WorldWideScience

Sample records for evolution regional perspectives

  1. Evolution and perspectives of the regional market of applicants for tertiary education in South Bohemian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Skořepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of the questionnaire surveys among high schools’ students in the Southbohemian Region. These surveys were done in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The aim of this article was to discover attitudes of the students of two terminal years of high schools as well as the students of higher professional schools to the new situation of the services offered by the sphere of tertiary educations. The supply of schools (measured by available capacity to take on students have recently exceeded over the demand of applicants for tertiary education. This is caused by an increase of the education capacity of universities on one hand and by the birth rate deflation affecting the number of graduates from high schools on the other hand. The number of latest graduates from high school is not adequate to the education capacity of universities where the income based on the education activity represents an important part of their revenues. Universities and their faculties in South Bohemia have abolished the traditional entrance exams and some of them accept even one hundred per cents of applicants. This situation resulted in the development of promotional campaign using all traditional promotional tools. Questionnaire surveys have focused on factors of the selection of a university and faculty to apply, the results of studying at the university, sources of information on existing universities and applicants’ expectations from their university studies. The three-year survey allows authors to generalize implications and conclusions for university managers when recruiting graduates. Applicants permanently prefer economic field of study; the main source for them when choosing is Internet and they expect particularly to find better employment and to reach higher remuneration.

  2. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  3. Evolution of Active Regions

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    Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of active regions (AR from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009. In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  4. NUMBER AND STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA’S EMPLOYED POPULATION - EVOLUTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES AT NATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

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    Mirela LAZĂR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contradictory evolutions of the indicators of labour force in Romania after 1900, with a trend hard to define, are sometimes difficult to explain using the classic statistical methods which show in certain cases surprising, atypical correlations. In this context, our paper presents the evolution of the employed population in Romania between 2002 and 2010, outlining the main dynamics and structural aspects. As a reinforcement of what was stated above, we realised a short-term forecast of the employed population and of the working age population , as well as a forecast of the structural changes of the employed population by development regions, using Markov’s chain method.

  5. Molecular Evolution in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2016-12-01

    In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms. These developments sparked important debates between defendants of the molecular and organismic approaches. The most vocal confrontations focused on the relation between primates and humans, and the neutral theory of molecular evolution. By the 1980s and 1990s, the construction of large protein and DNA sequences databases, and the development of computer-based statistical tools, facilitated the coming together of molecular and evolutionary biology. Although in its contemporary form the field of molecular evolution can be traced back to the last five decades, the field has deep roots in twentieth century experimental life sciences. For historians of science, the origins and consolidation of molecular evolution provide a privileged field for the study of scientific debates, the relation between technological advances and scientific knowledge, and the connection between science and broader social concerns.

  6. SEARCH and a computational perspective of evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper develops an alternate perspective of natural evolution using the SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework (Kargupta, 1995). Some problems of existing views about evolutionary computation are noted. An attempt is made to fulfill these deficiencies using a new computational perspective of gene expression based on a decomposition of blackbox optimization in terms of relations, classes, samples, and partial ordering.

  7. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  8. Language Evolution: A Changing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others. What may be distinctive in humans is the means to communicate these mental experiences along with knowledge gained from them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contributions of the Evolutive Perspective for Gerontology

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    Briseida Dôgo de Resende

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contributions that researches from Ethology and Evolutive Psychology can bring to Gerontology. From this perspective, human behavior may be understood under the light of Natural Selection. Thus, it is extremely important to consider how society and environment during human evolution were. This comprehension may facilitate the knowledge about how the mind and human society work, and may help to build a modern environment more similar to that of our ancestors. This paper introduces examples of evolutionary researches related to important aspects for gerontology, such as bereavement, depression and the role of grandmothers for raising children.

  10. Local and regional perspectives on adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tennberg, Monica; Dale, Brigt; Klyuchnikova, Elena; Löf, Annette; Masloboev, Vladimir; Scheepstra, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines current approaches for studying local and regional perspectives of change and implications for regional knowledge production, such as this assessment of the Barents area. There are three main approaches: community studies, indigenous knowledge and stakeholder approaches.

  11. The regional landscape: Nylsvley in perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PGH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available is provided so that these processes may be seen in their regional perspective. Little has previously been published on the position of the study area in the regional landscape, yet the ecological patterns and processes being researched at Nylsvley are largely...

  12. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  13. New Perspectives on Ebola Virus Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Celeste J; Quates, Caleb J; Mirabzadeh, Christopher A; Miller, Craig R; Wichman, Holly A; Miura, Tanya A; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    Since the recent devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease in western Africa, there has been significant effort to understand the evolution of the deadly virus that caused the outbreak. There has been a considerable investment in sequencing Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates, and the results paint an important picture of how the virus has spread in western Africa. EBOV evolution cannot be understood outside the context of previous outbreaks, however. We have focused this study on the evolution of the EBOV glycoprotein gene (GP) because one of its products, the spike glycoprotein (GP1,2), is central to the host immune response and because it contains a large amount of the phylogenetic signal for this virus. We inferred the maximum likelihood phylogeny of 96 nonredundant GP gene sequences representing each of the outbreaks since 1976 up to the end of 2014. We tested for positive selection and considered the placement of adaptive amino acid substitutions along the phylogeny and within the protein structure of GP1,2. We conclude that: 1) the common practice of rooting the phylogeny of EBOV between the first known outbreak in 1976 and the next outbreak in 1995 provides a misleading view of EBOV evolution that ignores the fact that there is a non-human EBOV host between outbreaks; 2) the N-terminus of GP1 may be constrained from evolving in response to the host immune system by the highly expressed, secreted glycoprotein, which is encoded by the same region of the GP gene; 3) although the mucin-like domain of GP1 is essential for EBOV in vivo, it evolves rapidly without losing its twin functions: providing O-linked glycosylation sites and a flexible surface.

  14. New Perspectives on Ebola Virus Evolution.

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    Celeste J Brown

    Full Text Available Since the recent devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease in western Africa, there has been significant effort to understand the evolution of the deadly virus that caused the outbreak. There has been a considerable investment in sequencing Ebola virus (EBOV isolates, and the results paint an important picture of how the virus has spread in western Africa. EBOV evolution cannot be understood outside the context of previous outbreaks, however. We have focused this study on the evolution of the EBOV glycoprotein gene (GP because one of its products, the spike glycoprotein (GP1,2, is central to the host immune response and because it contains a large amount of the phylogenetic signal for this virus. We inferred the maximum likelihood phylogeny of 96 nonredundant GP gene sequences representing each of the outbreaks since 1976 up to the end of 2014. We tested for positive selection and considered the placement of adaptive amino acid substitutions along the phylogeny and within the protein structure of GP1,2. We conclude that: 1 the common practice of rooting the phylogeny of EBOV between the first known outbreak in 1976 and the next outbreak in 1995 provides a misleading view of EBOV evolution that ignores the fact that there is a non-human EBOV host between outbreaks; 2 the N-terminus of GP1 may be constrained from evolving in response to the host immune system by the highly expressed, secreted glycoprotein, which is encoded by the same region of the GP gene; 3 although the mucin-like domain of GP1 is essential for EBOV in vivo, it evolves rapidly without losing its twin functions: providing O-linked glycosylation sites and a flexible surface.

  15. The Two Ecologies: Population and Community Perspectives on Organizational Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, W. Graham

    1985-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between two ecological perspectives on organizational evolution: population ecology, which limits investigation to evolutionary change in established populations, and community ecology, which focuses on the rise and fall of populations themselves as basic units of evolutionary change. These perspectives produce contrasting…

  16. Evolution and estimated age of the C5 Lukala carbonate-evaporite ramp complex in the Lower Congo region (Democratic Republic of Congo): New perspectives in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpomdor, F.; Van Vliet, N.; Devleeschouwer, X.; Tack, L.; Préat, A.

    2018-01-01

    New detailed lithological, sedimentological, chemostratigraphic data were obtained from exploration drilling samples on the C5 carbonate-dominated formation of the Neoproterozoic Lukala Subgroup (former Schisto-Calcaire Subgroup) from the West Congo Belt (WCB) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This formation records the last post-Marinoan sea-level events that occurred in the whole basin, followed by the development of the Araçuaï-West Congo Orogen between 630 and 560 Ma. The C5 Formation consists of back-reef lagoonal and peritidal/sabkha cycles of ∼2.0 m in thickness, that record a short-time marine regression, rapidly flooded by a marine transgression with deposition of organic-rich argillaceous carbonates or shales under dysoxia and anoxia conditions. These dysoxic/anoxic waters were rapidly followed by a regional-scale marine transgression, favouring mixing with well-oxygenated waters, and the development of benthic Tonian to Cambro-Ordovician Obruchevella parva-type 'seagrasses' in the nearshore zones of the lagoons. New δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic data in the C5 Formation of the Lukala Subgroup are used in the frame of a correlation with the Sete Lagoas Formation in Brazil. Relatively comparable negative to positive δ13C excursions point to marine flooding of the whole basin and allow extension of the debatable Late Ediacaran age of the uppermost Sete Lagoas and C5 formations. Sr isotope ;blind dating; failed due to low Sr concentration related to a dolomitization event close 540 Ma. Several tentative datings of the C5 Formation converge to a Late Ediacaran age ranging between 575 and 540 Ma. As the overlying Mpioka folded Subgroup, the C5 series suffered the Pan African deformation, dated at 566 ± 42 Ma. Unlike the previously generally accepted interpretation, our data suggests that the Mpioka Subgroup was deposited in the Early Cambrian.

  17. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

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    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  18. Region Evolution eXplorer - A tool for discovering evolution trends in ontology regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Victor; Hartung, Michael; Groß, Anika

    2015-01-01

    A large number of life science ontologies has been developed to support different application scenarios such as gene annotation or functional analysis. The continuous accumulation of new insights and knowledge affects specific portions in ontologies and thus leads to their adaptation. Therefore, it is valuable to study which ontology parts have been extensively modified or remained unchanged. Users can monitor the evolution of an ontology to improve its further development or apply the knowledge in their applications. Here we present REX (Region Evolution eXplorer) a web-based system for exploring the evolution of ontology parts (regions). REX provides an analysis platform for currently about 1,000 versions of 16 well-known life science ontologies. Interactive workflows allow an explorative analysis of changing ontology regions and can be used to study evolution trends for long-term periods. REX is a web application providing an interactive and user-friendly interface to identify (un)stable regions in large life science ontologies. It is available at http://www.izbi.de/rex.

  19. Perspective: Teaching evolution in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alters, Brian J; Nelson, Craig E

    2002-10-01

    In the past decade, the academic community has increased considerably its activity concerning the teaching and learning of evolution. Despite such beneficial activity, the state of public understanding of evolution is considered woefully lacking by most researchers and educators. This lack of understanding affects evolution/science literacy, research, and academia in general. Not only does the general public lack an understanding of evolution but so does a considerable proportion of college graduates. However, it is not just evolutionary concepts that students do not retain. In general, college students retain little of what they supposedly have learned. Worse yet, it is not just students who have avoided science and math who fail to retain fundamental science concepts. Students who have had extensive secondary-level and college courses in science have similar deficits. We examine these issues and explore what distinguishes effective pedagogy from ineffective pedagogy in higher education in general and evolution education in particular. The fundamental problem of students' prior conceptions is considered and why prior conceptions often underpin students' misunderstanding of the evolutionary concepts being taught. These conceptions can often be discovered and addressed. We also attend to concerns about coverage of course content and the influence of religious beliefs, and provide helpful strategies to improve college-level teaching of evolution.

  20. The evolution of music in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, I briefly review some comparative data that provide an empirical basis for research on the evolution of music making in humans. First, a brief comparison of music and language leads to discussion of design features of music, suggesting a deep connection between the biology of music and language. I then selectively review data on animal "music." Examining sound production in animals, we find examples of repeated convergent evolution or analogy (the evolution of vocal learning of complex songs in birds, whales, and seals). A fascinating but overlooked potential homology to instrumental music is provided by manual percussion in African apes. Such comparative behavioral data, combined with neuroscientific and developmental data, provide an important starting point for any hypothesis about how or why human music evolved. Regarding these functional and phylogenetic questions, I discuss some previously proposed functions of music, including Pinker's "cheesecake" hypothesis; Darwin's and others' sexual selection model; Dunbar's group "grooming" hypothesis; and Trehub's caregiving model. I conclude that only the last hypothesis receives strong support from currently available data. I end with a brief synopsis of Darwin's model of a songlike musical "protolanguage," concluding that Darwin's model is consistent with much of the available evidence concerning the evolution of both music and language. There is a rich future for empirical investigations of the evolution of music, both in investigations of individual differences among humans, and in interspecific investigations of musical abilities in other animals, especially those of our ape cousins, about which we know little.

  1. The Biology and Evolution of Music: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the biology of music (as of language) are highly interdisciplinary and demand the integration of diverse strands of evidence. In this paper, I present a comparative perspective on the biology and evolution of music, stressing the value of comparisons both with human language, and with those animal communication systems traditionally…

  2. Evolution of managerial problems from the perspective of management science

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    Marek Szarucki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Managerial problems and the process of their solving play an important role both in the theory of management science and practice of organisations’ functioning. There is a gap in the literature related to the evolution of management problems in the context of the methodological approaches to solve them. The main goal of this paper was to analyse the evolution of the managerial problems from the perspective of management science and to present dominant methodological approaches for problem solving. Based on the extensive literature analysis in the discipline of management science, the evolution of the managerial problems was described with relation to the sixteen streams of management science. The author reviewed the selected classifications of the management theory as well as proposed his own perspective, which took into account managerial problems and their evolution over time. Moreover, there was presented an attempt to depict sources of management problems from the historical perspective within the methodological approaches of management science. Despite the broad view on management problems presented in this paper, such perspective gives a good ground for developing new more specific problem classifications, addressing different facets of managerial problems.

  3. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identif...

  4. Transmodernity: Integrating perspectives on societal evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateljevic, I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper! engage with a broad range of literature that provides signals and evidence of an emerging and significant paradigm shift in human evolution. To describe this shift, different authors use a variety of terms, such as the transmodemity paradigm (Ghisi); the transmodern philosophy of

  5. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses

  6. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  7. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and

  8. Darwinian perspectives on the evolution of human languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Human languages evolve by a process of descent with modification in which parent languages give rise to daughter languages over time and in a manner that mimics the evolution of biological species. Descent with modification is just one of many parallels between biological and linguistic evolution that, taken together, offer up a Darwinian perspective on how languages evolve. Combined with statistical methods borrowed from evolutionary biology, this Darwinian perspective has brought new opportunities to the study of the evolution of human languages. These include the statistical inference of phylogenetic trees of languages, the study of how linguistic traits evolve over thousands of years of language change, the reconstruction of ancestral or proto-languages, and using language change to date historical events.

  9. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Paleobiological Perspectives on Early Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    Microfossils, stromatolites, and chemical biosignatures indicate that Earth became a biological planet more than 3.5 billion years ago, making most of life's history microbial. Proterozoic rocks preserve a rich record of cyanobacteria, including derived forms that differentiate multiple cell types. Stromatolites, in turn, show that microbial communities covered the seafloor from tidal flats to the base of the photic zone. The Archean record is more challenging to interpret, particularly on the question of cyanobacterial antiquity, which remains to be resolved. In the late Neoproterozoic Era, increasing oxygen and radiating eukaryotes altered the biosphere, with planktonic algae gaining ecological prominence in the water column, whereas seaweeds and, eventually, animals spread across shallow seafloors. From a microbial perspective, however, animals, algae, and, later, plants simply provided new opportunities for diversification, and, to this day, microbial metabolisms remain the only essential components of biogeochemical cycles. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. The evolution of CACSD tools-a software engineering perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Szymkat, Maciej

    1992-01-01

    The earlier evolution of computer-aided control system design (CACSD) tools is discussed from a software engineering perspective. A model of the design process is presented as the basis for principles and requirements of future CACSD tools. Combinability, interfacing in memory, and an open...... workspace are seen as important concepts in CACSD. Some points are made about the problem of buy or make when new software is required, and the idea of buy and make is put forward. Emphasis is put on the time perspective and the life cycle of the software...

  12. A New Perspective on Listeria monocytogenes Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Wirth, Thierry; Hollandt, Florian; Lavenir, Rachel; Lecuit, Marc; Le Monnier, Alban; Brisse, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a model organism for cellular microbiology and host–pathogen interaction studies and an important food-borne pathogen widespread in the environment, thus representing an attractive model to study the evolution of virulence. The phylogenetic structure of L. monocytogenes was determined by sequencing internal portions of seven housekeeping genes (3,288 nucleotides) in 360 representative isolates. Fifty-eight of the 126 disclosed sequence types were grouped into seven well-demarcated clonal complexes (clones) that comprised almost 75% of clinical isolates. Each clone had a unique or dominant serotype (4b for clones 1, 2 and 4, 1/2b for clones 3 and 5, 1/2a for clone 7, and 1/2c for clone 9), with no association of clones with clinical forms of human listeriosis. Homologous recombination was extremely limited (r/m<1 for nucleotides), implying long-term genetic stability of multilocus genotypes over time. Bayesian analysis based on 438 SNPs recovered the three previously defined lineages, plus one unclassified isolate of mixed ancestry. The phylogenetic distribution of serotypes indicated that serotype 4b evolved once from 1/2b, the likely ancestral serotype of lineage I. Serotype 1/2c derived once from 1/2a, with reference strain EGDe (1/2a) likely representing an intermediate evolutionary state. In contrast to housekeeping genes, the virulence factor internalin (InlA) evolved by localized recombination resulting in a mosaic pattern, with convergent evolution indicative of natural selection towards a truncation of InlA protein. This work provides a reference evolutionary framework for future studies on L. monocytogenes epidemiology, ecology, and virulence. PMID:18773117

  13. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE - A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

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    Gabriela Carmen Pascariu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing integration of Romania in the global economy is a reality of the last years, proved through a constant growth of the foreign trade with other countries, which exceeded, in terms ofdynamics, both GDP and industrial production. In the first part of our paper, we intend to analyze the evolution of Romanian foreign trade in the period 1995-2007, focusing on the proportions of the imports and exports, at regional level. We wish to emphasize the correlations between the indicators that describe the degree of openness to foreign trade and indicators of competitiveness and specialization in different industries. The main goal of our approach is to highlight the sectors which generate comparative advantages and potential competitiveness poles, contributing significantly to the increase of the Romanian economy, expressed in GDP/capita. In the second part of the paper, based on the frame of analysis and interpretation defined and implemented in the first part, we intend to establish if the agglomeration processes in some regions of ourcountry will lead gradually to the strengthening of growth poles and, therefore to boost the foreign trade.

  14. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  15. The biblical creation accounts and evolution: A catholic perspective*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hartin

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Faith and reason are not two conflicting sources for knowledge. Truth is one, and both faith and reason try to give an understanding of the truth from different perspectives which are not necessarily contradictory. This is illustrated by means of an issue that is often presented as an area of conflict between faith and science, namely creation and evolution. Using the methods of historical criticism, and examination of the biblical creation accounts is undertaken. The purpose is to ascertain the message of these accounts with regard to God and humanity. A further examination is made to see how this message has been understood over the centuries in the context of Roman Catholic tradition. Finally, the attempt will be made to show how an understanding of evolution can be harmonised with what Scripture teaches and the way it has been appropriated over the centuries.

  16. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Störring, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a ne...

  17. The biology and evolution of music: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2006-05-01

    Studies of the biology of music (as of language) are highly interdisciplinary and demand the integration of diverse strands of evidence. In this paper, I present a comparative perspective on the biology and evolution of music, stressing the value of comparisons both with human language, and with those animal communication systems traditionally termed "song". A comparison of the "design features" of music with those of language reveals substantial overlap, along with some important differences. Most of these differences appear to stem from semantic, rather than structural, factors, suggesting a shared formal core of music and language. I next review various animal communication systems that appear related to human music, either by analogy (bird and whale "song") or potential homology (great ape bimanual drumming). A crucial comparative distinction is between learned, complex signals (like language, music and birdsong) and unlearned signals (like laughter, ape calls, or bird calls). While human vocalizations clearly build upon an acoustic and emotional foundation shared with other primates and mammals, vocal learning has evolved independently in our species since our divergence with chimpanzees. The convergent evolution of vocal learning in other species offers a powerful window into psychological and neural constraints influencing the evolution of complex signaling systems (including both song and speech), while ape drumming presents a fascinating potential homology with human instrumental music. I next discuss the archeological data relevant to music evolution, concluding on the basis of prehistoric bone flutes that instrumental music is at least 40,000 years old, and perhaps much older. I end with a brief review of adaptive functions proposed for music, concluding that no one selective force (e.g., sexual selection) is adequate to explaining all aspects of human music. I suggest that questions about the past function of music are unlikely to be answered

  18. The genetic evolution of canine parvovirus - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Li, Shoujun

    2017-01-01

    To trace the evolution process of CPV-2, all of the VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 and FPV (from 1978 to 2015) from GenBank were analyzed in this study. Then, several new ideas regarding CPV-2 evolution were presented. First, the VP2 amino acid 555 and 375 positions of CPV-2 were first ruled out as a universal mutation site in CPV-2a and amino acid 101 position of FPV feature I or T instead of only I in existing rule. Second, the recently confusing nomenclature of CPV-2 variants was substituted with a optional nomenclature that would serve future CPV-2 research. Third, After check the global distribution of variants, CPV-2a is the predominant variant in Asia and CPV-2c is the predominant variant in Europe and Latin America. Fourth, a series of CPV-2-like strains were identified and deduced to evolve from modified live vaccine strains. Finally, three single VP2 mutation (F267Y, Y324I, and T440A) strains were caught concern. Furthermore, these three new VP2 mutation strains may be responsible for vaccine failure, and the strains with VP2 440A may become the novel CPV sub-variant. In conclusion, a summary of all VP2 sequences provides a new perspective regarding CPV-2 evolution and the correlative biological studies needs to be further performed.

  19. The genetic evolution of canine parvovirus - A new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available To trace the evolution process of CPV-2, all of the VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 and FPV (from 1978 to 2015 from GenBank were analyzed in this study. Then, several new ideas regarding CPV-2 evolution were presented. First, the VP2 amino acid 555 and 375 positions of CPV-2 were first ruled out as a universal mutation site in CPV-2a and amino acid 101 position of FPV feature I or T instead of only I in existing rule. Second, the recently confusing nomenclature of CPV-2 variants was substituted with a optional nomenclature that would serve future CPV-2 research. Third, After check the global distribution of variants, CPV-2a is the predominant variant in Asia and CPV-2c is the predominant variant in Europe and Latin America. Fourth, a series of CPV-2-like strains were identified and deduced to evolve from modified live vaccine strains. Finally, three single VP2 mutation (F267Y, Y324I, and T440A strains were caught concern. Furthermore, these three new VP2 mutation strains may be responsible for vaccine failure, and the strains with VP2 440A may become the novel CPV sub-variant. In conclusion, a summary of all VP2 sequences provides a new perspective regarding CPV-2 evolution and the correlative biological studies needs to be further performed.

  20. Agglomeration economies in European regions: perspectives for objective 1 regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogaru, T.; Oort, F.G. van; Thissen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth is one of the main European policy objectives of structural funds targeted at objective 1 regions. In an empirical analysis on growth differentials over 219 European regions between 2000 and 2010, we find that – controlled for other determinants – objective 1 regions grow in

  1. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Stoerring, Dagmara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need...... to focus on the carriers of the cluster policy. Despite this importance of the role of policy actors, research in cluster development and even cluster policy has generally not emphasized a more precise specification of this role. This paper contributes to this debate by substantiating the concept...... of “clusterpreneurs” defined as important actors in cluster formation. We illustrate the role of clusterpreneurs by the example of a biomedical technology cluster initiative in North Jutland, Denmark and point to the presence of different types of dilemmas connected with cluster policy. We show how the presence...

  2. Robotics in urological surgery: evolution, current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, A; Sanchez-Salas, R; Prapotnich, D; Barret, E; Mombet, A; Cathala, N; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2015-09-01

    Robotic surgery is rapidly evolving and has become an essential part of surgical practice in several parts of the world. Robotic technology will expand globally and most of the surgeons around the world will have access to surgical robots in the future. It is essential that we are updated about the outcomes of robot assisted surgeries which will allow everyone to develop an unbiased opinion on the clinical utility of this innovation. In this review we aim to present the evolution, objective evaluation of clinical outcomes and future perspectives of robot assisted urologic surgeries. A systematic literature review of clinical outcomes of robotic urological surgeries was made in the PUBMED. Randomized control trials, cohort studies and review articles were included. Moreover, a detailed search in the web based search engine was made to acquire information on evolution and evolving technologies in robotics. The present evidence suggests that the clinical outcomes of the robot assisted urologic surgeries are comparable to the conventional open surgical and laparoscopic results and are associated with fewer complications. However, long term results are not available for all the common robotic urologic surgeries. There are plenty of novel developments in robotics to be available for clinical use in the future. Robotic urologic surgery will continue to evolve in the future. We should continue to critically analyze whether the advances in technology and the higher cost eventually translates to improved overall surgical performance and outcomes. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation in teaching regional anesthesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani AD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ankeet D Udani,1 T Edward Kim,2,3 Steven K Howard,2,3 Edward R Mariano2,3On behalf of the ADAPT (Anesthesiology-Directed Advanced Procedural Training Research Group1Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care Service, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: The emerging subspecialty of regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine represents an opportunity to evaluate critically the current methods of teaching regional anesthesia techniques and the practice of acute pain medicine. To date, there have been a wide variety of simulation applications in this field, and efficacy has largely been assumed. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that effective teaching strategies, including simulation, in regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine are not established completely yet. Future research should be directed toward comparative-effectiveness of simulation versus other accepted teaching methods, exploring the combination of procedural training with realistic clinical scenarios, and the application of simulation-based teaching curricula to a wider range of learner, from the student to the practicing physician.Keywords: regional anesthesia, simulation, medical education, ultrasound, nerve block, simulator

  4. An integrated perspective on rural regional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellbrock, W.; Roep, D.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Regional learning and innovation is a key to promote more resilient, robust and inclusive rural areas. Current analytical frameworks focus on support for knowledge spill-over from academia to industry and sector-oriented learning. The high diversity of actors and activities contributing to rural

  5. The Femarnbelt Tunnel: Regional Development Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Lundhus, Peter

    2011-01-01

    structures (bridges/ tunnels) spanning international waterways. They concentrate traffic flows and create strong transport corridors and are the basis of new regional development regimes. In early 2011, following almost two years of extensive work on different conceptual designs for the fixed link...... it was decided that an immersed tunnel should form the basis for the continuous planning of the project, including the environmental impact studies. Completion of the link is scheduled for 2020...

