper examines explanations for human artistic behavior in two reductionist research programs, cognitive neuroscience and evolutionary psychology. Despite their different methodological outlooks, both approaches converge on an explanation of art production and appreciation as byproducts of normal perceptual and motivational cognitive skills that evolved in response to problems originally not related to art, such as the discrimination of salient visual stimuli and speech sounds. The explanatory power of this reductionist framework does not obviate the need for higher-level accounts of art from the humanities, such as aesthetics, art history or anthropology of art.

  1. Evolutionary impact assessment: Accounting for the evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Ane T.; Engelhard, Georg H.; Whitlock, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore...... substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing...... evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can...

  2. Heterologous xylose isomerase pathway and evolutionary engineering improve xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eQi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylose utilization is one key issue for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses. It is promising approach to engineer heterologous pathway for xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we constructed xylose-fermenting yeast SyBE001 by combinatorial fine-tuning the expression of XylA and endogenous XKS1. Overexpression of genes RKI1, RPE1, TKL1 and TAL1 in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in SyBE002 accelerated xylose utilization by 19%. By repetitive adaptation, the xylose utilization rate increased to about 10 folds in strain SyBE003 evolved from SyBE002. Gene expression analysis identified variety of genes with significantly different expressions in pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle in SyBE003.

  3. Network Reverse Engineering Approach in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqian; Liu, Ao; Lu, Yuheng; Sheng, Ying; Wu, Qianzhu; Yin, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yiwei; Liu, Zairan; Pan, Heng; Ouyang, Qi

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic biology is a new branch of interdisciplinary science that has been developed in recent years. The main purpose of synthetic biology is to apply successful principles that have been developed in electronic and chemical engineering to develop basic biological functional modules, and through rational design, develop man-made biological systems that have predicted useful functions. Here, we discuss an important principle in rational design of functional biological circuits: the reverse engineering design. We will use a research project that was conducted at Peking University for the International Genetic Engineering Machine Competition (iGEM) to illustrate the principle: synthesis a cell which has a semi-log dose-response to the environment. Through this work we try to demonstrate the potential application of network engineering in synthetic biology.

  4. Knowledge Engineering Approach to the Geotectonic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichny, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    The intellectual challenge of geotectonics is, and always was, much harder than that of most of the sciences: geotectonics has to say much when there is objectively not too much to say. As the target of study (the genesis of regional and planetary geological structures) is vast and multidisciplinary and is more or less generic for many geological disciplines, its more or less complete description is practically inachievable. Hence, the normal pathway of natural-scientific research - first acquire data, then draw conclusion - unlikely can be the case here. Geotectonics does quite the opposite; its approach is purely abductive: first to suggest a conceptualization (hypothesis) based on some external grounds (either general planetary/cosmic/philosophic/religious considerations, or based on experience gained from research of other structures/regions/planets) and then to acquire data that either support or refute it. In fact, geotectonics defines the context for data acquisition, and hence, the paradigm for the entire body of geology. Being an obvious necessity for a descriptive science, this nevertheless creates a number of threats: • Like any people, scientists like simplicity and unity, and therefore a single geotectonic hypothesis may seem preferable once based on the data available at the moment and oppress other views which may acquire evidence in the future; • As impartial data acquisition is rather a myth than reality even in most of the natural sciences, in a study like geology this process becomes strongly biased by the reigning hypothesis and controlled to supply only supportive evidence; • It becomes collectively agreed that any, or great many, domains of geological knowledge are determined by a geotectonic concept, which is, in turn, offered by a reigning hypothesis (sometimes reclassified as theory) - e.g., exploration geologists must involve the global geotectonic terminology in their technical reports on assessment of mineral or hydrocarbon

  5. Technological approaches to improve the engine efficiency and to reduce pollutant emissions of automotive diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Marcano, Sergio Jose

    2014-01-01

    The research work was mainly focused on the technological approach to improve engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions applicable to diesel engines which are very often incompatible were assessed through a set of full- scale tests on a real diesel engine in order to satisfy the new emissions limits. (1) The first strategy evaluated in this work to improve the engine efficiency was the reduction of the mechanical losses: through the incorporation of nanomaterials in the lubricant formu...

  6. In vivo evolutionary engineering for ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells triggers diploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanlı-Yıldız, Burcu; Benbadis, Laurent; Alkım, Ceren; Sezgin, Tuğba; Akşit, Arman; Gökçe, Abdülmecit; Öztürk, Yavuz; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; François, Jean M

    2017-09-01

    Microbial ethanol production is an important alternative energy resource to replace fossil fuels, but at high level, this product is highly toxic, which hampers its efficient production. Towards increasing ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the so far best industrial ethanol-producer, we evaluated an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy based on batch selection under both constant (5%, v v-1) and gradually increasing (5-11.4%, v v-1) ethanol concentrations. Selection under increasing ethanol levels yielded evolved clones that could tolerate up to 12% (v v-1) ethanol and had cross-resistance to other stresses. Quite surprisingly, diploidization of the yeast population took place already at 7% (v v-1) ethanol level during evolutionary engineering, and this event was abolished by the loss of MKT1, a gene previously identified as being implicated in ethanol tolerance (Swinnen et al., Genome Res., 22, 975-984, 2012). Transcriptomic analysis confirmed diploidization of the evolved clones with strong down-regulation in mating process, and in several haploid-specific genes. We selected two clones exhibiting the highest viability on 12% ethanol, and found productivity and titer of ethanol significantly higher than those of the reference strain under aerated fed-batch cultivation conditions. This higher fermentation performance could be related with a higher abundance of glycolytic and ribosomal proteins and with a relatively lower respiratory capacity of the evolved strain, as revealed by a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis between the evolved and the reference strains. Altogether, these results emphasize the efficiency of the in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy for improving ethanol tolerance, and the link between ethanol tolerance and diploidization. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Merged ontology for engineering design: Contrasting empirical and theoretical approaches to develop engineering ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Storga, M

    2009-01-01

    to developing the ontology engineering design integrated taxonomies (EDIT) with a theoretical approach in which concepts and relations are elicited from engineering design theories ontology (DO) The limitations and advantages of each approach are discussed. The research methodology adopted is to map...

  8. Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cuadra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe an approach that allows for optimizing the structure of a smart grid (SG with renewable energy (RE generation against abnormal conditions (imbalances between generation and consumption, overloads or failures arising from the inherent SG complexity by combining the complex network (CN and evolutionary algorithm (EA concepts. We propose a novel objective function (to be minimized that combines cost elements, related to the number of electric cables, and several metrics that quantify properties that are beneficial for SGs (energy exchange at the local scale and high robustness and resilience. The optimized SG structure is obtained by applying an EA in which the chromosome that encodes each potential network (or individual is the upper triangular matrix of its adjacency matrix. This allows for fully tailoring the crossover and mutation operators. We also propose a domain-specific initial population that includes both small-world and random networks, helping the EA converge quickly. The experimental work points out that the proposed method works well and generates the optimum, synthetic, small-world structure that leads to beneficial properties such as improving both the local energy exchange and the robustness. The optimum structure fulfills a balance between moderate cost and robustness against abnormal conditions. Our approach should be considered as an analysis, planning and decision-making tool to gain insight into smart grid structures so that the low level detailed design is carried out by using electrical engineering techniques.

  9. Hybrid Evolutionary Approaches to Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Efficiency in Sensor Mesh Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Alma A M; Everson, Richard M; Fieldsend, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Mesh network topologies are becoming increasingly popular in battery-powered wireless sensor networks, primarily because of the extension of network range. However, multihop mesh networks suffer from higher energy costs, and the routing strategy employed directly affects the lifetime of nodes with limited energy resources. Hence when planning routes there are trade-offs to be considered between individual and system-wide battery lifetimes. We present a multiobjective routing optimisation approach using hybrid evolutionary algorithms to approximate the optimal trade-off between the minimum lifetime and the average lifetime of nodes in the network. In order to accomplish this combinatorial optimisation rapidly, our approach prunes the search space using k-shortest path pruning and a graph reduction method that finds candidate routes promoting long minimum lifetimes. When arbitrarily many routes from a node to the base station are permitted, optimal routes may be found as the solution to a well-known linear program. We present an evolutionary algorithm that finds good routes when each node is allowed only a small number of paths to the base station. On a real network deployed in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, these solutions, using only three paths per node, are able to achieve minimum lifetimes of over 99% of the optimum linear program solution's time to first sensor battery failure.

  10. A Consensus Tree Approach for Reconstructing Human Evolutionary History and Detecting Population Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

    The random accumulation of variations in the human genome over time implicitly encodes a history of how human populations have arisen, dispersed, and intermixed since we emerged as a species. Reconstructing that history is a challenging computational and statistical problem but has important applications both to basic research and to the discovery of genotype-phenotype correlations. In this study, we present a novel approach to inferring human evolutionary history from genetic variation data. Our approach uses the idea of consensus trees, a technique generally used to reconcile species trees from divergent gene trees, adapting it to the problem of finding the robust relationships within a set of intraspecies phylogenies derived from local regions of the genome. We assess the quality of the method on two large-scale genetic variation data sets: the HapMap Phase II and the Human Genome Diversity Project. Qualitative comparison to a consensus model of the evolution of modern human population groups shows that our inferences closely match our best current understanding of human evolutionary history. A further comparison with results of a leading method for the simpler problem of population substructure assignment verifies that our method provides comparable accuracy in identifying meaningful population subgroups in addition to inferring the relationships among them.

  11. Music and Its Inductive Power: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Approach to Musical Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning. The theoretical grounding elaborates on the transition from referential to affective semantics, the distinction between expression and induction of emotions, and the tension between discrete-digital and analog-continuous processing of the sounds. The empirical background provides evidence from several findings such as infant-directed speech, referential emotive vocalizations and separation calls in lower mammals, the distinction between the acoustic and vehicle mode of sound perception, and the bodily and physiological reactions to the sounds. It is argued, finally, that early affective processing reflects the way emotions make our bodies feel, which in turn reflects on the emotions expressed and decoded. As such there is a dynamic tension between nature and nurture, which is reflected in the nature-nurture-nature cycle of musical sense-making. PMID:28421015

  12. Music and Its Inductive Power: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Approach to Musical Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning. The theoretical grounding elaborates on the transition from referential to affective semantics, the distinction between expression and induction of emotions, and the tension between discrete-digital and analog-continuous processing of the sounds. The empirical background provides evidence from several findings such as infant-directed speech, referential emotive vocalizations and separation calls in lower mammals, the distinction between the acoustic and vehicle mode of sound perception, and the bodily and physiological reactions to the sounds. It is argued, finally, that early affective processing reflects the way emotions make our bodies feel, which in turn reflects on the emotions expressed and decoded. As such there is a dynamic tension between nature and nurture, which is reflected in the nature-nurture-nature cycle of musical sense-making.

  13. A Hybrid Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses multiobjective flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP with three simultaneously considered objectives: minimizing makespan, minimizing total workload, and minimizing maximal workload. A hybrid multiobjective evolutionary approach (H-MOEA is developed to solve the problem. According to the characteristic of FJSP, a modified crowding distance measure is introduced to maintain the diversity of individuals. In the proposed H-MOEA, well-designed chromosome representation and genetic operators are developed for FJSP. Moreover, a local search procedure based on critical path theory is incorporated in H-MOEA to improve the convergence ability of the algorithm. Experiment results on several well-known benchmark instances demonstrate the efficiency and stability of the proposed algorithm. The comparison with other recently published approaches validates that H-MOEA can obtain Pareto-optimal solutions with better quality and/or diversity.

  14. Interdisciplinary Approach to Software Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlheinz Blankenbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems in software engineering projects is the communication between users and developers. It is widely recognized that communication problems are a major factor in the delay and failure of software projects. During university education, students are usually well-skilled in programming languages, hard- and software engineering tools and project management. This paper provides theoretical background and some successful examples how we train our students under 'real world' conditions within software projects at the university e.g. to work in teams or to communicate with different stakeholders? Both method and employability result in excellent ratings.

  15. Recent Approaches in Tooth Engineering Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švandová, Eva; Veselá, Barbora; Křivánek, J.; Hampl, A.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, Suppl 1 (2014), s. 21-29 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418; GA MZd(CZ) NT11420 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : engineering * tooth * stem cells * culture techniques Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  16. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  17. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...

  18. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal; dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  19. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  20. Influence of different positive emotions on persuasion processing: a functional evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L

    2010-04-01

    Much research has found that positive affect facilitates increased reliance on heuristics in cognition. However, theories proposing distinct evolutionary fitness-enhancing functions for specific positive emotions also predict important differences among the consequences of different positive emotion states. Two experiments investigated how six positive emotions influenced the processing of persuasive messages. Using different methods to induce emotions and assess processing, we showed that the positive emotions of anticipatory enthusiasm, amusement, and attachment love tended to facilitate greater acceptance of weak persuasive messages (consistent with previous research), whereas the positive emotions of awe and nurturant love reduced persuasion by weak messages. In addition, a series of mediation analyses suggested that the effects distinguishing different positive emotions from a neutral control condition were best accounted for by different mediators rather than by one common mediator. These findings build upon approaches that link affective valence to certain types of processing, documenting emotion-specific effects on cognition that are consistent with functional evolutionary accounts of discrete positive emotions. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Camelia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods.

  2. Hill-Climbing search and diversification within an evolutionary approach to protein structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are complex structures made of amino acids having a fundamental role in the correct functioning of living cells. The structure of a protein is the result of the protein folding process. However, the general principles that govern the folding of natural proteins into a native structure are unknown. The problem of predicting a protein structure with minimum-energy starting from the unfolded amino acid sequence is a highly complex and important task in molecular and computational biology. Protein structure prediction has important applications in fields such as drug design and disease prediction. The protein structure prediction problem is NP-hard even in simplified lattice protein models. An evolutionary model based on hill-climbing genetic operators is proposed for protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic - polar (HP) model. Problem-specific search operators are implemented and applied using a steepest-ascent hill-climbing approach. Furthermore, the proposed model enforces an explicit diversification stage during the evolution in order to avoid local optimum. The main features of the resulting evolutionary algorithm - hill-climbing mechanism and diversification strategy - are evaluated in a set of numerical experiments for the protein structure prediction problem to assess their impact to the efficiency of the search process. Furthermore, the emerging consolidated model is compared to relevant algorithms from the literature for a set of difficult bidimensional instances from lattice protein models. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm are promising and competitive with those of related methods. PMID:21801435

  3. System engineering approach to planning anticancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Smieja, Jaroslaw; Puszynski, Krzysztof; Psiuk-Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis of cancer dynamics and the mathematically based synthesis of anticancer therapy. It summarizes the current state-of-the-art in this field and clarifies common misconceptions about mathematical modeling in cancer. Additionally, it encourages closer cooperation between engineers, physicians and mathematicians by showing the clear benefits of this without stating unrealistic goals. Development of therapy protocols is realized from an engineering point of view, such as the search for a solution to a specific control-optimization problem. Since in the case of cancer patients, consecutive measurements providing information about the current state of the disease are not available, the control laws are derived for an open loop structure. Different forms of therapy are incorporated into the models, from chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy to immunotherapy and gene therapy, but the class of models introduced is broad enough to incorporate other forms of therapy as well. The book be...

  4. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  5. The coordination aspect of institutions in the context of an evolutionary approach to economic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stefanovic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an insight into the dominant trends of contemporary evolutionary economics and outlines the important issues related to the articulation of this approach in thinking about the economy. The paper also affirms a proposition on institutions as carrier structures of socio-economic evolution, whose numerous effects at the societal level are decoded through the coordination function. In addition to the market, the process of coordination also employs other non-market institutional structures, whose profile and operational principles are the product of the trajectories of cultural and historical evolution, different among social orders. Projects aimed at the transformation of the economic system are to be sensitized to an objectively conditioned diversity of the institutional structures of the world economy, and in this sense, should be very careful in the installation of „universal” reform solutions.

  6. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Competitive Information Dissemination on Social Networks: An Agent-Based Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are formed by individuals, in which personalities, utility functions, and interaction rules are made as close to reality as possible. Taking the competitive product-related information as a case, we proposed a game-theoretic model for competitive information dissemination in social networks. The model is presented to explain how human factors impact competitive information dissemination which is described as the dynamic of a coordination game and players’ payoff is defined by a utility function. Then we design a computational system that integrates the agent, the evolutionary game, and the social network. The approach can help to visualize the evolution of % of competitive information adoption and diffusion, grasp the dynamic evolution features in information adoption game over time, and explore microlevel interactions among users in different network structure under various scenarios. We discuss several scenarios to analyze the influence of several factors on the dissemination of competitive information, ranging from personality of individuals to structure of networks.

  7. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  8. An algebraic approach to modeling in software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loegel, G.J. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ravishankar, C.V. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Our work couples the formalism of universal algebras with the engineering techniques of mathematical modeling to develop a new approach to the software engineering process. Our purpose in using this combination is twofold. First, abstract data types and their specification using universal algebras can be considered a common point between the practical requirements of software engineering and the formal specification of software systems. Second, mathematical modeling principles provide us with a means for effectively analyzing real-world systems. We first use modeling techniques to analyze a system and then represent the analysis using universal algebras. The rest of the software engineering process exploits properties of universal algebras that preserve the structure of our original model. This paper describes our software engineering process and our experience using it on both research and commercial systems. We need a new approach because current software engineering practices often deliver software that is difficult to develop and maintain. Formal software engineering approaches use universal algebras to describe ``computer science`` objects like abstract data types, but in practice software errors are often caused because ``real-world`` objects are improperly modeled. There is a large semantic gap between the customer`s objects and abstract data types. In contrast, mathematical modeling uses engineering techniques to construct valid models for real-world systems, but these models are often implemented in an ad hoc manner. A combination of the best features of both approaches would enable software engineering to formally specify and develop software systems that better model real systems. Software engineering, like mathematical modeling, should concern itself first and foremost with understanding a real system and its behavior under given circumstances, and then with expressing this knowledge in an executable form.

  9. Machine learning approach to predict protein phosphorylation sites by incorporating evolutionary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Abdur

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the existing in silico phosphorylation site prediction systems use machine learning approach that requires preparing a good set of classification data in order to build the classification knowledge. Furthermore, phosphorylation is catalyzed by kinase enzymes and hence the kinase information of the phosphorylated sites has been used as major classification data in most of the existing systems. Since the number of kinase annotations in protein sequences is far less than that of the proteins being sequenced to date, the prediction systems that use the information found from the small clique of kinase annotated proteins can not be considered as completely perfect for predicting outside the clique. Hence the systems are certainly not generalized. In this paper, a novel generalized prediction system, PPRED (Phosphorylation PREDictor is proposed that ignores the kinase information and only uses the evolutionary information of proteins for classifying phosphorylation sites. Results Experimental results based on cross validations and an independent benchmark reveal the significance of using the evolutionary information alone to classify phosphorylation sites from protein sequences. The prediction performance of the proposed system is better than those of the existing prediction systems that also do not incorporate kinase information. The system is also comparable to systems that incorporate kinase information in predicting such sites. Conclusions The approach presented in this paper provides an efficient way to identify phosphorylation sites in a given protein primary sequence that would be a valuable information for the molecular biologists working on protein phosphorylation sites and for bioinformaticians developing generalized prediction systems for the post translational modifications like phosphorylation or glycosylation. PPRED is publicly available at the URL http://www.cse.univdhaka.edu/~ashis/ppred/index.php.

  10. Engineering approaches to chewing and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R M

    1999-01-01

    The guts of people and animals function like industrial chemical plants. They are assemblies of tubes and tanks in which foods are hydrolysed by enzyme-catalysed reactions, or fermented by microorganisms. Raw materials enter at one end, waste matter is voided at the other, and valuable products are abstracted on the way. A mill at the entrance end reduces the raw materials to small fragments, enabling the reactions to proceed faster. This paper shows how ideas from chemical engineering are guiding research on the gut, giving much clearer understanding of how foods respond to chewing, and of how guts are designed to process different foods. We will discuss the teeth as a grinding mill, and the digestive tube as a chain of chemical reactors.

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  12. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  13. Engine Icing Data - An Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brooke A.; Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Engine icing researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center use the Escort data acquisition system in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) to generate and collect a tremendous amount of data every day. Currently these researchers spend countless hours processing and formatting their data, selecting important variables, and plotting relationships between variables, all by hand, generally analyzing data in a spreadsheet-style program (such as Microsoft Excel). Though spreadsheet-style analysis is familiar and intuitive to many, processing data in spreadsheets is often unreproducible and small mistakes are easily overlooked. Spreadsheet-style analysis is also time inefficient. The same formatting, processing, and plotting procedure has to be repeated for every dataset, which leads to researchers performing the same tedious data munging process over and over instead of making discoveries within their data. This paper documents a data analysis tool written in Python hosted in a Jupyter notebook that vastly simplifies the analysis process. From the file path of any folder containing time series datasets, this tool batch loads every dataset in the folder, processes the datasets in parallel, and ingests them into a widget where users can search for and interactively plot subsets of columns in a number of ways with a click of a button, easily and intuitively comparing their data and discovering interesting dynamics. Furthermore, comparing variables across data sets and integrating video data (while extremely difficult with spreadsheet-style programs) is quite simplified in this tool. This tool has also gathered interest outside the engine icing branch, and will be used by researchers across NASA Glenn Research Center. This project exemplifies the enormous benefit of automating data processing, analysis, and visualization, and will help researchers move from raw data to insight in a much smaller time frame.

  14. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  15. Green Materials Science and Engineering Reduces Biofouling: Approaches for Medical and Membrane-based Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerianne M Dobosz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  16. Green materials science and engineering reduces biofouling: approaches for medical and membrane-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Kerianne M; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2015-01-01

    Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime, and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials, and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  17. Systems Engineering Interfaces: A Model Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elyse; Delp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Currently: Ops Rev developed and maintains a framework that includes interface-specific language, patterns, and Viewpoints. Ops Rev implements the framework to design MOS 2.0 and its 5 Mission Services. Implementation de-couples interfaces and instances of interaction Future: A Mission MOSE implements the approach and uses the model based artifacts for reviews. The framework extends further into the ground data layers and provides a unified methodology.

  18. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering systems reliability, safety, and maintenance an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2017-01-01

    Today, engineering systems are an important element of the world economy and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of engineering systems around the globe. Many of these systems are highly sophisticated and contain millions of parts. For example, a Boeing jumbo 747 is made up of approximately 4.5 million parts including fasteners. Needless to say, reliability, safety, and maintenance of systems such as this have become more important than ever before.  Global competition and other factors are forcing manufacturers to produce highly reliable, safe, and maintainable engineering products. Therefore, there is a definite need for the reliability, safety, and maintenance professionals to work closely during design and other phases. Engineering Systems Reliability, Safety, and Maintenance: An Integrated Approach eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better engineering syste...

  20. A systems-level approach for metabolic engineering of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Kwon; Roldão, António; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-03-01

    The generation of novel yeast cell factories for production of high-value industrial biotechnological products relies on three metabolic engineering principles: design, construction, and analysis. In the last two decades, strong efforts have been put on developing faster and more efficient strategies and/or technologies for each one of these principles. For design and construction, three major strategies are described in this review: (1) rational metabolic engineering; (2) inverse metabolic engineering; and (3) evolutionary strategies. Independent of the selected strategy, the process of designing yeast strains involves five decision points: (1) choice of product, (2) choice of chassis, (3) identification of target genes, (4) regulating the expression level of target genes, and (5) network balancing of the target genes. At the construction level, several molecular biology tools have been developed through the concept of synthetic biology and applied for the generation of novel, engineered yeast strains. For comprehensive and quantitative analysis of constructed strains, systems biology tools are commonly used and using a multi-omics approach. Key information about the biological system can be revealed, for example, identification of genetic regulatory mechanisms and competitive pathways, thereby assisting the in silico design of metabolic engineering strategies for improving strain performance. Examples on how systems and synthetic biology brought yeast metabolic engineering closer to industrial biotechnology are described in this review, and these examples should demonstrate the potential of a systems-level approach for fast and efficient generation of yeast cell factories. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach to Multi-Sector Coordination and Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination games provide ubiquitous interaction paradigms to frame human behavioral features, such as information transmission, conventions and languages as well as socio-economic processes and institutions. By using a dynamical approach, such as Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT, one is able to follow, in detail, the self-organization process by which a population of individuals coordinates into a given behavior. Real socio-economic scenarios, however, often involve the interaction between multiple co-evolving sectors, with specific options of their own, that call for generalized and more sophisticated mathematical frameworks. In this paper, we explore a general EGT approach to deal with coordination dynamics in which individuals from multiple sectors interact. Starting from a two-sector, consumer/producer scenario, we investigate the effects of including a third co-evolving sector that we call public. We explore the changes in the self-organization process of all sectors, given the feedback that this new sector imparts on the other two.

  2. Protein Engineering Approaches in the Post-Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raushan K; Lee, Jung-Kul; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Ranjitha; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C

    2018-01-01

    Proteins are one of the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems. Proteins have evolved to function under physiological conditions and, therefore, are not usually tolerant of harsh experimental and environmental conditions. The growing use of proteins in industrial processes as a greener alternative to chemical catalysts often demands constant innovation to improve their performance. Protein engineering aims to design new proteins or modify the sequence of a protein to create proteins with new or desirable functions. With the emergence of structural and functional genomics, protein engineering has been invigorated in the post-genomic era. The three-dimensional structures of proteins with known functions facilitate protein engineering approaches to design variants with desired properties. There are three major approaches of protein engineering research, namely, directed evolution, rational design, and de novo design. Rational design is an effective method of protein engineering when the threedimensional structure and mechanism of the protein is well known. In contrast, directed evolution does not require extensive information and a three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. Instead, it involves random mutagenesis and selection to screen enzymes with desired properties. De novo design uses computational protein design algorithms to tailor synthetic proteins by using the three-dimensional structures of natural proteins and their folding rules. The present review highlights and summarizes recent protein engineering approaches, and their challenges and limitations in the post-genomic era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Institutional and evolutionary approach to the assessment of the socio-economic development of indigenous peoples of the North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Loginov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, prepared under a grant RHF and integration project with UB RAS Siberian Branch, discusses institutional changes in the environment of indigenous peoples in the period of economic transformation in Russia. The development of institutional economics allowed to combine the tools of evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of development of the formalism of transformation of economic institutions. For complex characteristics of the object of research in the study of the problems of socio-economic development of the northern territories combined institutional and evolutionary approach, economic, sociological and geographic methods.