  6. Social Compacts in Regional and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2009-01-01

    the impact of global restructuring on labour and social conditions. Examples of the distributional consequences and resulting inequality, poverty, and unemployment are provided. This process has had an important impact on the emergence of reactive regional social compacts based on various forms of negotiated...... théoriser et de conceptualiser les notions de la mondialisation et de la gouvernance globale et régionale. La transformation de l'aide sociale en workfare (assistance sociale en échange du travail) et les impacts d'une restructuration globale sur le travail et les conditions sociales sont analysés, exemples...

  7. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of metropolitan planning policies and institutions in the Greater Copenhagen Region (GCR) over the past century. The paper’s focus is twofold. First, it develops an understanding regarding the fluctuating planning context in the GCR through a historical...... analysis concerned with the evolution of ad hoc regional plans. Furthering this analysis, the paper then delves into the diverse forms of metropolitan governance in the GCR and classifies them into different periods defined by particular policy milestones. The case of metropolitan planning and governance...... in the GCR is inspiring from an international comparative planning perspective given that the spatial concepts and logics provided by the influential 1947 Finger Plan for Greater Copenhagen as well as its succeeding descendants have endured as the foundation for modern city and regional planning to date...

  8. Evolution of the Z-scheme of photosynthesis: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindjee; Shevela, Dmitriy; Björn, Lars Olof

    2017-09-01

    The concept of the Z-scheme of oxygenic photosynthesis is in all the textbooks. However, its evolution is not. We focus here mainly on some of the history of its biophysical aspects. We have arbitrarily divided here the 1941-2016 period into three sub-periods: (a) Origin of the concept of two light reactions: first hinted at, in 1941, by James Franck and Karl Herzfeld; described and explained, in 1945, by Eugene Rabinowitch; and a clear hypothesis, given in 1956 by Rabinowitch, of the then available cytochrome experiments: one light oxidizing it and another reducing it; (b) Experimental discovery of the two light reactions and two pigment systems and the Z-scheme of photosynthesis: Robert Emerson's discovery, in 1957, of enhancement in photosynthesis when two light beams (one in the far-red region, and the other of shorter wavelengths) are given together than when given separately; and the 1960 scheme of Robin Hill & Fay Bendall; and (c) Evolution of the many versions of the Z-Scheme: Louis Duysens and Jan Amesz's 1961 experiments on oxidation and reduction of cytochrome f by two different wavelengths of light, followed by the work of many others for more than 50 years.

  9. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN ROMANIA. CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirila Lavinia Florentina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation is considered one of the most important drivers of development at present. Innovation is the tool that can help regions develop regardless of their natural resources and potential. The main purpose of the paper is to foster the innovation at regional level in Romania in order to determine and highlight the need of further measures to increase regional innovation and regional development of Romanian regions in the current context of getting out of the economic crises. Romania is subject of discrepancies not only at European level but at national level as well in terms of economic development and regional innovation. The research undertaken in the present paper is a qualitative research and followes the model proposed by the Group of Applied Economics in the study called Manual of regional competitiveness assessment, and in the study called Romania’s reindustrialization: policy and strategy, study commissioned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business, and uses regional indicators of the eight Romanian development regions in order to measure the Competitiveness Index based on three Indexes, namely Economic, Social and Innovation Index. The data used was collected from Romania’s National Institute of Statistic, National Centre of Prognosis and from the Eurostat database. The general objective is to enhance the great role of regional level in innovation and to sensitize the policy makers about the need to introduce a regional level in order to enforce regional innovation, the main way of improving regional competitiveness and regional development. The main findings reveal that the Romanian regions that invested more in innovation have a positive evolution in terms of economic growth over time so it is for the best of a region to invest in innovation, an aspect that should be taken into consideration by policy makers and private sector when planning the investments within a region.

  10. The Evolution of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Jeremy; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system is deployed to reduce the event rate from the Large Hadron Collider bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz to 1 kHz for permanent storage using a tiered system. In the PC trigger farm decisions are seeded by Regions of Interest found by the custom hardware trigger system. The Regions of Interest are collected and distributed to the farm at 100 kHz by the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder from a crate of custom VME-based electronics to a commodity PC hosting a single custom PCIe card has been undertaken to increase the system performance, flexibility, and ease maintenance. The functionality and performance of the Region of Interest Builder previously only possible using FPGAs and a custom backplane VME Crate, has now been implemented in a multi-threaded C++ software library interfaced to a single PCIe card with one Xilinx Vertex 6 FPGA. The PC-based system was installed in the ATLAS Data Acquisition system between the 2015 and 2016 data takin...

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Regional Marketing Projects on the Development of Regions from Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Kim-Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the competition for economically attractive stakeholders, regions have to implement strategies to gain and adhere those interest groups. Empirical studies concerning the migration motivations show that it is not only labor market but also soft locational factors of the social environment, nature and landscape that are of high importance: A majority of the population is willing to move or rather stay at a special place because of such soft locational factors. This study examines the impact of regional marketing projects on the development of regions from the perspectives of inhabitants and tourists as well as general attributes to measure a region’s attractiveness from the perspective of high potentials. We argue that those projects that fit to the region and its unique selling propositions contribute to positioning and building location brand value. We show that projects have a socio-economic effect on the attitude towards regions and contribute to building location brand value. An analysis of group differences shows that the project influence on the region and region attractiveness are perceived in significantly different manner depending on the knowledge level of the stakeholder group. Consequently, one should increase the awareness of marketing activities and regions and focus on soft locational factors while establishing and positioning a region brand.

  12. Formation and evolution of Martian gullies: a terrestrial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Martian Gullies (alcove-fan systems) are among the youngest landforms that may have formed by liquid water on Mars, and therefore of critical importance in resolving the planet's most recent climatic history. Water-free sediment flows, often associated to CO2 ice, debris flows and fluvial flows have all been identified in gullies. These processes require different amounts of liquid water, and therefore their contribution to gully-formation is of key importance for climatic inferences. In contrast to CO2-aided flows, there are terrestrial analogues for debris flows and fluvial flows. Here I compare the morphology, morphometry and sedimentology of the surface and subsurface deposits of Martian gullies as seen on HiRISE imagery to terrestrial analogues in order to determine their formative processes and the climate in which Martian gullies formed. Terrestrial analogues from the hyperarid Atacama Desert (Chile) and Death Valley (USA), the arctic region of Svalbard and a small-scale experimental setup are visited to do so. Secondly, a sediment budget analysis is performed on geophysical-flow deposits in Martian gullies, to infer their return period as well as the amounts of water needed for their formation. Finally, the effect of time on Martian gully evolution is evaluated by comparing the size and morphology of gullies and associated landforms with their host crater age (and thus their time of potential activity). In short, the sedimentology in vertical exposures in Martian gullies is consistent with a formation by debris flows, while surficial debris-flow signatures have often been removed by erosion. Boulder mobility calculations imply that significant gully formation by fluvial sheetfloods is unlikely. Sediment budget analyses of debris-flow deposits in Istok crater imply that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars and that melting must have yielded centimeters of liquid water in the gully

  13. The Evolution of Hydrocarbons in Saturn's Northern Storm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, B. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    The massive storm at 40N on Saturn that began in December 2010 has produced significant and lasting effects in the northern hemisphere on temperature and species abundances (Fletcher et aL 2011). The northern storm region was observed on several occasions between March 2011 and April 2012 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) at a spectral resolution (0.5/cm) which permits the study of trace species in Saturn's stratosphere. During this time period, stratospheric temperatures in regions referred to as "beacons" (warm regions at specific longitudes at the latitude of the storm) became significantly warmer than pre-storm values of 140K, peaking near 220K, and subsequently cooling. These warm temperatures led to greatly enhanced infrared emission due to C4H2, C3H4, C2H2, and C2H6 in the stratosphere as well as the first detection of C2H4 on Saturn in the thermal infrared (Hesman et al. 2012). Using CH4 as a thermometer of Saturn's stratosphere in the beacon regions, we can derive the mixing ratios of each of these molecules. The most common hydrocarbons (C2H2 and C2H6) serve as dynamical tracers on Saturn and their abundances may constrain vertical motion in the stratosphere. All of these hydrocarbons are products of methane photolysis. Since many of the photochemical reactions that produce heavier hydrocarbons such as C4H2 and C3H4 are temperature sensitive, the beacon region provides a natural laboratory for studying these reactions on Saturn. We will discuss the time evolution of the abundances of each of these hydrocarbons from their pre-storm values, through the period of maximum heating , and during the period of cooling that is taking place in Saturn's stratosphere.

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA: GENERAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IŞIN ÇETİN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of ‘sustainable development’ derives from a discipline in economics that has been evolving for almost two humanity’s burgeoning population began with the work of the English political economist Thomas Malthus in the early 1800’s. As development policy has evolved, different approaches have been emphasized at different times. The original emphasis was on promoting more productive agriculture and industrialization. Education, Nutrition, health, sanitation and employment for the poor were the central components of this approach-reflecting on acknowledgment that the benefits of development did not necessarily “trickle down” to those who needed them most. This perspective inspired the creation of the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Index, which uses health and education measures together with Gross Domestic Product (GDP to calculate an overall index of development success. This study aims to analyze the sustainable and regional development of Romania, using development indicators. In the literature, there are lots of studies evaluating the sustainable and regional development using alternative empirical approaches. Regional sustainable development is so important for policy makers because if there is a differences in terms of regions, this can be affect the economy. We use spatial econometric techniques to determine the similarities and dissimilarities among the regions of Romania.

  15. Vegetarianism and veganism from the perspective of the evolution of human diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmannová, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    The object of this bachelor thesis is to interpret the evolution of diet of the anatomically modern human and his ancestors from the perspective of paleoanthropology and isotope analysis of skeletal remains. The findings are consistent with the view that humans are omnivorous, whose diet consists of plant and animal sources. Their ratio, however, in the course of human evolution has changed significantly, which had an impact on some major evolutionary events. Currently, there are alternative ...

  16. Tools for Performance Evaluation of Computer Systems: Historical Evolution and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Casale, Giuliano; Gribaudo, Marco; Serazzi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Part 1: Milestones and Evolutions; International audience; The development of software tools for performance evaluation and modeling has been an active research area since the early years of computer science. In this paper, we offer a short overview of historical evolution of the field with an emphasis on popular performance modeling techniques such as queuing networks and Petri nets. A review of recent works that provide new perspectives to software tools for performance modeling is presente...

  17. Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg; Frolova, Svetlana; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel; Schurr, Theodore; Haak, Wolfgang; Kuznetsova, Marina; Radzhabov, Magomed; Balaganskaya, Olga; Romanov, Alexey; Zakharova, Tatiana; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Zalloua, Pierre; Koshel, Sergey; Ruhlen, Merritt; Renfrew, Colin; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Balanovska, Elena

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 40 SNP and 19 STR Y-chromosomal markers in a large sample of 1,525 indigenous individuals from 14 populations in the Caucasus and 254 additional individuals representing potential source populations. We also employed a lexicostatistical approach to reconstruct the history of the languages of the North Caucasian family spoken by the Caucasus populations. We found a different major haplogroup to be prevalent in each of four sets of populations that occupy distinct geographic regions and belong to different linguistic branches. The haplogroup frequencies correlated with geography and, even more strongly, with language. Within haplogroups, a number of haplotype clusters were shown to be specific to individual populations and languages. The data suggested a direct origin of Caucasus male lineages from the Near East, followed by high levels of isolation, differentiation and genetic drift in situ. Comparison of genetic and linguistic reconstructions covering the last few millennia showed striking correspondences between the topology and dates of the respective gene and language trees, and with documented historical events. Overall, in the Caucasus region, unmatched levels of gene-language co-evolution occurred within geographically isolated populations, probably due to its mountainous terrain. PMID:21571925

  18. Reticulate evolution and the human past: an anthropological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Isabelle C; Winder, Nick P

    2014-01-01

    The evidence is mounting that reticulate (web-like) evolution has shaped the biological histories of many macroscopic plants and animals, including non-human primates closely related to Homo sapiens, but the implications of this non-hierarchical evolution for anthropological enquiry are not yet fully understood. When they are understood, the result may be a paradigm shift in evolutionary anthropology. This paper reviews the evidence for reticulated evolution in the non-human primates and human lineage. Then it makes the case for extrapolating this sort of patterning to Homo sapiens and other hominins and explores the implications this would have for research design, method and understandings of evolution in anthropology. Reticulation was significant in human evolutionary history and continues to influence societies today. Anthropologists and human scientists-whether working on ancient or modern populations-thus need to consider the implications of non-hierarchic evolution, particularly where molecular clocks, mathematical models and simplifying assumptions about evolutionary processes are used. This is not just a problem for palaeoanthropology. The simple fact of different mating systems among modern human groups, for example, may demand that more attention is paid to the potential for complexity in human genetic and cultural histories.

  19. Somatic clonal evolution: A selection-centric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jacob; Marusyk, Andriy

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that the initiation and progression of cancers is the result of somatic clonal evolution. Despite many peculiarities, evolution within populations of somatic cells should obey the same Darwinian principles as evolution within natural populations, i.e. variability of heritable phenotypes provides the substrate for context-specific selection forces leading to increased population frequencies of phenotypes, which are better adapted to their environment. Yet, within cancer biology, the more prevalent way to view evolution is as being entirely driven by the accumulation of "driver" mutations. Context-specific selection forces are either ignored, or viewed as constraints from which tumor cells liberate themselves during the course of malignant progression. In this review, we will argue that explicitly focusing on selection forces acting on the populations of neoplastic cells as the driving force of somatic clonal evolution might provide for a more accurate conceptual framework compared to the mutation-centric driver gene paradigm. Whereas little can be done to counteract the "bad luck" of stochastic occurrences of cancer-related mutations, changes in selective pressures and the phenotypic adaptations they induce can, in principle, be exploited to limit the incidence of cancers and to increase the efficiency of existing and future therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Evolutionary principles - heterogeneity in cancer?, edited by Dr. Robert A. Gatenby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution and creationism in Middle Eastern education: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elise K

    2011-01-01

    Statements made in a recent outcry against a creationist in the Israeli Ministry of Education starkly illuminated Western misconceptions about Iranian science education. These misconceptions are perpetuated not only among the general public but also within the international scientific community, where investigations of "Islamic creationism" often incorporate misleading assumptions regarding Islamic religious attitudes toward science as well as the nature of secularism in non-Western states. In turn, these assumptions have led to superficial analyses that overly rely on state religiosity to explain the treatment of evolution in national science education. Therefore, a new framework accounting for local political and social circumstances is crucial and urgently needed to effectively analyze science education in the Middle East. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Effects of population size on virus evolution: a baculovirus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the population genetics of the baculovirus infection process and the consequences for virus evolution. Using Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and lepidopteran insect larvae as a model system, we attempt to characterize (1) elemental virus-host and

  2. The Evolution of Galaxies in Cluster Environment; HI Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujita, A.; van Gorkom, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the degree to which the environment affects the evolution of galaxies in clusters. One way is to study the fate of gas in cluster galaxies by deep HI synthesis imaging. We are interested in the correlation between HI deficiency of galaxies and the dynamical states of clusters/the

  3. Topographic evolution of orogens: The long term perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The landscape of mountain ranges reflects the competition of tectonics and climate, that build up and destroy topography, respectively. While there is a broad consensus on the acting processes, there is a vital debate whether the topography of individual orogens reflects stages of growth, steady-state or decay. This debate is fuelled by the million-year time scales hampering direct observations on landscape evolution in mountain ranges, the superposition of various process patterns and the complex interactions among different processes. In this presentation we focus on orogen-scale landscape evolution based on time-dependent numerical models and explore model time series to constrain the development of mountain range topography during an orogenic cycle. The erosional long term response of rivers and hillslopes to uplift can be mathematically formalised by the stream power and mass diffusion equations, respectively, which enables us to describe the time-dependent evolution of topography in orogens. Based on a simple one-dimensional model consisting of two rivers separated by a watershed we explain the influence of uplift rate and rock erodibility on steady-state channel profiles and show the time-dependent development of the channel - drainage divide system. The effect of dynamic drainage network reorganization adds additional complexity and its effect on topography is explored on the basis of two-dimensional models. Further complexity is introduced by coupling a mechanical model (thin viscous sheet approach) describing continental collision, crustal thickening and topography formation with a stream power-based landscape evolution model. Model time series show the impact of crustal deformation on drainage networks and consequently on the evolution of mountain range topography (Robl et al., in review). All model outcomes, from simple one-dimensional to coupled two dimensional models are presented as movies featuring a high spatial and temporal resolution. Robl, J., S

  4. Contemporary Challenges for Sustainable Tourism – a Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Paul Bac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has become a new method of practicing tourism. It has emerged in the last part of the 20th century, from the efforts of academia as a response to the increasing negative effects of mass tourism, noticeable all over the world. At the same time, sustainable tourism is considered by some a utopia, a narrow niche of the tourism market, with limited perspectives. From a theoretical standpoint, it is highly debated with no consensus regarding its definition, features and principles. In recent years, although significant steps have been taken especially by international organizations, like UNEP (The United Nations Environment Programme and UNWTO (The World Tourism Organization, sustainable tourism still faces numerous challenges. In the present paper, we have collected information from several authors and organizations and have presented some contemporary challenges for sustainable tourism. For our research, we have tried to identify several common challenges for six selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe – The Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania, and also go into a more detailed look in the case of Romania. Finally, we consider that if we can identify specific regional challenges, we might find regional solutions and answers. Considering the numerous similarities between the six countries, there might be common solutions for the benefit of the entire region.

  5. Sex chromosome evolution: historical insights and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Many separate-sexed organisms have sex chromosomes controlling sex determination. Sex chromosomes often have reduced recombination, specialized (frequently sex-specific) gene content, dosage compensation and heteromorphic size. Research on sex determination and sex chromosome evolution has increased over the past decade and is today a very active field. However, some areas within the field have not received as much attention as others. We therefore believe that a historic overview of key findings and empirical discoveries will put current thinking into context and help us better understand where to go next. Here, we present a timeline of important conceptual and analytical models, as well as empirical studies that have advanced the field and changed our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosomes. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge so far and propose some specific areas within the field that we recommend a greater focus on in the future, including the role of ecology in sex chromosome evolution and new multilocus models of sex chromosome divergence. PMID:28469017

  6. Perspectives on the nature and definition of ecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omernik, James M

    2004-01-01

    Among environmental managers, recognition of the importance of integrating management activities across agencies and programs that have different responsibilities for the same geographic areas has created an awareness of the need for a common hierarchical framework of ecological regions (ecoregions) to implement the strategy. Responding to this need in the United States, nine federal agencies have signed a memorandum of understanding on the subject of developing a common framework of ecoregions. However, considerable disagreement over how to define ecoregions and confusion over the strengths and limitations of existing frameworks stand in the way of achieving this goal. This paper presents some perspectives on the nature and definition of ecoregions related to this confusion and provides a brief overview of the weight of evidence approach to mapping ecoregions, using an example initiated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. To effectively implement ecosystem assessment, management, and research at local, regional, and national levels, research is needed to increase our understanding of ecoregions. We must find ways to illustrate the nature of ecoregion boundaries and the variability of characteristics within ecoregions as they relate to management issues. Research must also be conducted on comparing existing frameworks and developing indices of ecological integrity to effectively evaluate their usefulness.

  7. Perspectives on the Nature and Definition of Ecological Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omernik, James M.

    2004-04-01

    Among environmental managers, recognition of the importance of integrating management activities across agencies and programs that have different responsibilities for the same geographic areas has created an awareness of the need for a common hierarchical framework of ecological regions (ecoregions) to implement the strategy. Responding to this need in the United States, nine federal agencies have signed a memorandum of understanding on the subject of developing a common framework of ecoregions. However, considerable disagreement over how to define ecoregions and confusion over the strengths and limitations of existing frameworks stand in the way of achieving this goal. This paper presents some perspectives on the nature and definition of ecoregions related to this confusion and provides a brief overview of the weight of evidence approach to mapping ecoregions, using an example initiated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. To effectively implement ecosystem assessment, management, and research at local, regional, and national levels, research is needed to increase our understanding of ecoregions. We must find ways to illustrate the nature of ecoregion boundaries and the variability of characteristics within ecoregions as they relate to management issues. Research must also be conducted on comparing existing frameworks and developing indices of ecological integrity to effectively evaluate their usefulness.

  8. A lithospheric perspective on structure and evolution of Precambrian cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a summary of geophysical data on the structure of the stable continental lithosphere and its evolution since the Archean. Here, the term lithosphere is used to define the outer layer of the Earth which includes the crust and uppermost mantle, forms...... the roots of the continents, and moves together with continental plates. Depending on geophysical techniques (and physical properties measured), the lithosphere has different practical definitions. Most of them (i.e., seismic, electrical) are on the basis of a sharp change in temperature-dependent physical...

  9. New Perspectives on the Evolution of Publics: Digital Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rogojinaru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The decline of the public man of the industrial era and the rise of the digital communities engage publics in new forms of expression by forming and framing networks that replace political communities. Our identity has changed as far as the public man is falling apart in this liquid era, leaving its structured power to dissipated voices of the interactive media. Networking became a political way of being. Publics’ classification differs according to their multiple usages, to their responses and overt behaviors to social stimuli, as well as on the context and situations of interaction. We intend in this essay to define digital publics or audiences as popular and to draw a theoretical perspective on their characteristics and behavior.

  10. RCOF in European region: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, A.

    2010-09-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums are a key component of WMO WCASP/CLIPS activities. The RCOF process pioneered in Africa in late 1990s, since then it spread worldwide, and at present climate outlook forums are being conducted nearly in all regions all over the world. The RCOF brings together experts from a climatologically homogeneous region and provides consensus based climate prediction and information, which has critical socio-economic significance. This information has been applied to reducing climate-related risks and supporting sustainable development. The RCOF process has facilitated a better understanding of the links between the past, current and future evolution of the climate system and its consequences for Members' socio-economic activities. RCOFs have greatly enhanced interactions and exchange of information between providers and users of climate information. In addition, RCOFs contribute substantially to training and capacity building in the regions targeted at. In RA VI the RCOF process was launched in 2008. The South-East European Climate Outlook Forum (SEECOF) mechanism covers mainly countries of South East Europe and Caucasus. Two SEECOFs have been successfully conducted in 2008 and 2009: SEECOF-I took place in Zagreb/Croatia in June 2008 and SEECOF-II was hosted by Hungary, Budapest, in November 2009. SEECOF-III was held as an online COF. Nevertheless, the RCOF mechanism in RA VI still needs substantial support in order to strengthen the process, to better involve the participating countries and users, to sharpen the communication of the consensus forecasts to build trust amongst the user communities, and most importantly to achieve sustainability, which is one of the priority tasks of the RAVI Working Group on Climate and Hydrology (WG CH). Through the Task Team on Regional Climate Outlook Forums (TT RCOF) the WG CH has taken responsibility for the co-ordination of the RCOF process in RA VI, in order to extend it to other parts of RA VI region

  11. Case one. Evolution of a strategic plan: an organizational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, G C

    1990-01-01

    The practice of strategic planning, both in business and healthcare, greatly expanded during the 1970's. Many process models were proposed and applied to determine environmental threats and opportunities, to identify achievable goals and to predetermine achievable courses of action. Developing and maintaining a strategic planning process is described as a requirement for healthcare organizations. This case report is a study of the successful evolution of a planning process which the author presents as a model for other institutions. The case describes the development of a formal process for strategy formulation, based on economic definitions of strategy, under what Ansoff would consider ideal conditions. It is unique in that it ties the process to product line management implementation.