  4. Optimisation of Multilayer Insulation an Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Parente, C; Riddone, G

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the heat flux through multilayer insulation (MLI). The total heat flux between the layers is the result of three distinct heat transfer modes: radiation, residual gas conduction and solid spacer conduction. The model describes the MLI behaviour considering a layer-to-layer approach and is based on an electrical analogy, in which the three heat transfer modes are treated as parallel thermal impedances. The values of each of the transfer mode vary from layer to layer, although the total heat flux remains constant across the whole MLI blanket. The model enables the optimisation of the insulation with regard to different MLI parameters, such as residual gas pressure, number of layers and boundary temperatures. The model has been tested with experimental measurements carried out at CERN and the results revealed to be in a good agreement, especially for insulation vacuum between 10-5 Pa and 10-3 Pa.

  5. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  6. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an

  7. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  8. A heuristic ranking approach on capacity benefit margin determination using Pareto-based evolutionary programming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Murtadha; Abd Rahman, Nurulazmi; Musirin, Ismail; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM) assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE) to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP) technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE) in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC) is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas.

  9. An Evolutionary Approach to the Soft Error Mitigation Technique for Cell-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a soft error mitigation algorithm that searches for the proper gate sizes within constrained gate-level designs. The individual gate sizing has an impact on the former optimization results and degrades the quality of the solution. In order to address this inefficiency, we utilize a modified topological sort that preserves the preceding local optima. Using a new local searcher, a hybrid genetic optimization technique for soft error mitigation is proposed. This evolutionary search algorithm has general genetic operators: the initialization of the population, crossover, mutation and selection operators. The local searcher consists of two subsequent heuristics. These search algorithms make the individual chromosome move to better search regions in a short time and then, the population acquires various candidates for the global optimum with the help of other genetic operators. The experiments show that the proposed genetic algorithm achieves an approximately 90% reduction in the number of soft errors when compared to the conventional greedy approach with at most 30% overhead for the area and critical path delay.

  10. Effects of chronic stress on the auditory system and fear learning: an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a complex biological reaction common to all living organisms that allows them to adapt to their environments. Chronic stress alters the dendritic architecture and function of the limbic brain areas that affect memory, learning, and emotional processing. This review summarizes our research about chronic stress effects on the auditory system, providing the details of how we developed the main hypotheses that currently guide our research. The aims of our studies are to (1) determine how chronic stress impairs the dendritic morphology of the main nuclei of the rat auditory system, the inferior colliculus (auditory mesencephalon), the medial geniculate nucleus (auditory thalamus), and the primary auditory cortex; (2) correlate the anatomic alterations with the impairments of auditory fear learning; and (3) investigate how the stress-induced alterations in the rat limbic system may spread to nonlimbic areas, affecting specific sensory system, such as the auditory and olfactory systems, and complex cognitive functions, such as auditory attention. Finally, this article gives a new evolutionary approach to understanding the neurobiology of stress and the stress-related disorders.

  11. Multiobjective RFID Network Optimization Using Multiobjective Evolutionary and Swarm Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of radio frequency identification (RFID technology generates the most challenging RFID network planning (RNP problem, which needs to be solved in order to operate the large-scale RFID network in an optimal fashion. RNP involves many objectives and constraints and has been proven to be a NP-hard multi-objective problem. The application of evolutionary algorithm (EA and swarm intelligence (SI for solving multiobjective RNP (MORNP has gained significant attention in the literature, but these algorithms always transform multiple objectives into a single objective by weighted coefficient approach. In this paper, we use multiobjective EA and SI algorithms to find all the Pareto optimal solutions and to achieve the optimal planning solutions by simultaneously optimizing four conflicting objectives in MORNP, instead of transforming multiobjective functions into a single objective function. The experiment presents an exhaustive comparison of three successful multiobjective EA and SI, namely, the recently developed multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm (MOABC, the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II, and the multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, on MORNP instances of different nature, namely, the two-objective and three-objective MORNP. Simulation results show that MOABC proves to be more superior for planning RFID networks than NSGA-II and MOPSO in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  12. Protein Engineering by Combined Computational and In Vitro Evolution Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lior; Heyne, Michael; Shifman, Julia M; Papo, Niv

    2016-05-01

    Two alternative strategies are commonly used to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and to engineer protein-based inhibitors. In one approach, binders are selected experimentally from combinatorial libraries of protein mutants that are displayed on a cell surface. In the other approach, computational modeling is used to explore an astronomically large number of protein sequences to select a small number of sequences for experimental testing. While both approaches have some limitations, their combination produces superior results in various protein engineering applications. Such applications include the design of novel binders and inhibitors, the enhancement of affinity and specificity, and the mapping of binding epitopes. The combination of these approaches also aids in the understanding of the specificity profiles of various PPIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, James M; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Bender, Axel; Yao, Xin

    2012-09-01

    Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines and traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change. A recent theory on the origins of biological flexibility has proposed that degeneracy-the existence of multi-functional components with partially overlapping functions-is a primary determinant of the robustness and adaptability found in evolved systems. While degeneracy's contribution to biological flexibility is well documented, there has been little investigation of degeneracy design principles for achieving flexibility in systems engineering. Actually, the conditions that can lead to degeneracy are routinely eliminated in engineering design. With the planning of transportation vehicle fleets taken as a case study, this article reports evidence that degeneracy improves the robustness and adaptability of a simulated fleet towards unpredicted changes in task requirements without incurring costs to fleet efficiency. We find that degeneracy supports faster rates of design adaptation and ultimately leads to better fleet designs. In investigating the limitations of degeneracy as a design principle, we consider decision-making difficulties that arise from degeneracy's influence on fleet complexity. While global decision-making becomes more challenging, we also find degeneracy accommodates rapid distributed decision-making leading to (near-optimal) robust system performance. Given the range of conditions where favorable short-term and long-term performance outcomes are observed, we propose that degeneracy may fundamentally alter the propensity for adaptation and is useful within different engineering and planning contexts.

  14. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-shaped-beam (MSB): an evolutionary approach for high throughput e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Döring, Hans-Joachim; Stolberg, Ines A.; Dorl, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    The development of next-generation lithography (NGL) such as EUV, NIL and maskless lithography (ML2) are driven by the half pitch reduction and increasing integration density of integrated circuits down to the 22nm node and beyond. For electron beam direct write (EBDW) several revolutionary pixel based concepts have been under development since several years. By contrast an evolutionary and full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), which is based on proven Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technology, will be presented in this paper. In the recent decade VSB has already been applied in EBDW for device learning, early prototyping and low volume fabrication in production environments for both silicon and compound semiconductor applications. Above all the high resolution and the high flexibility due to the avoidance of expensive masks for critical layers made it an attractive solution for advanced technology nodes down to 32nm half pitch. The limitation in throughput of VSB has been mitigated in a major extension of VSB by the qualification of the cell projection (CP) technology concurrently used with VSB. With CP more pixels in complex shapes can be projected in one shot, enabling a remarkable shot count reduction for repetitive pattern. The most advanced step to extend the mature VSB technology for higher throughput is its parallelization in one column applying MEMS based multi deflection arrays. With this Vistec MSB technology, multiple shaped beamlets are generated simultaneously, each controllable individually in shape size and beam on time. Compared to pixel based ML2 approaches the MSB technology enables the maskless, variable and parallel projection of a large number of pixels per beamlet times the number of beamlets. Basic concepts, exposure examples and performance results of each of the described throughput enhancement steps will be presented.

  16. Chips for Everyone: A Multifaceted Approach in Electrical Engineering Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, J.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a multifaceted approach in electrical engineering outreach focused on the area of semiconductor technology. The activities developed can be used in combination for a very wide range of audiences in both age and stage of education, as has been demonstrated with great success. Moreover, the project has developed…

  17. Rational and random approaches to adenoviral vector engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uil, Taco Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the engineering of more selective and effective oncolytic Adenovirus (Ad) vectors. Two general approaches are taken for this purpose: (i) genetic capsid modification to achieve Ad retargeting (Chapters 2 to 4), and (ii) directed evolution to improve

  18. Engineering of microorganisms for the production of biofuels and perspectives based on systems metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jong Myoung; Choi, Sol; Choi, Yong Jun; Seung, Do Young; Cho, Jung Hee; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing oil price and environmental concerns caused by the use of fossil fuel have renewed our interest in utilizing biomass as a sustainable resource for the production of biofuel. It is however essential to develop high performance microbes that are capable of producing biofuels with very high efficiency in order to compete with the fossil fuel. Recently, the strategies for developing microbial strains by systems metabolic engineering, which can be considered as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology and synthetic biology, have been developed. Systems metabolic engineering allows successful development of microbes that are capable of producing several different biofuels including bioethanol, biobutanol, alkane, and biodiesel, and even hydrogen. In this review, the approaches employed to develop efficient biofuel producers by metabolic engineering and systems metabolic engineering approaches are reviewed with relevant example cases. It is expected that systems metabolic engineering will be employed as an essential strategy for the development of microbial strains for industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  20. Engineering system dynamics a unified graph-centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Forbes T

    2006-01-01

    For today's students, learning to model the dynamics of complex systems is increasingly important across nearly all engineering disciplines. First published in 2001, Forbes T. Brown's Engineering System Dynamics: A Unified Graph-Centered Approach introduced students to a unique and highly successful approach to modeling system dynamics using bond graphs. Updated with nearly one-third new material, this second edition expands this approach to an even broader range of topics. What's New in the Second Edition? In addition to new material, this edition was restructured to build students' competence in traditional linear mathematical methods before they have gone too far into the modeling that still plays a pivotal role. New topics include magnetic circuits and motors including simulation with magnetic hysteresis; extensive new material on the modeling, analysis, and simulation of distributed-parameter systems; kinetic energy in thermodynamic systems; and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. MATLAB(R) figures promi...

  1. Sundanese ancient manuscripts search engine using probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Mira; Hadi, Setiawan; Paulus, Erick; Nurma Yulita, Intan; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2017-10-01

    Today, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a regular thing for every aspect of live include cultural and heritage aspect. Sundanese ancient manuscripts as Sundanese heritage are in damage condition and also the information that containing on it. So in order to preserve the information in Sundanese ancient manuscripts and make them easier to search, a search engine has been developed. The search engine must has good computing ability. In order to get the best computation in developed search engine, three types of probabilistic approaches: Bayesian Networks Model, Divergence from Randomness with PL2 distribution, and DFR-PL2F as derivative form DFR-PL2 have been compared in this study. The three probabilistic approaches supported by index of documents and three different weighting methods: term occurrence, term frequency, and TF-IDF. The experiment involved 12 Sundanese ancient manuscripts. From 12 manuscripts there are 474 distinct terms. The developed search engine tested by 50 random queries for three types of query. The experiment results showed that for the single query and multiple query, the best searching performance given by the combination of PL2F approach and TF-IDF weighting method. The performance has been evaluated using average time responds with value about 0.08 second and Mean Average Precision (MAP) about 0.33.

  2. A scientific approach to writing for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This book is a guide to technical writing, presented in a systematic framework that mirrors the logic associated with the scientific process itself. Other English books merely define concepts and provide rules; this one explains the reasoning behind the rules. Other writing books for scientists and engineers focus primarily on how to gather and organize materials; this one focuses primarily on how to compose a readable sentence. The approach should be satisfying not only to scientists and engineers, but also to anyone that once took a grammar course but can't remember the rules - because there was no exposure to underlying principles.

  3. Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Dr. A. Govardhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

  4. [Evolutionary engineering in Salmonella: emergence of hybrid virulence-resistance plasmids in non-typhoid serotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, María Del Carmen; Herrero, Ana; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2009-01-01

    An example of evolutive engineering in bacterial pathogens is the emergence of hybrid virulence-resistance (VR) plasmids in Salmonella enterica, resulting from an association between antimicrobial resistance determinants and specific virulence plasmids of the S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis serotypes. VR plasmids all possess the spv (Salmonella plasmid virulence) operon, which is involved in systemic infection; however, they differ in the presence of other virulence determinants and in the resistance gene profile. VR plasmids of S. typhimurium have been found in Europe, and show resistance regions with different levels of complexity that can include class 1 integrons and various transposons. VR plasmids of S. choleraesuis, detected in strains isolated in Taiwan, only confer resistance to ampicillin and sulfonamides. Both serotypes are zoonotic and the presence of hybrid VR plasmids may confer an adaptive advantage under certain conditions, resulting in bacterial strains that are more difficult to treat and have a higher epidemic potential.

  5. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  6. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Quanwei; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Li, Yanjun; Fan, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  7. Learning intervention and the approach to study of engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonides, Ian Paul

    The aim of the research was to: investigate the effect of a learning intervention on the Approach to Study of first year engineering degree students. The learning intervention was a local programme of learning to learn' workshops designed and facilitated by the author. The primary aim of these was to develop students' Approaches to Study. Fifty-three first year engineering undergraduates at The Nottingham Trent University participated in the workshops. Approaches to Study were quantified using data obtained from the Revised Approach to Study Inventory (RASI) which was also subjected to a validity and reliability study using local data. Quantitative outcomes were supplemented using a qualitative analysis of essays written by students during the workshops. These were analysed for detail regarding student Approach to Study. It was intended that any findings would inform the local system of Engineering Education, although more general findings also emerged, in particular in relation to the utility of the research instrument. It was concluded that the intervention did not promote the preferential Deep Approach and did not affect Approaches to Study generally as measured by the RASI. This concurred with previous attempts to change student Approaches to Study at the group level. It was also established that subsequent years of the Integrated Engineering degree course are associated with progressively deteriorating Approaches to Study. Students who were exposed to the intervention followed a similar pattern of deteriorating Approaches suggesting that the local course context and its demands had a greater influence over the Approach of students than the intervention did. It was found that academic outcomes were unrelated to the extent to which students took a Deep Approach to the local assessment demands. There appeared therefore to be a mis-match between the Approach students adopted to pass examinations and those that are required for high quality learning outcomes. It is

  8. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  9. Activation of glycerol metabolic pathway by evolutionary engineering of Rhizopus oryzae to strengthen the fumaric acid biosynthesis from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Wang, Ru; Du, Wenjie; Wang, Guanyi; Xia, Menglei

    2015-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is strictly inhibited by biodiesel-based by-product crude glycerol, which results in low fumaric acid production. In this study, evolutionary engineering was employed to activate the glycerol utilization pathway for fumaric acid production. An evolved strain G80 was selected, which could tolerate and utilize high concentrations of crude glycerol to produce 14.9g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.248g/g glycerol. Key enzymes activity analysis revealed that the evolved strain displayed a significant upregulation in glycerol dissimilation, pyruvate consumption and reductive tricarboxylic acid pathways, compared with the parent strain. Subsequently, intracellular metabolic profiling analysis showed that amino acid biosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and stress response metabolites accounted for metabolic difference between two strains. Moreover, a glycerol fed-batch strategy was optimized to obtain the highest fumaric acid production of 25.5g/L, significantly increased by 20.9-fold than that of the parent strain of 1.2g/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains with increased in vivo flux through the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadière, Axelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Camarasa, Carole; Dequin, Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    Amplification of the flux toward the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway might be of interest for various S. cerevisiae based industrial applications. We report an evolutionary engineering strategy based on a long-term batch culture on gluconate, a substrate that is poorly assimilated by S. cerevisiae cells and is metabolized by the PP pathway. After adaptation for various periods of time, we selected strains that had evolved a greater consumption capacity for gluconate. (13)C metabolic flux analysis on glucose revealed a redirection of carbon flux from glycolysis towards the PP pathway and a greater synthesis of lipids. The relative flux into the PP pathway was 17% for the evolved strain (ECA5) versus 11% for the parental strain (EC1118). During wine fermentation, the evolved strains displayed major metabolic changes, such as lower levels of acetate production, higher fermentation rates and enhanced production of aroma compounds. These represent a combination of novel traits, which are of great interest in the context of modern winemaking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced crystallizability by protein engineering approaches: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Smaldone, Giovanni; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita

    2012-07-01

    The limiting step in macromolecular crystallography is the preparation protein crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. A strong prerequisite for the success of crystallization experiments is the ability to produce monodisperse and properly folded protein samples. Since the production of most protein is usually achieved using recombinant methods, it has become possible to engineer target proteins with increased propensities to form well diffracting crystals. Recent advances in bioinformatics, which takes advantage from an enhanced information in the protein databases, are of enormous help for the design of modified proteins. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the reduction of the structural complexity of proteins or their site-specific mutagenesis has proven to have a dramatic impact on both the yield of heterologous protein expression and its crystallizability. Therefore, protein engineering represents a valid tool which supports the classical crystallization screenings with a more rational approach. This review describes key methods of protein-engineering and provides a number of examples of their successful use in crystallization. Scope of proposed topic: This Topic is focused on state-of-art protein engineering techniques to increase the propensity of proteins to form crystals with suitable X-ray diffraction properties. Protein engineering methods have proven to be of great help for the crystallization of difficult targets. We herein review molecular biology and chemical methods to help protein crystallization.

  12. Personalized Education Approaches for Chemical Engineering and Relevant Majors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Feng-qing

    2016-01-01

    Personalized education has drawn increasing attention in universities these years. With the purpose of improving the studentss’ comprehensive ability and developing teaching strategies to ensure students’ education is tailored to their needs, we proposed Three-Stage Approach (TSA) to enhance personalized education for chemical engineering and relevant majors: professional tutorial system--equipping with professional guidance teachers for freshman students to guide their learning activities an...

  13. Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) Approach to Game Development Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Azawi, Rula K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates existing game development methodologies, through the process of researching game and system development models. The results indicate that these methodologies are engineered to solve specific problems, and most are suitable only for specific game genres. Different approaches to building games have been proposed in recent years. However, most of these methodologies focus on the design and implementation phase. This research aims to enhance game development methodolo...

  14. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  15. An Evolutionary Robotics Approach to the Control of Plant Growth and Motion: Modeling Plants and Crossing the Reality Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahby, Mostafa; Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The self-organizing bio-hybrid collaboration of robots and natural plants allows for a variety of interesting applications. As an example we investigate how robots can be used to control the growth and motion of a natural plant, using LEDs to provide stimuli. We follow an evolutionary robotics...... approach where task performance is determined by monitoring the plant's reaction. First, we do initial plant experiments with simple, predetermined controllers. Then we use image sampling data as a model of the dynamics of the plant tip xy position. Second, we use this approach to evolve robot controllers...

  16. An Evolutionary Robotics Approach to the Control of Plant Growth and Motion: Modeling Plants and Crossing the Reality Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahby, Mostafa; Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The self-organizing bio-hybrid collaboration of robots and natural plants allows for a variety of interesting applications. As an example we investigate how robots can be used to control the growth and motion of a natural plant, using LEDs to provide stimuli. We follow an evolutionary robotics ap......, for a model of the plant stem dynamics. Future work will extend to two-axes image sampling for a 3-d approach.......The self-organizing bio-hybrid collaboration of robots and natural plants allows for a variety of interesting applications. As an example we investigate how robots can be used to control the growth and motion of a natural plant, using LEDs to provide stimuli. We follow an evolutionary robotics...

  17. How to explain gender differences in fear of crime : Towards an evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Employing data from a sample of 610 Dutch high school students and their parents, this article argues in favour of an evolutionary explanation for the fact that women are more fearful of crime than men while they are less often victimized. With respect to a variety of events that involved physical

  18. Equilibrium selection in alternating-offers bargaining models: the evolutionary computing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D.B. van Bragt; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA systematic validation of evolutionary techniques in the field of bargaining is presented. For this purpose, the dynamic and equilibrium-selecting behavior of a multi-agent system consisting of adaptive bargaining agents is investigated. The agents' bargaining strategies are updated by

  19. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  20. A novel approach to physiology education for biomedical engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, J; Wu, J; Kuwasawa, K; Sun, Y

    2007-03-01

    It is challenging for biomedical engineering programs to incorporate an indepth study of the systemic interdependence of cells, tissues, and organs into the rigorous mathematical curriculum that is the cornerstone of engineering education. To be sure, many biomedical engineering programs require their students to enroll in anatomy and physiology courses. Often, however, these courses tend to provide bulk information with only a modicum of live tissue experimentation. In the Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering Department of the University of Rhode Island, this issue is addressed to some extent by implementing an experiential physiology laboratory that addresses research in electrophysiology and biomechanics. The two-semester project-based course exposes the students to laboratory skills in dissection, instrumentation, and physiological measurements. In a novel approach to laboratory intensive learning, the course meets on six Sundays throughout the semester for an 8-h laboratory period. At the end of the course, students are required to prepare a two-page conference paper and submit the results to the Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBC) for consideration. Students then travel to the conference location to present their work. Since the inception of the course in the fall of 2003, we have collectively submitted 22 papers to the NEBC. This article will discuss the nature of the experimentation, the types of experiments performed, the goals of the course, and the metrics used to determine the success of the students and the research.

  1. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  3. Multi-hazard approaches to civil infrastructure engineering

    CERN Document Server

    LaFave, James

    2016-01-01

    This collection focuses on the development of novel approaches to address one of the most pressing challenges of civil engineering, namely the mitigation of natural hazards. Numerous engineering books to date have focused on, and illustrate considerable progress toward, mitigation of individual hazards (earthquakes, wind, and so forth.). The current volume addresses concerns related to overall safety, sustainability and resilience of the built environment when subject to multiple hazards: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake). The authors examine a range of specific topics including methodologies for vulnerability assessment of structures, new techniques to reduce the system demands through control systems; instrumentation, monitoring and condition assessment of structures and foundations; new te...

  4. A new approach to heart valve tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasi, Andreas; Cestari, Idágene A.; Stolf, Noedir A G.

    2011-01-01

    chamber. Subsequently, applied vacuum to the pneumatic chamber causes the blood chamber to fill. A mechanical heart valve was placed in the VAD's inflow position. The tissue engineered (TE) valve was placed in the outflow position. The VAD was coupled in series with a Windkessel compliance chamber......The 'biomimetic' approach to tissue engineering usually involves the use of a bioreactor mimicking physiological parameters whilst supplying nutrients to the developing tissue. Here we present a new heart valve bioreactor, having as its centrepiece a ventricular assist device (VAD), which exposes...... the cell-scaffold constructs to a wider array of mechanical forces. The pump of the VAD has two chambers: a blood and a pneumatic chamber, separated by an elastic membrane. Pulsatile air-pressure is generated by a piston-type actuator and delivered to the pneumatic chamber, ejecting the fluid in the blood...

  5. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification.

  6. A Cybersemiotic Approach to Agent Based Simulation of Evolutionary Processes within Digital Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Georgescu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The global evolutionary business environment is increasingly populated by a large number of networked organizations interacting with each other and with a variety of environmental conditions to adapt, evolve and maintain them under conditions of good control. This paper proposes cybersemiotics as a conceptual framework for agent based simulation of decision making processes within Digital Business Ecosystems, which are complex, evolutionary, self-organizing, autopoietic, and knowledge-centric business environments. We argue that semiotic agents are equipped with most appropriate characteristics to accomplish such a task. They are deliberative, dynamically uncoupled to their environments, engage processes of perception, interpretation, decision and action with their environments, possess internally stored representations of measured states of affairs, goal states and possible actions, have means to describe and handle their own preferences and beliefs, can coordinate actions and learn about their environment through communication.

  7. A representation-theoretic approach to the calculation of evolutionary distance in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jeremy G.; Jarvis, Peter D.; Francis, Andrew R.

    2017-08-01

    In the context of bacteria and models of their evolution under genome rearrangement, we explore a novel application of group representation theory to the inference of evolutionary history. Our contribution is to show, in a very general maximum likelihood setting, how to use elementary matrix algebra to sidestep intractable combinatorial computations and convert the problem into one of eigenvalue estimation amenable to standard numerical approximation techniques.

  8. Understanding missense mutations in the BRCA1 gene: An evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Melissa A.; Potter, John D.; Ramirez, Christina J.; Ostrander, Gary K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of missense changes in BRCA1 in breast cancer susceptibility has been difficult to establish. We used comparative evolutionary methods to identify potential functionally important amino acid sites in exon 11 and missense changes likely to disrupt gene function, aligning sequences from 57 eutherian mammals and categorizing amino acid sites by degree of conservation. We used Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to determine relationships among orthologs and identify codons evolving under pos...