  12. The evolution of Internet addiction: A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël; Pontes, Halley M

    2016-02-01

    Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the 'evolution of Internet addiction' featured very little European research, and did not consider the main international evidence that has contributed to our current knowledge about the conceptualization, epidemiology, etiology, and course of Internet-related disorders. This short commentary paper elaborates on important literature omitted by Young that the present authors believe may be of use to researchers. We also address statements made in Young's (2015) commentary that are incorrect (and therefore misleading) and not systematically substantiated by empirical evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three Southern high school biology teachers' perspectives on teaching evolution: Sociocultural influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzer, Peggy Mckewen

    Organizations in science and science education call for students to have a thorough understanding of the theory of evolution. Yet many high school biology teachers do not teach evolution and/or include creationism in their instruction (National Academy of Science, 1998). Historically, the controversy surrounding evolution has created tension for teachers. This case study explored the sociocultural influences related to teaching evolution in three Southern 10th-grade public high school biology classrooms. It also explored the socially and culturally embedded influences on teachers' instructional goals and personal perspectives toward evolution as well as modification of instruction when evolution is taught. Theoretically framed using symbolic interactionism and sociocultural theory, data were collected between October 2003 and April 2004 and included classroom observations two to three times per week, artifacts, and in-depth interviews of the participating teachers, their science department chairpersons, their students, and a Protestant minister. The classroom teachers were unaware of the focus of the study until after evolution was taught. The analysis used in this study was an inductive, interpretative approach that allowed exploration of the sociocultural influences that affect how teachers teach evolution. The sociocultural influences and the lived experiences of each teacher created a continuum for teaching evolution. One of the participating teachers who was heavily involved in the community and one of its fundamentalist churches elected to avoid teaching evolution. Another participating teacher at the same school integrated the theory of evolution in every unit. The third teacher who taught in another school elected to teach evolution in a superficial manner to avoid conflict. The data revealed that the participating teachers' sociocultural situatedness influenced their decisions and instruction on evolution. The influence of strong religious beliefs within

  14. Hypertension Control and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thoenes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between blood pressure control and common cardiometabolic risk factors from a global and regional perspective. Methods. In the present analysis of a large cross-sectional i-SEARCH study, 17.092 outpatients receiving antihypertensive treatment were included in 26 countries. According to clinical guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, patients were classified based on the level of seated systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg for non-diabetics, and ≥130/80 mmHg for diabetics. Results. Overall, mean age was 63.1 years, 52.8% were male, and mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. Mean SBP/DBP was 148.9/87.0 mmHg, and 76.3% of patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Diabetes was present in 29.1% with mean HbA1c of 6.8%. Mean LDL-cholesterol was 3.2 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 1.3 mmol/L, and triglycerides 1.8 mmol/L; 49.0% had hyperlipidemia. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension had a higher BMI (29.4 versus 28.6 kg/m2, LDL-cholesterol (3.4 versus 3.0 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.9 versus 1.7 mmol/L, and HbA1c (6.8 versus 6.7% than those with controlled blood pressure (P<0.0001 for all parameters. Conclusions. Among outpatients treated for arterial hypertension, three quarters had uncontrolled blood pressure. Elevated SBP/DBP and uncontrolled hypertension were associated with increasing BMI, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c, both globally and regionally.

  15. Evolution in the Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The study of the evolution in the diagnosis and treatment of autism is a lesson in the dangers of medical beliefs or doctrines that are not grounded in medical science. The early descriptions of autism suggested that it was the result of childhood psychoses or psychodynamic disturbances of parent-child relationships. This flawed conceptualization of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) gave way to advances in medical science, which have established ASD as a neurobiological disorder of early brain development. There are many genetic, epigenetic, metabolic, hormonal, immunological, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological etiologies of ASD, as well as an array of gastrointestinal and other systemic co-morbid disorders. Thus, ASD are a biologically heterogeneous population with extensive neurodiversity. Early identification and understanding of ASD is crucial; interventions at younger ages are associated with improved outcomes. The advent of understanding the biological sub-phenotypes of ASD, along with targeted medical therapies, coupled with a multimodal therapeutic approach that encompasses behavioral, educational, social, speech, occupational, creative arts, and other forms of therapies has created a new and exciting era for individuals with ASD and their families: "personalized" and "precision" medical care based upon underlying biological sub-phenotypes and clinical profiles. For many individuals and their families dealing with the scourge of autism, their long and frustrating diagnostic journey is beginning to come to an end, with a hope for improved outcomes and quality of life.

  16. Cosmological evolution of Yukawa couplings. The 5D perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harling, Benedict von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Servant, Geraldine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-02-15

    The cosmological evolution of standard model Yukawa couplings may have major implications for baryogenesis. In particular, as highlighted recently, the CKM matrix alone could be the source of CP-violation during electroweak baryogenesis provided that the Yukawa couplings were large and varied during the electroweak phase transition. We provide a natural realisation of this idea in the context of Randall-Sundrum models and show that the geometrical warped approach to the fermion mass hierarchy may naturally display the desired cosmological dynamics. The key ingredient is the coupling of the Goldberger-Wise scalar, responsible for the IR brane stabilisation, to the bulk fermions, which modifies the fermionic profiles. This also helps alleviating the usually tight constraints from CP-violation in Randall-Sundrum scenarios. We study how the Yukawa couplings vary during the stabilisation of the Randall-Sundrum geometry and can thus induce large CP-violation during the electroweak phase transition. Using holography, we discuss the 4D interpretation of this dynamical interplay between flavour and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  17. Historical perspectives on the evolution of tetrapodomorph movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Hutchinson, John R; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-08-01

    Over the past century, various modern analogs have been used to infer the evolution of locomotor performance in stem tetrapods and their fish ancestors, with varying success. Here, we conduct a phylogenetic review of these modern analogs, from chondrichthyans to mammals, highlighting the broad spectrum of vertebrate clades and locomotor behaviors. The pros and cons behind utilizing modern analogs for the early stages of the transition from water to land also are discussed. In particular, it is noted that any hypothesis about locomotion not only must be supported by evidence from living animals but must also be consistent with character transformations in the fossil record. A "total-evidence" approach that emphasizes what extinct taxa could not do, rather than focusing on the specifics of how they functioned, is thus recommended. An example of this approach, which investigates mobility of the limb joints in modern semi-aquatic animals and in the Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega, is detailed. We propose that various locomotion behaviors of modern quadrupeds can be ruled out for Ichthyostega, but that forelimb "crutching" motions, as seen in living mudskippers, may have been possible. The potential for movement in other known Devonian stem tetrapods is assessed through an anatomical comparison of limb joint morphology-and associated mobility-with Ichthyostega, and deemed to have been quite similar.

  18. Evolution and development of the tetrapod auditory system: an organ of Corti-centric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Pan, Ning; Jahan, Israt; Duncan, Jeremy S; Kopecky, Benjamin J; Elliott, Karen L; Kersigo, Jennifer; Yang, Tian

    2013-01-01

    The tetrapod auditory system transmits sound through the outer and middle ear to the organ of Corti or other sound pressure receivers of the inner ear where specialized hair cells translate vibrations of the basilar membrane into electrical potential changes that are conducted by the spiral ganglion neurons to the auditory nuclei. In other systems, notably the vertebrate limb, a detailed connection between the evolutionary variations in adaptive morphology and the underlying alterations in the genetic basis of development has been partially elucidated. In this review, we attempt to correlate evolutionary and partially characterized molecular data into a cohesive perspective of the evolution of the mammalian organ of Corti out of the tetrapod basilar papilla. We propose a stepwise, molecularly partially characterized transformation of the ancestral, vestibular developmental program of the vertebrate ear. This review provides a framework to decipher both discrete steps in development and the evolution of unique functional adaptations of the auditory system. The combined analysis of evolution and development establishes a powerful cross-correlation where conclusions derived from either approach become more meaningful in a larger context which is not possible through exclusively evolution or development centered perspectives. Selection may explain the survival of the fittest auditory system, but only developmental genetics can explain the arrival of the fittest auditory system. [Modified after (Wagner 2011)]. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Christine N; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

  20. Intraspecific comparative genomics of Candida albicans mitochondria reveals non-coding regions under neutral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelli, Thais F; Ferreira, Renata C; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Briones, Marcelo R S

    2013-03-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes serious hematogenic hospital acquired candidiasis with worldwide impact on public health. Because of its importance as a nosocomial etiologic agent, C. albicans genome has been largely studied to identify intraspecific variation and several typing methods have been developed to distinguish closely related strains. Mitochondrial DNA can be useful for this purpose because, as compared to nuclear DNA, its higher mutational load and evolutionary rate readily reveals microvariants. Accordingly, we sequenced and assembled, with 8-fold coverage, the mitochondrial genomes of two C. albicans clinical isolates (L296 and L757) and compared these sequences with the genome sequence of reference strain SC5314. The genome alignment of 33,928 positions revealed 372 polymorphic sites being 230 in coding and 142 in non-coding regions. Three intergenic regions located between genes tRNAGly/COX1, NAD3/COB and ssurRNA/NAD4L, named IG1, IG2 and IG3, respectively, which showed high number of neutral substitutions, were amplified and sequenced from 18 clinical isolates from different locations in Latin America and 2 ATCC standard C. albicans strains. High variability of sequence and size were observed, ranging up to 56bp size difference and phylogenies based on IG1, IG2 and IG3 revealed three groups. Insertions of up to 49bp were observed exclusively in Argentinean strains relative to the other sequences which could suggest clustering by geographical polymorphism. Because of neutral evolution, high variability, easy isolation by PCR and full length sequencing these mitochondrial intergenic regions can contribute with a novel perspective in molecular studies of C. albicans isolates, complementing well established multilocus sequence typing methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Origin and evolution of the panarthropod head - A palaeobiological and developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2017-05-01

    The panarthropod head represents a complex body region that has evolved through the integration and functional specialization of the anterior appendage-bearing segments. Advances in the developmental biology of diverse extant organisms have led to a substantial clarity regarding the relationships of segmental homology between Onychophora (velvet worms), Tardigrada (water bears), and Euarthropoda (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods). The improved understanding of the segmental organization in panarthropods offers a novel perspective for interpreting the ubiquitous Cambrian fossil record of these successful animals. A combined palaeobiological and developmental approach to the study of the panarthropod head through deep time leads us to propose a consensus hypothesis for the intricate evolutionary history of this important tagma. The contribution of exceptionally preserved brains in Cambrian fossils - together with the recognition of segmentally informative morphological characters - illuminate the polarity for major anatomical features. The euarthropod stem-lineage provides a detailed view of the step-wise acquisition of critical characters, including the origin of a multiappendicular head formed by the fusion of several segments, and the transformation of the ancestral protocerebral limb pair into the labrum, following the postero-ventral migration of the mouth opening. Stem-group onychophorans demonstrate an independent ventral migration of the mouth and development of a multisegmented head, as well as the differentiation of the deutocerebral limbs as expressed in extant representatives. The anterior organization of crown-group Tardigrada retains several ancestral features, such as an anterior-facing mouth and one-segmented head. The proposed model aims to clarify contentious issues on the evolution of the panarthropod head, and lays the foundation from which to further address this complex subject in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, X. G; Li, J; Qu, Y; Han, T; Hou, L; Gu, J; Chen, C; Yang, Y; Liu, X; Yang, T; Zhang, Y; Tian, H; Hu, M

    2013-01-01

      The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20-27 September 2011...

  3. Molecular Evolution of Insect Sociality: An Eco-Evo-Devo Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Amy L; Rehan, Sandra M

    2017-01-31

    The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes. Despite this proliferation of ideas, there has been little synthesis, even though these ideas are not mutually exclusive and may in fact be complementary. We review available data on molecular evolution of insect sociality and highlight key biotic and abiotic factors influencing social insect genomes. We then suggest both phylogenetic and ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspectives for a more synthetic view of molecular evolution in insect societies.

  4. Determinants of Banking System Fragility : A Regional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Banking systems are fragile not only within one country but also within and across regions. We study the role of regional banking system characteristics for regional banking system fragility. We find that regional banking system fragility reduces when banks in the region jointly hold more

  5. High-expanding cortical regions in human development and evolution are related to higher intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Amlien, Inge; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Engvig, Andreas; Espeseth, Thomas; Reinvang, Ivar; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-01-01

    Cortical surface area has tremendously expanded during human evolution, and similar patterns of cortical expansion have been observed during childhood development. An intriguing hypothesis is that the high-expanding cortical regions also show the strongest correlations with intellectual function in humans. However, we do not know how the regional distribution of correlations between intellectual function and cortical area maps onto expansion in development and evolution. Here, in a sample of 1048 participants, we show that regions in which cortical area correlates with visuospatial reasoning abilities are generally high expanding in both development and evolution. Several regions in the frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate, showed high expansion in both development and evolution. The area of these regions was related to intellectual functions in humans. Low-expanding areas were not related to cognitive scores. These findings suggest that cortical regions involved in higher intellectual functions have expanded the most during development and evolution. The radial unit hypothesis provides a common framework for interpretation of the findings in the context of evolution and prenatal development, while additional cellular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, dendritic arborization, and intracortical myelination, likely impact area expansion in later childhood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evolution of the terminal regions of the Streptomyces linear chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Frédéric; Aigle, Bertrand; Gallois, Alexandre; Mangenot, Sophie; Gerbaud, Claude; Truong, Chantal; Francou, François-Xavier; Fourrier, Céline; Guérineau, Michel; Decaris, Bernard; Barbe, Valérie; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Leblond, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Comparative analysis of the Streptomyces chromosome sequences, between Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces avermitilis, and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 (whose partial sequence is released in this study), revealed a highly compartmentalized genetic organization of their genome. Indeed, despite the presence of specific genomic islands, the central part of the chromosome appears highly syntenic. In contrast, the chromosome of each species exhibits large species-specific terminal regions (from 753 to 1,393 kb), even when considering closely related species (S. ambofaciens and S. coelicolor). Interestingly, the size of the central conserved region between species decreases as the phylogenetic distance between them increases, whereas the specific terminal fraction reciprocally increases in size. Between highly syntenic central regions and species-specific chromosomal parts, there is a notable degeneration of synteny due to frequent insertions/deletions. This reveals a massive and constant genomic flux (from lateral gene transfer and DNA rearrangements) affecting the terminal contingency regions. We speculate that a gradient of recombination rate (i.e., insertion/deletion events) toward the extremities is the force driving the exclusion of essential genes from the terminal regions (i.e., chromosome compartmentalization) and generating a fast gene turnover for strong adaptation capabilities.

  7. Evolution and development of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvinsky, David S; Yoon, Richard S; Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Swan, Kenneth G; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol is a successful course offered by the American College of Surgeons. Once based on didactic lectures and seminars taught by experts in the field, trauma training has evolved to become a set of standardized assessment and treatment protocols based on evidence rather than expert opinion. As the ATLS expands, indices to predict outcome, morbidity, and mortality have evolved to guide management and treatment based on retrospective data. This historical, perspective article attempts to tell the story of ATLS from its inception to its evolution as an international standard for the initial assessment and management of trauma patients. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  9. Concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions in three related seabird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birt Tim P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA assume that mitochondrial genomes do not undergo recombination. Recently, concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions has been documented in a range of taxa. Although the molecular mechanism that facilitates concerted evolution is unknown, all proposed mechanisms involve mtDNA recombination. Results Here, we document a duplication of a large region (cytochrome b, tRNAThr, tRNAPro, ND6, tRNAGlu and the control region in the mitochondrial genome of three related seabird species. To investigate the evolution of duplicate control regions, we sequenced both control region copies (CR1 and CR2 from 21 brown (Sula leucogaster, 21 red-footed (S. sula and 21 blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the duplicated control regions are predominantly evolving in concert; however, approximately 51 base pairs at the 5' end of CR1 and CR2 exhibited a discordant phylogenetic signal and appeared to be evolving independently. Conclusions Both the structure of the duplicated region and the conflicting phylogenetic signals are remarkably similar to a pattern found in Thalassarche albatrosses, which are united with boobies in a large clade that includes all procellariiform and most pelecaniform seabirds. Therefore we suggest that concerted evolution of duplicated control regions either is taxonomically widespread within seabirds, or that it has evolved many times.

  10. 18Regional integration and social cohesion: Perspectives from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of social cohesion, its prevalence at regional and national levels in Africa and Latin. America, and how it ... respectively, African and Latin American regional integration, and the construction of social .... differs in character from previous efforts.

  11. Gene Expression Divergence is Coupled to Evolution of DNA Structure in Coding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiming; Dai, Xianhua

    2011-01-01

    Sequence changes in coding region and regulatory region of the gene itself (cis) determine most of gene expression divergence between closely related species. But gene expression divergence between yeast species is not correlated with evolution of primary nucleotide sequence. This indicates that other factors in cis direct gene expression divergence. Here, we studied the contribution of DNA three-dimensional structural evolution as cis to gene expression divergence. We found that the evolution of DNA structure in coding regions and gene expression divergence are correlated in yeast. Similar result was also observed between Drosophila species. DNA structure is associated with the binding of chromatin remodelers and histone modifiers to DNA sequences in coding regions, which influence RNA polymerase II occupancy that controls gene expression level. We also found that genes with similar DNA structures are involved in the same biological process and function. These results reveal the previously unappreciated roles of DNA structure as cis-effects in gene expression. PMID:22125484

  12. Socio-hydrological perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and groundwater in Cangzhou, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songjun; Tian, Fuqiang; Liu, Ye; Duan, Xianhui

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a historical analysis from socio-hydrological perspectives of the coupled human-groundwater system of the Cangzhou region in the North China Plain (NCP). The history of the pendulum swing for water allocation between the economic development and aquifer environmental health of the system is divided into five eras (i.e., natural, exploitation, degradation and restoration, drought-triggered deterioration, and returning to equilibrium). The system's evolution was interpreted using the Taiji-Tire model. Over-exploitation was considered as the main cause of aquifer depletion, and the groundwater utilization pattern was affected by the varying groundwater table. The aquifer depletion enhanced community sensitivity toward environmental issues, and upgraded the social productive force for restoration. The evolution of the system was substantially impacted by two droughts. The drought in 1965 induced the system from natural conditions to groundwater exploiting. The drought from 1997 to 2002 resulted in a surge in further groundwater abstraction and dramatic aquifer deterioration, and community sensitivity increased rapidly and induced the social productive force to a tipping point. From then on, the system returns to equilibrium through new policies and water-saving technologies. Along with the establishment of a strict water resource management strategy and the launch of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, further restoration of groundwater environment was implemented. However, a comprehensive and coordinated drought management plan should be devised to avoid irreversible change in the system.

  13. Socio-hydrological perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and groundwater in Cangzhou, North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical analysis from socio-hydrological perspectives of the coupled human–groundwater system of the Cangzhou region in the North China Plain (NCP. The history of the pendulum swing for water allocation between the economic development and aquifer environmental health of the system is divided into five eras (i.e., natural, exploitation, degradation and restoration, drought-triggered deterioration, and returning to equilibrium. The system's evolution was interpreted using the Taiji–Tire model. Over-exploitation was considered as the main cause of aquifer depletion, and the groundwater utilization pattern was affected by the varying groundwater table. The aquifer depletion enhanced community sensitivity toward environmental issues, and upgraded the social productive force for restoration. The evolution of the system was substantially impacted by two droughts. The drought in 1965 induced the system from natural conditions to groundwater exploiting. The drought from 1997 to 2002 resulted in a surge in further groundwater abstraction and dramatic aquifer deterioration, and community sensitivity increased rapidly and induced the social productive force to a tipping point. From then on, the system returns to equilibrium through new policies and water-saving technologies. Along with the establishment of a strict water resource management strategy and the launch of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, further restoration of groundwater environment was implemented. However, a comprehensive and coordinated drought management plan should be devised to avoid irreversible change in the system.

  14. Sustainable production and consumption in a regional policy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main challenges regions face in sustainable development is changing their production and consumption patterns. This paper focuses on the role of regional government in sustainable production and consumption polices, one of the specific topics in the framework of the European Regional

  15. Evolution of airports from a network perspective – An analytical concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Azzam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing airports' role in global air transportation and monitoring their development over time provides an additional perspective on the dynamics of network evolution. In order to understand the different roles airports can play in the network an integrated and multi-dimensional approach is needed. Therefore, an approach to airport classification through hierarchical clustering considering several parameters from network theory is presented in this paper. By applying a 29 year record of global flight data and calculating the conditional transition probabilities the results are displayed as an evolution graph similar to a discrete-time Markov chain. With this analytical concept the meaning of airports is analyzed from a network perspective and a new airport taxonomy is established. The presented methodology allows tracking the development of airports from certain categories into others over time. Results show that airports of equal classes run through similar stages of development with a limited number of alternatives, indicating clear evolutionary patterns. Apart from giving an overview of the results the paper illustrates the exact data-driven approach and suggests an evaluation scheme. The methodology can help the public and industry sector to make informed strategy decisions when it comes to air transportation infrastructure.

  16. SOI/MDI studies of active region seismology and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Ted D.; Title, Alan; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil; Zweibel, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    The solar oscillations investigation (SOI) will study solar active regions using both helioseismic and conventional observation techniques. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) can perform Doppler continuum and line depth imagery and can produce longitudinal magnetograms, showing either the full disk or a high resolution field of view. A dynamics program of continuous full disk Doppler observations for two months per year, campaign programs of eight hours of continuous observation per day, and a synoptic magnetic program of about 15 full disk magnetograms per day, are planned. The scientific plans, measurements and observation programs, are described.

  17. Poverty as the Prime Source of World Disorder - Global and Regional Migration in a Development Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide a tentative perspective on attempts to theorize and conceptualize various understandings of regionalization and regionalism in relation to labor market regulation and global migration. The paper explores the link between national and collective responses...

  18. Longevity pattern in the Italian region of Emilia Romagna: a dynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Roli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of longevity in the Italian north-eastern region of Emilia Romagna was investigated at the municipality level, considering a modified version of the centenarian rate (CR in two different periods (1995-1999 and 2005-2009. Due to the rareness of such events in small areas, spatio-temporal modelling was used to tackle the random variations in the occurrence of long-lived individuals. This approach allowed us to exploit the spatial proximity to smooth the observed data, as well as controlling for the effects of a set of covariates. As a result, clusters of areas characterised by extreme indexes of longevity could be identified and the temporal evolution of the phenomenon depicted. A persistence of areas of lower and higher occurrences of long-lived subjects was observed across time. In particular, mean and median values higher than the regional ones, showed up in areas belonging to the provinces of Ravenna and Forli-Cesena, on one side spreading out along the Adriatic coast and, on the other stretching into the Apennine municipalities of Bologna and Modena. Further, a longitudinal perspective was added by carrying out a spatial analysis including the territorial patterns of past mortality. We evaluated the effects of the structure of mortality on the cohort of long-lived subjects in the second period. The major causes of death were considered in order to deepen the analysis of the observed geographical differences. The circulatory diseases seem to mostly affect the presence of long-lived individuals and a prominent effect of altitude and population density also emerges.

  19. Evolution of psychosocial factors at work in a French region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, C; Fouquet, N; Bodin, J; Ramond-Roquin, A; Huez, J-F; Bouton, C; Roquelaure, Y

    2016-03-01

    Psychosocial factors at work (PFW) can be defined as all non-physicochemical occupational risks. Several epidemiological models have been proposed to measure PFW, but one of the most widely used is Karasek's model. To determine whether psychosocial factors, evaluated by Karasek's questionnaire, had increased in a cohort of workers. A random sample of workers in the Pays de la Loire region of France, who could be considered representative of the region's population of salaried workers, filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including Karasek's self-administered questionnaire, in 2002-05 and 2007-09. Karasek's questionnaire can be used to study three psychosocial dimensions (psychological demand, decision latitude and social support in the workplace) in workers in order to define two high-risk situations for their health: 'Job Strain' and 'Iso Strain'. Changes in job strain and iso strain among workers were studied according to the workers' sociodemographic characteristics and their working conditions. In this sample of 2049 workers, the proportion with iso strain increased between the two periods from 12 to 16%, P < 0.001, mainly among manual workers. Deterioration of Karasek indicators was mainly explained by an increase of the 'low social support' dimension (38 versus 49%, P < 0.001). Working conditions such as temporary employment of colleagues and high perceived physical exertion were associated with higher PFW. This study, based on a quantitative and collective model, showed deterioration of working team environments and increased risk for individual mental health in this cohort of French workers in recent years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CREATIVE ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto

    Full Text Available Abstract In a knowledge-based economy, initiatives based on the Creative Economy framework are supposed to promote regional economic diversification in developing countries. In Brazil, policy initiatives have focused on those activities with a view to design public policies oriented to reducing socio-economic and regional inequalities, as well as spreading those activities throughout the territory, especially towards less favored regions. Based on the Brazilian experience, this article discusses whether the pre-existing regional distribution of various types of creative activities favors or hinders the reduction of regional inequalities as a result of a policy focused on promoting creative activities and what actions could be adopted to achieve this result. Specifically, the paper discusses whether this expansion can promote an effective reduction of regional inequalities in terms of the number and quality of jobs and wage levels associated with those activities. The analysis suggests that the regional decentralization of creative activities towards less developed regions has been relatively limited in Brazil, as the more developed regions have remained more specialized in trades with higher digital and technological content, while the less developed regions have remained relatively more specialized in activities related to the cultural heritage. To reduce this imbalance, the support of local institutions and S&T infrastructure related to creative activities appears to be very important, which points out to the relevance of comprehensive policies well-adapted to very diverse local realities. This effort should have the impact of new digital-based technologies converge with the strengthening of economic potential of local and regional cultural heritage, by enhancing professional qualification of workers devoted to those activities.

  1. The role of economic cluster perspectives in regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, Robert; Vora, Gautam; Walsh, Steven Thomas; White, Craig G.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of science and technology as the root of exceptional regional economic development has been extolled since the time of Schumpeter. Today emerging technologies are signaling the start of a new economic cycle where regions that are effective in technology translation will gain

  2. Modern Perspectives for Tactical Level Operations in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    were the RNNCG operational headquarters, Office of the Federal Security Service in the Murmansk Region and the Northern Fleet, the Ministry of...Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Murmansk region , and a division of the Federal Security Service of Russia and the

  3. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  4. Rampant adaptive evolution in regions of proteins with unknown function in Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha K Holloway

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive protein evolution is pervasive in Drosophila. Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity. However, the targets of adaptive events may be localized to particular parts of proteins, such as protein domains or regions involved in protein folding. We compared the population genetic mechanisms driving sequence polymorphism and divergence in defined protein domains and non-domain regions. Interestingly, we find that non-domain regions of proteins are more frequent targets of directional selection. Protein domains are also evolving under directional selection, but appear to be under stronger purifying selection than non-domain regions. Non-domain regions of proteins clearly play a major role in adaptive protein evolution on a genomic scale and merit future investigations of their functional properties.