  9. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William; Ollerton, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Industrialized society currently faces a wide range of non-infectious, immune-related pandemics. These pandemics include a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases that are often associated with common environmental triggers and with genetic predisposition, but that do not occur in developing societies. In this review, we briefly present the idea that these pandemics are due to a limited number of evolutionary mismatches, the most damaging being 'biome depletion'. This particular mismatch involves the loss of species from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome, many of which have traditionally been classified as parasites, although some may actually be commensal or even mutualistic. This view, evolved from the 'hygiene hypothesis', encompasses a broad ecological and evolutionary perspective that considers host-symbiont relations as plastic, changing through ecological space and evolutionary time. Fortunately, this perspective provides a blueprint, termed 'biome reconstitution', for disease treatment and especially for disease prevention. Biome reconstitution includes the controlled and population-wide reintroduction (i.e. domestication) of selected species that have been all but eradicated from the human biome in industrialized society and holds great promise for the elimination of pandemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  10. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    Calls for improving research-informed policy in education are everywhere. Yet, while there is an increasing trend towards science-based practice, there remains little agreement over which of the sciences to consult and how to organize a collective effort between them. What Education lacks is a general theoretical framework through which policies can be constructed, implemented, and assessed. This dissertation submits that evolutionary theory can provide a suitable framework for coordinating educational policies and practice, and can provide the entire field of education with a clearer sense of how to better manage the learning environment. This dissertation explores two broad paths that outline the conceptual foundations for an Evolutionary Education Science: "Teaching Evolution" and "Using Evolution to Teach." Chapter 1 introduces both of these themes. After describing why evolutionary science is best suited for organizing education research and practice, Chapter 1 proceeds to "teach" an overview of the "evolutionary toolkit"---the mechanisms and principles that underlie the modern evolutionary perspective. The chapter then employs the "toolkit" in examining education from an evolutionary perspective, outlining the evolutionary precepts that can guide theorizing and research in education, describing how educators can "use evolution to teach.". Chapters 2-4 expand on this second theme. Chapters 2 and 3 describe an education program for at-risk 9th and 10th grade students, the Regents Academy, designed entirely with evolutionary principles in mind. The program was rigorously assessed in a randomized control design and has demonstrated success at improving students' academic performance (Chapter 2) and social & behavioral development (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 examines current teaching strategies that underlie effective curriculum-instruction-assessment practices and proposes a framework for organizing successful, evidence-based strategies for neural

  11. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  12. Energy systems a new approach to engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gicquel, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion FactorsI First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics1 A New Educational Paradigm1.1 Introduction1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching1.4 A new educational paradigm1.5 Diapason modules1.6 A three-step progressive approach1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching p

  13. Biomimetic Materials and Fabrication Approaches for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan D; Amirthalingam, Sivashanmugam; Kim, Seunghyun L; Lee, Seunghun S; Rangasamy, Jayakumar; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2017-12-01

    Various strategies have been explored to overcome critically sized bone defects via bone tissue engineering approaches that incorporate biomimetic scaffolds. Biomimetic scaffolds may provide a novel platform for phenotypically stable tissue formation and stem cell differentiation. In recent years, osteoinductive and inorganic biomimetic scaffold materials have been optimized to offer an osteo-friendly microenvironment for the osteogenic commitment of stem cells. Furthermore, scaffold structures with a microarchitecture design similar to native bone tissue are necessary for successful bone tissue regeneration. For this reason, various methods for fabricating 3D porous structures have been developed. Innovative techniques, such as 3D printing methods, are currently being utilized for optimal host stem cell infiltration, vascularization, nutrient transfer, and stem cell differentiation. In this progress report, biomimetic materials and fabrication approaches that are currently being utilized for biomimetic scaffold design are reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647

  15. Influencing engineering education through the competency-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanova Olga V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article poses a problem of engineering education and training of today, which are facing difficulties while developing an efficient competency-based approach realization. The authors concentrate on an urgent task of developing the integration competence of future engineers which is treated as a metadisciplinary competence providing students with ability and readiness to synthesize subject-oriented professional and social competences into a holistic system. The structure of integration competence is analyzed and the following components are determined: a value and motivation component; a practical activity component; a cognitive component; a self-analysis and self-assessment component. Among distinguishing features of the integration competence the authors define its instrumental character, metadisciplinary and universal properties as well as its nonalgorithmic character. It is shown that professionally oriented training is a core factor of integration competence development. Depending on elements being integrated, the main forms of integration of competences are determined. The model of competence integration presented in the article can serve as the basis for developing methods and conditions for its systematic elaboration in university training. The results of this study can be useful for educators of different administrative levels, teaching-and-training schools which realize a competency-based approach in their teaching.

  16. Standardization of domestic frying processes by an engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, K; Strijowski, U

    2011-05-01

    An approach was developed to enable a better standardization of domestic frying of potato products. For this purpose, 5 domestic fryers differing in heating power and oil capacity were used. A very defined frying process using a highly standardized model product and a broad range of frying conditions was carried out in these fryers and the development of browning representing an important quality parameter was measured. Product-to-oil ratio, oil temperature, and frying time were varied. Quite different color changes were measured in the different fryers although the same frying process parameters were applied. The specific energy consumption for water evaporation (spECWE) during frying related to product amount was determined for all frying processes to define an engineering parameter for characterizing the frying process. A quasi-linear regression approach was applied to calculate this parameter from frying process settings and fryer properties. The high significance of the regression coefficients and a coefficient of determination close to unity confirmed the suitability of this approach. Based on this regression equation, curves for standard frying conditions (SFC curves) were calculated which describe the frying conditions required to obtain the same level of spECWE in the different domestic fryers. Comparison of browning results from the different fryers operated at conditions near the SFC curves confirmed the applicability of the approach. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. A new approach to grain boundary engineering for nanocrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to grain boundary engineering (GBE) for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain boundary microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain boundaries and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain boundary microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and grain boundary connectivity associated with triple junctions) has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain boundary strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain boundary connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. Finally, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain boundary microstructure.

  18. A new approach to grain boundary engineering for nanocrystalline materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Kobayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to grain boundary engineering (GBE for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain boundary microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain boundaries and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain boundary microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD and grain boundary connectivity associated with triple junctions has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain boundary strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain boundary connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. Finally, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain boundary microstructure.

  19. Evolutionary Feature Selection for Big Data Classification: A MapReduce Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peralta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many disciplines have to deal with big datasets that additionally involve a high number of features. Feature selection methods aim at eliminating noisy, redundant, or irrelevant features that may deteriorate the classification performance. However, traditional methods lack enough scalability to cope with datasets of millions of instances and extract successful results in a delimited time. This paper presents a feature selection algorithm based on evolutionary computation that uses the MapReduce paradigm to obtain subsets of features from big datasets. The algorithm decomposes the original dataset in blocks of instances to learn from them in the map phase; then, the reduce phase merges the obtained partial results into a final vector of feature weights, which allows a flexible application of the feature selection procedure using a threshold to determine the selected subset of features. The feature selection method is evaluated by using three well-known classifiers (SVM, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes implemented within the Spark framework to address big data problems. In the experiments, datasets up to 67 millions of instances and up to 2000 attributes have been managed, showing that this is a suitable framework to perform evolutionary feature selection, improving both the classification accuracy and its runtime when dealing with big data problems.

  20. Forecasting financial time series using a low complexity recurrent neural network and evolutionary learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Rout

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a low complexity recurrent Functional Link Artificial Neural Network for predicting the financial time series data like the stock market indices over a time frame varying from 1 day ahead to 1 month ahead. Although different types of basis functions have been used for low complexity neural networks earlier for stock market prediction, a comparative study is needed to choose the optimal combinations of these for a reasonably accurate forecast. Further several evolutionary learning methods like the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and modified version of its new variant (HMRPSO, and the Differential Evolution (DE are adopted here to find the optimal weights for the recurrent computationally efficient functional link neural network (RCEFLANN using a combination of linear and hyperbolic tangent basis functions. The performance of the recurrent computationally efficient FLANN model is compared with that of low complexity neural networks using the Trigonometric, Chebyshev, Laguerre, Legendre, and tangent hyperbolic basis functions in predicting stock prices of Bombay Stock Exchange data and Standard & Poor’s 500 data sets using different evolutionary methods and has been presented in this paper and the results clearly reveal that the recurrent FLANN model trained with the DE outperforms all other FLANN models similarly trained.

  1. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches. PMID:26821048

  2. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  3. Engineering nanomaterials with a combined electrochemical and molecular biomimetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haixia

    Biocomposite materials, such as bones, teeth, and shells, are created using mild aqueous solution-based processes near room temperature. Proteins add flexibility to these processes by facilitating the nucleation, growth, and ordering of specific inorganic materials into hierarchical structures. We aim to develop a biomimetic strategy for engineering technologically relevant inorganic materials with controlled compositions and structures, as Nature does, using proteins to orchestrate material formation and assembly. This approach involves three basic steps: (i) preparation of inorganic substrates compatible with combinatorial polypeptide screening; (ii) identification of inorganic-binding polypeptides and their engineering into inorganic-binding proteins; and (iii) protein-mediated inorganic nucleation and organization. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a p-type semiconductor, has been used to demonstrate all three steps. Zinc oxide (ZnO), an n-type semiconductor, has been used to show the generality of selected steps. Step (i), preparation of high quality inorganic substrates to select inorganic-binding polypeptides, was accomplished using electrochemical microfabrication to grow and pattern Cu2O and ZnO. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify phase purity and compositional stability of these surfaces during polypeptide screening. Step (ii), accomplished in collaboration with personnel in Prof Baneyx' lab at the University of Washington, involved incubating the inorganic substrates with the FliTrx(TM) random peptide library to identify cysteine-constrained dodecapeptides that bind the targeted inorganic. Insertion of a Cu2O-binding dodecapeptide into the DNA-binding protein TraI endowed the engineered TraI with strong affinity for Cu2O (Kd ≈ 10 -8 M). Finally, step (iii) involved nonequilibrium synthesis and organization of Cu2O nanoparticles, taking advantage of the inorganic and DNA recognition properties of the engineered TraI. The

  4. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  5. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  6. Co-Evolution of Opinion and Strategy in Persuasion Dynamics:. AN Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun; Li, Yong

    In this paper, a new model of opinion formation within the framework of evolutionary game theory is presented. The model simulates strategic situations when people are in opinion discussion. Heterogeneous agents adjust their behaviors to the environment during discussions, and their interacting strategies evolve together with opinions. In the proposed game, we take into account payoff discount to join a discussion, and the situation that people might drop out of an unpromising game. Analytical and emulational results show that evolution of opinion and strategy always tend to converge, with utility threshold, memory length, and decision uncertainty parameters influencing the convergence time. The model displays different dynamical regimes when we set differently the rule when people are at a loss in strategy.

  7. Failure of Engineering Artifacts : A Life Cycle Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Frate, L.

    2012-01-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering

  8. Complex approach in telecommunication engineering education: develop engineering skills by a team project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scripcariu Luminița

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the educational process of telecommunication engineering students by presenting the preparation of a team project focused on information security. Our educational approach combines basic knowledge such as mathematics with specialized engineering notions and various skills. The project theme is to design, implement and test an encryption algorithm. Students are provided with online courses, specific software programs and Internet access. They have to choose an encryption algorithm, to study its details and to write the script of the encryption algorithm in MATLAB program. The algorithm is implemented in C/C++ programming language and tested. Finally, a concurrent team tries to break the algorithm by finding the decryption key. It is an interactive approach which combines various education methods including gaming concepts. The covered topics provide students professional outcomes such as knowledge and use of specific mathematical tools and software environments (C/C ++ programming languages, MATLAB, abilities to design, develop, implement and test software algorithms. The project also provides transversal outcomes such as ability to team work, skills of computer use and information technology and capability to take responsibilities. Creativity is also encouraged by extending the algorithm to other encryption key lengths than the usual ones.

  9. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  10. Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

  11. Software Product Line Engineering Approach for Enhancing Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jabier; Diaz, Jessica; Perez, Jennifer; Garbajosa, Juan

    One of the main principles of Agile methodologies consists in the early and continuous delivery of valuable software by short time-framed iterations. After each iteration, a working product is delivered according to the requirements defined at the beginning of the iteration. Testing tools facilitate the task of checking if the system provides the expected behavior according to the specified requirements. However, since testing tools need to be adapted in order to test new working products in each iteration, a significant effort has to be invested. This work presents a Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) approach that allows flexibility in the adaption of testing tools with the working products in an iterative way. A case study is also presented using PLUM (Product Line Unified Modeller) as the tool suite for SPL implementation and management.

  12. Personalized Education Approaches for Chemical Engineering and Relevant Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng-qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized education has drawn increasing attention in universities these years. With the purpose of improving the studentss’ comprehensive ability and developing teaching strategies to ensure students’ education is tailored to their needs, we proposed Three-Stage Approach (TSA to enhance personalized education for chemical engineering and relevant majors: professional tutorial system--equipping with professional guidance teachers for freshman students to guide their learning activities and provide professional guidance; open experimental project--setting up open experimental projects for sophomore and junior students to choose freely; individualized education module--setting up 10 different individualized education modules for senior students to select. After years of practice, the personalized education model is improved day by day and proved effective and fruitful.

  13. Defining structural and evolutionary modules in proteins: a community detection approach to explore sub-domain architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hleap, Jose Sergio; Susko, Edward; Blouin, Christian

    2013-10-16

    Assessing protein modularity is important to understand protein evolution. Still the question of the existence of a sub-domain modular architecture remains. We propose a graph-theory approach with significance and power testing to identify modules in protein structures. In the first step, clusters are determined by optimizing the partition that maximizes the modularity score. Second, each cluster is tested for significance. Significant clusters are referred to as modules. Evolutionary modules are identified by analyzing homologous structures. Dynamic modules are inferred from sets of snapshots of molecular simulations. We present here a methodology to identify sub-domain architecture robustly, biologically meaningful, and statistically supported. The robustness of this new method is tested using simulated data with known modularity. Modules are correctly identified even when there is a low correlation between landmarks within a module. We also analyzed the evolutionary modularity of a data set of α-amylase catalytic domain homologs, and the dynamic modularity of the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein N-terminal domain.The α-amylase contains an (α/β)8 barrel (TIM barrel) with the polysaccharides cleavage site and a calcium-binding domain. In this data set we identified four robust evolutionary modules, one of which forms the minimal functional TIM barrel topology.The NPC1 protein is involved in the intracellular lipid metabolism coordinating sterol trafficking. NPC1 N-terminus is the first luminal domain which binds to cholesterol and its oxygenated derivatives. Our inferred dynamic modules in the protein NPC1 are also shown to match functional components of the protein related to the NPC1 disease. A domain compartmentalization can be found and described in correlation space. To our knowledge, there is no other method attempting to identify sub-domain architecture from the correlation among residues. Most attempts made focus on sequence motifs of protein

  14. The coexistence of hosts with different abilities to discriminate against cheater partners: an evolutionary game-theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidinger, Brian S; Bever, James D

    2014-06-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that mutualisms based on the reciprocal exchange of costly services should be susceptible to exploitation by cheaters. Consistent with theory, both cheating and discrimination against cheaters are ubiquitous features of mutualisms. Several recent studies have confirmed that host species differ in the extent that they are able to discriminate against cheaters, suggesting that cheating may be stabilized by the existence of susceptible hosts (dubbed "givers"). We use an evolutionary game-theoretical approach to demonstrate how discriminating and giver hosts associating with mutualist and cheater partners can coexist. Discriminators drive the proportion of cheaters below a critical threshold, at which point there is no benefit to investing resources into discrimination. This promotes givers, who benefit from mutualists but allow cheater populations to rebound. We then apply this model to the plant-mycorrhizal mutualism and demonstrate it is one mechanism for generating host-specific responses to mycorrhizal fungal species necessary to generate negative plant-soil feedbacks. Our model makes several falsifiable, qualitative predictions for plant-mycorrhizal population dynamics across gradients of soil phosphorus availability and interhost differences in ability to discriminate. Finally, we suggest applications and limitations of the model with regard to coexistence in specific biological systems.

  15. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridizations: Assessing the ability to recapture evolutionary relationships using an in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasuga Takao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH with DNA microarrays has many biological applications including surveys of copy number changes in tumorogenesis, species detection and identification, and functional genomics studies among related organisms. Array CGH has also been used to infer phylogenetic relatedness among species or strains. Although the use of the entire genome can be seen as a considerable advantage for use in phylogenetic analysis, few such studies have questioned the reliability of array CGH to correctly determine evolutionary relationships. A potential flaw in this application lies in the fact that all comparisons are made to a single reference species. This situation differs from traditional DNA sequence, distance-based phylogenetic analyses where all possible pairwise comparisons are made for the isolates in question. By simulating array data based on the Neurospora crassa genome, we address this potential flaw and other questions regarding array CGH phylogeny. Results Our simulation data indicates that having a single reference can, in some cases, be a serious limitation when using this technique. Additionally, the tree building process with a single reference is sensitive to many factors including tree topology, choice of tree reconstruction method, and the distance metric used. Conclusions Without prior knowledge of the topology and placement of the reference taxon in the topology, the outcome is likely to be wrong and the error undetected. Given these limitations, using CGH to reveal phylogeny based on sequence divergence does not offer a robust alternative to traditional phylogenetic analysis.

  16. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridizations: assessing the ability to recapture evolutionary relationships using an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Luz B; Chae, Lee; Kasuga, Takao; Taylor, John W

    2011-09-21

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) with DNA microarrays has many biological applications including surveys of copy number changes in tumorogenesis, species detection and identification, and functional genomics studies among related organisms. Array CGH has also been used to infer phylogenetic relatedness among species or strains. Although the use of the entire genome can be seen as a considerable advantage for use in phylogenetic analysis, few such studies have questioned the reliability of array CGH to correctly determine evolutionary relationships. A potential flaw in this application lies in the fact that all comparisons are made to a single reference species. This situation differs from traditional DNA sequence, distance-based phylogenetic analyses where all possible pairwise comparisons are made for the isolates in question. By simulating array data based on the Neurospora crassa genome, we address this potential flaw and other questions regarding array CGH phylogeny. Our simulation data indicates that having a single reference can, in some cases, be a serious limitation when using this technique. Additionally, the tree building process with a single reference is sensitive to many factors including tree topology, choice of tree reconstruction method, and the distance metric used. Without prior knowledge of the topology and placement of the reference taxon in the topology, the outcome is likely to be wrong and the error undetected. Given these limitations, using CGH to reveal phylogeny based on sequence divergence does not offer a robust alternative to traditional phylogenetic analysis.

  17. An adaptive evolutionary multi-objective approach based on simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Landa-Silva, D

    2011-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization problem can be solved by decomposing it into one or more single objective subproblems in some multi-objective metaheuristic algorithms. Each subproblem corresponds to one weighted aggregation function. For example, MOEA/D is an evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) algorithm that attempts to optimize multiple subproblems simultaneously by evolving a population of solutions. However, the performance of MOEA/D highly depends on the initial setting and diversity of the weight vectors. In this paper, we present an improved version of MOEA/D, called EMOSA, which incorporates an advanced local search technique (simulated annealing) and adapts the search directions (weight vectors) corresponding to various subproblems. In EMOSA, the weight vector of each subproblem is adaptively modified at the lowest temperature in order to diversify the search toward the unexplored parts of the Pareto-optimal front. Our computational results show that EMOSA outperforms six other well established multi-objective metaheuristic algorithms on both the (constrained) multi-objective knapsack problem and the (unconstrained) multi-objective traveling salesman problem. Moreover, the effects of the main algorithmic components and parameter sensitivities on the search performance of EMOSA are experimentally investigated.

  18. The intersubjective and cooperative origins of consciousness: an evolutionary-developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Mauricio; Liotti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We discuss consciousness from evolutionary and developmental perspectives. The expansion of communicative abilities was a necessary step for the emergence of a new type of cooperation based on equality that probably appeared for the first time among nomadic hunter gatherers during the upper Paleolithic era. In turn, this new level of cooperation gave raise to an expanded form of consciousness. From a developmental perspective an expansion of intersubjective abilities and consciousness go together. Three basic levels of intersubjectivity are present in humans. A primary form of intersubjective communication is accompanied by a primary form of consciousness that is not easily accessible for conscious scrutiny. During the second year of human life secondary forms of intersubjectivity expand consciousness from the immediacy of one-to-one interactions, to include a shared understanding of intentions and goals with caregivers. Secondary forms of intersubjectivity give raise to the type of consciousness characterized by preverbal symbols and images--a primordial form of conceptual knowledge. A further step in intersubjective communication uses the meanings and concepts that have emerged earlier in development and transforms them into words. The leap into language allows our species to conceive past, present, and future simultaneously. The cultural transmission of knowledge and social mores depends on these abilities. This further expands the scope of consciousness and creates conditions for self reflection, a type of consciousness that is uniquely human.

  19. Subject-specific planning of femoroplasty: a combined evolutionary optimization and particle diffusion model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Armand, Mehran

    2014-07-18

    A potential effective treatment for prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures is augmentation of the mechanical properties of the femur by injecting it with agents such as (PMMA) bone cement - femoroplasty. The operation, however, is only in research stage and can benefit substantially from computer planning and optimization. We report the results of computational planning and optimization of the procedure for biomechanical evaluation. An evolutionary optimization method was used to optimally place the cement in finite element (FE) models of seven osteoporotic bone specimens. The optimization, with some inter-specimen variations, suggested that areas close to the cortex in the superior and inferior of the neck and supero-lateral aspect of the greater trochanter will benefit from augmentation. We then used a particle-based model for bone cement diffusion simulation to match the optimized pattern, taking into account the limitations of the actual surgery, including limited volume of injection to prevent thermal necrosis. Simulations showed that the yield load can be significantly increased by more than 30%, using only 9 ml of bone cement. This increase is comparable to previous literature reports where gross filling of the bone was employed instead, using more than 40 ml of cement. These findings, along with the differences in the optimized plans between specimens, emphasize the need for subject-specific models for effective planning of femoral augmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and cancer therapy: An evolutionary game theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Heydar; Kebriaei, Hamed; Veisi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Inactivation of alleles in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is one of the important issues resulting in evolution of cancerous cells. In this paper, the evolution of healthy, one and two missed allele cells is modeled using the concept of evolutionary game theory and replicator dynamics. The proposed model also takes into account the interaction rates of the cells as designing parameters of the system. Different combinations of the equilibrium points of the parameterized nonlinear system is studied and categorized into some cases. In each case, the interaction rates' values are suggested in a way that the equilibrium points of the replicator dynamics are located on an appropriate region of the state space. Based on the suggested interaction rates, it is proved that the system doesn't have any undesirable interior equilibrium point as well. Therefore, the system will converge to the desirable region, where there is a scanty level of cancerous cells. In addition, the proposed conditions for interaction rates guarantee that, when a trajectory of the system reaches the boundaries, then it will stay there forever which is a desirable property since the equilibrium points have been already located on the boundaries, appropriately. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggestions in the elimination of the cancerous cells in different scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkley, Louise C; Capitanio, John P

    2015-05-26

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship--as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)--with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary-adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a 'lonely' phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of network structure on innovation initiation process: an evolutionary dynamics approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Afshin; Zolfagharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have proposed a basic agent-based model based on evolutionary dynamics for investigating innovation initiation process. In our model we suppose each agent will represent a firm which is interacting with other firms through a given network structure. We consider a two-hit process for presenting a potentially successful innovation in this model and therefore at each time step each firm can be in on of three different stages which are respectively, Ordinary, Innovative, and Successful. We design different experiments in order to investigate how different interaction networks may affect the process of presenting a successful innovation to the market. In this experiments, we use five different network structures, i.e. Erd\\H{o}s and R\\'enyi, Ring Lattice, Small World, Scale-Free and Distance-Based networks. According to the results of the simulations, for less frequent innovations like radical innovation, local structures are showing a better performance comparing to Scale-Free and Erd\\H{o}s and R\\...

  3. Artificial Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Algorithms as a systems biology approach to a data-base on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maria E; Buscema, Massimo; Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Grossi, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    One of the specific aims of systems biology is to model and discover properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning. A systems biology approach was undertaken to investigate possibly the entire system of intra-uterine growth we had available, to assess the variables of interest, discriminate those which were effectively related with appropriate or restricted intrauterine growth, and achieve an understanding of the systems in these two conditions. The Artificial Adaptive Systems, which include Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Algorithms lead us to the first analyses. These analyses identified the importance of the biochemical variables IL-6, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 protein concentrations in placental lysates, and offered a new insight into placental markers of fetal growth within the IGF and cytokine systems, confirmed they had relationships and offered a critical assessment of studies previously performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  5. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S. Fong

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is t...

  6. Sustainable Development in Engineering Education: A Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering education is facing a challenge of the development of student engineers' social responsibility in the context of sustainable development. The aim of the research is to analyze efficiency of engineering curriculum in the context of sustainable development underpinning elaboration of pedagogical guidelines on the development of students'…

  7. Multidisciplinary and Active/Collaborative Approaches in Teaching Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The requirements engineering course is a core component of the curriculum for the Master's in Software Engineering programme, at Monmouth University (MU). It covers the process, methods and tools specific to this area, together with the corresponding software quality issues. The need to produce software engineers with strong teamwork and…

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator Diagnostic and Prognostic Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The authors have formulated a Comprehensive Systems Engineering approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system...

  9. Evolutionary development of the neurocranium in Dissorophoidea (Tetrapoda: Temnospondyli), an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddin, Hillary C; Reisz, Robert R; Anderson, Jason S

    2010-01-01

    Ontogenetic data can play a prominent role in addressing questions in tetrapod evolution, but such evidence from the fossil record is often incompletely considered because it is limited to initiation of ossification, or allometric changes with increasing size. In the present study, specimens of a new species of an archaic amphibian (280 Myr old), Acheloma n. sp., a member of the temnospondyl superfamily Dissorophoidea and the sister group to Amphibamidae, which is thought to include at least two of our modern amphibian clades, anurans and caudatans (Batrachia), provides us with new developmental data. We identify five ontogenetic events, enabling us to construct a partial ontogenetic trajectory (integration of developmental and transformation sequence data) related to the relative timing of completion of neurocranial structures. Comparison of the adult amphibamid morphology with this partial ontogeny identifies a heterochronic event that occurred within the neurocranium at some point in time between the two taxa, which is consistent with the predictions of miniaturization in amphibamids, providing the first insights into the influence of miniaturization on the neurocranium in a fossil tetrapod group. This study refines hypotheses of large-scale evolutionary trends within Dissorophoidea that may have facilitated the radiation of amphibamids and, projected forward, the origin of the generalized batrachian skull. Most importantly, this study highlights the importance of integrating developmental and transformation sequence data, instead of onset of ossification alone, into investigations of major events in tetrapod evolution using evidence provided by the fossil record, and highlights the value of even highly incomplete growth series comprised of relatively late-stage individuals.