  5. The Cygnus region of the galaxy: A VERITAS perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cygnus-X star-forming region (“Cygnus” is the richest star-forming region within 2 kpc of Earth and is home to a wealth of potential cosmic ray accelerators, including supernova remnants, massive star clusters, and pulsar wind nebulae. Over the past five years, discoveries by several gamma-ray observatories sensitive in different energy bands, including the identification by Fermi-LAT of a potential cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays, have pinpointed this region as a unique laboratory for studying the early phases of the cosmic ray life cycle. From 2007 to 2009 VERITAS, a very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV observatory in southern Arizona, undertook an extensive survey of the Cygnus region from 67 to 82 degrees Galactic longitude and from −1 to 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. In the years since, VERITAS has continued to accumulate data at specific locations within the survey region. We will review the discoveries and insights that this rich dataset has already provided. We will also consider the key role that we expect these data to play in interpreting the complex multiwavelength picture we have of the Cygnus region, particularly in the vicinity of the Cygnus cocoon. As part of this discussion we will summarize ongoing studies of VERITAS data in the Cygnus region, including the development of new data analysis techniques that dramatically increase VERITAS' sensitivity to sources on scales larger than a square degree.

  6. REGIONALIZATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE: OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Horváth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional policy depends on efficient administrative systems for designing and implementing strategies, and places considerable demands on Member States’ public administrations in terms of e.g. financial management and monitoring; project selection procedures; ex ante environmental impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses; and the monitoring and evaluation of outputs, results and impacts. EU member states have taken a range of different approaches to the administration of regional policy.The construction of regions in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe became one of the important debate topics for preparation for EU membership. Despite the numerous similarities in the changes that have taken place in the territorial structures of the Eastern and Central European countries, the differences in the responses individual countries gave to the challenges of regional development and the varied results of their development efforts demonstrate that the “Eastern European Bloc” is at least as heterogeneous as the former member states of the European Union. EU accession opened up a Pandora’s Box in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The fundamental issue of how unitarily structured states can be set on a decentralised path became the centre of debate. The paper introduces the Central and Eastern European achievements of region building processes and searches for an explanation of the reasons for the difficulties of Eastern and Central Europe in regional construction; it summarises the administrative and political development pre-requisites of the transition to a regional outline of the possible advantages of a regional institutional system in the creation of the Cohesion Policy ensuring a decrease in regional differences.

  7. Approach to a Lump in the Breast: A Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Leung Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of women with breast lumps are greatly influenced by geographical factors. These impact disease patterns and their presentation (e.g. socioeconomic/educational status and cultural/religious beliefs and the availability of specialist health care personnel and facilities. The differential diagnoses of a breast lump include breast cancer, benign solid and cystic lumps and inflammatory conditions. The likelihood of a diagnosis relates more to geographical area, age, ethnic origin, family history of breast cancer, presence of high-risk pathology, endemic infection, smoking, pregnancy and lactation history, puerperal care and health education. Investigations and treatments vary more according to the availability of expertise and facilities (e.g. combined diagnostic clinic staffed by breast surgeon and radiologist; breast radiologist to carry out image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This article discusses the clinical assessment and investigation of breast lumps and possible treatments from an Asia Pacific perspective.

  8. Implementing the nexus at various scales: Local and regional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnoudse Eefje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many issues in the water, energy and agricultural sector are in fact crosscutting issues, which can only be solved by a nexus approach. A nexus approach means that management solutions account for synergies and tradeoffs between the sectors. Critical issues emerging across the three sectors ask for different policies at different governance levels. However, at each level of policy making the impact at local level should be an important point of reference. In line with this, the case of the Aral Sea Basin in Central Asia exemplifies how international energy politics affect local farmers’ access to irrigation water. Moreover, a comparative study of three states in India shows that local differences in the implementation of the nexus approach can lead to different outcomes in terms of groundwater and electricity use for agriculture. These two examples underline that to implement a nexus approach; the local perspective should not be overlooked, even when policies are designed at higher governance levels.

  9. Geology and landscape evolution of the Hellas region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Leonard, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    . Their subsequent erosion resulted in pitted and etched plains and crater fill, irregular mesas, and pedestal craters. Local evidence occurs for the possible former presence of ground ice or ice sheets approx. 100 km across; however, we disagree with a hypothesis that suggests that the entire south rim and much of the floor of Hellas have been glaciated. Orientations of dune fields and yardangs in lower parts of Hellas basin follow directions of the strongest winds predicted by a recently published general circulation model (GCM). Transient frost and dust splotches in the region are, by contrast, related to the GCM prediction for the season in which the images they appear in were taken.

  10. Ukrainian Crisis: Perspectives from Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Ganshina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the latest developments in Ukraine in 2013-2014. Different point of views of the Asia-Pacific region and countries like China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia will be considered in this topic. During this period, the country is experiencing a political crisis, that affects the Ukraine itself, as well as international relations in the described region. The point of view on these matters by the countries of the Asia-Pacific rim must be taken into account too.

  11. The Evolution of Adult Height Across Spanish Regions 1950-1980: A New Source of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Bosch; Carlos Bozzoli; Climent Quintana

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the evolution of adult height across Spanish regions for cohorts born between 1950 and 1980 using the available augmented sample of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) for Spain. This augmented sample is available only for the year 2000, and collects self-reported height data representative at the Spanish region level (Comunidad Autónoma). Our main findings show that female average height experienced an increase of 4 cm between 1950 and 1980, whil...

  12. Innovation Hubs, student driven incubators in regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der J.D. (Han)

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/0AC5BB0E-3951-48E2-B00D49D5194985A7 In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).   University Business Incubators (UBI) are being considered

  13. Californian Genius: Lewis Terman's Gifted Child in Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clémentine

    2016-01-01

    This article pays attention to the regional embeddedness of early research on giftedness, looking principally at the works of Lewis Terman and his peers, between the 1910s and 1930s. The rhetoric, ideology, and aesthetics of giftedness in those early works were, I argue, stamped by the context and imaginary of Progressive-Era California and shaped…

  14. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  15. Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion: Evolution during the Economic Crisis and Territorial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Faura-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a regional perspective to analyse the progression of the risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE rate in Spain during the recent crisis period. Various methodological issues related to how the components of the AROPE rate are integrated have brought into question its suitability as the Europe 2020 strategy indicator. As these problems are accentuated in the analysis of individual territories, this paper examines the effect of using regional poverty thresholds. When these are included, the risk of poverty or social exclusion is more consistent with the standard of living enjoyed in each territory. In addition, this paper mainly on the poverty rate by the application of a multiple linear regression model. Nonetheless, the explanatory power of the deprivation and employment indicators diminishes when using regional poverty thresholds.

  16. The Politics of City Regions in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kantor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An age of the urban regionalism has arrived. Postindustrial capitalism is evolving in ways that give renewed importance to city regions. New forms of economic interdependence, the rise of specialized flexible production, the spread of new technologies, and other factors are making the city region a prominent node in today’s globalized economy. Although governments at all levels have been responding to manage this reality, political intervention remains a contentious matter because regional economic development has unleashed new political tensions over governance. Some tensions arise from economic obstacles to regional political cooperation. Other tensions arise from the urban political process in city regions. Many political interests, including entire governments, oppose political collaboration necessary for regional governance because it threatens them with loss of power, status or wealth. The political forces favoring resistance at the local and metropolitan levels tend to differ in the North American and Western European contexts, however.L’âge du «régionalisme urbain» est arrivé. Le capitalisme postindustriel se développe avec des modalités qui accordent une nouvelle importance aux villes-régions. De nouvelles formes d’interdépendance économique, l’émergence d’une production spécialisée flexible, la diffusion des nouvelles technologies, et d’autres facteurs font des villes-régions un nœud prédominant dans l’économie globalisée d’aujourd’hui. Bien que les gouvernements de tous niveaux aient fourni des réponses pour gérer cette réalité, l’intervention politique demeure un objet de conflit parce que le développement économique régional a libéré de nouvelles tensions politiques. Certaines tensions naissent des obstacles économiques à une coopération politique de niveau métropolitain. D’autres proviennent de l’intérieur même du processus politique des villes. De nombreux int

  17. The evolution of regional cross-border water regimes, the case of Deltarhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, T.; Meijerink, S; van der Zaag, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we look at the evolution of a cooperative water regime in the delta of the Rhine catchment. In a Dutch–German case study, we focus on cross-border cooperation on the local and regional scale, describing and analyzing how a remarkably resilient and robust transboundary water regime

  18. From fast to slow processes in the evolution of urban and regional settlement structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Weidlich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems consist of many intertwined organizational levels starting from micro-structures and ending with macrostructures. Their evolution takes place on different time scales: Micropatterns exhibit a fast dynamics whereas macropatterns develop slowly. Urban and regional science can make use of this fact by constructing a hierarchy of models on different spatio-temporal scales.

  19. Regional heat flux over the NOPEX area estimated from the evolution of the mixed-layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    1999-01-01

    of forest, agricultural fields, mires and lakes within the boreal zone, was determined for 3 days of the campaign in 1994. It was found to be lower than the heat flux over forest and higher than the heat Aux over agricultural fields. The regional heat flux estimated by the mixed-layer evolution method...

  20. Evolution of vertebrate GnRH receptors from the perspective of a basal vertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacia A Sower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian, type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that 2 whole rounds of genome duplication (2R occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

  1. The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility in Western countries has evolved substantially over the past fifty years, from an early interest in catering for growing car ownership and use through major road expansion, to the current emphasis on reducing car use and cutting back on road provision, encouraging sustainable travel and promoting liveable cities with a high quality of life. This can be observed in the changing patterns of car use in many European cities over time (i.e. a rapid increase followed by stabilisation and now decline. This evolution can be related to changes in the transport policy paradigm, which has been heavily influenced by the involvement of an increasing range of academic disciplines, many of which have contributed to modifying the supporting data collection, modelling and appraisal methodologies. The paper explores the varying interplay over time between academic/applied research and policy practice, and the methodological legacy left by earlier perspectives on urban mobility. It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years.

  2. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  3. Climate variability and change: a perspective from the oceania region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Tom

    2014-12-01

    This brief review identifies seven key science questions in relation to climate variability and change and examines recent research within the Australian and Pacific context: 1. How do the key processes controlling climate variability and predictability operate? 2. What are the nature and causes of regional climate anomalies, past variations in regional climate and extreme weather events and how will they change in the future? 3. How can we provide improved seasonal-to-interannual climate predictions? 4. What are the best projection methods? 5. What are the sea-level changes now and in the future; and how will these impact the coasts? 6. How to have significant benefits on climate service delivery and environmental management? 7. What are the best methods for assessing climate change risks, vulnerability and adaptation options?

  4. FIVE REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES OF CONSTRUCTING AN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The offshore company, the emblem of the tax haven jurisdictions, is owned by non-residents and it conducts activities outside the island of incorporation in order to benefit from tax advantages. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis on the trends of constructing the offshore corporate structures at the level of five regions where tax havens have been identified: The Caribbean Sea and Central America; Europe; Asia; The Indian Ocean and The Pacific Ocean. Based on the tax and corporate legislations the analysis is focused on the main tax advantages offered by these entities, the incorporation and administration procedures as well as the costs involved. The results have shown that pure offshore corporate legislation is to be found at the level of only three geographic areas: The Caribbean Sea and Central America; The Indian Ocean and The Pacific Ocean and the offshore law is predominantly international, with only fine regional differences.

  5. Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    Twin Pillar policy, in spite of their latent rivalry. Iran’s Islamic revolution accentuated core strategic tensions between the two regional powers...prospective response to the acquisition of a nuclear weapon by Iran has long been a matter of intense debate and conjecture among observers and policy...Qatari Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassem bin Jabr Al Thani characterized Iran’s post-election disputes as “an internal

  6. REGIONAL GEOPOLITICAL PROJECT “INTERMARIUM”: PERSPECTIVES OF REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Goltsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of geopolitical projects of association of the countries in the “Intermarium” dates back to the period after the First World War. In the era of the Cold War, some countries of the Baltic-Black Sea region were part of the Soviet Union, while others were Soviet satellites. Expansion of NATO and EU toward the East in post-bipolar period has resulted in strengthening of the position of the West in Central and Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have turned into an outpost of the West on the border with Russia. Implementation of the “Eastern Partnership” project leads to increased infl uence of the EU in Ukraine and Moldova. Possible geoeconomic integration within the “Intermarium” is to be of low effi ciency. Belarus has a key strategic position in the region and is an ally of Russia. Potential threats that are emanate from the geopolitics of Russia in Eastern Europe, encourages countries of the Baltic-Black Sea region to develop new geopolitical projects in creating of defensive militarypolitical association. Contemporary neo-imperial geopolitics of the US in Europe is aimed at strengthening of its infl uence and provides, in particular, the support to projects of regional interstate associations, designed to “containment” of Russia. For the countries of the Western Europe geopolitical projects of integration associations in the Baltic-Black Sea region can be designed to form a “cordon sanitaire” for the isolation of Russia Ukraine is a most interested country in the implementation of the military-political project “Intermarium”. The potential militarypolitical association «Intermarium» will be fully functioned only under condition of preservation of the confrontation between the West and Russia.

  7. The evolution and extinction of the ichthyosaurs from the perspective of quantitative ecospace modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Daniel G; Maxwell, Erin E

    2015-07-01

    The role of niche specialization and narrowing in the evolution and extinction of the ichthyosaurs has been widely discussed in the literature. However, previous studies have concentrated on a qualitative discussion of these variables only. Here, we use the recently developed approach of quantitative ecospace modelling to provide a high-resolution quantitative examination of the changes in dietary and ecological niche experienced by the ichthyosaurs throughout their evolution in the Mesozoic. In particular, we demonstrate that despite recent discoveries increasing our understanding of taxonomic diversity among the ichthyosaurs in the Cretaceous, when viewed from the perspective of ecospace modelling, a clear trend of ecological contraction is visible as early as the Middle Jurassic. We suggest that this ecospace redundancy, if carried through to the Late Cretaceous, could have contributed to the extinction of the ichthyosaurs. Additionally, our results suggest a novel model to explain ecospace change, termed the 'migration model'. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The evolution of the Faculty of Language from a Chomskyan perspective: bridging linguistics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longa, Victor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    While language was traditionally considered a purely cultural trait, the advent of Noam Chomsky's Generative Grammar in the second half of the twentieth century dramatically challenged that view. According to that theory, language is an innate feature, part of the human biological endowment. If language is indeed innate, it had to biologically evolve. This review has two main objectives: firstly, it characterizes from a Chomskyan perspective the evolutionary processes by which language could have come into being. Secondly, it proposes a new method for interpreting the archaeological record that radically differs from the usual types of evidence Paleoanthropology has concentrated on when dealing with language evolution: while archaeological remains have usually been regarded from the view of the behavior they could be associated with, the paper will consider archaeological remains from the view of the computational processes and capabilities at work for their production. This computational approach, illustrated with a computational analysis of prehistoric geometric engravings, will be used to challenge the usual generative thinking on language evolution, based on the high specificity of language. The paper argues that the biological machinery of language is neither specifically linguistic nor specifically human, although language itself can still be considered a species-specific innate trait. From such a view, language would be one of the consequences of a slight modification operated on an ancestral architecture shared with vertebrates.

  9. Cranial shape and size variation in human evolution: structural and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano

    2007-12-01

    A GLIMPSE INTO MODERN PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: In the last decades, paleoanthropology has been deeply modified, changing from a descriptive and historical science to a more quantitative and analytical discipline. The covariation of multiple traits is investigated to study the evolutionary changes of the underlying anatomical models, mostly through the introduction of digital biomedical imaging procedures and of computed geometrical analyses supported by multivariate statistics. FUNCTIONAL CRANIOLOGY: The evolution of the human cranium is consequently considered in terms of functional and structural relationships between its components, largely influenced by the allometric variations associated with the increase in the relative cranial capacity. In the human genus, the changes in the face, base, and neurocranium are characterised by a mosaic variation, in which adaptations, secondary consequences, and stochastic factors concur to generate a set of anatomical possibilities and constraints. SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVES TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY: Concepts like morphological modularity, anatomical integration, and heterochrony represent key issues in the development of the current human evolutionary studies.

  10. Analyses of Corallimorpharian Transcriptomes Provide New Perspectives on the Evolution of Calcification in the Scleractinia (Corals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Fang; Moya, Aurelie; Ying, Hua; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Cooke, Ira; Ball, Eldon E; Forêt, Sylvain; Miller, David J

    2017-01-01

    Corallimorpharians (coral-like anemones) have a close phylogenetic relationship with scleractinians (hard corals) and can potentially provide novel perspectives on the evolution of biomineralization within the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia. A survey of the transcriptomes of three representative corallimorpharians led to the identification of homologs of some skeletal organic matrix proteins (SOMPs) previously considered to be restricted to corals.Carbonic anhydrases (CAs), which are ubiquitous proteins involved in CO2 trafficking, are involved in both coral calcification and photosynthesis by endosymbiotic Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). These multiple roles are assumed to place increased demands on the CA repertoire and have presumably driven the elaboration of the complex CA repertoires typical of corals (note that "corals" are defined here as reef-building Scleractinia). Comparison of the CA inventories of corallimorpharians with those of corals reveals that corals have specifically expanded the secreted and membrane-associated type CAs, whereas similar complexity is observed in the two groups with respect to other CA types.Comparison of the CA complement of the nonsymbiotic corallimorph Corynactis australis with that of Ricordea yuma, a corallimorph which normally hosts Symbiodinium, reveals similar numbers and distribution of CA types and suggests that an expansion of the CA repertoire has been necessary to enable calcification but may not be a requirement to enable symbiosis. Consistent with this idea, preliminary analysis suggests that the CA complexity of zooxanthellate and nonzooxanthellate sea anemones is similar.The comparisons above suggest that although there are relatively few new genes in the skeletal organic matrix of corals (which controls the skeleton deposition process), the evolution of calcification required an expanded repertoire of secreted and membrane-associated CAs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  11. The evolution and understanding of hierarchical complexity in biology from an algebraic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehaniv, C L; Rhodes, J L

    2000-01-01

    We develop the rigorous notion of a model for understanding state transition systems by hierarchical coordinate systems. Using this we motivate an algebraic definition of the complexity of biological systems, comparing it to other candidates such as genome size and number of cell types. We show that our complexity measure is the unique maximal complexity measure satisfying a natural set of axioms. This reveals a strong relationship between hierarchical complexity in biological systems and the area of algebra known as global semigroup theory. We then study the rate at which hierarchical complexity can evolve in biological systems assuming evolution is "as slow as possible" from the perspective of computational power of organisms. Explicit bounds on the evolution of complexity are derived showing that, although the evolutionary changes in hierarchical complexity are bounded, in some circumstances complexity may more than double in certain "genius jumps" of evolution. In fact, examples show that our bounds are sharp. We sketch the structure where such complexity jumps are known to occur and note some similarities to previously identified mechanisms in biological evolutionary transitions. We also address the question of, How fast can complexity evolve over longer periods of time? Although complexity may more than double in a single generation, we prove that in a smooth sequence of t "inclusion" steps, complexity may grow at most from N to (N + 1)t + N, a linear function of number of generations t, while for sequences of "mapping" steps it increases by at most t. Thus, despite the fact that there are major transitions in which complexity jumps are possible, over longer periods of time, the growth of complexity may be broken into maximal intervals on which it is bounded above in the manner described.

  12. REGIONAL GEOPOLITICAL PROJECT “INTERMARIUM”: PERSPECTIVES OF REALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Goltsov

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of geopolitical projects of association of the countries in the “Intermarium” dates back to the period after the First World War. In the era of the Cold War, some countries of the Baltic-Black Sea region were part of the Soviet Union, while others were Soviet satellites. Expansion of NATO and EU toward the East in post-bipolar period has resulted in strengthening of the position of the West in Central and Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have turned into an outpost ...

  13. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species’ diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange. PMID:28262789

  14. Biological relevance of streamflow metrics: Regional and national perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Grantham, Theodore E.; Eng, Kenny; Wolock, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Protecting the health of streams and rivers requires identifying ecologically significant attributes of the natural flow regime. Streamflow regimes are routinely quantified using a plethora of hydrologic metrics (HMs), most of which have unknown relevance to biological communities. At regional and national scales, we evaluated which of 509 commonly used HMs were associated with biological indicators of fish and invertebrate community integrity. We quantified alteration of each HM by using statistical models to predict site-specific natural baseline values for each of 728 sites across the USA where streamflow monitoring data were available concurrent with assessments of invertebrate or fish community integrity. We then ranked HMs according to their individual association with biological integrity based on random forest models that included HMs and other relevant covariates, such as land cover and stream chemistry. HMs were generally the most important predictors of biological integrity relative to the covariates. At a national scale, the most influential HMs were measures of depleted high flows, homogenization of flows, and erratic flows. Unique combinations of biologically relevant HMs were apparent among regions. We discuss the implications of our findings to the challenge of selecting HMs for streamflow research and management.

  15. Perspective Tools of the Strategic Management of VFR Tourism Development at the Regional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Aleksandr P.; Efimova, Ekaterina V.; Kobets, Margarita V.; Kilinkarova, Sofiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the perspective tools of strategic management in general and strategic planning of VFR tourism (for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives) at the regional level in particular. It is based on dialectical and logical methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, the concrete historical and…

  16. Regionalism and the Unity of International Law from a Positivist Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, André; Aznar, Mariano J; Footer, Mary E

    This contribution aims to consider regionalism and the unity of international law from a practical, legal positivist perspective. The analysis will focus on the interrelationship in terms of validity, sources, and questions of (non-)application and conflict. A tentative conclusion is that

  17. The productivity of public capital in the Netherlands: a regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manshanden, W.; Dröes, M.I.; Manshanden, W.; Jonkhoff, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates on the impact of public capital on production in the Netherlands from a regional perspective. Based on a simple growth accounting exercise, the results indicate that investment in public capital contributed 17-21% to economic growth in the Netherlands between 1971 and 2000.

  18. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Rahal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs, with Lebanon as an exemplar. This “cocktail” of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  20. Probing the solar transition region: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The solar transition region (TR) is the temperature regime from roughly 0.02 MK to 0.8 MK in the solar atmosphere. It is the transition layer from the collisional and partially ionized chromosphere to the collisionless and fully ionized corona. The TR plays an important role in the mass and energy transport in both the quiet solar atmosphere and solar eruptions. Most of the TR emission lines fall into the spectral range of far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet (˜ 400 Å-1600 Å). Imaging and spectroscopic observations in this spectral range are the most important ways to obtain information about the physics of the TR. Static solar atmosphere models predict a very thin TR. However, recent high-resolution observations indicate that the TR is highly dynamic and inhomogeneous. I will summarize some major findings about the TR made through imaging and spectroscopic observations in the past 20 years. These existing observations have demonstrated that the TR may be the key to understanding coronal heating and origin of the solar wind. Future exploration of the solar TR may need to focus on the upper TR, since the plasma in this temperature regime (0.1 MK-0.8 MK) has not been routinely imaged before. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations of the upper TR will not only allow us to track the mass and energy from the lower atmosphere to the corona, but also help us to understand the initiation and heating mechanisms of coronal mass ejections and solar flares.

  1. Mars Express Science Ground Segment overview: A study about the mission's evolution, new challenges and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Yaseli de la Parra, J.; Martin, P.; Cardesín Moinelo, A.; Merritt, D.; Breitfellner, M.; Castillo, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present an overview of more than 13 years of mission operations from the perspective of the Science Ground Segment (SGS), including the evolution of the mission planning system and summarizing the new challenges ahead for the years remaining until the end of the mission. In addition, we will emphasize the planning for the solar conjunction season during the Summer of 2017. In comparison with the SGS planning for the Rosetta mission, we will present some observation statistics and we will conclude with the planned system improvements and future mission perspectives.

  2. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…

  3. Genes in the terminal regions of orthopoxvirus genomes experience adaptive molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, David J; Hutchinson, Anne P

    2011-05-23

    Orthopoxviruses are dsDNA viruses with large genomes, some encoding over 200 genes. Genes essential for viral replication are located in the center of the linear genome and genes encoding host response modifiers and other host interacting proteins are located in the terminal regions. The central portion of the genome is highly conserved, both in gene content and sequence, while the terminal regions are more diverse. In this study, we investigated the role of adaptive molecular evolution in poxvirus genes and the selective pressures that act on the different regions of the genome. The relative fixation rates of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations (the d(N)/d(S) ratio) are an indicator of the mechanism of evolution of sequences, and can be used to identify purifying, neutral, or diversifying selection acting on a gene. Like highly conserved residues, amino acids under diversifying selection may be functionally important. Many genes experiencing diversifying selection are involved in host-pathogen interactions, such as antigen-antibody interactions, or the "host-pathogen arms race." We analyzed 175 gene families from orthopoxviruses for evidence of diversifying selection. 79 genes were identified as experiencing diversifying selection, 25 with high confidence. Many of these genes are located in the terminal regions of the genome and function to modify the host response to infection or are virion-associated, indicating a greater role for diversifying selection in host-interacting genes. Of the 79 genes, 20 are of unknown function, and implicating diversifying selection as an important mechanism in their evolution may help characterize their function or identify important functional residues. We conclude that diversifying selection is an important mechanism of orthopoxvirus evolution. Diversifying selection in poxviruses may be the result of interaction with host defense mechanisms.