  10. Novel Evolutionary Engineering Approach for Accelerated Utilization of Glucose, Xylose, and Arabinose Mixtures by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.W.; Toirkens, M.J.; Wu, Q.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks are thought to have great economic and environmental significance for future biotechnological production processes. For cost-effective and efficient industrial processes, complete and fast conversion of all sugars derived from these feedstocks is required. Hence,

  11. Engineering approach for cost effective operation of industrial pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krickis, O.; Oleksijs, R.

    2017-10-01

    Power plants operators are persuaded to operate the main equipment such as centrifugal pumps in economically effective way. The operation of pump sets of district heating network at power plants should be done according to prescriptions of the original equipment manufacturer with further implementation of these requirements to distributed control system of the plant. In order to operate industrial pump sets with a small number of malfunctions is necessary to control the duty point of pump sets in H-Q coordinates, which could be complex task in some installations. Alternatively, pump operation control could be organized in H-n (head vs rpm) coordinates, utilizing pressure transmitters in pressure pipeline and value of rpm from variable speed driver. Safe operation range of the pump has to be limited with system parabolas, which prevents the duty point location outside of the predefined operation area. The particular study demonstrates the engineering approach for pump’s safe operation control development in MATLAB/Simulink environment, which allows to simulate the operation of the pump at different capacities in hydraulic system with variable characteristic and to predefine the conditions for efficient simultaneous pump operation in parallel connection.

  12. Solving Constrained Global Optimization Problems by Using Hybrid Evolutionary Computing and Artificial Life Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a hybrid real-coded genetic algorithm with a particle swarm optimization (RGA-PSO algorithm and a hybrid artificial immune algorithm with a PSO (AIA-PSO algorithm for solving 13 constrained global optimization (CGO problems, including six nonlinear programming and seven generalized polynomial programming optimization problems. External RGA and AIA approaches are used to optimize the constriction coefficient, cognitive parameter, social parameter, penalty parameter, and mutation probability of an internal PSO algorithm. CGO problems are then solved using the internal PSO algorithm. The performances of the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are evaluated using 13 CGO problems. Moreover, numerical results obtained using the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are compared with those obtained using published individual GA and AIA approaches. Experimental results indicate that the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms converge to a global optimum solution to a CGO problem. Furthermore, the optimum parameter settings of the internal PSO algorithm can be obtained using the external RGA and AIA approaches. Also, the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms outperform some published individual GA and AIA approaches. Therefore, the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are highly promising stochastic global optimization methods for solving CGO problems.

  13. A New Approach to Increasing Diversity in Engineering at the Example of Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Andrea I.

    2006-01-01

    A new initiative to incorporate diversity issues into the common engineering curriculum at the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia is outlined and the effect on student awareness quantified. The diversity issues were illustrated in the example of women in engineering, seeing that the numbers of women in engineering have dropped drastically…

  14. Developing a New Industrial Engineering Curriculum Using a Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyurgan, Nebil; Kiassat, Corey

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an engineering curriculum for a new industrial engineering programme at a medium-sized private university in the northeast United States. A systems engineering process has been followed to design and develop the new curriculum. Considering the programme curriculum as a system, first the stakeholders have…

  15. Systems approach to managing educational quality in the engineering classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoryev, Kostyantyn

    Today's competitive environment in post-secondary education requires universities to demonstrate the quality of their programs in order to attract financing, and student and academic talent. Despite significant efforts devoted to improving the quality of higher education, systematic, continuous performance measurement and management still have not reached the level where educational outputs and outcomes are actually produced---the classroom. An engineering classroom is a complex environment in which educational inputs are transformed by educational processes into educational outputs and outcomes. By treating a classroom as a system, one can apply tools such as Structural Equation Modeling, Statistical Process Control, and System Dynamics in order to discover cause-and-effect relationships among the classroom variables, control the classroom processes, and evaluate the effect of changes to the course organization, content, and delivery, on educational processes and outcomes. Quality improvement is best achieved through the continuous, systematic application of efforts and resources. Improving classroom processes and outcomes is an iterative process that starts with identifying opportunities for improvement, designing the action plan, implementing the changes, and evaluating their effects. Once the desired objectives are achieved, the quality improvement cycle may start again. The goal of this research was to improve the educational processes and outcomes in an undergraduate engineering management course taught at the University of Alberta. The author was involved with the course, first, as a teaching assistant, and, then, as a primary instructor. The data collected from the course over four years were used to create, first, a static and, then, a dynamic model of a classroom system. By using model output and qualitative feedback from students, changes to the course organization and content were introduced. These changes led to a lower perceived course workload and

  16. Wars and Conflicts are Only Randomly Connected with Religion and Religious Beliefs. An Outline of Historical, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars that study of religion and religious beliefs find that they affect behavioral patterns. Some of them suggest that this impact is morally wrong because religion and religious beliefs can cause aggression, conflicts, and wars. However, it seems that this topic is more complicated and complex. Here I show that religion and religious beliefs can affect mentioned above morally wrong patterns only in some particular cases. Usually they do not do it. Here I show an outline of philosophical historical approach that was critically oriented against religion and that accused it about conflicts and wars. Then I briefly discuss two current scientific research approaches to the study of religion, cognitive and evolutionary. They falsify these critically oriented philosophers because they treat connection between religious beliefs and conflicts as random and necessary. The core idea of this paper assumes that religious beliefs do not affect aggression and wars directly. They can sometimes strengthen or weaken some biological mechanisms that then can be used to compete by conflicts or by not-violent inter-group competition.

  17. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  18. A team-taught interdisciplinary approach to engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Glenn C; Pionke, Christopher D

    2006-04-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of a new course in Engineering Ethics at the University of Tennessee. This is a three-semester-hour course and is jointly taught by an engineering professor and a philosophy professor. While traditional pedagogical techniques such as case studies, position papers, and classroom discussions are used, additional activities such as developing a code of ethics and student-developed scenarios are employed to encourage critical thinking. Among the topics addressed in the course are engineering as a profession and its role in society; ethical successes and failures; risk, safety, and the environment; professional responsibilities; credit and intellectual property; and international concerns. The most significant aspect of the course is that it brings both engineering and non-engineering points of view to the topics at hand. This is accomplished in two ways. First, as mentioned previously, it is team-taught by engineering faculty with an interest in ethical and societal issues, and by philosophy faculty with expertise in the field of professional ethics and an interest in science and technology. Second, the course is offered to both engineers and non-engineers. This mix of students requires that all students must be able to explain their technical and ethical decisions in a non-technical manner. Work teams are structured to maximize interdisciplinary interaction and to foster insights by each student into the professional commitments and attitudes of others.

  19. Ramjets: Thermal management – An integrated engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the VKI/RTO Lecture Series on ‘High Speed Propulsion: Engine Design – Integration and Thermal Management’, this lecture focuses on thermal management of ramjet propulsion systems. This is done by describing an engineering model that can be used to perform an integrated

  20. Teaching Technical Translation: An Engineered Approach at Flensburg Polytechnic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gustav

    All students in the new, unique four-year degree program for technical translators at Flensburg Polytechnic (Germany) must study engineering as well as language and cultural skills, language information technology, and theoretical and practical aspects of translation. The program was conceived and established by engineers with an interest in…

  1. Survey of Traceability Approaches in Model-Driven Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, I.; Göknil, Arda

    2007-01-01

    Models have been used in various engineering fields to help managing complexity and represent information in different abstraction levels, according to specific notations and stakeholder's viewpoints. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) gives the basic principles for the use of models as primary

  2. A mechanistic approach to design smart scaffolds for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a library of novel 3D scaffolds designed and optimized for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a deamaged tissue by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, with a 3D porous matrix, functioning

  3. Improving High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches for Reconstructing the Evolutionary Dynamics of Upper Paleolithic Human Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    the development and testing of innovative molecular approaches aiming at improving the amount of informative HTS data one can recover from ancient DNA extracts. We have characterized important ligation and amplification biases in the sequencing library building and enrichment steps, which can impede further...... been mainly driven by the development of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing (HTS) technologies but also by the implementation of novel molecular tools tailored to the manipulation of ultra short and damaged DNA molecules. Our ability to retrieve traces of genetic material has tremendously improved, pushing...

  4. [Clinico-electrophysiologic research on narcolepsy (an evolutionary-dissolution approach)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhno, N N; Veĭn, A M; Karmanova, I G; Razumov, V M

    1988-01-01

    The results of clinical and polygraphic investigation of sleep and wakefulness using spectral analysis and fast Fourier transform of EEG are presented with the data on somatosensory evoked potentials in different brain states of multiply symptomatic narcoleptic patients. Functional insufficiency of thalamocortical unspecific system was revealed. The brainstem-hypothalamic systems of sleep-wakefulness cycle regulation were activated. Evolutional approach was applied to the issues of sleep-wakefulness cycle pathology. The possibility of reflection of evolutional regularities of sleep-wakefulness cycle in multiply symptomatic narcolepsy is discussed.

  5. In Darwin's Footsteps: An On and Off-Campus Approach to Teaching Evolutionary Theory and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillie, Lynn; Bizub, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    The study of evolutionary theory and fieldwork in animal behavior is enriched when students leave the classroom so they may test their abilities to think and act like scientists. This article describes a course on evolutionary theory and animal behavior that blended on campus learning with field experience in the United States and in Ecuador and…

  6. Development of an acetic acid tolerant Spathaspora passalidarum strain through evolutionary engineering with resistance to inhibitors compounds of autohydrolysate of Eucalyptus globulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Paulina; Gentina, Juan Carlos; Aroca, German

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary engineering strategy based on mutagenesis by UV irradiation and subsequent selectionby continuous cultivation at increasing concentrations of acetic acid in synthetic medium with glucoseand xylose mixtures was used to develop an evolved strain of the yeast Spathaspora passalidarum...... withimproved resistance to acetic acid. After 380 generations, the yeast was able to produce 5.8 g/L ethanolin the presence of 3.5 g/L acetic acid in synthetic medium with mixture of 15 g L−1glucose and 15 g L−1xylose. To demonstrate the improved resistance to acetic acid of the evolved strain compared...... to the nativestrain, growth kinetics and bioethanol production of both strains in batch cultures under microaerobiccondition were performed. The evolved strain reached an ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.23 g/L hand ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g in the presence of 4.5 g/L acetic acid. These results were 7-fold and 2...

  7. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-11-25

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students' recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes.

  8. Evolutionary engineering of a wine yeast strain revealed a key role of inositol and mannoprotein metabolism during low-temperature fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Malo, María; García-Rios, Estéfani; Melgar, Bruno; Sanchez, Monica R; Dunham, Maitreya J; Guillamón, José Manuel

    2015-07-22

    Wine produced at low temperature is often considered to improve sensory qualities. However, there are certain drawbacks to low temperature fermentations: e.g. low growth rate, long lag phase, and sluggish or stuck fermentations. Selection and development of new Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains well adapted at low temperature is interesting for future biotechnological applications. This study aimed to select and develop wine yeast strains that well adapt to ferment at low temperature through evolutionary engineering, and to decipher the process underlying the obtained phenotypes. We used a pool of 27 commercial yeast strains and set up batch serial dilution experiments to mimic wine fermentation conditions at 12 °C. Evolutionary engineering was accomplished by using the natural yeast mutation rate and mutagenesis procedures. One strain (P5) outcompeted the others under both experimental conditions and was able to impose after 200 generations. The evolved strains showed improved growth and low-temperature fermentation performance compared to the ancestral strain. This improvement was acquired only under inositol limitation. The transcriptomic comparison between the evolved and parental strains showed the greatest up-regulation in four mannoprotein coding genes, which belong to the DAN/TIR family (DAN1, TIR1, TIR4 and TIR3). Genome sequencing of the evolved strain revealed the presence of a SNP in the GAA1 gene and the construction of a site-directed mutant (GAA1 (Thr108)) in a derivative haploid of the ancestral strain resulted in improved fermentation performance. GAA1 encodes a GPI transamidase complex subunit that adds GPI, which is required for inositol synthesis, to newly synthesized proteins, including mannoproteins. In this study we demonstrate the importance of inositol and mannoproteins in yeast adaptation at low temperature and the central role of the GAA1 gene by linking both metabolisms.

  9. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...

  10. Parallel and Divergent Evolutionary Solutions for the Optimization of an Engineered Central Metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael Carroll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineering holds great promise to provide fast and efficient biocatalysts for methanol-based biotechnology, but necessitates proven methods to optimize physiology in engineered strains. Here, we highlight experimental evolution as an effective means for optimizing an engineered Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Replacement of the native formaldehyde oxidation pathway with a functional analog substantially decreased growth in an engineered Methylobacterium, but growth rapidly recovered after six hundred generations of evolution on methanol. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the basis of adaptation in eight replicate evolved strains, and examined genomic changes in light of other growth and physiological data. We observed great variety in the numbers and types of mutations that occurred, including instances of parallel mutations at targets that may have been “rationalized” by the bioengineer, plus other “illogical” mutations that demonstrate the ability of evolution to expose unforeseen optimization solutions. Notably, we investigated mutations to RNA polymerase, which provided a massive growth benefit but are linked to highly aberrant transcriptional profiles. Overall, we highlight the power of experimental evolution to present genetic and physiological solutions for strain optimization, particularly in systems where the challenges of engineering are too many or too difficult to overcome via traditional engineering methods.

  11. Detecting brain dynamics during resting state: a tensor based evolutionary clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sharoa, Esraa; Al-khassaweneh, Mahmood; Aviyente, Selin

    2017-08-01

    Human brain is a complex network with connections across different regions. Understanding the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain is important both during resting state and task; as disruptions in connectivity patterns are indicators of different psychopathological and neurological diseases. In this work, we study the resting state functional connectivity networks (FCNs) of the brain from fMRI BOLD signals. Recent studies have shown that FCNs are dynamic even during resting state and understanding the temporal dynamics of FCNs is important for differentiating between different conditions. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to track the dynamic formation and dissociation of FCNs of the brain during resting state. In this paper, we propose a two step tensor based community detection algorithm to identify and track the brain network community structure across time. First, we introduce an information-theoretic function to reduce the dynamic FCN and identify the time points that are similar topologically to combine them into a tensor. These time points will be used to identify the different FC states. Second, a tensor based spectral clustering approach is developed to identify the community structure of the constructed tensors. The proposed algorithm applies Tucker decomposition to the constructed tensors and extract the orthogonal factor matrices along the connectivity mode to determine the common subspace within each FC state. The detected community structure is summarized and described as FC states. The results illustrate the dynamic structure of resting state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network, somatomotor network, subcortical network and visual network.

  12. A resilience engineering approach to assess major accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12.......This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12....

  13. Ramjets: Thermal management – An integrated engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Veraar, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the VKI/RTO Lecture Series on ‘High Speed Propulsion: Engine Design – Integration and Thermal Management’, this lecture focuses on thermal management of ramjet propulsion systems. This is done by describing an engineering model that can be used to perform an integrated thermal analysis of a supersonic/hypersonic ramjet propelled vehicle in conjunction with an integrated performance evaluation of the aerodynamic and propulsive performance of the vehicle. The thermal ana...

  14. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  15. Conceptual and Procedural Approaches to Mathematics in the Engineering Curriculum: Views of Qualified Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Bergsten, Christer; Kågesten, Owe

    2017-01-01

    The research interest underpinning this paper concerns the type of mathematical knowledge engineering students may acquire during their specialised education in terms of the conceptual and procedural dimensions of doing and using mathematics. This study draws on interviews with 25 qualified engineers from South Africa and Sweden regarding their…

  16. Engineering spinal fusion: evaluating ceramic materials for cell based tissue engineered approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to advance the development of tissue engineered posterolateral spinal fusion by investigating the potential of calcium phosphate ceramic materials to support cell based tissue engineered bone formation. This was accomplished by developing several novel model

  17. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  18. Evolutionary computation techniques a comparative perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book compares the performance of various evolutionary computation (EC) techniques when they are faced with complex optimization problems extracted from different engineering domains. Particularly focusing on recently developed algorithms, it is designed so that each chapter can be read independently. Several comparisons among EC techniques have been reported in the literature, however, they all suffer from one limitation: their conclusions are based on the performance of popular evolutionary approaches over a set of synthetic functions with exact solutions and well-known behaviors, without considering the application context or including recent developments. In each chapter, a complex engineering optimization problem is posed, and then a particular EC technique is presented as the best choice, according to its search characteristics. Lastly, a set of experiments is conducted in order to compare its performance to other popular EC methods.

  19. Periodontal tissue engineering and regeneration: current approaches and expanding opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Jin, Yan

    2010-04-01

    The management of periodontal tissue defects that result from periodontitis represents a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Concerted efforts have been and still are being made to accelerate and augment periodontal tissue and bone regeneration, including a range of regenerative surgical procedures, the development of a variety of grafting materials, and the use of recombinant growth factors. More recently, tissue-engineering strategies, including new cell- and/or matrix-based dimensions, are also being developed, analyzed, and employed for periodontal regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering in periodontology applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum. It is based on an understanding of the role of periodontal formation and aims to grow new functional tissues rather than to build new replacements of periodontium. Although tissue engineering has merged to create more opportunities for predictable and optimal periodontal tissue regeneration, the technique and design for preclinical and clinical studies remain in their early stages. To date, the reconstruction of small- to moderate-sized periodontal bone defects using engineered cell-scaffold constructs is technically feasible, and some of the currently developed concepts may represent alternatives for certain ideal clinical scenarios. However, the predictable reconstruction of the normal structure and functionality of a tooth-supporting apparatus remains challenging. This review summarizes current regenerative procedures for periodontal healing and regeneration and explores their progress and difficulties in clinical practice, with particular emphasis placed upon current challenges and future possibilities associated with tissue-engineering strategies in periodontal regenerative medicine.

  20. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Stephen S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is to utilize combinatorial experimental tools to empirically explore the range of cellular function and to screen for desired traits. This mini-review focuses on computational systems biology and synthetic biology tools that can be used in combination for prospective in silico strain design.

  1. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S. Fong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is to utilize combinatorial experimental tools to empirically explore the range of cellular function and to screen for desired traits. This mini-review focuses on computational systems biology and synthetic biology tools that can be used in combination for prospective in silico strain design.

  2. Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer

  3. On the Application of the ISD Method Engineering Approach in Non-ISD Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Bucher, Tobias; Bajec, Marko; Furlan, Štefan; Kornyshova, Elena; Saidani, Oumaima; Vavpotič, Damjan; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2008-01-01

    Situational method engineering (SME) is concerned with the design, construction, and evaluation of methods that are aimed at the development of particular software products in well-defined development situations. The SME approach features characteristics such as flexibility, adaptability, modularity, reusability, and reference to situational aspects. These aspects may not only be useful for the engineering of software but also for the engineering of work systems, organizational structures, or...

  4. The Engineering of Consent: An Organized Approach to PR Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernays, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Principals, as democratic leaders, must know how to deal effectively with the public. This article outlines an eight-step plan for achieving public relations goals (or engineering consent), including determining goals, researching the public involved, modifying goals, planning strategy, establishing the organization, identifying themes and…

  5. A multi-agent approach to professional software engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lützenberger; T. Küster; T. Konnerth; A. Thiele; N. Masuch; A. Heßler; J. Keiser; M. Burkhardt; S. Kaiser (Silvan); J. Tonn; M. Kaisers (Michael); S. Albayrak; M. Cossentino; A. Seghrouchni; M. Winikoff

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractThe community of agent researchers and engineers has produced a number of interesting and mature results. However, agent technology is still not widely adopted by industrial software developers or software companies - possibly because existing frameworks are infused with academic

  6. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  7. The Company Approach to Software Engineering Project Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Sandahl, K.; Abu Baker, M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching larger software engineering project courses at the end of a computing curriculum is a way for students to learn some aspects of real-world jobs in industry. Such courses, often referred to as capstone courses, are effective for learning how to apply the skills they have acquired in, for example, design, test, and configuration management.…

  8. A Constrained and Guided Approach for Managing Software Engineering Course Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.-P.; Lin, J. M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents several years of experimentation with a new approach to organizing and managing projects in a software engineering course. The initial failure and subsequent refinements that the new approach has been through since 2004 are described herein. The "constrained and guided" approach, as it is called, has helped to reduce…

  9. A 'reverse network engineering' framework to develop tourism using a lifestyle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, DJF; Strijker, D; Sijtsma, FJ

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses the network approach in the design of policies for regional development focusing on tourism in rural and peripheral areas. The methodology applied - 'reverse network engineering' - is a combination of a top-down and a bottom-up approach, The top-down approach starts with the demand

  10. From prompt gamma distribution to dose: a novel approach combining an evolutionary algorithm and filtering based on Gaussian-powerlaw convolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A; Priegnitz, M; Schoene, S; Enghardt, W; Rohling, H; Fiedler, F

    2016-10-07

    Range verification and dose monitoring in proton therapy is considered as highly desirable. Different methods have been developed worldwide, like particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) and prompt gamma imaging (PGI). In general, these methods allow for a verification of the proton range. However, quantification of the dose from these measurements remains challenging. For the first time, we present an approach for estimating the dose from prompt γ-ray emission profiles. It combines a filtering procedure based on Gaussian-powerlaw convolution with an evolutionary algorithm. By means of convolving depth dose profiles with an appropriate filter kernel, prompt γ-ray depth profiles are obtained. In order to reverse this step, the evolutionary algorithm is applied. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated for a spread-out Bragg-peak in a water target.

  11. A Holistic Approach to Delivering Sustainable Design Education in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemury, Chandra Mouli; Heidrich, Oliver; Thorpe, Neil; Crosbie, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present pedagogical approaches developed and implemented to deliver sustainable design education (SDE) to second-year undergraduate students on civil engineering programmes in the (then) School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Newcastle University. In doing so, the work presented offers an example of…

  12. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, B.P.; Leong, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example.

  13. Building International Experiences into an Engineering Curriculum--A Design Project-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Victor; Castillo, Luciano; Carbajal, Gerardo; Hajela, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive account of how short-term international and multicultural experiences can be integrated into early design experiences in an aerospace engineering curriculum. Such approaches are considered as important not only in fostering a student's interest in the engineering curriculum, but also exposing them to a multicultural…

  14. Implications of evolutionary engineering for growth and recombinant protein production in methanol-based growth media in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Josef W; Prielhofer, Roland; Gerner, Samuel M; Graf, Alexandra B; Wilson, Iain B H; Mattanovich, Diethard; Dragosits, Martin

    2017-03-17

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used eukaryotic expression host for recombinant protein production. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has been applied in a wide range of studies in order to improve strains for biotechnological purposes. In this context, the impact of long-term carbon source adaptation in P. pastoris has not been addressed so far. Thus, we performed a pilot experiment in order to analyze the applicability and potential benefits of ALE towards improved growth and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris. Adaptation towards growth on methanol was performed in replicate cultures in rich and minimal growth medium for 250 generations. Increased growth rates on these growth media were observed at the population and single clone level. Evolved populations showed various degrees of growth advantages and trade-offs in non-evolutionary growth conditions. Genome resequencing revealed a wide variety of potential genetic targets associated with improved growth performance on methanol-based growth media. Alcohol oxidase represented a mutational hotspot since four out of seven evolved P. pastoris clones harbored mutations in this gene, resulting in decreased Aox activity, despite increased growth rates. Selected clones displayed strain-dependent variations for AOX-promoter based recombinant protein expression yield. One particularly interesting clone showed increased product titers ranging from a 2.5-fold increase in shake flask batch culture to a 1.8-fold increase during fed batch cultivation. Our data indicate a complex correlation of carbon source, growth context and recombinant protein production. While similar experiments have already shown their potential in other biotechnological areas where microbes were evolutionary engineered for improved stress resistance and growth, the current dataset encourages the analysis of the potential of ALE for improved protein production in P. pastoris on a broader scale.

  15. A multidimensional approach to examine student interdisciplinary learning in science and engineering in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, Elsbeth; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; Boekel, van Tiny; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The

  16. A multidimensional approach to examine student interdisciplinary learning in science and engineering in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, Elsbeth; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; Boekel, van Tiny; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The

  17. Today Prospects for Tissue Engineering Therapeutic Approach in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Bossù; Andrea Pacifici; Daniele Carbone; Gianluca Tenore; Gaetano Ierardo; Luciano Pacifici; Antonella Polimeni

    2014-01-01

    In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have r...

  18. Banding approach for engineered nanomaterial risk assessment and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoornick, Nausikaä; Prodanov, Dimiter; Pardon, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Since there is a lack of sufficient toxicological information about engineered nanomaterials, and since within the semiconductor research and manufacturing use is already made of these materials, an alternative for the classical quantitative risk assessment was sought. Within the research facilities of imec use is made of a banding technique to determine the risks associated with the nanomaterial research. The method and the measures that are taken are discussed in the paper. The method has been benchmarked with other available techniques.

  19. Virtual Engineering Approach to Developing Selective Harvest Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright

    2005-07-01

    Agricultural crop residues (e.g., straw and stover) are a current focus for bioenergy feedstocks, with new technologies being developed to improve the economics of bioenergy production. Among the emerging technologies focused on feedstock engineering is the selective harvest concept. Due to the complexity of the biomass separations required for addressing the challenges and requirements of selective harvest, high fidelity models and advanced experimental methods that allow observation and measurement of the physical system are needed. These models and methods were developed and include computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to simulate the cleaning shoe of a grain combine and a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the cleaning shoe performance. While these techniques alone can be sufficient engineering and analysis tools for developing selective harvest technologies, this paper presents a new methodology, Virtual Engineering (VE), that integrates the CFD and PIV data into a virtual environment, where the data is coupled with the geometric model of a grain combine to provide a virtual representation of the cleaning shoe performance. Using VE visualization capabilities, the CFD and PIV data can be viewed in the context of the physical system for an interactive evaluation of characteristics and performance. This paper also discusses the concepts of additional VE tools that are being developed to provide necessary visualization, simulation and integration functionality.