  4. The dynamics of sex ratio evolution: from the gene perspective to multilevel selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Argasinski

    Full Text Available The new dynamical game theoretic model of sex ratio evolution emphasizes the role of males as passive carriers of sex ratio genes. This shows inconsistency between population genetic models of sex ratio evolution and classical strategic models. In this work a novel technique of change of coordinates will be applied to the new model. This will reveal new aspects of the modelled phenomenon which cannot be shown or proven in the original formulation. The underlying goal is to describe the dynamics of selection of particular genes in the entire population, instead of in the same sex subpopulation, as in the previous paper and earlier population genetics approaches. This allows for analytical derivation of the unbiased strategic model from the model with rigorous non-simplified genetics. In effect, an alternative system of replicator equations is derived. It contains two subsystems: the first describes changes in gene frequencies (this is an alternative unbiased formalization of the Fisher-Dusing argument, whereas the second describes changes in the sex ratios in subpopulations of carriers of genes for each strategy. An intriguing analytical result of this work is that the fitness of a gene depends on the current sex ratio in the subpopulation of its carriers, not on the encoded individual strategy. Thus, the argument of the gene fitness function is not constant but is determined by the trajectory of the sex ratio among carriers of that gene. This aspect of the modelled phenomenon cannot be revealed by the static analysis. Dynamics of the sex ratio among gene carriers is driven by a dynamic "tug of war" between female carriers expressing the encoded strategic trait value and random partners of male carriers expressing the average population strategy (a primary sex ratio. This mechanism can be called "double-level selection". Therefore, gene interest perspective leads to multi-level selection.

  5. The maternal perspective for five Slovenian regions: The importance of regional sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Andrej; Hauptman, Nina; Glavač, Damjan

    2016-01-01

    The Slovenian territory is geographically positioned between the Alps, Adriatic Sea, Pannonian basin and the Dinaric Mountains and, as such, has served as a passageway for various populations in different periods of time. Turbulent historic events and diverse geography of the region have produced a diverse contemporary population whose genetic analysis could provide insight into past demographic events. The aims of this study were to characterize the Slovenian mitochondrial gene pool at the micro-geographic level and to compare it with surrounding populations. A total of 402 individuals from five Slovenian regions were analysed in this study by typing HVR I, HVR II and coding region polymorphisms of mtDNA. Analysis revealed 47 haplogroups and sub-haplogroups, the most common of which were H*, H1, J1c, T2 and U5a. Intra-population comparisons revealed a sharp gradient of the J1c haplogroup between Slovenian regions, with a peak frequency of 24.5% being observed in the population of the Littoral Region. The sharp gradient of the J1c haplogroup between Slovenian regions is in line with the archaeological horizon known as Impressed Ware culture and could, therefore, represent a genetic trace of the early Neolithic expansion route along the East Adriatic coastal region.

  6. Evolution of Leukotoxin Regulatory regions in Genus Mannheimia by Interspecies Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik

    to -376 contains at least one positive regulatory element, suggesting early divergence within the promoter family and the emergence of a lineage with increased promoter strength. Tandem duplication of the pattern ACAAAAAACA has occurred in the ancestral Mhae1 promoter after the Mhae1 and Mhae2 ancestors......Comparisons of evolutionary divergent promoter sequences have revealed that gross rearrangements of pre-existing blocks into new combinations play a central role during the evolution of regulatory regions. The noncoding region upstream of the leukotoxin operon was analyzed in six Mannheimia strains...

  7. THE MACROECONOMIC EVOLUTIONS IN THE ROMANIA DEVELOPMENT REGIONS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC - FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disparities between the regions of Romania as within them were both in the run-up to accession of Romania to the European Union as well as after 1 January 2007. This phenomenon has gained momentum due to the impact of economic restructuring, especially in the areas of monoindustriale, whose population has been affected by unemployment as a result of the closure of unprofitable State enterprises. The impact of the financial and economic crisis on economic growth at the level of the eight development regions of Romania did not produce modifications in their rankings after the index of regional disparity, even though for some, its value increased compared to 2006 or 2008. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in the development regions of Romania in the period 2006-2011.

  8. Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma: new perspectives on vertebrate genome structure and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss S Randal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because amphibians arise from a branch of the vertebrate evolutionary tree that is juxtaposed between fishes and amniotes, they provide important comparative perspective for reconstructing character changes that have occurred during vertebrate evolution. Here, we report the first comparative study of vertebrate genome structure that includes a representative amphibian. We used 491 transcribed sequences from a salamander (Ambystoma genetic map and whole genome assemblies for human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, zebrafish, and the freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis to compare gene orders and rearrangement rates. Results Ambystoma has experienced a rate of genome rearrangement that is substantially lower than mammalian species but similar to that of chicken and fish. Overall, we found greater conservation of genome structure between Ambystoma and tetrapod vertebrates, nevertheless, 57% of Ambystoma-fish orthologs are found in conserved syntenies of four or more genes. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal extensive conservation of segmental homology for 57% of the presumptive Ambystoma-amniote orthologs. Conclusion Our analyses suggest relatively constant interchromosomal rearrangement rates from the euteleost ancestor to the origin of mammals and illustrate the utility of amphibian mapping data in establishing ancestral amniote and tetrapod gene orders. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal some of the key events that have structured the human genome since diversification of the ancestral amniote lineage.

  9. The evolution of family complexity from the perspective of nonmarital children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Cook, Steven T

    2011-08-01

    We document the incidence and evolution of family complexity from the perspective of children. Following a cohort of firstborn children whose mothers were not married at the time of their birth, we consider family structure changes over the first 10 years of the child's life-considering both full and half-siblings who are coresidential or who live in another household. We rely on detailed longitudinal administrative data from Wisconsin that include information on the timing of subsequent births to the mother and father, and detailed information on earnings, child support, and welfare. We find that 60% of firstborn children of unmarried mothers have at least one half-sibling by age 10. Our results highlight the importance of having fertility information for both fathers and mothers: estimates of the proportion of children with half-siblings would be qualitatively lower if we had fertility information on only one parent. Complex family structures are more likely for children of parents who are younger or who have low earnings and for those in larger urban areas. Children who have half-siblings on their mother's side are also more likely to have half-siblings on their father's side, and vice versa, contributing to very complex family structures-and potential child support arrangements-for some children.

  10. China and ASEAN: The Evolution of Relationship under a Discursive Institutionalist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's relationship with certain institutions is a popular topic in international relation studies. In this article I will adopt a discursive institutionalist perspective to present how the transformation of China's foreign ideas influences China's relationship with the ASEAN, the most institutionalized regional arrangement in Asia. This article examines China's foreign policy ideas from Mao Zedong's time until the end of Hu Jintao's mandate, separated into different time spans with historical conjunctures. China's foreign policy ideas will be analyzed according to three different levels of generalities (philosophical level, paradigm level and policy level, and two types of ideas (cognitive and normative as suggested by Discursive Institutionalism. The relationship between China and ASEAN will be examined under the larger framework of China's foreign policy ideas, and I attempt to contribute to a deepened understanding of China's relationship with the ASEAN.

  11. Perspectives of Sustainable Development of Tourism in the North-East Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Liviu Scutariu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to highlight the tourism evolution and its intensity in the North-East region of Romania, compared to two regions with similar touristic potential from the Eastern European Union: Subcarpathia from Poland and Central Slovakia. We analysed if the EU attachment of Romania, Poland, and Slovakia had some effects on tourism development in the three regions mentioned. Issues arising from the analysis of the current situation of tourism will allow us to draw some sustainable development directions of tourism in the North-East region based on conserving and capitalizing the uniqueness of the area. We will consider the experience of the other two regions, trying to adapt them to the situation of the North-East region. Based on the analysis we have made, we consider that other countries can inspire us by authorities’ initiatives in supporting tourism, good human resources training, entrepreneurship stimulation, and assistance in accessing financial resources, including EU ones.

  12. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution. This study explores instructor practices and beliefs related to mitigating students’ perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Interviews with 32 instructors revealed that many instructors do not believe it is their goal to help students accept evolution and that most instructors do not address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Instructors cited many barriers to discussing religion in the context of evolution in their classes, most notably the instructors’ own personal beliefs that religion and evolution may be incompatible. These data are exploratory and are intended to stimulate a series of questions about how we as college biology instructors teach evolution. PMID:27193289

  13. Educational History in the Nordic Region: Reflections from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lindmark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this selective overview, themes that have become prominent in recent research will be presented. I will summarize the infrastructural basis of the discipline and comment on the foundation and character of the community, including scholarly collaboration in the region. The present overview will take into account research presented at the Nordic Conferences in Educational History and articles published in the Nordic Journal of Educational History. Finally, special attention will be paid to selected large-scale projects attempting to challenge established national perspectives. How to reference this article Lindmark, D. (2015. Educational History in the Nordic Region: Reflections from a Swedish Perspective. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 7-22. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.001

  14. Environmental assessment of perspective of rail travel transportation organization in zakarpattya region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Володимирівна Зеленько

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of perspective of rail travel transportation organization in Zakarpattya region from a position of influence on potential environmental objects in the sphere of influence of railway infrastructure are given in the article. On the basis of geographic information systems and database management systems it is developed information analytical decision support system to ensure a high environmental level of tourist traffic against a background of economic profitability – «SAER»

  15. National, Regional and Global Perspectives of Higher Education and Science Policies in the Arab Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction between science policies (and particularly in the area of scientific research) and higher education policies in Gulf and Mediterranean Arab countries. Our analysis reveals a discrepancy between the two sub-regions with respect to integration in the global market, cooperation in scientific research and…

  16. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  17. Regional decomposition analysis of electric carbon productivity from the perspective of production and consumption in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guijing; Hou, Fujun; Chang, Keliang

    2018-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impact factors of electric carbon productivity change in China. Some influencing factors are identified by examining the time series decomposition of electric carbon productivity based on data from 2003 to 2015, where the usual Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method is used but with the regional dimension taken into consideration. Moreover, this study analyzes the driving factors of electric carbon productivity change from the perspective of production and consumption in China's power industry, where the influences of power transfers among provinces, imports and exports, and transmission losses are considered. Based on the decomposition analysis of existing data in 30 provinces (including province-level municipalities), from the perspective of production, regional actual electric carbon productivity, and per capita GDP are the main influencing forces for the growth of electric carbon productivity, and the reciprocal of per capita electric carbon emissions, energy intensity, and energy emission intensity play dominate roles in the decline of electric carbon productivity. From the perspective of consumption, the main impact factors to improve electric carbon productivity are power transfers among provinces, imports and exports, the reciprocal of emission intensity of power consumption and regional electric carbon productivity, and the impact of energy consumption on thermal power generation, the proportion of thermal power to total electricity generation, and the effect of transmission losses. Finally, several conclusions are drawn that might be meaningful for the Chinese government to improve China's electric carbon productivity.

  18. Evolution and comparative analysis of the MHC Class III inflammatory region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speed Terence P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC is essential for immune function. Historically, it has been subdivided into three regions (Class I, II, and III, but a cluster of functionally related genes within the Class III region has also been referred to as the Class IV region or "inflammatory region". This group of genes is involved in the inflammatory response, and includes members of the tumour necrosis family. Here we report the sequencing, annotation and comparative analysis of a tammar wallaby BAC containing the inflammatory region. We also discuss the extent of sequence conservation across the entire region and identify elements conserved in evolution. Results Fourteen Class III genes from the tammar wallaby inflammatory region were characterised and compared to their orthologues in other vertebrates. The organisation and sequence of genes in the inflammatory region of both the wallaby and South American opossum are highly conserved compared to known genes from eutherian ("placental" mammals. Some minor differences separate the two marsupial species. Eight genes within the inflammatory region have remained tightly clustered for at least 360 million years, predating the divergence of the amphibian lineage. Analysis of sequence conservation identified 354 elements that are conserved. These range in size from 7 to 431 bases and cover 15.6% of the inflammatory region, representing approximately a 4-fold increase compared to the average for vertebrate genomes. About 5.5% of this conserved sequence is marsupial-specific, including three cases of marsupial-specific repeats. Highly Conserved Elements were also characterised. Conclusion Using comparative analysis, we show that a cluster of MHC genes involved in inflammation, including TNF, LTA (or its putative teleost homolog TNF-N, APOM, and BAT3 have remained together for over 450 million years, predating the divergence of mammals from fish. The observed enrichment in conserved

  19. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.

    2017-06-01

    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  20. Evolution of the techniques for subsidence monitoring at regional scale: the case of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bitelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent decades have seen a significant evolution of the methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of subsidence on a regional scale: from the traditional levelling technique to GNSS and finally to SAR interferometry. The case study of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is a prime example of this evolution. As known, the Emilia-Romagna plain is subject to a phenomenon of subsidence with a natural and an anthropogenic component, both of varying amounts depending on the area. The first contributes a few mm/year; the second, particularly evident in the last 60 years, is mainly correlated to excessive withdrawal of fluids from underground and reaches higher values (in the past, subsidence rates of several cm per year were observed in the Po delta and near Bologna. The geodetic monitoring of subsidence started in the 1950s by different entities, establishing and measuring levelling networks of varying size and with various characteristics, mainly located where the phenomenon was most clearly manifest. These local initiatives were not able to provide a consistent understanding of the phenomenon throughout the entire Emilia-Romagna plain. The first regional-scale monitoring of the Emilia-Romagna plain was initiated in 1999, with a large levelling network (about 3000 km and a coupled network of 60 GNSS points. In subsequent years, the monitoring approach has mainly focused on the most modern remote sensing techniques integrated with each other, with the adoption of the method DInSAR calibrated to a GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS database. The application of DInSAR methods resulted in subsidence maps with a greater level of detail. The paper analyzes the methodology choices made during 1999–2012, through three successive campaigns that adopted and integrated the different techniques.

  1. Regional seismic stratigraphy and controls on the Quaternary evolution of the Cape Hatteras region of the Atlantic passive margin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, D.J.; Culver, S.J.; Riggs, S.R.; Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.; Wehmiller, J.; Farrell, K.M.; Pierson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic and core data, combined with amino acid racemization and strontium-isotope age data, enable the definition of the Quaternary stratigraphic framework and recognition of geologic controls on the development of the modern coastal system of North Carolina, U.S.A. Seven regionally continuous high amplitude reflections are defined which bound six seismic stratigraphic units consisting of multiple regionally discontinuous depositional sequences and parasequence sets, and enable an understanding of the evolution of this margin. Data reveal the progressive eastward progradation and aggradation of the Quaternary shelf. The early Pleistocene inner shelf occurs at a depth of ca. 20-40 m beneath the western part of the modern estuarine system (Pamlico Sound). A mid- to outer shelf lowstand terrace (also early Pleistocene) with shelf sand ridge deposits comprising parasequence sets within a transgressive systems tract, occurs at a deeper level (ca. 45-70 m) beneath the modern barrier island system (the Outer Banks) and northern Pamlico Sound. Seismic and foraminiferal paleoenvironmental data from cores indicate the occurrence of lowstand strandplain shoreline deposits on the early to middle Pleistocene shelf. Middle to late Pleistocene deposits occur above a prominent unconformity and marine flooding surface that truncates underlying units, and contain numerous filled fluvial valleys that are incised into the early and middle Pleistocene deposits. The stratigraphic framework suggests margin progradation and aggradation modified by an increase in the magnitude of sea-level fluctuations during the middle to late Pleistocene, expressed as falling stage, lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Thick stratigraphic sequences occur within the middle Pleistocene section, suggesting the occurrence of high capacity fluvial point sources debouching into the area from the west and north. Furthermore, the antecedent topography plays a significant role in the evolution

  2. Regions and media from quantitative and qualitative perspectives: the case of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sucháček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Media become increasingly important in co-creating the image of spatial units at various scales. The situation is even more intriguing in transition/post-transitions countries, which were exposed to modernization trends in rather short, almost compressed periods. The article aims at showing how media shape the image of NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. Comparisons show TV coverage embodies media agenda in a satisfactory manner as it has one of the highest impacts on the public on the one hand and is representative enough on the other. That is why TV coverage at the national level with contributions related to individual NUTS III in the Czech Republic was chosen as a point of departure. Thus, the objective of the paper is to analyze and interpret TV news related to NUTS III regions in the Czech Republic. This will be accomplished from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Quantitative analysis is focusing on the number of contributions related to the size of the region in question. Nonetheless, self-governing regions in the Czech Republic will be evaluated also from qualitative perspective when the composition of TV news will be accentuated. Although it is stated only seldom media analysis is of utmost importance in relation to regional development. In order to quantify and evaluate afore mentioned dependencies the methods of regression and correlation analysis will be utilized. Moreover, correspondence analysis and analysis of contingency tables will be used in the qualitative part of our research.

  3. The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea: A petrologic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Quanshu; Shi, Xuefa; Castillo, Paterno R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of available petrological, geochonological and geochemical data for late Mesozoic to Recent igneous rocks in the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions and a discussion of their petrogeneses and tectonic implications. The integration of these data with available geophysical and other geologic information led to the following tectono-magmatic model for the evolution of the SCS region. The geochemical characteristics of late Mesozoic granitic rocks in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), micro-blocks in the SCS, the offshore continental shelf and Dalat zone in southern Vietnam, and the Schwaner Mountains in West Kalimantan, Borneo indicate that these are mainly I-type granites plus a small amount of S-type granites in the PRMB. These granitoids were formed in a continental arc tectonic setting, consistent with the ideas proposed by Holloway (1982) and Taylor and Hayes (1980, 1983), that there existed an Andean-type volcanic arc during later Mesozoic era in the SCS region. The geochonological and geochemical characteristics of the volcanics indicate an early period of bimodal volcanism (60-43 Ma or 32 Ma) at the northern margin of the SCS, followed by a period of relatively passive style volcanism during Cenozoic seafloor spreading (37 or 30-16 Ma) within the SCS, and post-spreading volcanism (tholeiitic series at 17-8 Ma, followed by alkali series from 8 Ma to present) in the entire SCS region. The geodynamic setting of the earlier volcanics was an extensional regime, which resulted from the collision between India and Eurasian plates since the earliest Cenozoic, and that of the post-spreading volcanics may be related to mantle plume magmatism in Hainan Island. In addition, the nascent Hainan plume may have played a significant role in the extension along the northern margin and seafloor spreading in the SCS.

  4. Evolution of the Active Region NOAA 12443 based on magnetic field extrapolations: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicrala, André; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio; Antunes Vieira, Luis Eduardo; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rodríguez Gómez, Jenny Marcela; Palacios, Judith; Coelho Stekel, Tardelli Ronan; Rezende Costa, Joaquim Eduardo; da Silva Rockenbach, Marlos

    2017-10-01

    The behavior of Active Regions (ARs) is directly related to the occurrence of some remarkable phenomena in the Sun such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections (CME). In this sense, changes in the magnetic field of the region can be used to uncover other relevant features like the evolution of the ARs magnetic structure and the plasma flow related to it. In this work we describe the evolution of the magnetic structure of the active region AR NOAA12443 observed from 2015/10/30 to 2015/11/10, which may be associated with several X-ray flares of classes C and M. The analysis is based on observations of the solar surface and atmosphere provided by HMI and AIA instruments on board of the SDO spacecraft. In order to investigate the magnetic energy buildup and release of the ARs, we shall employ potential and linear force free extrapolations based on the solar surface magnetic field distribution and the photospheric velocity fields.

  5. Recombination in circulating Human enterovirus B: independent evolution of structural and non-structural genome regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Lashkevich, Vasilii A; Ivanova, Olga E; Koroleva, Galina A; Hinkkanen, Ari E; Ilonen, Jorma

    2005-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of eight Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) strains were determined, representing five serotypes, E6, E7, E11, CVB3 and CVB5, which were isolated in the former Soviet Union between 1998 and 2002. All strains were mosaic recombinants and only the VP2-VP3-VP1 genome region was similar to that of the corresponding prototype HEV-B strains. In seven of the eight strains studied, the 2C-3D genome region was most similar to the prototype E30, EV74 and EV75 strains, whilst the remaining strain was most similar to the prototype E1 and E9 strains in the non-structural protein genome region. Most viruses also bore marks of additional recombination events in this part of the genome. In the 5' non-translated region, all strains were more similar to the prototype E9 than to other enteroviruses. In most cases, recombination mapped to the VP4 and 2ABC genome regions. This, together with the star-like topology of the phylogenetic trees for these genome regions, identified these genome parts as recombination hot spots. These findings further support the concept of independent evolution of enterovirus genome fragments and indicate a requirement for more advanced typing approaches. A range of available phylogenetic methods was also compared for efficient detection of recombination in enteroviruses.

  6. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20–27 September 2011. Mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles as well as aerosol optical properties were concurrently measured at the Beijing urban atmospheric environment monitoring station. Gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, O3, CO and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Meanwhile, aerosol spatial distribution and the height of planetary boundary layer (PBL were retrieved from the signal of satellite and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Concentrations of NO, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO observed during 23–27 September had exceeded the national ambient air quality standards for residents. The mass concentration of PM2.5 gradually accumulated during the measurement and reached at 220 μg m−3 on 26 September, and the corresponding atmospheric visibility was only 1.1 km. The daily averaged AOD in Beijing increased from ~ 0.16 at λ = 500 nm on 22 September and reached ~ 3.5 on 26 September. The key factors that affected the formation and evolution of this haze episode were stable anti-cyclone synoptic conditions at the surface, decreasing of the height of PBL, heavy pollution emissions from urban area, number and size evolution of aerosols, and hygroscopic growth for aerosol scattering. This case study may provide valuable information for the public to recognize the formation mechanism of the regional haze event over the megacity, which is also useful for the government to adopt scientific approach to forecast and eliminate the occurrence of regional haze in China.

  7. Future Evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean: Coupled Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaraki, Sofia; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Nabat, Pierre; Cavicchia, Leone; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    FUTURE EVOLUTION OF MARINE HEAT WAVES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN : COUPLED REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean area is identified as a « Hot Spot » region, vulnerable to future climate change with potentially strong impacts over the sea. By 2100, climate models predict increased warming over the sea surface, with possible implications on the Mediterranean thermohaline and surface circulation,associated also with severe impacts on the ecosystems (e.g. fish habitat loss, species extinction and migration, invasive species). However, a robust assesment of the future evolution of the extreme marine temperatures remains still an open issue of primary importance, under the anthropogenic pressure. In this context, we study here the probability and characteristics of marine heat wave (MHW) occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea in future climate projections. To this end, we use an ensemble of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) from the Med- CORDEX initiative. This multi-model approach includes a high-resolution representation of the atmospheric, land and ocean component, with a free air-sea interface.Specifically, dedicated simulations for the 20th and the 21st century are carried out with respect to the different IPCC-AR5 socioeconomic scenarios (1950-2100, RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Model evaluation for the historical period is performed using satellite and in situ data. Then, the variety of factors that can cause the MHW (e.g. direct radiative forcing, ocean advection, stratification change) are examined to disentangle the dominant driving force. Finally, the spatial variability and temporal evolution of MHW are analyzed on an annual basis, along with additional integrated indicators, useful for marine ecosystems.

  8. Creative industry in supporting economy growth in Indonesia: Perspective of regional innovation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, AR R. T.; Asmara, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Creative Industry is one of the most influential economy sources in the world in era 2000 years. It was introduced by John Howkins [1] in which economy growth is dependent on new ideas. This concept answers concerning to industrial-based economy and has shifted from industrial economy (manufacture) to creative economy (intellectual as main asset). As developing countries, Government of Indonesia has seriously paid attention on creative industry sectors since 2009 through President Instruction Number 6 Year 2009 about Development of Creative Economy in Indonesia [23]. Since Joko Widodo has been President of Republic of Indonesia, creative economy is more developed by forming creative economy agency (Bekraf). Now, economy creative is one of new economy sources which is promoted by Government of Indonesia. Many creative sectors are pushed to complete national economy in Indonesia. In this term, perspective of regional innovation system is also important to understand what is creative industry expected by Government of Indonesia. Innovation and creative economy is two terms which is not separated each other. This paper uses case study in Indonesia as research methodology, also perspective of regional innovation system is to be main perspective in this study. The result is that creative industry and innovation are mutual relation each other in conceptual level. Practically, both are aimed to support national economy growth in Indonesia

  9. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  10. Perspective on sequence evolution of microsatellite locus (CCGn in Rv0050 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ruiliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycobacterial genome is inclined to polymerase slippage and a high mutation rate in microsatellite regions due to high GC content and absence of a mismatch repair system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying microsatellite variation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mutation events in the hyper-variable trinucleotide microsatellite locus MML0050 located in the Rv0050 gene of W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in order to gain insight into the genomic structure and activity of repeated regions. Results Size analysis indicated the presence of five alleles that differed in length by three base pairs. Moreover, nucleotide gains occurred more frequently than loses in this trinucleotide microsatellite. Mutation frequency was not completely related with the total length, though the relative frequency in the longest allele was remarkably higher than that in the shortest. Sequence analysis was able to detect seven alleles and revealed that point mutations enhanced the level of locus variation. Introduction of an interruptive motif correlated with the total allele length and genetic lineage, rather than the length of the longest stretch of perfect repeats. Finally, the level of locus variation was drastically different between the two genetic lineages. Conclusion The Rv0050 locus encodes the bifunctional penicillin-binding protein ponA1 and is essential to mycobacterial survival. Our investigations of this particularly dynamic genomic region provide insights into the overall mode of microsatellite evolution. Specifically, replication slippage was implicated in the mutational process of this microsatellite and a sequence-based genetic analysis was necessary to determine that point mutation events acted to maintain microsatellite size integrity while providing genomic diversity.

  11. Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region.

  12. The evolution of land plants: a perspective from horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qia Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that horizontal gene transfer (HGT played a significant role in the evolution of eukaryotic lineages. We here review the mechanisms of HGT in plants and the importance of HGT in land plant evolution. In particular, we discuss the role of HGT in plant colonization of land, phototropic response, C4 photosynthesis, and mitochondrial genome evolution.

  13. Inductive analysis about the impact of climate warming on regional geomorphic evolution in arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anayit, Mattohti; Abulizi, Mailiya

    2016-04-01

    Climate change on the surface of earth will produce a chain reaction among so many global natural environmental elements. Namely, all the issues will be affected by the climate change, just like the regional water environment, formation and development of landscape, plants and animals living environment, the survival of microorganisms, the human economic environment and health, and the whole social environment changes at well. But because of slow frequency of climate change and it is volatility change, its influence on other factors and the overall environmental performance is not obvious, and its reflection performs slowly. Using regional weather data, we calculated qualitatively and quantitatively and did analysis the impact of climate warming on Xinjiang (a province of China) geomorphic evolution elements, including the ground weather, erosion rate, collapse change, landslide occurrences changes and impact debris flow, combining the field survey and indoor test methods. Key words: climate change; the geomorphic induction; landscape change in river basin; Xinjiang

  14. Regionalization in the SUS: implementation process, challenges and perspectives in the critical view of system managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Andre Luis Bonifácio de; Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Senra, Isabel Maria Vilas Boas

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the regionalization process in the Brazilian Health System, identifying frameworks and challenges of this process from critical dialogue on the subject, contextualized by the experience of the management system and in the light of an established theoretical debate in the last decade. We used the thematic content analysis of legal and documentary surveys of the regionalization process in SUS, collated by elements of the historical and political context in the period. As evidence, it appears that the regionalization process has been incremental decentralization/deconcentration of management and health actions and services. There are important challenges, particularly in relation to ensuring access and system governance structure, which contributes to critical thinking and construction of new perspectives by those who lead their implementation.

  15. Carbon and oxygen in H II regions of the Magellanic Clouds: abundance discrepancy and chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Bresolin, F.; Rodríguez, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2017-05-01

    We present C and O abundances in the Magellanic Clouds derived from deep spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope. The sample comprises five H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and four in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We measure pure recombination lines (RLs) of C ii and O ii in all the objects, permitting to derive the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O2+, as well as their O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We compare the ADFs with those of other H II regions in different galaxies. The results suggest a possible metallicity dependence of the ADF for the low-metallicity objects; but more uncertain for high-metallicity objects. We compare nebular and B-type stellar abundances and we find that the stellar abundances agree better with the nebular ones derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs). Comparing these results with other galaxies we observe that stellar abundances seem to agree better with the nebular ones derived from CELs in low-metallicity environments and from RLs in high-metallicity environments. The C/H, O/H and C/O ratios show almost flat radial gradients, in contrast with the spiral galaxies where such gradients are negative. We explore the chemical evolution analysing C/O versus O/H and comparing with the results of H II regions in other galaxies. The LMC seems to show a similar chemical evolution to the external zones of small spiral galaxies and the SMC behaves as a typical star-forming dwarf galaxy.

  16. Success in developing regions: world records evolution through a geopolitical prism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Guillaume

    Full Text Available A previous analysis of World Records (WR has revealed the potential limits of human physiology through athletes' personal commitment. The impact of political factors on sports has only been studied through Olympic medals and results. Here we studied 2876 WR from 63 nations in four summer disciplines. We propose three new indicators and show the impact of historical, geographical and economical factors on the regional WR evolution. The south-eastward path of weighted annual barycenter (i.e. the average of country coordinates weighting by the WR number shows the emergence of East Africa and China in WR archives. Home WR ratio decreased from 79.9% before the second World War to 23.3% in 2008, underlining sports globalization. Annual Cumulative Proportions (ACP, i.e. the cumulative sum of the WR annual rate highlight the regional rates of progression. For all regions, the mean slope of ACP during the Olympic era is 0.0101, with a maximum between 1950 and 1989 (0.0156. For European countries, this indicator reflects major historical events (slowdown for western countries after 1945, slowdown for eastern countries after 1990. Mean North-American ACP slope is 0.0029 over the century with an acceleration between 1950 and 1989 at 0.0046. Russia takes off in 1935 and slows down in 1988 (0.0038. For Eastern Europe, maximal progression is seen between 1970 and 1989 (0.0045. China starts in 1979 with a maximum between 1990 and 2008 (0.0021, while other regions have largely declined (mean ACP slope for all other countries = 0.0011. A similar trend is observed for the evolution of the 10 best performers. The national analysis of WR reveals a precise and quantifiable link between the sport performances of a country, its historical or geopolitical context, and its steps of development.

  17. Regional and accelerated molecular evolution in group I snake venom gland phospholipase A2 isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuman, Y; Nobuhisa, I; Ogawa, T; Deshimaru, M; Chijiwa, T; Tan, N H; Fukumaki, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Ducancel, F; Boulain, J C; Ménez, A; Ohno, M

    2000-03-01

    In accordance with detection of a few phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozyme genes by Southern blot analysis, only two cDNAs, named NnkPLA-I , and NnkPLA-II, encoding group I PLA2s, NnkPLA-I and NnkPLA-II, respectively, were isolated from the venom gland cDNA library of Elapinae Naja naja kaouthia of Malaysia. NnkPLA-I and NnkPLA-II showed four amino acid substitutions, all of which were brought about by single nucleotide substitution. No existence of clones encoding CM-II and CM-III, PLA2 isozymes which had been isolated from the venom of N. naja kaouthia of Thailand, in Malaysian N. naja kaouthia venom gland cDNA library was verified by dot blot hybridization analysis with particular probes. NnkPLA-I and NnkPLA-II differed from CM-II and CM-III with four and two amino acid substitutions, respectively, suggesting that their molecular evolution is regional. The comparison of NnkPLA-I, NnkPLA-II and cDNAs encoding other group I snake venom gland PLA2s indicated that the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions are more conserved than the mature protein-coding region and that the number of nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site is almost equal to that per synonymous site in the protein-coding region, suggesting that accelerated evolution has occurred in group I venom gland PLA2s possibly to acquire new physiological functions.

  18. Success in developing regions: world records evolution through a geopolitical prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Marion; Helou, Nour El; Nassif, Hala; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Len, Stéphane; Thibault, Valérie; Tafflet, Muriel; Quinquis, Laurent; Desgorces, François; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2009-10-28

    A previous analysis of World Records (WR) has revealed the potential limits of human physiology through athletes' personal commitment. The impact of political factors on sports has only been studied through Olympic medals and results. Here we studied 2876 WR from 63 nations in four summer disciplines. We propose three new indicators and show the impact of historical, geographical and economical factors on the regional WR evolution. The south-eastward path of weighted annual barycenter (i.e. the average of country coordinates weighting by the WR number) shows the emergence of East Africa and China in WR archives. Home WR ratio decreased from 79.9% before the second World War to 23.3% in 2008, underlining sports globalization. Annual Cumulative Proportions (ACP, i.e. the cumulative sum of the WR annual rate) highlight the regional rates of progression. For all regions, the mean slope of ACP during the Olympic era is 0.0101, with a maximum between 1950 and 1989 (0.0156). For European countries, this indicator reflects major historical events (slowdown for western countries after 1945, slowdown for eastern countries after 1990). Mean North-American ACP slope is 0.0029 over the century with an acceleration between 1950 and 1989 at 0.0046. Russia takes off in 1935 and slows down in 1988 (0.0038). For Eastern Europe, maximal progression is seen between 1970 and 1989 (0.0045). China starts in 1979 with a maximum between 1990 and 2008 (0.0021), while other regions have largely declined (mean ACP slope for all other countries = 0.0011). A similar trend is observed for the evolution of the 10 best performers. The national analysis of WR reveals a precise and quantifiable link between the sport performances of a country, its historical or geopolitical context, and its steps of development.

  19. Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon M. Ochara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The title of this critique, ‘Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective’, sought to capture a paradox in the prescriptive nature and universalistic leaning of current leadership theories; yet local realities may call for being cognisant of (possible extant regional ontologies. Motivation for the study: The argumentation and analysis developed in this article were based on a synthesis of ideas from literature to evolve a preliminary regional ontology for reorienting business and management education relevant for Africa. Research design, approach and method: The critique was structured on insights from complexity leadership theory. The outcome was a proposition for an Afrocentric regional ontology for strengthening business and management education anchored on four themes: ethical and moral engagement, entrepreneurial leadership, Ubuntu and local National Systems of Innovation (NSI. These emerging ideas were considered to be tentative and should be considered as a foundation to inform further inquiry into how business and management education in Africa can be better interpreted and legitimised in the behavioural sciences. Practical/managerial implications: From an Afrocentric perspective, conceptualising and maintaining the logic of leadership was considered to be desirable and imperative in evolving a regional ontology of leadership that takes into account local realities. Of course, we recognised that these defining rationalities are not unique to Africa, but that said; a regional perspective that is unique cannot continue to be ignored but should find their place in discourses about leadership in the 21st century. Contribution/value-add: The synthesis and narrative presented in this paper concisely summarises and provides traction on how to advance business and management education in Africa. 

  20. The evolution of the laser: A systems perspective on science, technology and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruiter, Willem

    The evolution of laser technology is addressed, and an attempt is made to correlate this evolution to the macrosociological theory of Juergen Habermas. The economic and social consequences of innovations are evaluated. Different laser applications are described. The evolution of the semiconductor laser is discussed. The evolution of optical telecommunication systems is outlined. The Habermas theory of communicative action, focussing on the theoretical distinction between 'system' and 'lifeworld,' is treated. The modified theory of Habermas is applied to the evolution of the laser. The embedding of a number of laser applications in the social context is discussed: laser isotope separation, compact disc players, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  1. Dynamic evolution of bz orthologous regions in the Andropogoneae and other grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Dooner, Hugo K

    2012-10-01

    Genome structure exhibits remarkable plasticity within Zea mays. To examine how haplotype structure has evolved within the Andropogoneae tribe, we have analyzed the bz gene-rich region of maize (Zea mays), the Zea teosintes mays ssp. mexicana, luxurians and diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides, Coix lacryma-jobi and Sorghum propinquum. We sequenced and annotated BAC clones from these species and re-annotated the orthologous Sorghum bicolor region. Gene colinearity in the region is well conserved within the genus Zea. However, the orthologous regions of Coix and Sorghum exhibited several micro-rearrangements relative to Zea, including addition, truncation and deletion of genes. The stc1 gene, involved in the production of a terpenoid insect defense signal, is evolving particularly fast, and its progressive disappearance from some species is occurring by microhomology-mediated recombination. LTR retrotransposons are the main contributors to the dynamic evolution of the bz region. Common transposon insertion sites occur among haplotypes from different Zea mays sub-species, but not outside the species. As in Zea, different patterns of interspersion between genes and retrotransposons are observed in Sorghum. We estimate that the mean divergence times between maize and Tripsacum, Coix and Sorghum are 8.5, 12.1 and 12.4 million years ago, respectively, and that between Coix and Sorghum is 9.3 million years ago. A comparison of the bz orthologous regions of Zea, Sorghum and Coix with those of Brachypodium, Setaria and Oryza allows us to infer how the region has evolved by addition and deletion of genes in the approximately 50 million years since these genera diverged from a common progenitor. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A long-duration active region: Evolution and quadrature observations of ejective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fuentes, M. C. López; Merenda, L.; Cabello, I.; López, F. M.; Poisson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July - November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.

  3. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Daza Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R. One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

  4. The ongoing evolution of humanness: perspectives from Darwin to de Chardin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Buckeridge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of humanness is discussed from observations made by Aristotle in 4th-century Greece, through to those of Charles Darwin, Teilhard de Chardin and William Shakespeare. Attempts to define humanness upon a narrow range of criteria, as some have tried, is argued as flawed, for humanness is more elusive than a single or a few demonstrated phenomena. The path that Darwin pursued in determining the place of humans in nature in his book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is assessed from a 19thcentury perspective; the difficulties he faced, both personally and with the broader public, are reviewed and then evaluated in a modern context. Darwin’s thesis adheres to scientific principles, and is debated, defended and later verified on these principles. This is somewhat at variance to the approach adopted by the priest-scientist de Chardin a century later in his major work, The Phenomenon of Man—in which an attempt is made to reconcile a deep Christian faith with science. De Chardin scores well from a theological viewpoint, but fails on scientific grounds as his thesis moves beyond the realms of empiricism into mysticism. Surprisingly, de Chardin’s predicament of a future wherein human evolution enters a new stage of consciousness through the noosphere (an invisible layer of thought encompassing the globe has been partially realised through the worldwide web, although the nature of the web is almost certainly not what de Chardin might have anticipated, or desired. Science too fails to answer all, particularly the nature of God. Darwin considered the Creator in several of his works and does not dismiss the concept of a farseeing deity, although we are left with the notion that he died agnostic. Humanness is derived from an elevated moral code and this is reflected in our arts, particularly literature, wherein we may temporally reflect upon quintessential human traits such as mercy. However, expression of the arts is only

  5. Co-evolutions of planning and design: Risks and benefits of design perspectives in planning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.A.M.; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.; Jong, de H.C.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an evolutionary perspective on spatial planning to investigate the potential contributions of design approaches to the coordination of spatial organization. After a rearticulation of the concepts of planning and design in this perspective, we distinguish six essential features of the

  6. Lecture three: From empathy to embodied faith: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the evolution of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wentzel van Huyssteen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a series of three articles, presented at the Goshen Annual Conference on Science and Religion in 2015, with the theme ‘Interdisciplinary Theology and the Archeology of Personhood’, J. Wentzel van Huyssteen considers the problem of human evolution – also referred to as ‘the archaeology of personhood’ – and its broader impact on theological anthropology. This trajectory of lectures tracks a select number of challenging contemporary proposals for the evolution of crucially important aspects of human personhood. These are aspects that were all of great significance for Darwin: the evolution of cognition, the evolution of imagination, music and language, the evolution of morality, and the evolution of the religious disposition.

  7. Lecture three: From empathy to embodied faith: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the evolution of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wentzel van Huyssteen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of three articles, presented at the Goshen Annual Conference on Science and Religion in 2015, with the theme ‘Interdisciplinary Theology and the Archeology of Personhood’, J. Wentzel van Huyssteen considers the problem of human evolution – also referred to as ‘the archaeology of personhood’ – and its broader impact on theological anthropology. This trajectory of lectures tracks a select number of challenging contemporary proposals for the evolution of crucially important aspects of human personhood. These are aspects that were all of great significance for Darwin: the evolution of cognition, the evolution of imagination, music and language, the evolution of morality, and the evolution of the religious disposition.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF TOURISM IN THE NORTH – WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION (DURING 2009 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borma Afrodita

    2013-07-01

    insse.ro/cms/rw/pages/index.ro.do in order to gather representative data on the evolution of national tourism for the 2009 – 2011, in each districts of North-West. The first part of the paper presents the foreign visitors who come to Romania, hence the largest number of foreign visitors and how it evolved from 2009 to 2011 the number of foreign tourists in Romania.The second part deals with the existing tourism potential in the North-West region and the opportunities offered by the region. The three part deals with the main touristic indicators in the six counties of North-West and the differences between them. The analysis is based on the comparison of main tourism indicators showing the tourist activity in the development regions of Romania, namely: the number of arrivals, number of nights and existing tourist capacity. The last part presents the steps that should be followed to overcome the losses caused by the crisis of 2008-2009 and to ensure a positive growth of the indicators analyzed.

  9. Phylogenetic inference and comparative evolution of a complex microsatellite and its flanking regions in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Roura, Xavier; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Saeki, Midori; Marmi, Josep

    2005-06-01

    We sequenced locus Mel 08, with complex short repetitive motifs, in 24 carnivore species belonging to five different families in order to explore mutational changes in the region in the context of locus and species evolution. This non-coding locus includes up to four different parts or repetitive motifs showing size variability. The variability consists of repeat additions and deletions; substitutions, insertions and/or deletions creating interruptions in the repeat; and substitutions, insertions and deletions in the flanking regions. The locus has different repeat expansions in different carnivore subfamilies. We hypothesize that the complexity of this locus is due to a high mutation rate at an ancestral DNA sequence and, thus, prompts the emergence of repeats at mutational hotspots. High levels of homoplasy were evident, with nine electromorphs representing 28 haplotypes never shared across species. The variability in flanking regions was informative for phylogenetic inference and their evolutionary content. Tree topologies were congruent with relevant hypotheses on current conflicts in carnivore phylogenies, such as: (i) the monophyly of Lutrinae, (ii) the paraphyly of Mustelinae, (iii) the basal position of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in the Mustelidae, (iv) the classification of skunks as a separate family, Mephitidae, and (v) the placement of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens , as a monotypic family, Ailuridae, at a basal position in the Musteloidea.

  10. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles PMID:25297866

  11. Greenland subglacial drainage evolution regulated by weakly connected regions of the bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J; Andrews, Lauren C; Price, Stephen A; Catania, Ginny A; Neumann, Thomas A; Lüthi, Martin P; Gulley, Jason; Ryser, Claudia; Hawley, Robert L; Morriss, Blaine

    2016-12-19

    Penetration of surface meltwater to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet each summer causes an initial increase in ice speed due to elevated basal water pressure, followed by slowdown in late summer that continues into fall and winter. While this seasonal pattern is commonly explained by an evolution of the subglacial drainage system from an inefficient distributed to efficient channelized configuration, mounting evidence indicates that subglacial channels are unable to explain important aspects of hydrodynamic coupling in late summer and fall. Here we use numerical models of subglacial drainage and ice flow to show that limited, gradual leakage of water and lowering of water pressure in weakly connected regions of the bed can explain the dominant features in late and post melt season ice dynamics. These results suggest that a third weakly connected drainage component should be included in the conceptual model of subglacial hydrology.

  12. PARALLEL EVOLUTION OF QUASI-SEPARATRIX LAYERS AND ACTIVE REGION UPFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Cristiani, G. D.; Nuevo, F. A.; Vásquez, A. M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC. 67, Suc. 28 Buenos Aires, 1428 (Argentina); Baker, D.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. van [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Démoulin, P.; Pick, M. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Vargas Domínguez, S. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-08-10

    Persistent plasma upflows were observed with Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) at the edges of active region (AR) 10978 as it crossed the solar disk. We analyze the evolution of the photospheric magnetic and velocity fields of the AR, model its coronal magnetic field, and compute the location of magnetic null-points and quasi-sepratrix layers (QSLs) searching for the origin of EIS upflows. Magnetic reconnection at the computed null points cannot explain all of the observed EIS upflow regions. However, EIS upflows and QSLs are found to evolve in parallel, both temporarily and spatially. Sections of two sets of QSLs, called outer and inner, are found associated to EIS upflow streams having different characteristics. The reconnection process in the outer QSLs is forced by a large-scale photospheric flow pattern, which is present in the AR for several days. We propose a scenario in which upflows are observed, provided that a large enough asymmetry in plasma pressure exists between the pre-reconnection loops and lasts as long as a photospheric forcing is at work. A similar mechanism operates in the inner QSLs; in this case, it is forced by the emergence and evolution of the bipoles between the two main AR polarities. Our findings provide strong support for the results from previous individual case studies investigating the role of magnetic reconnection at QSLs as the origin of the upflowing plasma. Furthermore, we propose that persistent reconnection along QSLs does not only drive the EIS upflows, but is also responsible for the continuous metric radio noise-storm observed in AR 10978 along its disk transit by the Nançay Radio Heliograph.

  13. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  14. Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  15. Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Rodents from the Perspective of Comparative Region-Specific Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Serdyukova, Natalya A; Perelman, Polina L; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Bulatova, Nina S; Golenishchev, Feodor N; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2017-08-30

    It has long been hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements play a central role in different evolutionary processes, particularly in speciation and adaptation. Interchromosomal rearrangements have been extensively mapped using chromosome painting. However, intrachromosomal rearrangements have only been described using molecular cytogenetics in a limited number of mammals, including a few rodent species. This situation is unfortunate because intrachromosomal rearrangements are more abundant than interchromosomal rearrangements and probably contain essential phylogenomic information. Significant progress in the detection of intrachromosomal rearrangement is now possible, due to recent advances in molecular biology and bioinformatics. We investigated the level of intrachromosomal rearrangement in the Arvicolinae subfamily, a species-rich taxon characterized by very high rate of karyotype evolution. We made a set of region specific probes by microdissection for a single syntenic region represented by the p-arm of chromosome 1 of Alexandromys oeconomus, and hybridized the probes onto the chromosomes of four arvicolines (Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes rutilus, and Dicrostonyx torquatus). These experiments allowed us to show the intrachromosomal rearrangements in the subfamily at a significantly higher level of resolution than previously described. We found a number of paracentric inversions in the karyotypes of M. agrestis and M. rutilus, as well as multiple inversions and a centromere shift in the karyotype of M. arvalis. We propose that during karyotype evolution, arvicolines underwent a significant number of complex intrachromosomal rearrangements that were not previously detected.

  16. Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Rodents from the Perspective of Comparative Region-Specific Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukova, Natalya A.; Perelman, Polina L.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Golenishchev, Feodor N.; Stanyon, Roscoe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements play a central role in different evolutionary processes, particularly in speciation and adaptation. Interchromosomal rearrangements have been extensively mapped using chromosome painting. However, intrachromosomal rearrangements have only been described using molecular cytogenetics in a limited number of mammals, including a few rodent species. This situation is unfortunate because intrachromosomal rearrangements are more abundant than interchromosomal rearrangements and probably contain essential phylogenomic information. Significant progress in the detection of intrachromosomal rearrangement is now possible, due to recent advances in molecular biology and bioinformatics. We investigated the level of intrachromosomal rearrangement in the Arvicolinae subfamily, a species-rich taxon characterized by very high rate of karyotype evolution. We made a set of region specific probes by microdissection for a single syntenic region represented by the p-arm of chromosome 1 of Alexandromys oeconomus, and hybridized the probes onto the chromosomes of four arvicolines (Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes rutilus, and Dicrostonyx torquatus). These experiments allowed us to show the intrachromosomal rearrangements in the subfamily at a significantly higher level of resolution than previously described. We found a number of paracentric inversions in the karyotypes of M. agrestis and M. rutilus, as well as multiple inversions and a centromere shift in the karyotype of M. arvalis. We propose that during karyotype evolution, arvicolines underwent a significant number of complex intrachromosomal rearrangements that were not previously detected. PMID:28867774

  17. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals...... of palm assemblages reflects several biogeographic and evolutionary processes. In the Americas, both dispersal limitation and a phylogenetically conserved temperature niche have constrained the evolution of palm species ranges. Broad-scale processes also influenced the local phylogenetic structure...... of Amazonian palm communities, which mainly reflects the evolution of habitat preferences....

  18. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  19. Evolution from Two Perspectives: An Interdisciplinary Course in Physics and Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Ragir, Sonia

    1974-01-01

    Discusses an interdisciplinary course offered to senior students in physical, biological, and social sciences, with emphases on explaining the character of scientific work and the mechanisms underlying biological evolution. Included is a bibliography of available materials. (CC)

  20. Territorial Reform, Institutional Change and Economic Development. The Regions’ Evolution and their Perspective along the Romanian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Boldea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as starting point the fact that regionalism has quite a strong tradition inRomania. Ever since the formation of the modern Romanian state the state divisions occurred as solidadministrative units, each of them having its own peculiarities. Regardless of the political regimes that havetaken turns in power, it can easily be observed that one of the main objectives was the development of betterlinks between the different regions of the country. Recently, after having set clear goals to join the EuropeanUnion structures, Romania has been compelled to improve social and economic conditions. This processbegan on the background of historical inter-regional disparities, mostly due to external factors. The presentpaper analyzes, from a historical perspective, how the implementation of regional development policies couldbe applied and work, depending on the social status of people, on traditions, on ways to develop interpersonalrelationships and relationships with the authorities.

  1. Evolution of wave and tide over vegetation region in nearshore waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhao, Kaibin; Tang, Jun; Qin, Huifa

    2017-08-01

    Coastal wetlands are an important ecosystem in nearshore regions, where complex flow characteristics occur because of the interactions among tides, waves, and plants, especially in the discontinuous flow of the intertidal zone. In order to simulate the wave and wave-induced current in coastal waters, in this study, an explicit depth-averaged hydrodynamic (HD) model has been dynamically coupled with a wave spectral model (CMS-Wave) by sharing the tide and wave data. The hydrodynamic model is based on the finite volume method; the intercell flux is computed using the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver for computing the dry-to-wet interface; the drag force of vegetation is modeled as the sink terms in the momentum equations. An empirical wave energy dissipation term with plant effect has been derived from the wave action balance equation to account for the resistance induced by aquatic vegetation in the CMS-Wave model. The results of the coupling model have been verified using the measured data for the case with wave-tide-vegetation interactions. The results show that the wave height decreases significantly along the wave propagation direction in the presence of vegetation. In the rip channel system, the oblique waves drive a meandering longshore current; it moves from left to right past the cusps with oscillations. In the vegetated region, the wave height is greatly attenuated due to the presence of vegetation, and the radiation stresses are noticeably changed as compared to the region without vegetation. Further, vegetation can affect the spatial distribution of mean velocity in a rip channel system. In the co-exiting environment of tides, waves, and vegetation, the locations of wave breaking and wave-induced radiation stress also vary with the water level of flooding or ebb tide in wetland water, which can also affect the development and evolution of wave-induced current.