  20. Foreign language teaching of future engineers: professionally-oriented approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHEVYCHELOVA O.

    2016-01-01

    In the article the peculiarities of foreign language teaching at higher technical school are described, the importance of professionally-oriented approach to foreign language teaching is grounded and its essence is analyzed. The ways of implementing professionally-oriented approach in higher technical education are considered.

  1. Writing Compilers and Interpreters A Software Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Long-awaited revision to a unique guide that covers both compilers and interpreters Revised, updated, and now focusing on Java instead of C++, this long-awaited, latest edition of this popular book teaches programmers and software engineering students how to write compilers and interpreters using Java. You?ll write compilers and interpreters as case studies, generating general assembly code for a Java Virtual Machine that takes advantage of the Java Collections Framework to shorten and simplify the code. In addition, coverage includes Java Collections Framework, UML modeling, object-oriented p

  2. Stochastic Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering. Spectral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinet-Guichard G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical tools in which the formulation of Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Method is based. The usefulness of this method to model the spatial variability of heterogeneous materials, and in particular of soils, is illustrated by a practical example in which the propagation of the uncertainty on the deformation modulus to the computed displacement field is assessed. The influence of the correlation length on the distribution of uncertainty is set forth. Finally, the advantages of the method in geotechnical engineering are evaluated and some conclusions are presented.

  3. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A framework for evolutionary systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Laurence

    2009-02-24

    Many difficult problems in evolutionary genomics are related to mutations that have weak effects on fitness, as the consequences of mutations with large effects are often simple to predict. Current systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with large effects and can predict the properties of knockout mutants in some systems. However experimental methods are too insensitive to observe small effects. Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism. EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.

  5. A framework for evolutionary systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many difficult problems in evolutionary genomics are related to mutations that have weak effects on fitness, as the consequences of mutations with large effects are often simple to predict. Current systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with large effects and can predict the properties of knockout mutants in some systems. However experimental methods are too insensitive to observe small effects. Results Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism. Conclusion EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.

  6. Exploring the past and the future of protein evolution with ancestral sequence reconstruction: the 'retro' approach to protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumulya, Yosephine; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2017-01-01

    A central goal in molecular evolution is to understand the ways in which genes and proteins evolve in response to changing environments. In the absence of intact DNA from fossils, ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) can be used to infer the evolutionary precursors of extant proteins. To date, ancestral proteins belonging to eubacteria, archaea, yeast and vertebrates have been inferred that have been hypothesized to date from between several million to over 3 billion years ago. ASR has yielded insights into the early history of life on Earth and the evolution of proteins and macromolecular complexes. Recently, however, ASR has developed from a tool for testing hypotheses about protein evolution to a useful means for designing novel proteins. The strength of this approach lies in the ability to infer ancestral sequences encoding proteins that have desirable properties compared with contemporary forms, particularly thermostability and broad substrate range, making them good starting points for laboratory evolution. Developments in technologies for DNA sequencing and synthesis and computational phylogenetic analysis have led to an escalation in the number of ancient proteins resurrected in the last decade and greatly facilitated the use of ASR in the burgeoning field of synthetic biology. However, the primary challenge of ASR remains in accurately inferring ancestral states, despite the uncertainty arising from evolutionary models, incomplete sequences and limited phylogenetic trees. This review will focus, firstly, on the use of ASR to uncover links between sequence and phenotype and, secondly, on the practical application of ASR in protein engineering. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Coutilization of D-Glucose, D-Xylose, and L-Arabinose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Coexpressing the Metabolic Pathways and Evolutionary Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqiang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and cost-effective fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials requires simultaneous cofermentation of all hydrolyzed sugars, mainly including D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional D-glucose fermenting strain and could utilize D-xylose and L-arabinose after introducing the initial metabolic pathways. The efficiency and simultaneous coutilization of the two pentoses and D-glucose for ethanol production in S. cerevisiae still need to be optimized. Previously, we constructed an L-arabinose-utilizing S. cerevisiae BSW3AP. In this study, we further introduced the XI and XR-XDH metabolic pathways of D-xylose into BSW3AP to obtain D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose cofermenting strain. Benefits of evolutionary engineering: the resulting strain BSW4XA3 displayed a simultaneous coutilization of D-xylose and L-arabinose with similar consumption rates, and the D-glucose metabolic capacity was not decreased. After 120 h of fermentation on mixed D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose, BSW4XA3 consumed 24% more amounts of pentoses and the ethanol yield of mixed sugars was increased by 30% than that of BSW3AP. The resulting strain BSW4XA3 was a useful chassis for further enhancing the coutilization efficiency of mixed sugars for bioethanol production.

  8. The role of crossover operator in evolutionary-based approach to the problem of genetic code optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażej, Paweł; Wnȩtrzak, Małgorzata; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    One of theories explaining the present structure of canonical genetic code assumes that it was optimized to minimize harmful effects of amino acid replacements resulting from nucleotide substitutions and translational errors. A way to testify this concept is to find the optimal code under given criteria and compare it with the canonical genetic code. Unfortunately, the huge number of possible alternatives makes it impossible to find the optimal code using exhaustive methods in sensible time. Therefore, heuristic methods should be applied to search the space of possible solutions. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) seem to be ones of such promising approaches. This class of methods is founded both on mutation and crossover operators, which are responsible for creating and maintaining the diversity of candidate solutions. These operators possess dissimilar characteristics and consequently play different roles in the process of finding the best solutions under given criteria. Therefore, the effective searching for the potential solutions can be improved by applying both of them, especially when these operators are devised specifically for a given problem. To study this subject, we analyze the effectiveness of algorithms for various combinations of mutation and crossover probabilities under three models of the genetic code assuming different restrictions on its structure. To achieve that, we adapt the position based crossover operator for the most restricted model and develop a new type of crossover operator for the more general models. The applied fitness function describes costs of amino acid replacement regarding their polarity. Our results indicate that the usage of crossover operators can significantly improve the quality of the solutions. Moreover, the simulations with the crossover operator optimize the fitness function in the smaller number of generations than simulations without this operator. The optimal genetic codes without restrictions on their structure

  9. Understanding the functional difference between growth arrest-specific protein 6 and protein S : an evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Studer, Romain A.; Opperdoes, Fred R.; Nicolaes, Gerry A. F.; Mulder, Andre B.; Mulder, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Although protein S (PROS1) and growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) proteins are homologous with a high degree of structural similarity, they are functionally different. The objectives of this study were to identify the evolutionary origins from which these functional differences arose.

  10. Approaches to understanding the impact of life-history features on plant-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Burdon; Peter H. Thrall; Adnane Nemri

    2012-01-01

    Natural plant-pathogen associations are complex interactions in which the interplay of environment, host, and pathogen factors results in spatially heterogeneous ecological and epidemiological dynamics. The evolutionary patterns that result from the interaction of these factors are still relatively poorly understood. Recently, integration of the appropriate spatial and...

  11. Predicting evolutionary responses when genetic variance and selection covary with the environment: a large-scale Open Access Data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, J.J.C.; Culina, A.; Visser, M.E.; Gienapp, P.

    2017-01-01

    Additive genetic variance and selection are the key ingredients for evolution. In wild populations, however, predicting evolutionary trajectories is difficult, potentially by an unrecognised underlying environment dependency of both (additive) genetic variance and selection (i.e. G×E and S×E).

  12. Multiobjective engineering design optimization problems: a sensitivity analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Brito Augusto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two new approaches for the sensitivity analysis of multiobjective design optimization problems whose performance functions are highly susceptible to small variations in the design variables and/or design environment parameters. In both methods, the less sensitive design alternatives are preferred over others during the multiobjective optimization process. While taking the first approach, the designer chooses the design variable and/or parameter that causes uncertainties. The designer then associates a robustness index with each design alternative and adds each index as an objective function in the optimization problem. For the second approach, the designer must know, a priori, the interval of variation in the design variables or in the design environment parameters, because the designer will be accepting the interval of variation in the objective functions. The second method does not require any law of probability distribution of uncontrollable variations. Finally, the authors give two illustrative examples to highlight the contributions of the paper.

  13. Modular protein domains: an engineering approach toward functional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charng-Yu; Liu, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Protein domains and peptide sequences are a powerful tool for conferring specific functions to engineered biomaterials. Protein sequences with a wide variety of functionalities, including structure, bioactivity, protein-protein interactions, and stimuli responsiveness, have been identified, and advances in molecular biology continue to pinpoint new sequences. Protein domains can be combined to make recombinant proteins with multiple functionalities. The high fidelity of the protein translation machinery results in exquisite control over the sequence of recombinant proteins and the resulting properties of protein-based materials. In this review, we discuss protein domains and peptide sequences in the context of functional protein-based materials, composite materials, and their biological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Today prospects for tissue engineering therapeutic approach in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossù, Maurizio; Pacifici, Andrea; Carbone, Daniele; Tenore, Gianluca; Ierardo, Gaetano; Pacifici, Luciano; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have recently been isolated and characterized from tooth-related tissues and they might represent, in the near future, a new gold standard in the regeneration of all oral tissues. The aim of our review is to provide an overview on the topic reporting the current knowledge for each class of dental stem cells and to identify their potential clinical applications as therapeutic tool in various branches of dentistry.

  15. Today Prospects for Tissue Engineering Therapeutic Approach in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bossù

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have recently been isolated and characterized from tooth-related tissues and they might represent, in the near future, a new gold standard in the regeneration of all oral tissues. The aim of our review is to provide an overview on the topic reporting the current knowledge for each class of dental stem cells and to identify their potential clinical applications as therapeutic tool in various branches of dentistry.

  16. Building habitats on the Moon engineering approaches to lunar settlements

    CERN Document Server

    Benaroya, Haym

    2018-01-01

    Designing a habitat for the lunar surface? You will need to know more than structural engineering. There are the effects of meteoroids, radiation, and low gravity. Then there are the psychological and psychosocial aspects of living in close quarters, in a dangerous environment, far away from home. All these must be considered when the habitat is sized, materials specified, and structure designed. This book provides an overview of various concepts for lunar habitats and structural designs and characterizes the lunar environment - the technical and the nontechnical. The designs take into consideration psychological comfort, structural strength against seismic and thermal activity, as well as internal pressurization and 1/6 g. Also discussed are micrometeoroid modeling, risk and redundancy as well as probability and reliability, with an introduction to analytical tools that can be useful in modeling uncertainties.

  17. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  18. Encouraging Deep Approach to Learning in Civil and Geodetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Mrak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents activities and changes applied to the teaching process within selected courses offered by Faculty of civil and geodetic engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Theoretical background, evaluated from the point of the technical education needs, is presented. It can be seen that special focus has to be made to the students' motivation for deep learning which guarantees optimal balance between acquisition of concepts and skills, information processing and integration of fragmented pieces of knowledge into complex structures. Three case studies used to test theoretical points of departure are presented. Results of the introduced novelties and changes have been evaluated through the assessment of knowledge, students' satisfaction and teaching staff evaluations. For conclusive results, monitoring over a longer period of time should be conducted.

  19. Towards modeling future energy infrastructures - the ELECTRA system engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslar, Mathias; Heussen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Within this contribution, we provide an overview based on previous work conducted in the ELECTRA project to come up with a consistent method for modeling the ELECTRA WoC approach according to the methods established with the M/490 mandate of the European Commission. We will motivate the use...... of the IEC 62559 use case template as well as needed changes to cope particularly with the aspects of controller conflicts and Greenfield technology modeling. From the original envisioned use of the standards, we show a possible transfer on how to properly deal with a Greenfield approach when modeling....

  20. Beyond Diversity as Usual: Expanding Critical Cultural Approaches to Marginalization in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secules, Stephen

    In general, what we think of as "diversity work" in undergraduate engineering education focuses in the following ways: more on the overlooked assets of minority groups than on the acts of overlooking, more on the experiences of marginalized groups than on the mechanisms of marginalization by dominant groups, more on supporting and increasing minority student retention than on critiquing and remediating the systems which lead minority students to leave engineering. This dissertation presents a series of arguments which push beyond a status quo understanding of diversity in engineering education. The first approach the dissertation takes up is to problematize educational facts around failure by interrogating their roots in interactions and cultural norms in an engineering classroom. In another argument, the dissertation places the engineering classroom cultural norms of competition, whiteness, and masculinity in a critical historical context of the discipline at large. Finally, I demonstrate how engaging students in a critique of marginalizing educational culture can be an important source of agency. In addition to applying and demonstrating the value of specific novel approaches in engineering education, the dissertation contributes to the research community by discussing the respective affordances between these and other possible scholarly approaches to culture and marginalization in education. I also suggest how a consideration of the taken-for-granted culture of engineering education can be an important tool for instructors seeking to gain insight into persistent educational problems. In addition, this dissertation makes implications for diversity support practice, envisioning new forms of support programming rooted in intersectionality and critical praxis.

  1. Redesigning the Student Learning Approach through Personality Types and Pedagogies, A Case Study in an Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Corinna; Nakagawa, Elizabeth; Kelley, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    As the National Science Foundation and engineers throughout the world seek to strengthen the future of the engineering profession, the Civil Engineering (CE) program at the United States Coast Guard Academy embodies this initiative with a student focused approach. One course in particular, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers (CE…

  2. A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Developing Educational Computer Games for Improving Students' Differentiating Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Yang, Li-Hsueh; Huang, Iwen

    2013-01-01

    Educational computer games have been recognized as being a promising approach for motivating students to learn. Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that without proper learning strategies or supportive models, the learning achievement of students might not be as good as expected. In this study, a knowledge engineering approach is proposed…

  3. A Blended Learning Approach to Teach Fluid Mechanics in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the teaching and learning of fluid mechanics at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, by applying a blended learning approach (BLA). In the adopted BLA, various flexible learning materials have been made available to the students such as online recorded lectures, online recorded tutorials, hand…

  4. Adapting advanced engineering design approaches to building design. Potential benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhms, M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of industries continuously progress advancing their design approaches based on the changing market constraints. Examples such as car, ship and airplane manufacturing industries utilize process setups and techniques, that differ significantly from the processes and techniques used by the

  5. A Planning Approach of Engineering Characteristics Based on QFD-TRIZ Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Shi, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying

    Traditional QFD planning method compromises contradictions between engineering characteristics to achieve higher customer satisfaction. However, this compromise trade-off can not eliminate the contradictions existing among the engineering characteristics which limited the overall customer satisfaction. QFD (Quality function deployment) integrated with TRIZ (the Russian acronym of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) becomes hot research recently for TRIZ can be used to solve contradictions between engineering characteristics which construct the roof of HOQ (House of quality). But, the traditional QFD planning approach is not suitable for QFD integrated with TRIZ for that TRIZ requires emphasizing the contradictions between engineering characteristics at problem definition stage instead of compromising trade-off. So, a new planning approach based on QFD / TRIZ integration is proposed in this paper, which based on the consideration of the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics and customer satisfaction on the basis of cost. The proposed approach suggests that TRIZ should be applied to solve contradictions at the first step, and the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics should be amended at the second step, and at next step IFR (ideal final result) must be validated, then planning execute. An example is used to illustrate the proposed approach. The application indicated that higher customer satisfaction can be met and the contradictions between the characteristic parameters are eliminated.

  6. Evolutionary behavioral genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; de Candia, Teresa R; Keller, Matthew C

    2015-04-01

    We describe the scientific enterprise at the intersection of evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics-a field that could be termed Evolutionary Behavioral Genetics-and how modern genetic data is revolutionizing our ability to test questions in this field. We first explain how genetically informative data and designs can be used to investigate questions about the evolution of human behavior, and describe some of the findings arising from these approaches. Second, we explain how evolutionary theory can be applied to the investigation of behavioral genetic variation. We give examples of how new data and methods provide insight into the genetic architecture of behavioral variation and what this tells us about the evolutionary processes that acted on the underlying causal genetic variants.

  7. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications applied mechanics, vibration control, and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest applications of nonlinear approaches in different disciplines of engineering. For each selected topic, detailed concept development, derivations, and relevant knowledge are provided for the convenience of the readers. The topics range from dynamic systems and control to optimal approaches in nonlinear dynamics. The volume includes invited chapters from world class experts in the field. The selected topics are of great interest in the fields of engineering and physics and this book is ideal for engineers and researchers working in a broad range of practical topics and approaches. This book also: ·         Explores the most up-to-date applications and underlying principles of nonlinear approaches to problems in engineering and physics, including sections on analytic nonlinearity and practical nonlinearity ·         Enlightens readers to the conceptual significance of nonlinear approaches with examples of applications in scientific and engineering problems from v...

  8. A Systematic Approach to Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Health Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    A systematic approach for selecting an optimal suite of sensors for on-board aircraft gas turbine engine health estimation is presented. The methodology optimally chooses the engine sensor suite and the model tuning parameter vector to minimize the Kalman filter mean squared estimation error in the engine s health parameters or other unmeasured engine outputs. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem where there are more unknown system health parameters representing degradation than available sensor measurements. This paper presents the theoretical estimation error equations, and describes the optimization approach that is applied to select the sensors and model tuning parameters to minimize these errors. Two different model tuning parameter vector selection approaches are evaluated: the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuning parameters, and an alternative approach that selects tuning parameters as a linear combination of all health parameters. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented, and compared to those from an alternative sensor selection strategy.

  9. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  10. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  11. A Value-Based Business Approach to Product Line Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Raman K. Agrawalla

    2009-01-01

    The present conceptual paper is an attempt to provide a Value-Based Business Approach (VBBA) to product line software engineering. It argues that Product line software engineering should be seen as a system and considered as a means towards the end of appropriating more and more value for the business firm; contingent upon the fact that it provides value to customer and customer's customers operating its value creating system with agility, speed, economy and innovation; getting governed by th...

  12. [Introduction to] : "Sustainability of constructions : integrated approach to life-time structural engineering"

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Blok, Rijk; Gervásio, H.; Veljkovic, Milan, ed. lit.; Plewako, Zbigniew; Landolfo, Raffaele; Ungureanu, Viorel

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the COST Action C25 ‘Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approach lo Life-time Structural Engineering” is to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through the collection and collaborative analysis of scientific results concerning life-time structural engineering and especially integration of environmental assessment methods and tolls of structural engineering. Sustainability of Construction, European Science Foundation : Cost...

  13. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling ‘Darwinian’ and ‘Spencerian’ evolutionary approaches in anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of ‘Spencerian’ cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader ‘Darwinian’ framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  14. Computational Models of Financial Price Prediction: A Survey of Neural Networks, Kernel Machines and Evolutionary Computation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sandoval

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the representative models of machine learning research applied to the foreign exchange rate and stock price prediction problem is conducted.  The article is organized as follows: The first section provides a context on the definitions and importance of foreign exchange rate and stock markets.  The second section reviews machine learning models for financial prediction focusing on neural networks, SVM and evolutionary methods. Lastly, the third section draws some conclusions.

  15. Omics Approaches for the Engineering of Pathogen Resistant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pagani, María A; Busi, María V; Bhadauria, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    The attack of different pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses has a negative impact on crop production. In counter such attacks, plants have developed different strategies involving the modification of gene expression, activation of several metabolic pathways and post-translational modification of proteins, which culminate into the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites implicated in plant defense responses. The recent advancement in omics techniques allows the increase coverage of plants transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes during pathogen attack, and the modulation of the response after the infection. Omics techniques also allow us to learn more about the biological cycle of the pathogens in addition to the identification of novel virulence factors in pathogens and their host targets. Both approaches become important to decipher the mechanism underlying pathogen attacks and to develop strategies for improving disease-resistant plants. In this review, we summarize some of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics in devising the strategies to obtain plants with increased resistance to pathogens. These approaches constitute important research tools in the development of new technologies for the protection against diseases and increase plant production.

  16. Early menarche as an alternative reproductive tactic in human females: an evolutionary approach to reproductive health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Meghan T; Folinsbee, Kaila E

    2012-12-20

    The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period) may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12) can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  17. Early Menarche as an Alternative Reproductive Tactic in Human Females: An Evolutionary Approach to Reproductive Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan T. Gillette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12 can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  18. Evolutionary Computation Techniques for Predicting Atmospheric Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Marref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion occurs in many engineering structures such as bridges, pipelines, and refineries and leads to the destruction of materials in a gradual manner and thus shortening their lifespan. It is therefore crucial to assess the structural integrity of engineering structures which are approaching or exceeding their designed lifespan in order to ensure their correct functioning, for example, carrying ability and safety. An understanding of corrosion and an ability to predict corrosion rate of a material in a particular environment plays a vital role in evaluating the residual life of the material. In this paper we investigate the use of genetic programming and genetic algorithms in the derivation of corrosion-rate expressions for steel and zinc. Genetic programming is used to automatically evolve corrosion-rate expressions while a genetic algorithm is used to evolve the parameters of an already engineered corrosion-rate expression. We show that both evolutionary techniques yield corrosion-rate expressions that have good accuracy.

  19. Innovative approaches to regenerate teeth by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindorff, Marina M; Lehl, Helena; Winkel, Andreas; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, scientists in almost every medical sector moved the focus to tissue transplantation and stem cell-based therapies for organ and tissue regeneration. In dentistry, it is of great interest in this regard to restore natural teeth with the help of stem cell-based regeneration of soft tissues and hard tooth structures. Many studies have been published in which structures resembling teeth were constructed using stem cells. In most of these studies, carrier materials (scaffolds) were used, which were colonized with cells and then implanted into an animal. Apart from this, scaffold-free approaches based on cell aggregation have also been published. Although animal studies on tooth regeneration have been very promising, much more research is needed until this can be applied in human. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering therapeutic proteins for cell entry: the natural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Sandrine; Minter, Ralph R; Jackson, Ronald H

    2015-03-01

    Owing to the challenges of cell entry, protein-based therapies have so far been restricted to extracellular targets, whereas intracellular targets have been almost exclusively addressed by small molecules. The specificity and potency of proteins would enable them to be effective intracellular drugs, provided that the proteins are delivered efficiently to appropriate intracellular compartments within specific cell types. By mimicking the natural mechanisms of toxins and other natural proteins, new intracellular delivery systems are being developed, the first of which are showing clinical efficacy. This review highlights a range of ingenious approaches designed to adapt natural entry mechanisms to facilitate delivery of proteins and open up a range of validated intracellular targets to modulation by potent and specific therapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  2. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management (IPM, which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1 the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2 the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3 the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  3. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      06-01-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-09-2012...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  5. CubeSat mission design based on a systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundi, S. A.; Fitz-Coy, N. G.

    With the exception of the CubeSat specification, CubeSat design and development approaches have been mostly ad hoc, which has questioned their reliability. A systems engineering approach, based on the guidelines of NASA's Systems Engineering Handbook has been developed for CubeSats to facilitate systematic design, development and address their reliability, traceability, and reusability. The CubeSat systems engineering approach, developed as a repeatable process, uses a top-down design methodology to translate mission definitions into basic building blocks, components, interfaces and tasks, that then facilitate a bottom-up development and fabrication process. Some of the design tools (e.g., N2 diagram) described in NASAs Systems Engineering Handbook are utilized early in the design phase to identify potential conflicts in the mechanical and electrical interfaces. A novel subsystem level flowdown, which transcribes the system level requirements into identifiable CubeSat subsystems, (i.e., building blocks) is described. Utilizing this approach yields full traceability from mission concept to subsystem component to flight software. Additionally, the approach facilitates the estimation of the mission overhead in terms of power, telemetry, and computation associated with each component, interface, and task.

  6. Not Just Add-Gender-&-Stir; Feminist Archaeology and the USe of Feminist and Evolutionary Biological Approaches to Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Handley

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between men and women is of interest to many parties concerned with human behaviour. Feminists and evolutionary biologists are two such groups that have examined gender issues from different positions and have reached frequently opposing conclusions.  These divisions have only recently started to be breached as common ground is investigated.  This paper examines some of these issues, discusses the implications this rapprochement could have on feminist archaeology, and suggests the path for a development of a social archaeology that traverses the artificial barriers between 'nature' and 'culture'.

  7. Artificial neural network approach to predicting engine-out emissions and performance parameters of a turbo charged diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özener Orkun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study details the artificial neural network (ANN modelling of a diesel engine to predict the torque, power, brake-specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons and filter smoke number. To collect data for training and testing the neural network, experiments were performed on a four cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. A total of 108 test points were run on a dynamometer. For the first part of this work, a parameter packet was used as the inputs for the neural network, and satisfactory regression was found with the outputs (over ~95%, excluding total hydrocarbons. The second stage of this work addressed developing new networks with additional inputs for predicting the total hydrocarbons, and the regression was raised from 75 % to 90 %. This study shows that the ANN approach can be used for accurately predicting characteristic values of an internal combustion engine and that the neural network performance can be increased using additional related input data.

  8. Engineering-derived approaches for iPSC preparation, expansion, differentiation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Gao, Ge; Yao, Rui; Sun, Wei

    2017-07-31

    Remarkable achievements have been made since induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first introduced in 2006. Compared with non-pluripotent stem cells, iPSC research faces several additional complexities, such as the choice of extracellular matrix proteins, growth and differentiation factors, as well as technical challenges related to self-renewal and directed differentiation. Overcoming these challenges requires the integration of knowledge and technologies from multiple fields including cell biology, biomaterial science, engineering, physics and medicine. Here, engineering-derived iPSC approaches are reviewed according to three aspects of iPSC studies: preparation, expansion, differentiation and applications. Engineering strategies, such as 3D systems establishment, cell-matrix mechanics and the regulation of biophysical and biochemical cues, together with engineering techniques, such as 3D scaffolds, cell microspheres and bioreactors, have been applied to iPSC studies and have generated insightful results and even mini-organs such as retinas, livers and intestines. Specific results are given to demonstrate how these approaches impact iPSC behavior, and related mechanisms are discussed. In addition, cell printing technologies are presented as an advanced engineering-derived approach since they have been applied in both iPSC studies and the construction of diverse tissues and organs. Further development and possible innovations of cell printing technologies are presented in terms of creating complex and functional iPSC-derived living tissues and organs.