  2. Evolution of Fseg/Cseg dimorphism in region III of the Plasmodium falciparum eba-175 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Naka, Izumi; Patarapotikul, Jintana; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Ohashi, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The 175-kDa erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is important for its invasion into human erythrocytes. The primary structure of eba-175 is divided into seven regions, namely I to VII. Region III contains highly divergent dimorphic segments, termed Fseg and Cseg. The allele frequencies of segmental dimorphism within a P. falciparum population have been extensively examined; however, the molecular evolution of segmental dimorphism is not well understood. A comprehensive comparison of nucleotide sequences among 32 P. falciparum eba-175 alleles identified in our previous study, two Plasmodium reichenowi, and one P. gaboni orthologous alleles obtained from the GenBank database was conducted to uncover the origin and evolutionary processes of segmental dimorphism in P. falciparum eba-175. In the eba-175 nucleotide sequence derived from a P. reichenowi CDC strain, both Fseg and Cseg were found in region III, which implies that the original eba-175 gene had both segments, and deletions of F- and C-segments generated Cseg and Fseg alleles, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of allele with Fseg and Cseg in another P. reichenowi strain (SY57), by re-mapping short reads obtained from the GenBank database. On the other hand, the segmental sequence of eba-175 ortholog in P. gaboni was quite diverged from those of the other species, suggesting that the original eba-175 dimorphism of P. falciparum can be traced back to the stem linage of P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Our findings suggest that Fseg and Cseg alleles are derived from a single eba-175 allele containing both segments in the ancestral population of P. falciparum and P. reichenowi, and that the allelic dimorphism of eba-175 was shaped by the independent emergence of similar dimorphic lineage in different species that has never been observed in any evolutionary mode of allelic dimorphism at other loci in malaria genomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Evolution of the DAZ gene and the AZFc region on primate Y chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jane-Fang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azoospermia Factor c (AZFc region of the human Y chromosome is a unique product of segmental duplication. It consists almost entirely of very long amplicons, represented by different colors, and is frequently deleted in subfertile men. Most of the AZFc amplicons have high sequence similarity with autosomal segments, indicating recent duplication and transposition to the Y chromosome. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ gene within the red-amplicon arose from an ancestral autosomal DAZ-like (DAZL gene. It varies significantly between different men regarding to its copy number and the numbers of RNA recognition motif and DAZ repeat it encodes. We used Southern analyses to study the evolution of DAZ and AZFc amplicons on the Y chromosomes of primates. Results The Old World monkey rhesus macaque has only one DAZ gene. In contrast, the great apes have multiple copies of DAZ, ranging from 2 copies in bonobos and gorillas to at least 6 copies in orangutans, and these DAZ genes have polymorphic structures similar to those of their human counterparts. Sequences homologous to the various AZFc amplicons are present on the Y chromosomes of some but not all primates, indicating that they arrived on the Y chromosome at different times during primate evolution. Conclusion The duplication and transposition of AZFc amplicons to the human Y chromosome occurred in three waves, i.e., after the branching of the New World monkey, the gorilla, and the chimpanzee/bonobo lineages, respectively. The red-amplicon, one of the first to arrive on the Y chromosome, amplified by inverted duplication followed by direct duplication after the separation of the Old World monkey and the great ape lineages. Subsequent duplication/deletion in the various lineages gave rise to a spectrum of DAZ gene structure and copy number found in today's great apes.

  4. A hybrid energy model for region based curve evolution - Application to CTA coronary segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Muhammad Moazzam; Rajani, Ronak; Liatsis, Panos; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Slabaugh, Greg

    2017-06-01

    State-of-the-art medical imaging techniques have enabled non-invasive imaging of the internal organs. However, high volumes of imaging data make manual interpretation and delineation of abnormalities cumbersome for clinicians. These challenges have driven intensive research into efficient medical image segmentation. In this work, we propose a hybrid region-based energy formulation for effective segmentation in computed tomography angiography (CTA) imagery. The proposed hybrid energy couples an intensity-based local term with an efficient discontinuity-based global model of the image for optimal segmentation. The segmentation is achieved using a level set formulation due to the computational robustness. After validating the statistical significance of the hybrid energy, we applied the proposed model to solve an important clinical problem of 3D coronary segmentation. An improved seed detection method is used to initialize the level set evolution. Moreover, we employed an auto-correction feature that captures the emerging peripheries during the curve evolution for completeness of the coronary tree. We evaluated the segmentation accuracy of the proposed energy model against the existing techniques in two stages. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework with a consistent mean sensitivity and specificity measures of 80% across the CTA data. Moreover, a high degree of agreement with respect to the inter-observer differences justifies the generalization of the proposed method. The proposed method is effective to segment the coronary tree from the CTA volume based on hybrid image based energy, which can improve the clinicians ability to detect arterial abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  6. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Chris; Haynes, Paul A; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn will pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regard to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  7. Longitudinal evolution of magnetization of ferromagnets following ultrafast demagnetization: Role of finite size and shape of demagnetized region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Yastremsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A dependence of a relaxation rate on the shape of the demagnetized region for a longitudinal evolution of total magnetization to its equilibrium value following the ultrafast demagnetization is demonstrated. This shape-dependence is caused by a motion of the wave front inside the demagnetized region. The contribution of the wave front for spherically symmetric shape of the demagnetized region is up to 3 times and for cylindrically symmetric shape up to 2 times stronger than for one dimensional demagnetized region. This effect can be observed after the demagnetization by a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse.

  8. Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Eastern Anatolia region: Constraints from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Caner; Hakan Gogus, Oguz; Pysklywec, Russell; Keskin, Mehmet; Celal Sengor, A. M.; Topuz, Gultekin

    2016-04-01

    The east Anatolian orogenic plateau is characterized by an average elevation of 2 km, and is delimited by the Bitlis-Zagros collision zone to the south and the Pontide arc to the north. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the high plateau attained its current elevation since the Serravallian (about 12 million years ago), but probably did not reach its present height until at least the latest Pliocene. While the crustal shortening following the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the south enabled its relatively rapid rise and regional tectonic evolution, the presumed removal of the downgoing slab beneath east Anatolia has potentially played a significant role in this geodynamic configuration. According to the proposed scenario, the northward subducting slab of Neo-Tethys peels away from the overlying crust similar to the lithospheric delamination model. In this work, we performed a series of lithospheric removal models by varying rheological, physical and mechanical properties by using 2D numerical geodynamic experiments, (e.g. plate convergence rate, crustal thickness, mantle lithosphere yield-stress). Our model results show that the average amount of delamination hinge motion is maximum (18 km/my) when the lower crustal rheology is felsic granulite. The slab break-off only occurs at lower convergence rates (≤ 2 cm/yr), and is imposed on the margin of delaminating mantle lithosphere. The surface uplift takes place above the asthenospheric column (or plateau gap) through isostatic and thermal support of asthenospheric upwelling, and varies dependent on the width of the asthenospheric column. However; with higher plate convergence rates (≥3 cm/yr), the asthenospheric column does not widen enough and the continental collision occurs rather than delamination/peeling away. In this case, the average uplift appears in the central section of the crust, and this exceeds a surface elevation of 3 km. All model results are consistent with the observations from the Eastern

  9. Mental Health in the Perspectives of Biological Evolution and Cultural Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, V.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines and discusses characteristics of an ethological perspective on mental illness, which emphasizes the evolutionary background of humanity, his recent background since the agricultural and industrial revolutions, and the physiological and psychosomatic factors of the human species in dealing with stress. (CS)

  10. Frost stress evolution and winter pea ideotype in the context of climate warming at a regional scale

    OpenAIRE

    Castel Thierry; Lecomte Christophe; Richard Yves; Lejeune-Hénaut Isabelle; Larmure Annabelle

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important crop in temperate regions for its high seed protein concentration that is particularly sensitive to abiotic stresses. The abrupt temperature increase known as the “1987/1988 temperature regime shift” that occurs over Europe is questioning how winter pea will perform in the changing climate. This study assessed the winter frost damage evolution along from 1961 to 2015 in Burgundy-Franche-Comté by using: (1) daily observed and gridded regional temperature ...

  11. Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An arguable point regarding the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the North China Craton (NCC is whether the tectonic setting in the central belt during the mid-Paleoproterozoic (2.35–2.0 Ga was dominated by an extensional regime or an oceanic subduction–arc regime. A review of the mid-Paleoproterozoic magmatism and sedimentation for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region suggests that a back-arc extension regime was dominant in this region. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that the 2.35–2.0 Ga magmatism shows a typical bimodal distribution where the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic rocks mainly comprise highly-fractioned calc-alkaline to alkaline (or A-type granites, and that this magmatism was coeval with development of extensional basins characteristic of transgressive sequences with volcanic interlayers such as in the Hutuo Group. Although the final amalgamation of the NCC was believed to occur at ∼1.85 Ga, recent zircon U–Pb age dating for mica schist in the Wutai Group suggests a collisional event may have occurred at ∼1.95 Ga. The metamorphic ages of ∼1.85 Ga, obtained mostly from the high-grade rocks using the zircon U–Pb approach, most probably indicate uplifting and cooling of these high-grade terranes. This is because (i phase modeling suggests that newly-grown zircon grains in high-grade rocks with a melt phase cannot date the age of peak pressure and temperature stages, but the age of melt crystallization in cooling stages; (ii the metamorphic P–T paths with isobaric cooling under 6–7 kb for the Hengshan and Fuping granulites suggest their prolonged stay in the middle–lower crust; and (iii the obtained metamorphic age data show a continuous distribution from 1.95 to 1.80 Ga. Thus, an alternative tectonic scenario for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region involves: (i formation of a proto-NCC at ∼2.5 Ga; (ii back-arc extension during 2.35–2.0

  12. Champ Lyons, Holt McDowell, and the evolution of vascular surgery at the University of Alabama at Birmingham: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The history of medical centers, hospitals, clinics, and their evolution are important contributions and resources to medical history. Likewise, evolution of specialties within these healthcare centers frequently parallels their growth and development. This contribution depicts the evolution of a specialty, vascular surgery, within a major medical center, the University of Alabama at Birmingham. It recounts the major participants involved and their contributions and pioneering efforts, some of which have received little attention or were overshadowed by other events. Perspectives from participants--a patient and a trainee--provide insight into this process that has supported the growth and development of a major world-class medical center.

  13. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2009-01-01

      Seismic stratigraphic and structural analyses of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam, based on 2-D seismic data, indicate that the initial rifting began during the latest Cretaceous? or Palaeogene controlled by left-lateral transtension along the East Vietnam Boundary Fault...... seeps are found at Dam Thi Nai, immediately landward of the basin. Geochemical analyses of the oil seeps indicate the existence of at least two early to peak mature source rocks. Maturation modelling, combined with the seismic analysis, suggests the likely presence of oil kitchens 40-50km downdip...... in the basin, and a fairly simple oil migration route. The basin is probably charged from lacustrine syn-rift mudstones, humic coals and fore-reef marls. Potential reservoirs are turbidite, lowstand delta, shelf and coastal sandstones, as well as platform and reef carbonates and fractured basement. Various...

  14. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith

    2018-01-21

    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  15. "Pseudo-Beijing": evidence for convergent evolution in the direct repeat region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Fenner

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a global population structure consisting of six main phylogenetic lineages associated with specific geographic regions and human populations. One particular M. tuberculosis genotype known as "Beijing" has repeatedly been associated with drug resistance and has been emerging in some parts of the world. "Beijing" strains are traditionally defined based on a characteristic spoligotyping pattern. We used three alternative genotyping techniques to revisit the phylogenetic classification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains exhibiting the typical "Beijing" spoligotyping pattern.MTBC strains were obtained from an ongoing molecular epidemiological study in Switzerland and Nepal. MTBC genotyping was performed based on SNPs, genomic deletions, and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We identified three MTBC strains from patients originating from Tibet, Portugal and Nepal which exhibited a spoligotyping patterns identical to the classical Beijing signature. However, based on three alternative molecular markers, these strains were assigned to Lineage 3 (also known as Delhi/CAS rather than to Lineage 2 (also known as East-Asian lineage. Sequencing of the RD207 in one of these strains showed that the deletion responsible for this "Pseudo-Beijing" spoligotype was about 1,000 base pairs smaller than the usual deletion of RD207 in classical "Beijing" strains, which is consistent with an evolutionarily independent deletion event in the direct repeat (DR region of MTBC.We provide an example of convergent evolution in the DR locus of MTBC, and highlight the limitation of using spoligotypes for strain classification. Our results indicate that a proportion of "Beijing" strains may have been misclassified in the past. Markers that are more phylogenetically robust should be used when exploring strain-specific differences in experimental or clinical phenotypes.

  16. Toward a mathematical theory of living systems focusing on developmental biology and evolution: a review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, N; Carbonaro, B

    2011-03-01

    This review paper is devoted to present a personal perspective, based on a critical analysis of the existing literature, about the conceptual difficulties that mathematics meets when attempting to describe the complexity of living matter focusing on the challenging goal of developing a mathematical theory for living systems. The authors propose a personal path, starting from the identification of a number of common features of living systems that can be viewed as sources of complexity, firstly in general, and subsequently focusing specifically on evolution problems. Further, three key questions are posed addressing to a mathematical theory. Finally, the tools of the kinetic theory of active particles are critically analyzed to understand how far this approach still is from the achievement of the afore said ambitious objective. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward a mathematical theory of living systems focusing on developmental biology and evolution: A review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, N.; Carbonaro, B.

    2011-03-01

    This review paper is devoted to present a personal perspective, based on a critical analysis of the existing literature, about the conceptual difficulties that mathematics meets when attempting to describe the complexity of living matter focusing on the challenging goal of developing a mathematical theory for living systems. The authors propose a personal path, starting from the identification of a number of common features of living systems that can be viewed as sources of complexity, firstly in general, and subsequently focusing specifically on evolution problems. Further, three key questions are posed addressing to a mathematical theory. Finally, the tools of the kinetic theory of active particles are critically analyzed to understand how far this approach still is from the achievement of the afore said ambitious objective.

  18. [Transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus aortic valve replacement: cost analysis from the regional health service and hospital perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Elena; Fortuna, Daniela; Bartoli, Simona; Ciuca, Cristina; Orlando, Anna; Scondotto, Salvatore; Agabiti, Nera; Salizzoni, Stefano; Aranzulla, Tiziana Claudia; Gandolfo, Caterina; De Palma, Rossana; Saia, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, together with the cost of the first-year hospitalizations following the index ones, in 4 Italian regions where diffusion level of TAVI and coverage decisions are different. The cost analysis was performed evaluating 372 patients enrolled consecutively from December 1, 2012 to September 30, 2015. The index hospitalization cost was calculated both from the hospital perspective through a full-costing approach and from the regional healthcare service perspective by applying the regional reimbursement tariffs. The follow-up costs were calculated for one year after the index hospitalization, from the regional healthcare sservice perspective, through the identification of hospital admissions for cardiovascular pathologies after the index hospitalization and computation of the relative regional tariffs. The mean hospitalization cost was € 32 120 for transfemoral TAVI (232 procedures), € 35 958 for transapical TAVI (31 procedures) and € 17 441 for AVR (109 procedures). From the regional healthcare service perspective, the mean transfemoral TAVI cost was € 29 989, with relevant regional variability (range from € 19 987 to € 36 979); the mean transapical TAVI cost was € 39 148; the mean AVR cost was € 32 020. The mean follow-up costs were € 2294 for transfemoral TAVI, € 2335 for transapical TAVI, and € 2601 for AVR. In our study, transapical TAVI resulted more expensive than transfemoral TAVI, while surgical AVR was cheaper than both (less than 40%). Costs of the transfemoral approach showed great variability between participating regions, probably due to different hospital costs, logistics, patients' selection and reimbursement policy. A central level of control would be appropriate to avoid unjustified differences in access to innovative procedures between different Italian regions.

  19. Visualization maps for the evolution of research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zheng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Ailian; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Haiyuan

    2017-04-11

    The aim of this study was to reveal research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks (RHINs) and use visualization techniques to explore their evolution over time and differences between countries. We conducted a literature review for a 50-year period and compared the prevalence of certain index terms during the periods 1963-1993 and 1994-2014 and in six countries. We applied keyword frequency analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis, and network visualization technology. The total number of keywords was found to increase with time. From 1994 to 2014, the research priorities shifted from hospital planning to community health planning. The number of keywords reflecting information-based research increased. The density of the knowledge network increased significantly, and partial keywords condensed into knowledge groups. All six countries focus on keywords including Information Systems; Telemedicine; Information Service; Medical Records Systems, Computerized; Internet; etc.; however, the level of development and some research priorities are different. RHIN research has generally increased in popularity over the past 50 years. The research hotspots are evolving and are at different levels of development in different countries. Knowledge network mapping and perceptual maps provide useful information for scholars, managers, and policy-makers.

  20. A Critical Realist Perspective of Enterprise Architecture Evolution: Conditioning and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Alwadain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how Enterprise Architecture (EA evolves due to emerging trends. It specifically explores how EA integrates the Service-oriented Architecture (SOA. Archer’s Morphogenetic theory is used as an analytical approach to distinguish the architectural conditions under which SOA is introduced, to study the relationships between these conditions and SOA introduction, and to reflect on EA evolution (elaborations that then take place. The paper focuses on reasons for why EA evolution could take place, or not and what architectural changes could happen due to SOA integration. The research builds on sound theoretical foundations to discuss EA evolution in a field that often lacks a solid theoretical groundwork. Specifically, it proposes that critical realism, using the morphogenetic theory, can provide a useful theoretical foundation to study enterprise architecture (EA evolution. The initial results of a literature review (a-priori model were extended using explorative interviews. The findings of this study are threefold. First, there are five different levels of EA-SOA integration outcomes. Second, a mature EA, flexible and well-defined EA framework and comprehensive objectives of EA improve the integration outcomes. Third, the analytical separation using Archer’s theory is helpful in order to understand how these different integration outcomes are generated.

  1. Perspectives of retailers and local food suppliers on the evolution of modern retail in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2018-01-01

    factors that account for the evolution of modern food retail in the country were identified. These are availability of suppliers, acceptance of trade credit, innovation, lifestyle change, institutional support, convenience, and availability of consumers. Originality/value – The study has expanded...

  2. The study on thermal evolution modeling of source rocks In Neopaleozoic of Hangjinqi Region in Ordos Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.

    2016-12-01

    As the one of the gas exploration key region in Ordos Basin, the challenge in Hangjinqi Region is that the understanding of the thermal evolution of source rocks is still limited. Taking the measured Ro values which reflected the characteristics of thermal evolution degree of source rocks as calibration, the thermal evolution history of source rocks of Taiyuan Formation and Member1 ,2 of Shanxi Formation In Neopaleozoic age was modeled through erosion thickness restoration, selection of ancient terrestrial heat flow, using more than 70 well logging data of different strata lithology, and establishing the corresponding geological modeling. The results show that the time when Ro values reached 0.65% meaning that the source rocks entered the threshold of hydrocarbon generation was mid-late stage of Late Triassic period in Nanzhao, shilijiahan, Azhen and Gaoraozhao areas of western and southern Hangjinqi. The time of Ro reaching 0.65% in Gongkahan Shiguhao areas in northern of Hangjinqi was early Jurassic. On the plane, the hydrocarbon source rock thermal evolution degree was characterized by the trend of gradually decreasing of Ro values from southwest to northeast. The Maximum Ro values in Xinzhao, southern part of Shilijiahan are 1.43% and 1.46% respectively, reaching over-mature stage of evolution. however, the Ro values in Shiguhao and Azhen located in the northern and eastern part of Hangjinqi are between 0.85%-1.0%, showing that the source rocks are still in the early stage of peak period of hydrocarbon generation.

  3. Long term landscape evolution within central Apennines (Italy): Marsica and Peligna region morphotectonics and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, E.; Piacentini, T.; Berti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The relief features of the Apennines have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting from Neogene to Quaternary. Growth of topography has been driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related to crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes, starting from Late Miocene(?) - Early Pliocene. At present a high-relief landscape is dominated by morphostructures including high-standing, resistant Mesozoic and early Tertiary carbonates ridges (i.e. thrust ridges, faulted homocline ridges) and intervening, erodible Tertiary siliciclastics valleys (i.e. fault line valleys) and Quaternary continental deposits filled basins (i.e. tectonic valleys, tectonic basins). This study tries to identify paleo-uplands that may be linked to paleo-base levels and aims at the reconstruction of ancient landscapes since the incipient phases of morphogenesis. It analyzes the role of tectonics and morphogenic processes in the long term temporal scale landscape evolution (i.e. Mio?-Pliocene to Quaternary). It is focused on the marsicano-peligna region, located along the main drainage divide between Adriatic side and Tyrrhenian side of Central Apennines, one of the highest average elevation area of the whole chain. The work incorporates GIS-based geomorphologic field mapping of morphostructures and Quaternary continental deposits, and plano-altimetric analysis and morphometry (DEM-, map-based) of the drainage network (i.e. patterns, hypsometry, knick points, Ks). Field mapping give clues on the definition of paleo-landscapes related to different paleo-morpho-climatic environments (i.e. karst, glacial, slope, fluvial). Geomorphological evidence of tectonics and their cross-cutting relationships with morphostructures, continental deposits and faults, provide clues on the deciphering of the reciprocal relationship of antecedence of the paleo-landscapes and on the timing of morphotectonics. Morphotectonic

  4. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  5. Reconstruction of the Aceh Region following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster: A transportation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matsumaru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aceh, located in the northernmost area of Sumatra Island, is one of the regions that suffered the most damage from the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. The process of reconstruction after a large-scale disaster is considered an opportunity to create a safer society, especially for developing countries, however the accumulation of knowledge about how to improve reconstruction is insufficient. The affected areas have diverse social and economic characteristics and unprecedented restoration efforts have been made. The Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, therefore, provides numerous research opportunities, and many surveys and other researches have been conducted to better understand what happened and how the reconstruction process could be improved. However, the majority of such research has focused on housing reconstruction, rebuilding livelihoods and community rehabilitation and there has been only limited research on transportation-related issues. Thus, there is significance in evaluating the reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation perspective, a dimension that has yet to be examined systematically. As a first step in the effort to evaluate various aspects of the reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation perspective, this research aims to present three transportation-related issues within the reconstruction process—1 the road network in the Banda Aceh coastal area, 2 mobility in relocation sites, and 3 reconstruction of the Banda Aceh–Meulaboh road—and to conduct a preliminary analysis of these issues by adding the viewpoint of disaster management and reconstruction, the authors' area of specialization. For conducting a preliminary analysis, existing information such as research papers, articles and reports and data collected through interviews and field reconnaissance conducted by the authors were utilized as much as possible, and such “qualitative data” was analyzed by applying the “interpretive approach”, considered an

  6. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events. RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate

  7. A resource package Framework for producing quality graduates to work in rural, regional and remote Australia: a global perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, TJ

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper/presentation is to advocate the resource package for producing quality graduates to work in rural, regional and remote Australia (TERRR Network), using a global perspective. This paper argues that the resource package achieves more than the objectives of the original project; ‘Developing Strategies at the Pre-service Level to Address Critical Teacher Attraction and Retention Issues in Australian Rural, Regional and Remote Schools’. Through implementation of the resource ...

  8. From local hydrological process analysis to regional hydrological model application in Benin: Concept, results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, H.; Faß, T.; Giertz, S.; Junge, B.; Diekkrüger, B.; Reichert, B.; Skowronek, A.

    This paper presents the concept, first results and perspectives of the hydrological sub-project of the IMPETUS-Benin project which is part of the GLOWA program funded by the German ministry of education and research. In addition to the research concept, first results on field hydrology, pedology, hydrogeology and hydrological modelling are presented, focusing on the understanding of the actual hydrological processes. For analysing the processes a 30 km 2 catchment acting as a super test site was chosen which is assumed to be representative for the entire catchment of about 15,000 km 2. First results of the field investigations show that infiltration, runoff generation and soil erosion strongly depend on land cover and land use which again influence the soil properties significantly. A conceptual hydrogeological model has been developed summarising the process knowledge on runoff generation and subsurface hydrological processes. This concept model shows a dominance of fast runoff components (surface runoff and interflow), a groundwater recharge along preferential flow paths, temporary interaction between surface and groundwater and separate groundwater systems on different scales (shallow, temporary groundwater on local scale and permanent, deep groundwater on regional scale). The findings of intensive measurement campaigns on soil hydrology, groundwater dynamics and soil erosion have been integrated into different, scale-dependent hydrological modelling concepts applied at different scales in the target region (upper Ouémé catchment in Benin, about 15,000 km 2). The models have been applied and successfully validated. They will be used for integrated scenario analyses in the forthcoming project phase to assess the impacts of global change on the regional water cycle and on typical problem complexes such as food security in West African countries.

  9. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    . Since then, the basin has shown a reverse trend of regime shift towards healing of the environmental damage that was inflicted in the previous stage of human development. In this paper we analyze the recasting effect of human activities on the water system and provide explanations on how human activities influence the co-evolution of human-water system from a broader perspective.

  10. Synthesizing perspectives on the evolution of cooperation within and between species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessica Livia; Bronstein, Judith L.; Friesen, Maren L.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intra-specific and inter-specific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline......, certain asymmetries between partners are more common in, but not exclusive to, cooperation between species, especially complementary resource use and production. We conclude that cooperation within and between species share many fundamental qualities, and that differences between the two systems...

  11. Stellar Evolution Bounds on the ALP-Photon Coupling: new Results and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Stellar evolution considerations are of fundamental importance in our understanding of the axion/ALP-photon coupling, g_{a\\gamma}. Helium burning stars are the best laboratories to study this coupling. Here, we will review the bounds from massive and low mass helium burning stars, and present a new analysis of the bound from the horizontal branch stars. The analysis provides the strongest bound to date on g_{a\\gamma} in a wide mass range.

  12. Multi-gene analysis of Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: a perspective on rarity, symbiosis, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-01-01

    Symbiodinium, a large group of dinoflagellates, live in symbiosis with marine protists, invertebrate metazoans, and free-living in the environment. Symbiodinium are functionally variable and play critical energetic roles in symbiosis. Our knowledge of Symbiodinium has been historically constrained by the limited number of molecular markers available to study evolution in the genus. Here we compare six functional genes, representing three cellular compartments, in the nine known Symbiodinium lineages. Despite striking similarities among the single gene phylogenies from distinct organelles, none were evolutionarily identical. A fully concatenated reconstruction, however, yielded a well-resolved topology identical to the current benchmark nr28S gene. Evolutionary rates differed among cellular compartments and clades, a pattern largely driven by higher rates of evolution in the chloroplast genes of Symbiodinium clades D2 and I. The rapid rates of evolution observed amongst these relatively uncommon Symbiodinium lineages in the functionally critical chloroplast may translate into potential innovation for the symbiosis. The multi-gene analysis highlights the potential power of assessing genome-wide evolutionary patterns using recent advances in sequencing technology and emphasizes the importance of integrating ecological data with more comprehensive sampling of free-living and symbiotic Symbiodinium in assessing the evolutionary adaptation of this enigmatic dinoflagellate.