  9. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  10. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  11. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  12. Effect of evaporation and condensation on a thermoacoustic engine: A Lagrangian simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Izu, Noriya

    2017-06-01

    Acoustic oscillations of a fluid (a mixture of gas and vapor) parcel in a wet stack of a thermoacoustic engine are numerically simulated with a Lagrangian approach taking into account Rott equations and the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation of water vapor at the stack surface. In a traveling-wave engine, the volume oscillation amplitude of a fluid parcel always increases by evaporation and condensation. As a result, pV work done by a fluid parcel is enhanced, which means enhancement of acoustic energy in a thermoacoustic engine. On the other hand, in a standing-wave engine, the volume oscillation amplitude sometimes decreases by evaporation and condensation, and pV work is suppressed. Presence of a tiny traveling-wave component, however, results in the enhancement of pV work by evaporation and condensation.

  13. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches: Development of a generic fire risk model facilitating calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Sanctis, G.; Fischer, K.; Kohler, J.

    2014-01-01

    are not detailed enough. Engineering risk models, on the other hand, may be detailed but typically involve assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment and make a cost-benefit study problematic. In two related papers it is shown how engineering and data-driven modeling can be combined by developing......Fire risk models support decision making for engineering problems under the consistent consideration of the associated uncertainties. Empirical approaches can be used for cost-benefit studies when enough data about the decision problem are available. But often the empirical approaches...... a generic risk model that is calibrated to observed fire loss data. Generic risk models assess the risk of buildings based on specific risk indicators and support risk assessment at a portfolio level. After an introduction to the principles of generic risk assessment, the focus of the present paper...

  14. Nonlinear control for a diesel engine: A CLF-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmych Olena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a control Lyapunov function based on a nonlinear controller for a turbocharged diesel engine. A model-based approach is used which predicts the experimentally observed engine performance for a biodiesel. The basic idea is to develop an inverse optimal control and to employ a Lyapunov function in order to achieve good performances. The obtained controller gain guarantees the global convergence of the system and regulates the flows for the variable geometry turbocharger as well as exhaust gas recirculation systems in order to minimize the NOx emission and the smoke of a biodiesel engine. Simulation of the control performances based on professional software and experimental results show the effectiveness of this approach.

  15. A Story-Telling Approach for a Software Engineering Course Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2009-01-01

    Advanced programming and software engineering techniques are challenging to learn due to their inherent complexity. However, to the average student they are even more challenging because they have never experienced the context in which the techniques are appropriate. For instance, why learn design...... patterns to increase maintainability when student exercises are never maintained? In this paper, we outline the contextual problems that software engineering teaching has to deal with and present a story telling approach for course design as a remedy. We outline the stories that over the last five years...... have structured lecturing and mandatory exercises for our advanced programming/software engineering course, and present benefits, liabilities, and experiences with the approach comparing it to the normal, topic structured, course design....

  16. Optimizing Online Suicide Prevention: A Search Engine-Based Tailored Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Search engines are increasingly used to seek suicide-related information online, which can serve both harmful and helpful purposes. Google acknowledges this fact and presents a suicide-prevention result for particular search terms. Unfortunately, the result is only presented to a limited number of visitors. Hence, Google is missing the opportunity to provide help to vulnerable people. We propose a two-step approach to a tailored optimization: First, research will identify the risk factors. Second, search engines will reweight algorithms according to the risk factors. In this study, we show that the query share of the search term "poisoning" on Google shows substantial peaks corresponding to peaks in actual suicidal behavior. Accordingly, thresholds for showing the suicide-prevention result should be set to the lowest levels during the spring, on Sundays and Mondays, on New Year's Day, and on Saturdays following Thanksgiving. Search engines can help to save lives globally by utilizing a more tailored approach to suicide prevention.

  17. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  18. Teaching English for Science and Technology: An Approach for Reading with Engineering English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the relevance of English for Specific Purposes, this article outlines an approach for using authentic readings in a course in Engineering English. The article describes the importance of needs analysis, rhetorical focus, and reading for content; it suggests content for 15 lessons and provides a sample worksheet and other suggestions…

  19. Approaches to the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cockburn, A.; Bradford, R.; Buck, N.; Kampers, F.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic, tiered approach to assess the safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in foods is presented. The ENM is first compared to its non-nano form counterpart to determine if ENM-specific assessment is required. Of highest concern from a toxicological perspective are ENMs which have

  20. Learning Probabilities in Computer Engineering by Using a Competency- and Problem-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoumsi, Ahmed; Hadjou, Brahim

    2005-01-01

    Our department has redesigned its electrical and computer engineering programs by adopting a learning methodology based on competence development, problem solving, and the realization of design projects. In this article, we show how this pedagogical approach has been successfully used for learning probabilities and their application to computer…

  1. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    , the proposed method predicts the electrical outputs with high accuracies: electrical current with more than 99% accuracy, thermoelectric potential difference with 88-96% accuracy, and power output with 88-96% accuracy. This engineering approach can save significant amount of time and reduce the complexity...

  3. Avoid, Control, Succumb, or Balance: Engineering Students' Approaches to a Wicked Sustainability Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.

  4. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  5. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  6. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  7. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Shaping the Future Landscape: Catchment Systems Engineering and the Decision Support Matrix Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar; Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Wainwright, John

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is widely recognised as one of the great environmental challenges facing humanity today, much of which is directly associated with human activity. The negative impacts of climate change and of the way in which we have engineered the landscape through, for example, agriculture intensification and deforestation, need to be addressed. However, the answer is not a simple matter of doing the opposite of current practice. Nor is non-intervention a viable option. There is a need to bring together approaches from the natural and social sciences both to understand the issues and to act to solve real problems. We propose combining a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach that builds on existing approaches such as Natural Water Retention Measures, Green infrastructure and Nature-Based Solutions with a multi-scale framework for decision support that has been successfully applied to diffuse pollution and flood risk management. The CSE philosophy follows that of Earth Systems Engineering and Management, which aims to engineer and manage complex coupled human-natural systems in a highly integrated, rational manner. CSE is multi-disciplinary, and necessarily involves a wide range of subject areas including anthropology, engineering, environmental science, ethics and philosophy. It offers a rational approach which accepts the fact that we need to engineer and act to improve the functioning of the existing catchment entity on which we rely. The decision support framework proposed draws on physical and mathematical modelling; Participatory Action Research; and demonstration sites at which practical interventions are implemented. It is predicated on the need to work with stakeholders to co-produce knowledge that leads to proactive interventions to reverse the land degradation we observe today while sustaining the agriculture humanity needs. The philosophy behind CSE and examples of where it has been applied successfully are presented. The Decision Support Matrix

  9. Evolutionary Design in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jon

    Evolution is one of the most interesting and creative processes we currently understand, so it should come as no surprise that artists and designers are embracing the use of evolution in problems of artistic creativity. The material in this section illustrates the diversity of approaches being used by artists and designers in relation to evolution at the boundary of art and science. While conceptualising human creativity as an evolutionary process in itself may be controversial, what is clear is that evolutionary processes can be used to complement, even enhance human creativity, as the chapters in this section aptly demonstrate.

  10. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  11. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth). © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  12. Evolutionary synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2012-06-15

    Signaling networks process vast amounts of environmental information to generate specific cellular responses. As cellular environments change, signaling networks adapt accordingly. Here, I will discuss how the integration of synthetic biology and directed evolution approaches is shedding light on the molecular mechanisms that guide the evolution of signaling networks. In particular, I will review studies that demonstrate how different types of mutations, from the replacement of individual amino acids to the shuffling of modular domains, lead to markedly different evolutionary trajectories and consequently to diverse network rewiring. Moreover, I will argue that intrinsic evolutionary properties of signaling proteins, such as the robustness of wild type functions, the promiscuous nature of evolutionary intermediates, and the modular decoupling between binding and catalysis, play important roles in the evolution of signaling networks. Finally, I will argue that rapid advances in our ability to synthesize DNA will radically alter how we study signaling network evolution at the genome-wide level.

  13. Influence of Underhood Flow on Engine Cooling Using 1-D And 3-D Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolehovský Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical simulation of complete cooling system of internal combustion engine (GT-SUITE, which also involves the simulation of flow in underhood using the computationally undemanding simulation. A detailed model of the internal combustion engine is extended to a cooling circuit model which is then coupled to a simplified underhood model which is created with the help of GT-COOL application as a 3-D model and afterwards transferred to a 1-D form. The approaches, one using 1-D solution of arrangement of the heat exchangers and the other 3-D approach using the underhood model, were investigated in two steady states corresponding to various vehicle speeds and engine load. These simulations have shown the inappropriateness of 1-D approach when solving the flow in the heat exchangers in the underhood and helped to explore a relatively undemanding method of flow simulation in the underhood, which enables to detect the interaction between the models of the cooling system and the internal combustion engine and the issue of arrangement of the heat exchangers in the underhood.

  14. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Durable ideas in software engineering concepts, methods and approaches from my virtual toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    J Cusick, James

    2013-01-01

    ""Software Engineering now occupies a central place in the development of technology and in the advancement of the economy. From telecommunications to aerospace and from cash registers to medical imaging, software plays a vital and often decisive role in the successful accomplishment of a variety of projects. The creation of software requires a variety of techniques, tools, and especially, properly skilled engineers. This e-book focuses on core concepts and approaches that have proven useful to the author time and time again on many industry projects over a quarter century of research, develo

  16. Association of Finite-Time Thermodynamics and a Bond-Graph Approach for Modeling an Endoreversible Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Feidt; Christelle Périlhon; Georges Descombes; Amin El-Bakkali; Yuxiang Dong

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the approach known as Finite-Time Thermodynamics has provided a fruitful theoretical framework for the optimization of heat engines operating between a heat source (at temperature ) and a heat sink (at temperature ). The aim of this paper is to propose a more complete approach based on the association of Finite-Time Thermodynamics and the Bond-Graph approach for modeling endoreversible heat engines. This approach makes it possible for example to find in a simple way the cha...

  17. Numerical Prediction of CCV in a PFI Engine using a Parallel LES Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Muhsin M; Mirzaeian, Mohsen; Millo, Federico; Som, Sibendu

    2017-10-15

    Cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) is detrimental to IC engine operation and can lead to partial burn, misfire, and knock. Predicting CCV numerically is extremely challenging due to two key reasons. Firstly, high-fidelity methods such as large eddy simulation (LES) are required to accurately resolve the incylinder turbulent flowfield both spatially and temporally. Secondly, CCV is experienced over long timescales and hence the simulations need to be performed for hundreds of consecutive cycles. Ameen et al. (Int. J. Eng. Res., 2017) developed a parallel perturbation model (PPM) approach to dissociate this long time-scale problem into several shorter timescale problems. The strategy is to perform multiple single-cycle simulations in parallel by effectively perturbing the initial velocity field based on the intensity of the in-cylinder turbulence. This strategy was demonstrated for motored engine and it was shown that the mean and variance of the in-cylinder flowfield was captured reasonably well by this approach. In the present study, this PPM approach is extended to simulate the CCV in a fired port-fuel injected (PFI) SI engine. Two operating conditions are considered – a medium CCV operating case corresponding to 2500 rpm and 16 bar BMEP and a low CCV case corresponding to 4000 rpm and 12 bar BMEP. The predictions from this approach are also shown to be similar to the consecutive LES cycles. Both the consecutive and PPM LES cycles are observed to under-predict the variability in the early stage of combustion. The parallel approach slightly underpredicts the cyclic variability at all stages of combustion as compared to the consecutive LES cycles. However, it is shown that the parallel approach is able to predict the coefficient of variation (COV) of the in-cylinder pressure and burn rate related parameters with sufficient accuracy, and is also able to predict the qualitative trends in CCV with changing operating conditions. The convergence of the statistics

  18. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  19. A Value-Based Business Approach to Product Line Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K. Agrawalla

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present conceptual paper is an attempt to provide a Value-Based Business Approach (VBBA to product line software engineering. It argues that Product line software engineering should be seen as a system and considered as a means towards the end of appropriating more and more value for the business firm; contingent upon the fact that it provides value to customer and customer's customers operating its value creating system with agility, speed, economy and innovation; getting governed by the positive sum value creation outlook and guided by value- based management. With our value-based business triad, the product line engineering process can hope to achieve simultaneously value, variety and volume, product differentiation and cost leadership enabling the business firm to land on the virtuous value spiral.

  20. An engineering approach to modelling, decision support and control for sustainable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, W; Audsley, E; Frost, A R

    2008-02-12

    Engineering research and development contributes to the advance of sustainable agriculture both through innovative methods to manage and control processes, and through quantitative understanding of the operation of practical agricultural systems using decision models. This paper describes how an engineering approach, drawing on mathematical models of systems and processes, contributes new methods that support decision making at all levels from strategy and planning to tactics and real-time control. The ability to describe the system or process by a simple and robust mathematical model is critical, and the outputs range from guidance to policy makers on strategic decisions relating to land use, through intelligent decision support to farmers and on to real-time engineering control of specific processes. Precision in decision making leads to decreased use of inputs, less environmental emissions and enhanced profitability-all essential to sustainable systems.

  1. An approach in building a chemical compound search engine in oracle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Volarath, P; Harrison, R

    2005-01-01

    A searching or identifying of chemical compounds is an important process in drug design and in chemistry research. An efficient search engine involves a close coupling of the search algorithm and database implementation. The database must process chemical structures, which demands the approaches to represent, store, and retrieve structures in a database system. In this paper, a general database framework for working as a chemical compound search engine in Oracle database is described. The framework is devoted to eliminate data type constrains for potential search algorithms, which is a crucial step toward building a domain specific query language on top of SQL. A search engine implementation based on the database framework is also demonstrated. The convenience of the implementation emphasizes the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

  2. Pathway and protein engineering approaches to produce novel and commodity small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Namita; Xu, Peng; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-12-01

    Nature has provided us the basis of designing the most integrated and efficacious production platforms. Cell factories via their millions of years of evolution have nearly perfected each of their production systems. We have been trying to imitate, utilize and tweak this system to our advantage by using slightly overlapping and greatly interdependent approaches such as metabolic engineering and systems biology to make nature work for us in an efficient and robust way, without producing toxic waste and/or unnecessary side products. Systems biology, metabolic engineering and 'omics' technologies have paved the way for protein and pathway engineering. To this end we will talk about the recent advances in production of novel pharmaceutical and commodity small molecules by designing novel proteins and pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Brink of Shifting Paradigms, Molecular Systems Engineering Ethics Needs to Take a Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Elger, Bernice S; Stutzki, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Molecular Systems Engineering (MSE) is a paradigm shift in both engineering and life sciences. While the field is still in its infancy the perspectives of MSE in revolutionising technology is promising. MSE will offer a wide range of applications in clinical, biotechnological and engineering fields while simultaneously posing serious questions on the ethical and societal aspects of such technology. The moral and societal aspects of MSE need systematic investigation from scientific and social perspectives. In a democratic setting, the societal outcomes of MSE's cutting-edge technology need to be consulted and influenced by society itself. For this purpose MSE needs inclusive public engagement strategies that bring together the public, ethicists, scientists and policy makers for optimum flow of information that maximizes the impact of public engagement. In this report we present an MSE consortium and its ethics framework for establishing a proactive approach in the study of the ethics of MSE technology.

  4. Concurrent Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Product Development in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment : Proceedings of the 19th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, Georg; Bil, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The CE Conference series is organized annually by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement (ISPE) and constitutes an important forum for international scientific exchange on concurrent and collaborative enterprise engineering. These international conferences attract a significant number of researchers, industrialists and students, as well as government representatives, who are interested in the recent advances in concurrent engineering research and applications. Concurrent Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Product Development in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment: Proceedings of the 19th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering contains papers accepted, peer reviewed and presented at the annual conference held  at the University of Applied Sciences in Trier, Germany, from 3rd-7th of September 2012. This covers a wide range of cutting-edge topics including: •Systems Engineering and Innovation •Design for Sustainability •Knowledge Engineering and Management •Managing pro...

  5. Evolutionary equations with applications in natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhtar-Kharroubi, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    With the unifying theme of abstract evolutionary equations, both linear and nonlinear, in a complex environment, the book presents a multidisciplinary blend of topics, spanning the fields of theoretical and applied functional analysis, partial differential equations, probability theory and numerical analysis applied to various models coming from theoretical physics, biology, engineering and complexity theory. The unique features of the book are: the first simultaneous presentation of two complementary approaches to fragmentation and coagulation problems, by weak compactness methods and by using semigroup techniques, comprehensive exposition of probabilistic methods of analysis of long term dynamics of dynamical systems, semigroup analysis of biological problems and cutting edge pattern formation theory. The book will appeal to postgraduate students and researchers specializing in applications of mathematics to problems arising in natural sciences and engineering.

  6. Gas Path Health Monitoring for a Turbofan Engine Based on a Nonlinear Filtering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiu Lv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches for gas path performance estimation of dynamic systems are commonly used, the most common being the variants of the Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter (EKF method is a popular approach for nonlinear systems which combines the traditional Kalman filtering and linearization techniques to effectively deal with weakly nonlinear and non-Gaussian problems. Its mathematical formulation is based on the assumption that the probability density function (PDF of the state vector can be approximated to be Gaussian. Recent investigations have focused on the particle filter (PF based on Monte Carlo sampling algorithms for tackling strong nonlinear and non-Gaussian models. Considering the aircraft engine is a complicated machine, operating under a harsh environment, and polluted by complex noises, the PF might be an available way to monitor gas path health for aircraft engines. Up to this point in time a number of Kalman filtering approaches have been used for aircraft turbofan engine gas path health estimation, but the particle filters have not been used for this purpose and a systematic comparison has not been published. This paper presents gas path health monitoring based on the PF and the constrained extend Kalman particle filter (cEKPF, and then compares the estimation accuracy and computational effort of these filters to the EKF for aircraft engine performance estimation under rapid faults and general deterioration. Finally, the effects of the constraint mechanism and particle number on the cEKPF are discussed. We show in this paper that the cEKPF outperforms the EKF, PF and EKPF, and conclude that the cEKPF is the best choice for turbofan engine health monitoring.

  7. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Malvezzi, Alex J.

    2015-02-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (~2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection.

  8. Residue Geometry Networks: A Rigidity-Based Approach to the Amino Acid Network and Evolutionary Rate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Alexander S.; Cole, Daniel J.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-09-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) abstract the protein structure by recording the amino acid contacts and can provide insight into protein function. Herein, we describe a novel AAN construction technique that employs the rigidity analysis tool, FIRST, to build the AAN, which we refer to as the residue geometry network (RGN). We show that this new construction can be combined with network theory methods to include the effects of allowed conformal motions and local chemical environments. Importantly, this is done without costly molecular dynamics simulations required by other AAN-related methods, which allows us to analyse large proteins and/or data sets. We have calculated the centrality of the residues belonging to 795 proteins. The results display a strong, negative correlation between residue centrality and the evolutionary rate. Furthermore, among residues with high closeness, those with low degree were particularly strongly conserved. Random walk simulations using the RGN were also successful in identifying allosteric residues in proteins involved in GPCR signalling. The dynamic function of these residues largely remain hidden in the traditional distance-cutoff construction technique. Despite being constructed from only the crystal structure, the results in this paper suggests that the RGN can identify residues that fulfil a dynamical function.

  9. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  10. Science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) as mathematics learning approach in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaturrahmah, Naila; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    This 21st century demands competent human resources in science, technology, engineering design and mathematics so that education is expected to integrate the four disciplines. This paper aims to describe the importance of STEM as mathematics learning approach in Indonesia in the 21st century. This paper uses a descriptive analysis research method, and the method reveals that STEM education growing in developed countries today can be a framework for innovation mathematics in Indonesia in the 21st century. STEM education integrate understanding of science, math skills, and the available technology with the ability to perform engineering design process. Implementation of mathematics learning with STEM approach makes graduates trained in using of mathematics knowledge that they have to create innovative products that are able to solve the problems that exist in society.

  11. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  12. Model-driven engineering approach to design and implementation of robot control system

    OpenAIRE

    Trojanek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply a model-driven engineering approach to designing domain-specific solutions for robot control system development. We present a case study of the complete process, including identification of the domain meta-model, graphical notation definition and source code generation for subsumption architecture -- a well-known example of robot control architecture. Our goal is to show that both the definition of the robot-control architecture and its supporting tools fits well into t...

  13. An engineering approach to the problem of natural carbonation accompanied by drying-wetting cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Mickaël; Baroghel Bouny, Véronique; CREMONA, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drying-wetting cycles have a dominating influence on the carbonation process of reinforced concrete structures, since the diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the concrete thickness and the reaction rate of the CO2 dissolution in the pores strongly depend on the moisture content. The Papadakis' (1989) [1] and Bakker's (1993) [2] models are engineering approaches to the problem of carbonation in cementitious materials. The Papadakis' model predicts the formation of a sharp carbonat...

  14. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  15. Leonardo on hydrostatic force: a research engineering approach towards the idea of hydrostatic pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavagnero, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    As evidenced by many scholars, hydraulics was one of the main interests of Leonardo da Vinci; his manuscripts are full of drawings and projects on water, accompanied by a variety of notes, subtle meditations, and some remarkable considerations. Leonardo's expertise in this field surely comes, first of all, from the well-established technical tradition of his time. But the particular approach that he often adopts to study and solve the problems encountered in his activity as an engineer someti...

  16. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Tremaine; Gorlach, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE) approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication...

  17. Engineering Protein Self-Assembly: A New Approach for the Design of Octahedral Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnon, Fabien B L

    2016-12-14

    A new symmetry-based approach allowed the self-assembly of an octahedral protein nanostructure. C3 trimeric and C4 tetrameric oligomerization domains can be combined in an engineered protein to direct assembly into a desired object. This work might provide the basis for a more general and flexible strategy to control protein self-assembly. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Integrated approaches for implementing building information modelling (BIM) in engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelseth, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry faces high demand for candidates with relevant Building Information Modelling (BIM) competency, yet higher education continues to struggle in providing such competencies. This conceptual paper explores the use of an integrated approach to implement BIM into the curriculum for undergraduates and graduates in engineering. The curriculum under study employed the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) pedagogical framework for integrating three BIM related s...

  19. The limitations of the reverse-engineering approach to cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G

    2012-10-01

    Frost's critique reveals the limitations of the reverse-engineering approach to cognitive modeling--the style of psychological explanation in which a stipulated internal organization (in the form of a computational mechanism) explains a relatively narrow set of phenomena. An alternative is to view organization as both the explanation for some phenomena and a phenomenon to be explained. This move poses new and interesting theoretical challenges for theories of word reading.

  20. A multi-criteria optimization and decision-making approach for improvement of food engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alik Abakarov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique to solve food engineering problems. This technique was demonstrated using experimental data obtained on osmotic dehydration of carrot cubes in a sodium chloride solution. The Aggregating Functions Approach, the Adaptive Random Search Algorithm, and the Penalty Functions Approach were used in this study to compute the initial set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions. Multiple non-linear regression analysis was performed on a set of experimental data in order to obtain particular multi-objective functions (responses, namely water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, three different colour criteria of rehydrated product, and sensory evaluation (organoleptic quality. Two multi-criteria decision-making approaches, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Tabular Method (TM, were used simultaneously to choose the best alternative among the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique proposed in this study can facilitate the assessment of criteria weights, giving rise to a fairer, more consistent, and adequate final compromised solution or food process. This technique can be useful to food scientists in research and education, as well as to engineers involved in the improvement of a variety of food engineering processes.

  1. Evolutionary history of the grey-faced Sengi, Rhynchocyon udzungwensis, from Tanzania: a molecular and species distribution modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda P Lawson

    Full Text Available Rhynchocyon udzungwensis is a recently described and poorly understood sengi (giant elephant-shrew endemic to two small montane forests in Southern Tanzania, and surrounded in lower forests by R. cirnei reichardi. In this study, we investigate the molecular genetic relationship between R. udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi, and the possible role that shifting species distributions in response to climate fluctuations may have played in shaping their evolutionary history. Rhynchocyon udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi individuals were sampled from five localities for genetic analyses. Three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci were used to construct species trees for delimitation and to determine whether introgression was detectable either from ancient or ongoing hybridization. All species-tree results show R. udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi as distinct lineages, though mtDNA shows evidence of introgression in some populations. Nuclear loci of each species were monophyletic, implying introgression is exclusively historical. Because we found evidence of introgression, we used distribution data and species distribution modelling for present, glacial, and interglacial climate cycles to predict how shifting species distributions may have facilitated hybridization in some populations. Though interpretations are affected by the limited range of these species, a likely scenario is that the mtDNA introgression found in eastern mid-elevation populations was facilitated by low numbers of R. udzungwensis that expanded into lowland heavily occupied R. c. reichardi areas during interglacial climate cycles. These results imply that relationships within the genus Rhynchocyon may be confounded by porous species boundaries and introgression, even if species are not currently sympatric.

  2. Evolutionary History of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative Approaches to Timetree Dating in the Absence of a Fossil Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Stephen; Foley, Nicole M; Biju, S D; Teeling, Emma C

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dating studies typically need fossils to calibrate the analyses. Unfortunately, the fossil record is extremely poor or presently nonexistent for many species groups, rendering such dating analysis difficult. One such group is the Asian horned frogs (Megophryinae). Sampling all generic nomina, we combined a novel ∼5 kb dataset composed of four nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments to produce a robust phylogeny, with an extensive external morphological study to produce a working taxonomy for the group. Expanding the molecular dataset to include out-groups of fossil-represented ancestral anuran families, we compared the priorless RelTime dating method with the widely used prior-based Bayesian timetree method, MCMCtree, utilizing a novel combination of fossil priors for anuran phylogenetic dating. The phylogeny was then subjected to ancestral phylogeographic analyses, and dating estimates were compared with likely biogeographic vicariant events. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that previously proposed systematic hypotheses were incorrect due to the paraphyly of genera. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and timetree results support the recognition of Megophryinae as a single genus, Megophrys, with a subgenus level classification. Timetree results using RelTime better corresponded with the known fossil record for the out-group anuran tree. For the priorless in-group, it also outperformed MCMCtree when node date estimates were compared with likely influential historical biogeographic events, providing novel insights into the evolutionary history of this pan-Asian anuran group. Given a relatively small molecular dataset, and limited prior knowledge, this study demonstrates that the computationally rapid RelTime dating tool may outperform more popular and complex prior reliant timetree methodologies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  3. An evolutionary approach uncovers a diverse response of tRNA 2-thiolation to elevated temperatures in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alings, Fiona; Sarin, L Peter; Fufezan, Christian; Drexler, Hannes C A; Leidel, Sebastian A

    2015-02-01

    Chemical modifications of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are evolutionarily well conserved and critical for translation and tRNA structure. Little is known how these nucleoside modifications respond to physiological stress. Using mass spectrometry and complementary methods, we defined tRNA modification levels in six yeast species in response to elevated temperatures. We show that 2-thiolation of uridine at position 34 (s(2)U34) is impaired at temperatures exceeding 30°C in the commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains S288C and W303, and in Saccharomyces bayanus. Upon stress relief, thiolation levels recover and we find no evidence that modified tRNA or s(2)U34 nucleosides are actively removed. Our results suggest that loss of 2-thiolation follows accumulation of newly synthesized tRNA that lack s(2)U34 modification due to temperature sensitivity of the URM1 pathway in S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Furthermore, our analysis of the tRNA modification pattern in selected yeast species revealed two alternative phenotypes. Most strains moderately increase their tRNA modification levels in response to heat, possibly constituting a common adaptation to high temperatures. However, an overall reduction of nucleoside modifications was observed exclusively in S288C. This surprising finding emphasizes the importance of studies that utilize the power of evolutionary biology, and highlights the need for future systematic studies on tRNA modifications in additional model organisms. © 2015 Alings et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. A Systematic Approach for Model-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A requirement for effective aircraft engine performance estimation is the ability to account for engine degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. This paper presents a linear point design methodology for minimizing the degradation-induced error in model-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications. The technique specifically focuses on the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown health parameters than available sensor measurements. A condition for Kalman filter-based estimation is that the number of health parameters estimated cannot exceed the number of sensed measurements. In this paper, the estimated health parameter vector will be replaced by a reduced order tuner vector whose dimension is equivalent to the sensed measurement vector. The reduced order tuner vector is systematically selected to minimize the theoretical mean squared estimation error of a maximum a posteriori estimator formulation. This paper derives theoretical estimation errors at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the estimation accuracy achieved through conventional maximum a posteriori and Kalman filter estimation approaches. Maximum a posteriori estimation results demonstrate that reduced order tuning parameter vectors can be found that approximate the accuracy of estimating all health parameters directly. Kalman filter estimation results based on the same reduced order tuning parameter vectors demonstrate that significantly improved estimation accuracy can be achieved over the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuner vector. However, additional development is necessary to fully extend the methodology to Kalman filter

  5. How should we foster the professional integrity of engineers in Japan? A pride-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseda, Tetsuji

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the predicament that engineering-ethics education in Japan now faces and propose a solution to this. The predicament is professional motivation, i.e., the problem of how to motivate engineering students to maintain their professional integrity. The special professional responsibilities of engineers are often explained either as an implicit social contract between the profession and society (the "social-contract" view), or as requirements for membership in the profession (the "membership-requirement" view). However, there are empirical data that suggest that such views will not do in Japan, and this is the predicament that confronts us. In this country, the profession of engineering did not exist 10 years ago and is still quite underdeveloped. Engineers in this country do not have privileges, high income, or high social status. Under such conditions, neither the social-contract view nor the membership-requirement view is convincing. As an alternative approach that might work in Japan, I propose a pride-based view. The notion of pride has been analyzed in the virtue-ethics literature, but the full potential of this notion has not been explored. Unlike other kinds of pride, professional pride can directly benefit the general public by motivating engineers to do excellent work even without social rewards, since being proud of themselves is already a reward. My proposal is to foster a particular kind of professional pride associated with the importance of professional services in society, as the motivational basis for professional integrity. There is evidence to suggest that this model works.

  6. Offspring mortality was a determinant factor in the evolution of paternal investment in humans: An evolutionary game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Diego; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Isabel M

    2017-04-21

    Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto's Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, 'desert-unfaithful' and 'care-faithful'. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, 'care-unfaithful'. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate (s) and the non-paternity rate (z), with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates (s = 0.617 and z = 0.033) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the 'care-faithful' strategy. The 'desert-unfaithful' strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates (z>0.2). When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of 'care-unfaithful' man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, 'care' fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The 'care-faithful' strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but 'care-unfaithful' men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be

  7. Deformation and fracture of solid-state materials field theoretical approach and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a comprehensive theory of deformation and fracture to engineers and applied scientists. The author explains the gist of local symmetry (gauge invariance) intuitively so that engineers and applied physicists can digest it easily, rather than describing physical or mathematical details of the principle. Applications of the theory to practical engineering are also described, such as nondestructive testing, in particular, with the use of an optical interferometric technique called ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry). The book provides information on how to apply physical concepts to engineering applications. This book also: ·         Describes a highly original way to reveal loading hysteresis of a given specimen ·         Presents a fundamentally new approach to deformation and fracture, which offers potential for new applications ·         Introduces the unique application of Electric Speckle-Pattern Interferometry—reading fringe patterns to connect...

  8. Building international experiences into an engineering curriculum - a design project-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Victor; Castillo, Luciano; Carbajal, Gerardo; Hajela, Prabhat

    2014-07-01

    This paper is a descriptive account of how short-term international and multicultural experiences can be integrated into early design experiences in an aerospace engineering curriculum. Such approaches are considered as important not only in fostering a student's interest in the engineering curriculum, but also exposing them to a multicultural setting that they are likely to encounter in their professional careers. In the broader sense, this programme is described as a model that can be duplicated in other engineering disciplines as a first-year experience. In this study, undergraduate students from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Universidad del Turabo (UT) in Puerto Rico collaborated on a substantial design project consisting of designing, fabricating, and flight-testing radio-controlled model aircraft as a capstone experience in a semester-long course on Fundamentals of Flight. The two-week long experience in Puerto Rico was organised into academic and cultural components designed with the following objectives: (i) to integrate students in a multicultural team-based academic and social environment, (ii) to practise team-building skills and develop students' critical thinking and analytical skills, and finally (iii) to excite students about their engineering major through practical applications of aeronautics and help them decide if it is a right fit for them.

  9. A Model-Based Approach to Engineering Behavior of Complex Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Michel; Day, John; Donahue, Kenneth; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew; Khan, Mohammed Omair; Post, Ethan; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging yet poorly defined aspects of engineering a complex aerospace system is behavior engineering, including definition, specification, design, implementation, and verification and validation of the system's behaviors. This is especially true for behaviors of highly autonomous and intelligent systems. Behavior engineering is more of an art than a science. As a process it is generally ad-hoc, poorly specified, and inconsistently applied from one project to the next. It uses largely informal representations, and results in system behavior being documented in a wide variety of disparate documents. To address this problem, JPL has undertaken a pilot project to apply its institutional capabilities in Model-Based Systems Engineering to the challenge of specifying complex spacecraft system behavior. This paper describes the results of the work in progress on this project. In particular, we discuss our approach to modeling spacecraft behavior including 1) requirements and design flowdown from system-level to subsystem-level, 2) patterns for behavior decomposition, 3) allocation of behaviors to physical elements in the system, and 4) patterns for capturing V&V activities associated with behavioral requirements. We provide examples of interesting behavior specification patterns, and discuss findings from the pilot project.

  10. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  11. Towards the design of 3D multiscale instructive tissue engineering constructs: Current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-11-01

    The design of 3D constructs with adequate properties to instruct and guide cells both in vitro and in vivo is one of the major focuses of tissue engineering. Successful tissue regeneration depends on the favorable crosstalk between the supporting structure, the cells and the host tissue so that a balanced matrix production and degradation are achieved. Herein, the major occurring events and players in normal and regenerative tissue are overviewed. These have been inspiring the selection or synthesis of instructive cues to include into the 3D constructs. We further highlight the importance of a multiscale perception of the range of features that can be included on the biomimetic structures. Lastly, we focus on the current and developing tissue-engineering approaches for the preparation of such 3D constructs: top-down, bottom-up and integrative. Bottom-up and integrative approaches present a higher potential for the design of tissue engineering devices with multiscale features and higher biochemical control than top-down strategies, and are the main focus of this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of pristinamycin I (PI) production in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis by metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiali; Feng, Rongrong; Zheng, Guosong; Ge, Mei; Mast, Yvonne; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Gao, Jufang; Jiang, Weihong; Lu, Yinhua

    2017-06-01

    Pristinamycin, produced by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, which is a streptogramin-like antibiotic consisting of two chemically unrelated components: pristinamycin I (PI) and pristinamycin II (PII), shows potent activity against many antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, so far pristinamycin production titers are still quite low, particularly those of PI. In this study, we constructed a PI single component producing strain by deleting the PII biosynthetic genes (snaE1 and snaE2). Then, two metabolic engineering approaches, including deletion of the repressor gene papR3 and chromosomal integration of an extra copy of the PI biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), were employed to improve PI production. The final engineered strain ΔPIIΔpapR3/PI produced a maximum PI level of 132 mg/L, with an approximately 2.4-fold higher than that of the parental strain S. pristinaespiralis HCCB10218. Considering that the PI biosynthetic genes are clustered in two main regions in the 210 kb "supercluster" containing the PI and PII biosynthetic genes as well as a cryptic polyketide BGC, these two regions were cloned separately and then were successfully assembled into the PI BGC by the transformation-associated recombination (TAR) system. Collectively, the metabolic engineering approaches employed is very efficient for strain improvement in order to enhance PI titer.

  13. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  14. An approach to evaluating system well-being in engineering reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to evaluating the degree of system well-being of an engineering system. The functionality of the system is identified by healthy, marginal and risk states. The state definitions permit the inclusion of deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices used to monitor the system well-being. A technique is developed to determine the three operating state probabilities based on minimal path concepts. The identified indices provide system engineers with additional information on the degree of system well-being in the form of system health and margin state probabilities. A basic planning objective should be to design a system such that the probabilities of the health and risk states are acceptable. The application of the technique is illustrated in this paper using a relatively simple network.

  15. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  16. Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

    Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

  17. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Morris, Zachary S; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Tok, Atalay; Tokita, Masayoshi; Namkoong, Bumjin; Camacho, Jasmin; Burnham, David A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2015-07-01

    The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First, we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial WNT-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. To test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later WNT responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Evolutionary Computing for Intelligent Power System Optimization and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book focuses on how evolutionary computing techniques benefit engineering research and development tasks by converting practical problems of growing complexities into simple formulations, thus largely reducing development efforts. This book begins with an overview of the optimization the...... theory and modern evolutionary computing techniques, and goes on to cover specific applications of evolutionary computing to power system optimization and control problems....

  19. An Approach to Developing Independent Learning and Non-Technical Skills Amongst Final Year Mining Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was…

  20. A Hybrid Approach to Cognitive Engineering: Supporting Development of a Revolutionary Warfighter-Centered Command and Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ockerman, Jennifer; McKneely, Jennifer A; Koterba, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    ...) for the requirements analysis and design of revolutionary command and control systems and domains. This hybrid approach uses knowledge elicitation and representation techniques from several current cognitive engineering methodologies...

  1. Robust diagnostic approach for uncertain systems: an example for the jet engine sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pau-Lo; Shen, Li-Cheng

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents a novel eigenstructure assignment approach for sythesizing robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems with known inputs. After formulating the FDI problem in eigenstructure assigment, we proceed to develop a parametric characterization of all allowable eigenspaces for disturbance decoupling to achieve robust fault detection. In addition to the structured uncertainties, the robustness of the diagnostic observer to unstructured modeling errors is discussed. A numerical algorithm is further proposed to suppress the effects due to the unstructured uncertainties. The overall robustness of the diagnostic strategy is verfied through simulation studies on jet engine systems.

  2. Methodologic model to scheduling on service systems: a software engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduyn Ramiro Lopez-Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach of software engineering to a research proposal to make an Expert System to scheduling on service systems using methodologies and processes of software development. We use the adaptive software development as methodology for the software architecture based on the description as a software metaprocess that characterizes the research process. We make UML’s diagrams (Unified Modeling Language to provide a visual modeling that describes the research methodology in order to identify the actors, elements and interactions in the research process.

  3. A Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Approach to Motivate Group Creativity in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how engineering students are motivated to develop group creativity in a Problem and Project- Based Learning (PBL) environment. Theoretically, we take a social cultural approach to group creativity and emphasize the influences of a learning environment on student motivation...... in multiple ways in a PBL environment, such as formal and informal group discussions, regular supervisor meetings and sharing leadership. Furthermore, factors such as common goals, support of peers and openness stimulate motivation. However, the students think that a time schedule is a barrier to group...

  4. A Bayesian approach on molecules and behavior: reconsidering phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of the Salamandridae with emphasis on Triturus newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Vicario, Saverio; Arntzen, J W; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-03-15

    The monophyly of European newts of the genus Triturus within the family Salamandridae has for decades rested on presumably homologous behavioral and morphological characters. Molecular data challenge this hypothesis, but the phylogenetic position of Triturus within the Salamandridae has not yet been convincingly resolved. We addressed this issue and the temporal divergence of Triturus within the Salamandridae with novel Bayesian approaches applied to DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S and cytb). We included 38 salamandrid species comprising all 13 recognized species of Triturus and 16 out of 17 salamandrid genera. A clade comprising all the "Newts" can be separated from the "True Salamanders" and Salamandrina clades. Within the "Newts" well-supported clades are: Tylototriton-Pleurodeles, the "New World Newts" (Notophthalmus-Taricha), and the "Modern Eurasian Newts" (Cynops, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton=together the "Modern Asian Newts", Calotriton, Euproctus, Neurergus and Triturus species). We found that Triturus is a non-monophyletic species assemblage, which includes four groups that are themselves monophyletic: (i) the "Large-Bodied Triturus" (six species), (ii) the "Small-Bodied Triturus" (five species), (iii) T. alpestris and (iv) T. vittatus. We estimated that the last common ancestor of Triturus existed around 64 million years ago (mya) while the root of the Salamandridae dates back to 95 mya. This was estimated using a fossil-based molecular dating approach and an explicit framework to select calibration points that least underestimated their corresponding nodes. Using the molecular phylogeny we mapped the evolution of life history and courtship traits in Triturus and found that several Triturus-specific courtship traits evolved independently. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ecological Engineering Approaches to Improve Hydraulic Properties of Infiltration Basins Designed for Groundwater Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gette-Bouvarot, Morgane; Volatier, Laurence; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Simon, Laurent; Delolme, Cécile; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian

    2015-08-18

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for groundwater recharge. The reduction of sediment permeability by physical and/or biological processes is a major problem in management of infiltration systems often requiring expensive engineering operations for hydraulic performance maintenance. To reduce these costs and for the sake of sustainable development, we proposed to evaluate the ability of ecological engineering approaches to reduce the biological clogging of infiltration basins. A 36-day field-scale experiment using enclosures was performed to test the influences of abiotic (light reduction by shading) and biotic (introduction of the macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis (L.) or the gastropod Viviparus viviparus (Linnaeus, 1758)) treatments to limit benthic biofilm biomass and to maintain or even increase hydraulic performances. We coupled biological characterization of sediment (algal biomass, bacterial abundance, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial enzymatic activity, photosynthetic activity, and photosystem II efficiency) with hydraulic conductivity measurements to assess the effects of treatments on sediment permeability. The grazer Viviparus viviparus significantly reduced benthic biofilm biomass and enhanced hydraulic conductivity. The other treatments did not produce significant changes in hydraulic conductivity although Vallisneria spiralis affected photosynthetic activity of biofilm. Finally, our results obtained with Viviparus viviparus are promising for the development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological fouling in infiltration systems.

  6. A Unified Nonlinear Adaptive Approach for Detection and Isolation of Engine Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Farfan-Ramos, Luis; Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    A challenging problem in aircraft engine health management (EHM) system development is to detect and isolate faults in system components (i.e., compressor, turbine), actuators, and sensors. Existing nonlinear EHM methods often deal with component faults, actuator faults, and sensor faults separately, which may potentially lead to incorrect diagnostic decisions and unnecessary maintenance. Therefore, it would be ideal to address sensor faults, actuator faults, and component faults under one unified framework. This paper presents a systematic and unified nonlinear adaptive framework for detecting and isolating sensor faults, actuator faults, and component faults for aircraft engines. The fault detection and isolation (FDI) architecture consists of a parallel bank of nonlinear adaptive estimators. Adaptive thresholds are appropriately designed such that, in the presence of a particular fault, all components of the residual generated by the adaptive estimator corresponding to the actual fault type remain below their thresholds. If the faults are sufficiently different, then at least one component of the residual generated by each remaining adaptive estimator should exceed its threshold. Therefore, based on the specific response of the residuals, sensor faults, actuator faults, and component faults can be isolated. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using the NASA C-MAPSS turbofan engine model, and simulation results are presented.

  7. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, University of California Davis, Davis CA 95616 USA; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  8. A top-down approach in control engineering third-level teaching: The case of hydrogen-generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, M. Afnan; Fall, Cheikh; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a top-down approach in control engineering third-level teaching. The paper shows the control engineering solution for the issue of practical implementation in order to motivate students. The proposed strategy only focuses on one technique of control engineering to lead student correctly. The proposed teaching steps are 1) defining the problem, 2) listing of acquired knowledge or required skill, 3) selecting of one control engineering technique, 4) arrangement the order of teaching: problem introduction, implementation of control engineering technique, explanation of system block diagram, model derivation, controller design, and 5) enrichment knowledge by the other control techniques. The approach presented highlights hardware implementation and the use of software simulation as a self-learning tool for students.

  9. Evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner, Jacob; Du, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Cong

    2017-01-01

    , and these produced, on average, 35% higher yields than cultivars with the highest fitness. It is unlikely that plant breeding or genetic engineering can improve traits that natural selection has been optimizing for millions of years, but there is unutilized potential in traits that increase crop yield by decreasing...

  10. Combined analytical and numerical approaches in Dynamic Stability analyses of engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náprstek, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic Stability is a widely studied area that has attracted many researchers from various disciplines. Although Dynamic Stability is usually associated with mechanics, theoretical physics or other natural and technical disciplines, it is also relevant to social, economic, and philosophical areas of our lives. Therefore, it is useful to occasionally highlight the general aspects of this amazing area, to present some relevant examples and to evaluate its position among the various branches of Rational Mechanics. From this perspective, the aim of this study is to present a brief review concerning the Dynamic Stability problem, its basic definitions and principles, important phenomena, research motivations and applications in engineering. The relationships with relevant systems that are prone to stability loss (encountered in other areas such as physics, other natural sciences and engineering) are also noted. The theoretical background, which is applicable to many disciplines, is presented. In this paper, the most frequently used Dynamic Stability analysis methods are presented in relation to individual dynamic systems that are widely discussed in various engineering branches. In particular, the Lyapunov function and exponent procedures, Routh-Hurwitz, Liénard, and other theorems are outlined together with demonstrations. The possibilities for analytical and numerical procedures are mentioned together with possible feedback from experimental research and testing. The strengths and shortcomings of these approaches are evaluated together with examples of their effective complementing of each other. The systems that are widely encountered in engineering are presented in the form of mathematical models. The analyses of their Dynamic Stability and post-critical behaviour are also presented. The stability limits, bifurcation points, quasi-periodic response processes and chaotic regimes are discussed. The limit cycle existence and stability are examined together with their

  11. E-learning and blended learning in textile engineering education: a closed feedback loop approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitopoulos, A.; Vassiliadis, S.; Rangoussi, M.; Koulouriotis, D.

    2017-10-01

    E-learning has gained a significant role in typical education and in professional training, thanks to the flexibility it offers to the time and location parameters of the education event framework. Purely e-learning scenarios are mostly limited either to Open University-type higher education institutions or to graduate level or professional degrees; blended learning scenarios are progressively becoming popular thanks to their balanced approach. The aim of the present work is to propose approaches that exploit the e-learning and the blended-learning scenarios for Textile Engineering education programmes, especially for multi-institutional ones. The “E-Team” European MSc degree programme organized by AUTEX is used as a case study. The proposed solution is based on (i) a free and open-source e-learning platform (moodle) and (ii) blended learning educational scenarios. Educational challenges addressed include student engagement, student error / failure handling, as well as collaborative learning promotion and support.

  12. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. SPU memory management strategies such as data preloading cannot be applied to the irregular memory storage patterns of unstructured meshes; and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  13. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. The most common SPU memory management strategies cannot be applied to the irregular memory access patterns of unstructured meshes, and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  14. A Model-Free Diagnosis Approach for Intake Leakage Detection and Characterization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Hoblos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an essential step for data classification used in fault detection and diagnosis processes. In this work, a new approach is proposed, which combines a feature selection algorithm and a neural network tool for leak detection and characterization tasks in diesel engine air paths. The Chi square classifier is used as the feature selection algorithm and the neural network based on Levenberg-Marquardt is used in system behavior modeling. The obtained neural network is used for leak detection and characterization. The model is learned and validated using data generated by xMOD. This tool is used again for testing. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated in simulation when the system operates on a low speed/load and the considered leak affecting the air path is very small.

  15. Improving Knowledge Management in the Health Service: Re-Engineering Approach Towards Successful Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert

    Changes to business practices involve risks. There has always been an attempt to develop various concepts for successful restructuring of business processes to enable technology adoption. This is due to the fact that the success of any business depends as much on how it is structured, as well as its ability to adopt new technology. As a consequence, the great success stories of the global economy emanate from those organisations most capable of adopting new technology, which invariably includes information technology (IT). This chapter examines how business process re-engineering (BPR) can be used to improve knowledge management (KM) in health services by (i) assessing the effectiveness and usefulness of BPR; (ii) present a critical review of approaches to BPR; and (iii) describe a framework for using BPR for KM based on empirical research. The aim is to provide a sound strategic and tactical management approach for successful implementation of knowledge management systems (KMS) to improve health-care service project administration.

  16. Vibration Monitoring of Gas Turbine Engines: Machine-Learning Approaches and Their Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Matthaiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, condition monitoring strategies are examined for gas turbine engines using vibration data. The focus is on data-driven approaches, for this reason a novelty detection framework is considered for the development of reliable data-driven models that can describe the underlying relationships of the processes taking place during an engine’s operation. From a data analysis perspective, the high dimensionality of features extracted and the data complexity are two problems that need to be dealt with throughout analyses of this type. The latter refers to the fact that the healthy engine state data can be non-stationary. To address this, the implementation of the wavelet transform is examined to get a set of features from vibration signals that describe the non-stationary parts. The problem of high dimensionality of the features is addressed by “compressing” them using the kernel principal component analysis so that more meaningful, lower-dimensional features can be used to train the pattern recognition algorithms. For feature discrimination, a novelty detection scheme that is based on the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM algorithm is chosen for investigation. The main advantage, when compared to other pattern recognition algorithms, is that the learning problem is being cast as a quadratic program. The developed condition monitoring strategy can be applied for detecting excessive vibration levels that can lead to engine component failure. Here, we demonstrate its performance on vibration data from an experimental gas turbine engine operating on different conditions. Engine vibration data that are designated as belonging to the engine’s “normal” condition correspond to fuels and air-to-fuel ratio combinations, in which the engine experienced low levels of vibration. Results demonstrate that such novelty detection schemes can achieve a satisfactory validation accuracy through appropriate selection of two parameters of the

  17. Tissue-engineered mandibular bone reconstruction for continuity defects: a systematic approach to the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Junker, Rüdiger; Jongpaiboonkit, Leenaporn; Jansen, John A

    2014-04-01

    Despite significant surgical advances over the last decades, segmental mandibular bone repair remains a challenge. In light of this, tissue engineering might offer a next step in the evolution of mandibular reconstruction. The purpose of the present report was to (1) systematically review preclinical in vivo as well as clinical literature regarding bone tissue engineering for mandibular continuity defects, and (2) to analyze their effectiveness. An electronic search in the databases of the National Library of Medicine and ISI Web of Knowledge was carried out. Only publications in English were considered, and the search was broadened to animals and humans. Furthermore, the reference lists of related review articles and publications selected for inclusion in this review were systematically screened. Results of histology data and amount of bone bridging were chosen as primary outcome variables. However, for human reports, clinical radiographic evidence was accepted for defined primary outcome variable. The biomechanical properties, scaffold degradation, and clinical wound healing were selected as co-outcome variables. The electronic search in the databases of the National Library of Medicine and ISI Web of Knowledge resulted in the identification of 6727 and 5017 titles, respectively. Thereafter, title assessment and hand search resulted in 128 abstracts, 101 full-text articles, and 29 scientific papers reporting on animal experiments as well as 11 papers presenting human data on the subject of tissue-engineered reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects that could be included in the present review. It was concluded that (1) published preclinical in vivo as well as clinical data are limited, and (2) tissue-engineered approaches demonstrate some clinical potential as an alternative to autogenous bone grafting.

  18. Tissue Engineering Approaches in the Design of Healthy and Pathological In Vitro Tissue Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Silvia; Boffito, Monica; Sartori, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions. In this context, 3D in vitro models can more realistically reproduce a tissue or organ than two-dimensional (2D) models. Moreover, they can overcome the limitations of animal models and reduce the need for in vivo tests, according to the “3Rs” guiding principles for a more ethical research. The design of 3D engineered tissue models is currently in its development stage, showing high potential in overcoming the limitations of already available models. However, many issues are still opened, concerning the identification of the optimal scaffold-forming materials, cell source and biofabrication technology, and the best cell culture conditions (biochemical and physical cues) to finely replicate the native tissue and the surrounding environment. In the near future, 3D tissue-engineered models are expected to become useful tools in the preliminary testing and screening of drugs and therapies and in the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning disease onset and progression. In this review, the application of TE principles to the design of in vitro 3D models will be surveyed, with a focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging approach. In addition, a brief overview on the development of in vitro models of healthy and pathological bone, heart, pancreas, and

  19. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-12-01

    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocational Process of College Students in Statuses of Achievement and Academic Lagging: An Analysis from the Donald Super’s Evolutionary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel María Bulgarelli-Bolaños

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an investigation whose main purpose was to analyze students’ vocational development in statuses of achievement and academic lagging in Bachelor’s Degree in Industrial Chemistry at the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, during 2014, by implementing Donald Super’s evolutionary approach. A naturalist paradigm, a design of collective case studies of four people (two students from each academic status, four data gathering tools (in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, in-depth discussion meetings, and observation, and the categorical thematic analysis method were applied. It was found that there are differences in the vocational process of the four cases studied when referring to one academic status or the other, where the category of achievement is more leaning trend to a better vocational performance, even though it is not a predictor of this; while the academic lagging presents more difficulties in its different vocational stages. Therefore, it is recommended not to neglect academic, vocational and personal-social support to any of both populations, considering their particularities related to the specific vocational processes and the evaluations they carry out during the career.

  1. Moving towards in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Augustinus; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    In June 2008, the world's first whole tissue-engineered organ - the windpipe - was successfully transplanted into a 31-year-old lady, and about 18 months following surgery she is leading a near normal life without immunosuppression. This outcome has been achieved by employing three groundbreaking technologies of regenerative medicine: (i) a donor trachea first decellularized using a detergent (without denaturing the collagenous matrix), (ii) the two main autologous tracheal cells, namely mesenchymal stem cell derived cartilage-like cells and epithelial respiratory cells and (iii) a specifically designed bioreactor that reseed, before implantation, the in vitro pre-expanded and pre-differentiated autologous cells on the desired surfaces of the decellularized matrix. Given the long-term safety, efficacy and efforts using such a conventional approach and the potential advantages of regenerative implants to make them available for anyone, we have investigated a novel alternative concept how to fully avoid in vitro cell replication, expansion and differentiation, use the human native site as micro-niche, potentiate the human body's site-specific response by adding boosting, permissive and recruitment impulses in full respect of sociological and regulatory prerequisites. This tissue-engineered approach and ongoing research in airway transplantation is reviewed and presented here.

  2. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  3. A gene stacking approach leads to engineered plants with highly increased galactan levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondolf, Vibe M; Stoppel, Rhea; Ebert, Berit; Rautengarten, Carsten; Liwanag, April Jm; Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V

    2014-12-10

    Engineering of plants with a composition of lignocellulosic biomass that is more suitable for downstream processing is of high interest for next-generation biofuel production. Lignocellulosic biomass contains a high proportion of pentose residues, which are more difficult to convert into fuels than hexoses. Therefore, increasing the hexose/pentose ratio in biomass is one approach for biomass improvement. A genetic engineering approach was used to investigate whether the amount of pectic galactan can be specifically increased in cell walls of Arabidopsis fiber cells, which in turn could provide a potential source of readily fermentable galactose. First it was tested if overexpression of various plant UDP-glucose 4-epimerases (UGEs) could increase the availability of UDP-galactose and thereby increase the biosynthesis of galactan. Constitutive and tissue-specific expression of a poplar UGE and three Arabidopsis UGEs in Arabidopsis plants could not significantly increase the amount of cell wall bound galactose. We then investigated co-overexpression of AtUGE2 together with the β-1,4-galactan synthase GalS1. Co-overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 led to over 80% increase in cell wall galactose levels in Arabidopsis stems, providing evidence that these proteins work synergistically. Furthermore, AtUGE2 and GalS1 overexpression in combination with overexpression of the NST1 master regulator for secondary cell wall biosynthesis resulted in increased thickness of fiber cell walls in addition to the high cell wall galactose levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that the increased galactose was present as β-1,4-galactan in secondary cell walls. This approach clearly indicates that simultaneous overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 increases the cell wall galactose to much higher levels than can be achieved by overexpressing either one of these proteins alone. Moreover, the increased galactan content in fiber cells while improving the biomass composition had no impact

  4. A constraint-based evolutionary learning approach to the expectation maximization for optimal estimation of the hidden Markov model for speech signal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Shamsul; Yearwood, John; Togneri, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    This paper attempts to overcome the tendency of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to locate a local rather than global maximum when applied to estimate the hidden Markov model (HMM) parameters in speech signal modeling. We propose a hybrid algorithm for estimation of the HMM in automatic speech recognition (ASR) using a constraint-based evolutionary algorithm (EA) and EM, the CEL-EM. The novelty of our hybrid algorithm (CEL-EM) is that it is applicable for estimation of the constraint-based models with many constraints and large numbers of parameters (which use EM) like HMM. Two constraint-based versions of the CEL-EM with different fusion strategies have been proposed using a constraint-based EA and the EM for better estimation of HMM in ASR. The first one uses a traditional constraint-handling mechanism of EA. The other version transforms a constrained optimization problem into an unconstrained problem using Lagrange multipliers. Fusion strategies for the CEL-EM use a staged-fusion approach where EM has been plugged with the EA periodically after the execution of EA for a specific period of time to maintain the global sampling capabilities of EA in the hybrid algorithm. A variable initialization approach (VIA) has been proposed using a variable segmentation to provide a better initialization for EA in the CEL-EM. Experimental results on the TIMIT speech corpus show that CEL-EM obtains higher recognition accuracies than the traditional EM algorithm as well as a top-standard EM (VIA-EM, constructed by applying the VIA to EM).

  5. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  6. A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Katie C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

  7. Development of a Study Module on and Pedagogical Approaches to Industrial Environmental Engineering and Sustainability in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husgafvel, Roope; Martikka, Mikko; Egas, Andrade; Ribiero, Natasha; Dahl, Olli

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the sustainability challenges in the forest sector in Mozambique requires capacity building for higher education and training of new skilled expert and future decision-makers. Our approach was to develop a study module on and pedagogical approaches to industrial environmental engineering and sustainability. The idea was to develop a…

  8. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking biogeomorphic feedbacks from ecosystem engineer to landscape scale: a panarchy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Jana

    2017-04-01

    Scale is a fundamental concept in both ecology and geomorphology. Therefore, scale-based approaches are a valuable tool to bridge the disciplines and improve the understanding of feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, material and organisms and ecological processes in biogeomorphology. Yet, linkages between biogeomorphic feedbacks on different scales, e.g. between ecosystem engineering and landscape scale patterns and dynamics, are not well understood. A panarchy approach sensu Holling et al. (2002) can help to close this research gap and explain how structure and function are created in biogeomorphic ecosystems. Based on results from previous biogeomorphic research in Turtmann glacier foreland (Switzerland; Eichel, 2017; Eichel et al. 2013, 2016), a panarchy concept is presented for lateral moraine slope biogeomorphic ecosystems. It depicts biogeomorphic feedbacks on different spatiotemporal scales as a set of nested adaptive cycles and links them by 'remember' and 'revolt' connections. On a small scale (cm2 - m2; seconds to years), the life cycle of the ecosystem engineer Dryas octopetala L. is considered as an adaptive cycle. Biogeomorphic succession within patches created by geomorphic processes represents an intermediate scale adaptive cycle (m2 - ha, years to decades), while geomorphic and ecologic pattern development at a landscape scale (ha - km2, decades to centuries) can be illustrated by an adaptive cycle of ‚biogeomorphic patch dynamics' (Eichel, 2017). In the panarchy, revolt connections link the smaller scale adaptive cycles to larger scale cycles: on lateral moraine slopes, the development of ecosystem engineer biomass and cover controls the engineering threshold of the biogeomorphic feedback window (Eichel et al., 2016) and therefore the onset of the biogeomorphic phase during biogeomorphic succession. In this phase, engineer patches and biogeomorphic structures can be created in the patch mosaic of the landscape. Remember connections

  10. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  11. Enzymatic Menthol Production: One-Pot Approach Using Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Helen S; Ní Cheallaigh, Aisling; Tait, Shirley; Mansell, David J; Jervis, Adrian; Lygidakis, Antonios; Humphreys, Luke; Takano, Eriko; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-10-16

    Menthol isomers are high-value monoterpenoid commodity chemicals, produced naturally by mint plants, Mentha spp. Alternative clean biosynthetic routes to these compounds are commercially attractive. Optimization strategies for biocatalytic terpenoid production are mainly focused on metabolic engineering of the biosynthesis pathway within an expression host. We circumvent this bottleneck by combining pathway assembly techniques with classical biocatalysis methods to engineer and optimize cell-free one-pot biotransformation systems and apply this strategy to the mint biosynthesis pathway. Our approach allows optimization of each pathway enzyme and avoidance of monoterpenoid toxicity issues to the host cell. We have developed a one-pot (bio)synthesis of (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol and (1S,2S,5R)-(+)-neomenthol from pulegone, using recombinant Escherichia coli extracts containing the biosynthetic genes for an "ene"-reductase (NtDBR from Nicotiana tabacum) and two menthone dehydrogenases (MMR and MNMR from Mentha piperita). Our modular engineering strategy allowed each step to be optimized to improve the final production level. Moderate to highly pure menthol (79.1%) and neomenthol (89.9%) were obtained when E. coli strains coexpressed NtDBR with only MMR or MNMR, respectively. This one-pot biocatalytic method allows easier optimization of each enzymatic step and easier modular combination of reactions to ultimately generate libraries of pure compounds for use in high-throughput screening. It will be, therefore, a valuable addition to the arsenal of biocatalysis strategies, especially when applied for (semi)-toxic chemical compounds.

  12. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Data Quality Indicators Composition and Calculus: Engineering and Information Systems Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon REZNIK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big Data phenomenon is a result of novel technological developments in sensor, computer and communication technologies. Nowadays more and more data are produced by nanoscale photonic, optoelectronic and electronic devices. However, their quality characteristics could be very low. The paper proposes new methods of the data management with huge data amounts that is based on associating of data quality indicators with each data entity. To achieve this goal, one needs to define the composition of the data quality indicators and to develop their integration calculus. As data quality evaluation involves multi-disciplinary research, various metrics have been investigated. The paper describes two major approaches in assigning the data quality indicators and developing their integration calculus. The information systems approach employs traditional high-level metrics like data accuracy, consistency and completeness. The engineering approach utilizes signal characteristics processed with the probability based calculus. The data quality metrics composition and calculus are discussed. The tools developed to automate the metrics selection and calculus procedures are presented. The user- friendly interface examples are provided.

  14. Engineering Leadership Education--The Search for Definition and a Curricular Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    While industry and academia agree that leadership skills are critical for engineering graduates, there exists no consensus regarding the definition of "engineering leadership". The engineering leadership development program at Penn State University has a decade-long experience in teaching leadership to engineering undergraduates. In…

  15. Fuzzy multiple-criteria decision-making approach for industrial green engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Hua-kai; Tzeng, Gwo-hshiung

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes a fuzzy hierarchical analytic approach to determine the weighting of subjective judgments. In addition, it presents a nonadditive fuzzy integral technique to evaluate a green engineering industry case as a fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (FMCDM) problem. When the investment strategies are evaluated from various aspects, such as economic effectiveness, technical feasibility, and environmental regulation, it can be regarded as an FMCDM problem. Since stakeholders cannot clearly estimate each considered criterion in terms of numerical values for the anticipated alternatives/strategies, fuzziness is considered to be applicable. Consequently, this paper uses triangular fuzzy numbers to establish weights and anticipated achievement values. By ranking fuzzy weights and fuzzy synthetic utility values, we can determine the relative importance of criteria and decide the best strategies. This paper applies what is called a lambda fuzzy measure and nonadditive fuzzy integral technique to evaluate the synthetic performance of green engineering strategies for aquatic products processors in Taiwan. In addition, we demonstrate that the nonadditive fuzzy integral is an effective evaluation and appears to be appropriate, especially when the criteria are not independent.

  16. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Ronald [Chrysler Group LLC., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2015-05-20

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  17. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  18. A Multicellular Approach Forms a Significant Amount of Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frédéric G.; Matthews, Jamil A.; Speer, Allison L.; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Barthel, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has successfully been used to rescue Lewis rats after massive small bowel resection. In this study, we transitioned the technique to a mouse model, allowing investigation of the processes involved during TESI formation through the transgenic tools available in this species. This is a necessary step toward applying the technique to human therapy. Multicellular organoid units were derived from small intestines of transgenic mice and transplanted within the abdomen on biodegradable polymers. Immunofluorescence staining was used to characterize the cellular processes during TESI formation. We demonstrate the preservation of Lgr5- and DcamKl1-positive cells, two putative intestinal stem cell populations, in proximity to their niche mesenchymal cells, the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs), at the time of implantation. Maintenance of the relationship between ISEMF and crypt epithelium is observed during the growth of TESI. The engineered small intestine has an epithelium containing a differentiated epithelium next to an innervated muscularis. Lineage tracing demonstrates that all the essential components, including epithelium, muscularis, nerves, and some of the blood vessels, are of donor origin. This multicellular approach provides the necessary cell population to regenerate large amounts of intestinal tissue that could be used to treat short bowel syndrome. PMID:21395443

  19. Aerobic treatment of explosives-contaminated soils using two engineering approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.E.; Gunnison, D.; Fredrickson, H.L. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). USAE Waterways Experiment Station

    1995-12-31

    Explosives contamination represents a widespread problem to the US Department of Defense. The potential of two aerobic engineering application approaches--bioslurry and bioagriculture systems--for aerobic biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils was evaluated using bench-scale reactors, the results were that the addition of a commercially available surfactant dramatically improved the treatment effectiveness of both the bioslurry and bioagriculture systems. Formation and disappearance of aminonitrotoluenes (aminodinitrotoluenes and diaminonitrotoluenes) and nitrobenzenes (di- and trinitrotoluenes) were observed within both systems. The bioslurry systems had much more rapid removal kinetics than the bioagriculture systems. The rationale for this observation is believed to be the superior conditions provided in the bioslurry system over those provided within the bioagriculture system.

  20. A Control Engineering Approach for Designing an Optimized Treatment Plan for Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Nandola, Naresh N; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred

    2011-06-29

    Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient means for optimizing the effectiveness of behavioral interventions. In this paper, we present an approach to develop dynamical models and subsequently, hybrid model predictive control schemes for assigning optimal dosages of naltrexone as treatment for a chronic pain condition known as fibromyalgia. We apply system identification techniques to develop models from daily diary reports completed by participants of a naltrexone intervention trial. The dynamic model serves as the basis for applying model predictive control as a decision algorithm for automated dosage selection of naltrexone in the face of the external disturbances. The categorical/discrete nature of the dosage assignment creates a need for hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) schemes. Simulation results that include conditions of significant plant-model mismatch demonstrate the performance and applicability of hybrid predictive control for optimized adaptive interventions for fibromyalgia treatment involving naltrexone.

  1. The NASA Space Launch System Program Systems Engineering Approach for Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, John J.; Whitehead, Josh; Hanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing the Space Launch System to provide the United States with a capability to launch large Payloads into Low Earth orbit and deep space. One of the development tenets of the SLS Program is affordability. One initiative to enhance affordability is the SLS approach to requirements definition, verification and system certification. The key aspects of this initiative include: 1) Minimizing the number of requirements, 2) Elimination of explicit verification requirements, 3) Use of certified models of subsystem capability in lieu of requirements when appropriate and 4) Certification of capability beyond minimum required capability. Implementation of each aspect is described and compared to a "typical" systems engineering implementation, including a discussion of relative risk. Examples of each implementation within the SLS Program are provided.

  2. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Tremaine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Automated guided vehicles (AGVs are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication were successfully accomplished and tested in the real industrial environment. The developed AGV is capable of towing trolleys with a weight of up to 200kg at walking speed. The AGV can be incorporated into an intelligent material-handling system with multiple autonomous vehicles and work stations, thus providing flexibility and reconfigurability for the whole manufacturing system. Ergonomic and safety aspects were also considered in the design of the AGV. A comprehensive safety system that is compliant with industrial standards was implemented.

  3. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chabaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes.

  4. Use of Time- and Frequency-Domain Approaches for Damage Detection in Civil Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply both time- and frequency-domain-based approaches on real-life civil engineering structures and to assess their capability for damage detection. The methodology is based on Principal Component Analysis of the Hankel matrix built from output-only measurements and of Frequency Response Functions. Damage detection is performed using the concept of subspace angles between a current (possibly damaged state and a reference (undamaged state. The first structure is the Champangshiehl Bridge located in Luxembourg. Several damage levels were intentionally created by cutting a growing number of prestressed tendons and vibration data were acquired by the University of Luxembourg for each damaged state. The second example consists in reinforced and prestressed concrete panels. Successive damages were introduced in the panels by loading heavy weights and by cutting steel wires. The illustrations show different consequences in damage identification by the considered techniques.

  5. An integrated approach to develop professional and technical skills for informatics engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João M.; van Hattum-Janssen, Natascha; Nestor Ribeiro, António; Fonte, Victor; Santos, Luís Paulo; Sousa, Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Many of the current approaches used in teaching and learning in engineering education are not the most appropriate to prepare students for the challenges they will face in their professional careers. The active involvement of students in their learning process facilitates the development of the technical and professional competencies they need as professionals. This article describes the organisation and impact of a mini-conference and project work - the creation of a software product and its introduction in the market - aimed at the development of professional competencies in general and writing skills in particular. The course was evaluated by assessing the students' perception of the development of a number of professional competencies through a questionnaire completed by 125 students from two consecutive year groups. The results indicate that the project work and the mini-conference had a positive impact on students' perceptions of the development of professional competencies.

  6. An Interdisciplinary Approach Between Medical Informatics and Social Sciences to Transdisciplinary Requirements Engineering for an Integrated Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Jan; Böckmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Requirements engineering of software products for elderly people faces some special challenges to ensure a maximum of user acceptance. Within the scope of a research project, a web-based platform and a mobile app are approached to enable people to live in their own home as long as possible. This paper is about a developed method of interdisciplinary requirements engineering by a team of social scientists in cooperation with computer scientists.

  7. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  8. Application of a sensemaking approach to ethics training in the physical sciences and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Waples, Ethan P; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D; Hougen, Dean F

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  9. Colloidal gas aphron foams: A novel approach to a hydrogel based tissue engineered myocardial patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth Edna

    Cardiovascular disease currently affects an estimated 58 million Americans and is the leading cause of death in the US. Over 2.3 million Americans are currently living with heart failure a leading cause of which is acute myocardial infarction, during which a part of the heart muscle is damaged beyond repair. There is a great need to develop treatments for damaged heart tissue. One potential therapy involves replacement of nonfunctioning scar tissue with a patch of healthy, functioning tissue. A tissue engineered cardiac patch would be ideal for such an application. Tissue engineering techniques require the use of porous scaffolds, which serve as a 3-D template for initial cell attachment and grow-th leading to tissue formation. The scaffold must also have mechanical properties closely matching those of the tissues at the site of implantation. Our research presents a new approach to meet these design requirements. A unique interaction between poly(vinyl alcohol) and amino acids has been discovered by our lab, resulting in the production of novel gels. These unique synthetic hydrogels along with one natural hydrogel, alginate (derived from brown seaweed), have been coupled with a new approach to tissue scaffold fabrication using solid colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs). CGAs are colloidal foams containing uniform bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers. Upon solidification the GCAs form a porous, 3-D network suitable for a tissue scaffold. The project encompasses four specific aims: (I) characterize hydrogel formation mechanism, (II) use colloidal gas aphrons to produce hydrogel scaffolds, (III) chemically and physically characterize scaffold materials and (IV) optimize and evaluate scaffold biocompatibility.

  10. A Software Engineering Approach based on WebML and BPMN to the Mediation Scenario of the SWS Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Ceri, Stefano; Valle, Emanuele Della; Facca, Federico M.; Tziviskou, Christina

    Although Semantic Web Services are expected to produce a revolution in the development of Web-based systems, very few enterprise-wide design experiences are available; one of the main reasons is the lack of sound Software Engineering methods and tools for the deployment of Semantic Web applications. In this chapter, we present an approach to software development for the Semantic Web based on classical Software Engineering methods (i.e., formal business process development, computer-aided and component-based software design, and automatic code generation) and on semantic methods and tools (i.e., ontology engineering, semantic service annotation and discovery).

  11. On Analysis of Electrical Engineering Programme in GCC Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Qurban A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical engineering (EE) curricula in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region have gone through an evolutionary process, and are now approaching a maturity level. In order to address academic and local industrial needs in a unified way, a need has been felt to investigate EE curricula in a way that highlights theoretical understanding, design…

  12. Labeling Genetically Engineered Food in the United States: Suggestions for a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bryan Endres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA provides that a food is misbranded if the label accompanying the product is false or misleading in any particular. Congress provided minimal guidance to assist the FDA in making these determinations. When challenged, courts have granted substantial deference to FDA’s various interpretations of what constitute a material fact. However, when confronted with the regulatory question of whether or how to label products derived from genetically engineered (GE crops, the FDA adopted a narrow reading of the statute that focused on changes in the product itself, rather than the act of genetic engineering. Only those GE products that possessed characteristics significantly different from their conventional counterparts would require labels. This “process versus product” distinction in food labels lies at the heart of the FDA’s resistance to repeated calls for mandatory labeling of foods derived from genetic engineering. Consumer interest in GE food, according to the agency, is not a material fact to trigger mandatory labeling under the statute. In contrast to its approach to GE labels, the agency has long required (since 1966 process-based labels for foods treated with irradiation. As recently as 1986, the FDA affirmed that materiality of information under it misbranding analysis is not limited to product safety or even the abstract worth of the information, but whether consumers view the information as important and whether the omission of a labeling statement would mislead the consumer. Accordingly, mere consumer interest can give rise to a mandatory labeling regime under the FFDCA. In the irradiation context, whole foods and single-ingredient products treated with irradiation must bear a label indicating the process. The irradiation of components in a multi-ingredient food product, however, need not bear a label. This distinction between processed, multi-ingredient and whole or single

  13. An introduction to comparative evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd K

    2013-07-18

    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology." This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  14. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Evolutionary genomics of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chemical toxins have been a persistent source of evolutionary challenges throughout the history of life, and deep within the genomic storehouse of evolutionary history lay ancient adaptations to diverse chemical poisons. However, the rate of change of contemporary environments mediated by human-introduced pollutants is rapidly screening this storehouse and severely testing the adaptive potential of many species. In this chapter, we briefly review the deep history of evolutionary adaptation to environmental toxins, and then proceed to describe the attributes of stressors and populations that may facilitate contemporary adaptation to pollutants introduced by humans. We highlight that phenotypes derived to enable persistence in polluted habitats may be multi-dimensional, requiring global genome-scale tools and approaches to uncover their mechanistic basis, and include examples of recent progress in the field. The modern tools of genomics offer promise for discovering how pollutants interact with genomes on physiological timescales, and also for discovering what genomic attributes of populations may enable resistance to pollutants over evolutionary timescales. Through integration of these sophisticated genomics tools and approaches with an understanding of the deep historical forces that shaped current populations, a more mature understanding of the mechanistic basis of contemporary ecological-evolutionary dynamics should emerge.

  16. Implementation of CDIO Approach in training engineering specialists for the benefit of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneykin Yury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the competition and changing needs of the world, universities strive to analyze these needs to timely offer necessary educational programs. One of the newest trends in engineering education is sustainable development. To support the concept and implement it into life it is necessary to train specialists able to promote sustainable development that inevitably leads to the necessity to develop educational programs embracing newest approaches considering up-to-date conditions and requirements. There are many efforts globally to develop educational programs for sustainable development. One of the common problems for Universities around the world is the virtual absence of comprehensive educational programs preparing specialists for sustainable development at all three levels of educational process: Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD levels. Authors analyze the content of existing educational programs for sustainable development and suggest using Conceive, Design, Implement and Operate (CDIO Approach, Standards and Syllabus that might be successfully applied for the development of up-to-date educational programs for sustainability at all three levels of educational process.

  17. Prediction analysis of effluent removal in a septic sludge treatment plant: a biomimetics engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

    2014-09-20

    Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique.

  18. Association of Finite-Time Thermodynamics and a Bond-Graph Approach for Modeling an Endoreversible Heat Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Feidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the approach known as Finite-Time Thermodynamics has provided a fruitful theoretical framework for the optimization of heat engines operating between a heat source (at temperature and a heat sink (at temperature . The aim of this paper is to propose a more complete approach based on the association of Finite-Time Thermodynamics and the Bond-Graph approach for modeling endoreversible heat engines. This approach makes it possible for example to find in a simple way the characteristics of the optimal operating point at which the maximum mechanical power of the endoreversible heat engine is obtained with entropy flow rate as control variable. Furthermore it provides the analytical expressions of the optimal operating point of an irreversible heat engine where the energy conversion is accompanied by irreversibilities related to internal heat transfer and heat dissipation phenomena. This original approach, applied to an analysis of the performance of a thermoelectric generator, will be the object of a future publication.

  19. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  20. A System-of-Systems Engineering Approach for Australian Land Force Capability Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Systems Engineering SEI CMMI Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model Integration SEP Systems Engineering Plan SoS System-of-Systems...capability. It would be fair to rate the Australian Defence SoS Capability Level on the SEI CMMI – Acquisition (SEI, 2010) scale as Level 0...management strategies on system of system capability engineering effort, PhD Thesis , University of Southern California. Levis A.H. and Wagenhals L.W. 2000