  13. Synthesizing perspectives on the evolution of cooperation within and between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jessica L; Bronstein, Judith L; Friesen, Maren L; Jones, Emily I; Reeve, H Kern; Zink, Andrew G; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-04-01

    Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intraspecific and interspecific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline three advantages of cooperation relative to noncooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain these advantages. Second, we highlight five axes along which heterospecific and conspecific partners may differ: relatedness and fitness feedbacks, competition and resource use, resource-generation abilities, relative evolutionary rates, and asymmetric strategy sets and outside options. Along all of these axes, certain asymmetries between partners are more common in, but not exclusive to, cooperation between species, especially complementary resource use and production. We conclude that cooperation within and between species share many fundamental qualities, and that differences between the two systems are explained by the various asymmetries between partners. Consideration of the parallels between intra- and interspecific cooperation facilitates application of well-studied topics in one system to the other, such as direct benefits within species and kin-selected cooperation between species, generating promising directions for future research. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes—a perspective from the inferred ancestral domain architectures†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Fong, Jessica H.; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Most eukaryotic proteins are composed of two or more domains. These assemble in a modular manner to create new proteins usually by the acquisition of one or more domains to an existing protein. Promiscuous domains which are found embedded in a variety of proteins and co-exist with many other domains are of particular interest and were shown to have roles in signaling pathways and mediating network communication. The evolution of domain promiscuity is still an open problem, mostly due to the lack of sequenced ancestral genomes. Here we use inferred domain architectures of ancestral genomes to trace the evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes. We find an increase in average promiscuity along many branches of the eukaryotic tree. Moreover, domain promiscuity can proceed at almost a steady rate over long evolutionary time or exhibit lineage-specific acceleration. We also observe that many signaling and regulatory domains gained domain promiscuity around the Bilateria divergence. In addition we show that those domains that played a role in the creation of two body axes and existed before the divergence of the bilaterians from fungi/metazoan achieve a boost in their promiscuities during the bilaterian evolution. PMID:21127809

  15. Evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes--a perspective from the inferred ancestral domain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Fong, Jessica H; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth; Przytycka, Teresa M; Panchenko, Anna R

    2011-03-01

    Most eukaryotic proteins are composed of two or more domains. These assemble in a modular manner to create new proteins usually by the acquisition of one or more domains to an existing protein. Promiscuous domains which are found embedded in a variety of proteins and co-exist with many other domains are of particular interest and were shown to have roles in signaling pathways and mediating network communication. The evolution of domain promiscuity is still an open problem, mostly due to the lack of sequenced ancestral genomes. Here we use inferred domain architectures of ancestral genomes to trace the evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes. We find an increase in average promiscuity along many branches of the eukaryotic tree. Moreover, domain promiscuity can proceed at almost a steady rate over long evolutionary time or exhibit lineage-specific acceleration. We also observe that many signaling and regulatory domains gained domain promiscuity around the Bilateria divergence. In addition we show that those domains that played a role in the creation of two body axes and existed before the divergence of the bilaterians from fungi/metazoan achieve a boost in their promiscuities during the bilaterian evolution.

  16. Evolution of the chloroplast trnL-trnF region in the gymnosperm lineages Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Huang, Bei Li; Chen, Shi Lin; Mu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    The trnL-trnF region is located in the large single-copy region of the chloroplast genome. It consists of the trnL gene, a group I intron, and the trnL-F intergenic spacer. We analyzed the evolution of the region in three gymnosperm families, Taxaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, and Podocarpaceae, with especially dense sampling in Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae, for which we sequenced 43 accessions, representing all species. The trnL intron has a conserved secondary structure and contains elements that are homologous across land plants, and the spacer is highly variable in length and composition. The spatial distribution of nucleotide diversity along the trnL-F region suggests that different portions of this region have different evolutionary patterns. Tandem repeats that form stem-loop structures were detected in both the trnL intron and the trnL-F spacer, and the spacer sequences contain promoter elements for the trnF gene. The presence of promoters and stem-loop structures in the trnL-F spacer and high sequence variation in this region suggest that trnL and trnF are independently transcribed. Stem-loop regions P6, P8, and P9 of the trnL intron and the trnL-F spacer (except the promoter elements) might undergo neutral evolution with respect to their escape from functional constraints.

  17. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  18. [Hospital emergencies arising from nursing homes in a region: evolution, characteristics and appropriateness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Comes Garcia, Nuri; Romero Piniella, Lola; Prats Martos, Gemma; Arnau Bataller, Gemma; Coderch, Jordi

    2017-02-10

    Hospital emergencies (HE) arising from nursing homes (NH) are on the rise. We analyse the evolution, characteristics and appropriateness of HE of NH residents in a region, as well as resulting hospital admissions. Retrospective descriptive study between 2010 and 2013 of institutionalised residents of 11 NH located in Baix Empordà (704 beds) and Palamós Hospital. Gender, age, morbidity and relative weight according to clinical risk groups (CRG), NH, length of stay, diagnosis of the emergency, appropriateness of HE according to Bermejo's criteria and the HE appropriateness protocol (HEAP), and appropriateness of hospitalisations according to the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP). Sample to evaluate appropriateness: 159 HE and 91 hospitalisations. frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentiles, Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, with a confidence interval of 95% and using IBM SPSS Statistics 23. 1,474 people were enrolled, of which 73% were women. Group ≥85 years increased to 60.3% and the mean weight of morbidity was 3.2 to 4.0 (p <0.001). 1,805 HE were generated. The annual rate per 1,000 stays arising from NH increased from 1.64 to 2.05, of which 90.6% were appropriate according to Bermejo's criteria and 93.7% according to the HEAP. Of these, 502 involved hospitalisation. The annual rate per 10 emergencies fell from 2.96 to 2.64 and 98.9% were appropriate according to the AEP. Hospital emergencies and hospitalisations of NH residents are increasing and are appropriate. Increasing age and disease burden could explain this phenomenon. NH and hospitals should react appropriately, considering the specific needs of this population sector. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in carbonate aquifers of southern Latium region, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spring and well water samples, from carbonate aquifers of Latium region, have been characterized to determine the hydrochemical processes governing the evolution of the groundwater. Most of the spring samples, issuing from Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci Mts., are characterized as alkaline earth HCO3 waters, however, some samples show a composition of Cl--SO4 -- alkaline earth waters. Groundwater samples from Pontina Plain shows three different hydrochemical facies: alkaline earth HCO3 type, Cl-- SO4 -- alkaline earth type and Cl--SO4 -- alkaline type waters. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the sampled waters show an interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies. Most of the springs and wells was kinetically saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum. This indicates that the groundwater has capacity to dissolve the gypsum along the flow paths. The electrical conductivity and Cl- concentrations of the sampled waters show a positive trend with the decrease in the distance from the coast, highlighting seawater intrusion in the coastal area. According to hydrochemistry results and geochemical modeling, the dominant factors in controlling the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are: (i water rock interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies; (ii seawater intrusion in the coastal area; (iii dissolution and/or precipitation of carbonate and (i.e. dolomite and calcite evaporate minerals (gypsum determined by saturation indexes; (iv mineral weathering process; (the high Mg/Ca ratio due to the weathering of Mg-rich dolomite.

  20. Possible Scenarios of Ecotourism Evolution in Republic of Moldova from the Perspective of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa, B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available By using the Sector Scenario Approach, the present paper aims to fill an important gap of information regarding ecotourism activities connected with the management of protected areas in the Republic of Moldova. The paper captures the economic value of landscape as ecosystem service and assesses the development perspective of this sector by comparing “business as usual” and “sustainable ecosystem management” scenarios, giving also information regarding the effect of the ecotourism across the economy of the Republic of Moldova.

  1. Precambrian Crustal Evolution of the Hudson Bay Region: Insights from Receiver Function Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Helffrich, G. R.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Snyder, D. B.; Eaton, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    The processes that formed, thickened and thinned the early Earth's crust remain poorly known. The onset of modern plate tectonics, for example, could be as far back as the Hadean or as late as the Neoproterozoic. In many cratons, vertical processes are believed to have been dominant (dome-and-keel tectonics, e.g. Pilbara craton), while others are hypothesised to have formed by the progressive accretion of different terranes (e.g. Superior craton). The Hudson Bay region represents one of the largest areas of Precambrian geology on the planet, with ages spanning 2 billion years (3.9-1.8 Ga). The western Churchill province contains the predominantly Paleo- to Mesoarchean Rae domain and the Neoarchean Hearne domain, and is welded to the Superior craton by the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, a Himalayan scale feature which extends for more than 4500 km along strike. The Churchill has received comparatively little scientific investigation due to its remote location and harsh climate. In order to test hypotheses on crustal formation and evolution during the Precambrian, teleseismic receiver functions have been analysed for more than 30 stations located on the key geological features in the vicinity of Hudson Bay. Across the entire Rae domain, a dominantly felsic crust with a sharp Moho is observed. Little evidence exists to interpret the vast extent of the felsic crust in terms of subduction related processes. Within the granite-greenstone terranes of the Hearne domain, a more intermediate bulk composition and complex Moho signature may be representative of an oceanic affinity for the crust, suggesting accretionary processes acted there. In the Quebec-Baffin Island region, bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are dominated by effects associated with the Trans-Hudson Orogen, and appear to map out the first-order shape of the indenting lower-plate. Correlation between terrane age and receiver function-derived crustal structure suggests that the crust in northern Canada was

  2. Granitoids of different geodynamic settings of Baikal region (Russia) their geochemical evolution and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, Viktor; Sheptyakova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    involvement of the deep source is indicated by low Rb/Sr ratios and 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70592±0.00021) in rocks (Kazimirovskiy, 2006). The intra-plate biotite granites and leucogranites are represented by rare-metal geochemical type of rocks (311-321 Ma). Geochemical evolution promoted an increase of F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Be, Ta, and Pb and a decrease of Ba, Sr, Zn, Zr, Th, and U contents in rare-metal granites, that reflects their formation from deeply differentiated residual magma. The substance of the lower crust could have the composition of biotite-bearing granulites rich in lithophyle rare elements. It is noteworthy, that the composition and isotope-geochemical features of the supposed magma-forming substratum correspond to the characteristics of the ancient Precambrian continental crust of the Southern Baikal region. These conclusions agree with the results of preceding studies of rare-metal granites in the other regions of Central Asia (Kovalenko et al, 1999). Research has been supported by RNF grant № 15-17-10010.

  3. The Vertical Structure, Sources, and Evolution of Aerosols in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Augustin, Patrick; Dulac, François; Junkermann, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The VESSAER campaign (VErtical Structure and Sources of AERosols in the Mediterranean Region) was designed to characterize the different sources of aerosol in the Mediterranean Basin and assess the regional impact of aerosol on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. VESSAER was conducted on an ultra-light aircraft in summer 2012. Research activities included ground-based observations in the central and northern regions of Corsica, as well as aerosol lidar and sunphotometer measurements near the eastern coast. The main scientific goals were to investigate local versus long-range sources of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their vertical stratification in the lower troposphere, study evolution and ageing due to atmospheric processes, and determine aerosol direct radiative impacts over a larger spatial scale. The background aerosol concentrations (D > 0.01 um) within the boundary layer in Corsica were nearly 2000 cm^-3 and increased to ca. 104 cm^-3 during pollution events when back-trajectories originated from coastal areas in France and Italy and the Po Valley. Nearly all of these particles were CCN-active at 0.38% supersaturation, indicating a relatively hygroscopic aerosol. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity revealed that ageing (with respect to CCN-activity) of European emissions occurred exclusively in the boundary layer. Within two days, the European emissions had become hygroscopic, probably a result of cloud processing. In contrast, aerosol hygroscopicity did not change as a function of transport time in elevated aerosol layers, suggesting that photochemical ageing of less hygroscopic material is relatively slow compared to ageing processes in the boundary layer. The vertical profiles clearly showed the long-range transport of dust from the Saharan Desert and pollution from the European continent, which were the two major sources of aerosol during the campaign. Two of the research flights coincided with CALIPSO overpasses, when

  4. Perspective of Saudi women in the Makkah region on breast cancer awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageeti, Tahani H; Abdelhameed, Arwa A N; Jastania, Raid A; Felemban, Rania M

    2017-01-01

    To assess the perspective of Saudi women in the Makkah region on breast cancer awareness and early detection. A mixed method study was conducted among 25-65 years old healthy Saudi females from Makkah region during the awareness campaign in October 2014. The participants were recruited by personal invitations at the women's places of work and social gatherings. The initial invitations were issued by either the research coordinator or the investigator. All women were asked to complete a short questionnaire on basic knowledge on breast cancer. This was followed by focus group discussions. All interviews were carried out by female breast cancer consultant oncologists. All discussion transcripts were summarized and categorized into main themes; data presented as frequencies and percentages. Forty Saudi females, aged 25-65 years, were included in the study. Nearly 38% of them had never attended any awareness campaign on breast cancer. Only 10% of the participants correctly answered all five basic questions on the risk and early detection of breast cancer; 63% of the women had never been taught breast self-examination. Participants' perception was discussed in five focus groups. Four themes were identified during the discussions: knowledge about breast cancer and screening; resources of breast cancer awareness; social support for access to awareness program; and beliefs on breast cancer and early detection. We recommend that strategies on breast cancer awareness in our population should focus on early detection by improving the knowledge and skills of women. These strategies should include programs widely accessible through primary health-care centers and other health-care institutions. In addition, we recommend that physicians and family members should be involved in these programs.

  5. The origins of language and the evolution of music: A comparative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2009-03-01

    According to Darwin [Darwin, CR. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray; 1871], the human musical faculty ‘must be ranked amongst the most mysterious with which he is endowed’. Music is a human cultural universal that serves no obvious adaptive purpose, making its evolution a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. This review examines Darwin's hypothesis of similarities between language and music indicating a shared evolutionary history. In particular, the fact that both are human universals, have phrase structure, and entail learning and cultural transmission, suggests that any theory of the evolution of language will have implications for the evolution of music, and vice versa. The argument starts by describing variable predispositional musical capabilities and the ontogeny of prosodic communication in human infants and young children, presenting comparative data regarding communication systems commonly present in living nonhuman primate species. Like language, the human music faculty is based on a suite of abilities, some of which are shared with other primates and some of which appear to be uniquely human. Each of these subcomponents may have a different evolutionary history, and should be discussed separately. After briefly considering possible functions of human music for language acquisition, the review ends by discussing the phylogenetic history of music. It concludes that many strands of evidence support Darwin's hypothesis of an intermediate stage of human evolutionary history, characterized by a communication system that resembled music more closely than language, but was identical to neither. This pre-linguistic system, which could probably referred to as “prosodic protolanguage”, provided a precursor for both modern language and music.

  6. [Nature of cancer explored from the perspective of the functional evolution of proto-oncogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The products of proto-oncogene play critical roles in the development or maintenance of multicellular societies in animals via strict regulatory systems. When these regulatory systems are disrupted, proto-oncogenes can become oncogenes, and thereby induce cell transformation and carcinogenesis. To understand the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata (M. ovata) by monitoring their transforming ability in mammalian cells; consequently, we isolated a Pak gene ortholog, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian cells. In contrast, Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alterations in the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) are responsible for the enhanced kinase activity and the oncogenic activity of MoPak. Furthermore, we show that Rho family GTPases-mediated regulatory system of Pak kinase is conserved throughout the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals, but the MoPak is more sensitive to the Rho family GTPases-mediated activation than multicellular Pak. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and support the potential link between the development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and the evolution of multicellularity. Further analysis of oncogenic functions of proto-oncogene orthologs in the unicellular genes would provide some insights into the mechanisms of the destruction of multicellular society in cancer.

  7. Evolution of Retinoid and Steroid Signaling: Vertebrate Diversification from an Amphioxus Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard; Brunet, Frédéric; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the physiological relevance of retinoids and steroids in vertebrates is very well established, the origin and evolution of the genetic machineries implicated in their metabolic pathways is still very poorly understood. We investigated the evolution of these genetic networks by conducting an exhaustive survey of components of the retinoid and steroid pathways in the genome of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Due to its phylogenetic position at the base of chordates, amphioxus is a very useful model to identify and study chordate versus vertebrate innovations, both on a morphological and a genomic level. We have characterized more than 220 amphioxus genes evolutionarily related to vertebrate components of the retinoid and steroid pathways and found that, globally, amphioxus has orthologs of most of the vertebrate components of these two pathways, with some very important exceptions. For example, we failed to identify a vertebrate-like machinery for retinoid storage, transport, and delivery in amphioxus and were also unable to characterize components of the adrenal steroid pathway in this invertebrate chordate. The absence of these genes from the amphioxus genome suggests that both an elaboration and a refinement of the retinoid and steroid pathways took place at the base of the vertebrate lineage. In stark contrast, we also identified massive amplifications in some amphioxus gene families, most extensively in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, which, based on phylogenetic and genomic linkage analyses, were likely the result of duplications specific to the amphioxus lineage. In sum, this detailed characterization of genes implicated in retinoid and steroid signaling in amphioxus allows us not only to reconstruct an outline of these pathways in the ancestral chordate but also to discuss functional innovations in retinoid homeostasis and steroid-dependent regulation in both cephalochordate and vertebrate evolution

  8. New Perspectives on the Evolution of Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Terrestrial Tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, T. S.

    Palaeobiology, like all sciences, progresses by a combination of the discovery of new information, in this case fossils, the application of new techniques, and the development of new concepts with which to generate novel kinds of hypotheses. Research in the field of Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic terrestrial tetrapods has involved major advances in all three of these over the last decade or so. Several new discoveries fill in gaps in the evolution of higher tetrapod taxa such as Tetrapoda, Dicynodontia, and birds, while others add significantly to the understanding of patterns of faunal turnover and palaeo-community structure.

  9. Regional selection of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 provides new insight into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Hu, Enzhi; Wang, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Jin; Li, Ming; Chen, Hua; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi; Su, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Human evolution is marked by a continued enlargement of the brain. Previous studies on human brain evolution focused on identifying sequence divergences of brain size regulating genes between humans and nonhuman primates. However, the evolutionary pattern of the brain size regulating genes during recent human evolution is largely unknown. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the brain size regulating gene CASC5 and found that in recent human evolution, CASC5 has accumulated many modern human specific amino acid changes, including two fixed changes and six polymorphic changes. Among human populations, 4 of the 6 amino acid polymorphic sites have high frequencies of derived alleles in East Asians, but are rare in Europeans and Africans. We proved that this between-population allelic divergence was caused by regional Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. Further analysis of brain image data of Han Chinese showed significant associations of the amino acid polymorphic sites with gray matter volume. Hence, CASC5 may contribute to the morphological and structural changes of the human brain during recent evolution. The observed between-population divergence of CASC5 variants was driven by natural selection that tends to favor a larger gray matter volume in East Asians.

  10. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    regards scientific funding4. He never had a big institute in the modern sense and did not dispose of large funds or large numbers of people5. Conflict between Bernal and. Perspectives ... The problems of being a “polytropic scientist” have increased enormously. ... as ever for managing populations. People with power are.

  11. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  12. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...

  13. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    maintaining safe school environments. This perspective paper outlines the NSSF's approach to preventing school violence. Keywords: national school safety framework, violence prevention, South African schools, school safety. INTRODUCTION. Schools should be safe places for teaching and learning, free of violence and ...

  14. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Sundström, Görel; Bergqvist, Christina A; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-01-01

    .... To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species...

  15. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  16. A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B; Hofreiter, M

    2014-01-24

    The publication of partial and complete paleogenomes within the last few years has reinvigorated research in ancient DNA. No longer limited to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA, inference of evolutionary processes through time can now be investigated from genome-wide data sampled as far back as 700,000 years. Tremendous insights have been made, in particular regarding the hominin lineage. With rare exception, however, a paleogenomic perspective has been mired by the quality and quantity of recoverable DNA. Though conceptually simple, extracting ancient DNA remains challenging, and sequencing ancient genomes to high coverage remains prohibitively expensive for most laboratories. Still, with improvements in DNA isolation and declining sequencing costs, the taxonomic and geographic purview of paleogenomics is expanding at a rapid pace. With improved capacity to screen large numbers of samples for those with high proportions of endogenous ancient DNA, paleogenomics is poised to become a key technology to better understand recent evolutionary events.

  17. Evolutions et perspectives de la strategie de Zara: en Amerique Latine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanny Fernando Benavides

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMÉÉ L’objectif de cet article est double: analyser les stratégies mise en place par le groupe INDITEX lui ayant permis d’atteindre une position privilégiée en Europe et étudier son processus d’expansion et les stratégies d’internationalisation employées en Amérique latine. Nous commencerons pour cela à évaluer le positionnement global de la marque Zara (concurrence, développement, ventes, etc., les perspectives des marchés européens et d’Amérique latine pour ensuite mettre en évidence les observations réalisées lors de cette étude renforçant le potentiel de la mise en place d’une stratégie similaire pour le marché asiatique.

  18. The Formation and Evolution of Double Layers in Earth's Auroral Upward Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Observations from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft indicate that a strong localized electric field often exists at the boundary separating the ionosphere from the auroral cavity in the upward current region. The localized electric field observed at the boundary usually has components that are both parallel and perpendicular to earth's magnetic field and therefore are said to be an “oblique” electric field. The boundary electric field has been modeled as an oblique BGK DL in prior efforts. In addition, FAST observations indicate that the auroral cavity has a density that is ~ 1/10 that of the ionosphere. We have used parameters derived from FAST to initialize a 1D3V (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity dimensions) open boundary particle-in-cell simulation. We assume that a density cavity that is 1/10 - 1/20 the density of the ionosphere is initially present (as indicated by observations). However, unlike previous efforts, we do not assume that a self-consistent electric field is initially present. The initial plasma consists of anti-earthward O+ and H+ beams, hot magnetospheric H+ population, hot magnetospheric electron population and a cold dense electron population. We assume that the initial population is composed entirely of ionospheric species. At the two boundaries, plasma particles are injected based on the initial population with one key exception. The magnetospheric boundary does not include the cold electrons since observations indicate a lack of these species in the auroral cavity. We demonstrate that a DL readily forms out of the initial conditions at the interface of the dense and tenuous plasma. Furthermore the DL is quasi-stable for the entire simulation if the initial cold electrons are cold enough (~ 40 eV) and dense enough (0.3% of the total electron population). We also show that the oblique DLs are quasi-stable and also persist for the entire simulation. We find that to ensure the stability of the oblique DL, it is necessary to make

  19. The parental non-equivalence of imprinting control regions during mammalian development and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Schulz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, imprinted gene expression results from the sex-specific methylation of imprinted control regions (ICRs in the parental germlines. Imprinting is linked to therian reproduction, that is, the placenta and imprinting emerged at roughly the same time and potentially co-evolved. We assessed the transcriptome-wide and ontology effect of maternally versus paternally methylated ICRs at the developmental stage of setting of the chorioallantoic placenta in the mouse (8.5dpc, using two models of imprinting deficiency including completely imprint-free embryos. Paternal and maternal imprints have a similar quantitative impact on the embryonic transcriptome. However, transcriptional effects of maternal ICRs are qualitatively focused on the fetal-maternal interface, while paternal ICRs weakly affect non-convergent biological processes, with little consequence for viability at 8.5dpc. Moreover, genes regulated by maternal ICRs indirectly influence genes regulated by paternal ICRs, while the reverse is not observed. The functional dominance of maternal imprints over early embryonic development is potentially linked to selection pressures favoring methylation-dependent control of maternal over paternal ICRs. We previously hypothesized that the different methylation histories of ICRs in the maternal versus the paternal germlines may have put paternal ICRs under higher mutational pressure to lose CpGs by deamination. Using comparative genomics of 17 extant mammalian species, we show here that, while ICRs in general have been constrained to maintain more CpGs than non-imprinted sequences, the rate of CpG loss at paternal ICRs has indeed been higher than at maternal ICRs during evolution. In fact, maternal ICRs, which have the characteristics of CpG-rich promoters, have gained CpGs compared to non-imprinted CpG-rich promoters. Thus, the numerical and, during early embryonic development, functional dominance of maternal ICRs can be explained as the

  20. Analysis on the semantic evolution of Chinese Gan dialect from the perspective of cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of a word is the reflection of social life, and it is the result of the cognition of the object, phenomenon and relationship through the mental activity. The development and changes of lexical mean-ings essentially reflect the development and change of people’s cognitive activities, so people’s cognitive aware-ness is reflected in words, which is also reflected in the word meaning evolution of Chinese Gan dialect. Whether in the extended way or pattern, the linkage, radiation, complex comprehensive changes of the lexical meaning of Gan dialect in Chinese, all follow a rule: The expression of the meaning in cognitive process will corresponding-ly change with the continuous deepening of human cognition.

  1. Re-criticizing RNA-mediated cell evolution: a radical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotakis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Genetic inter-communication of the nucleic-organellar dual in eukaryotes is dominated by DNA-directed phenomena. RNA regulatory circuits have also been observed in artificial laboratory prototypes where gene transfer events are reconstructed, but they are excluded from the primary norm due to their rarity. Recent technical advances in organellar biotechnology, genome engineering and single-molecule tracking give novel experimental insights on RNA metabolism not only at cellular level, but also on organismal survival. Here, I put forward a hypothesis for RNA's involvement in gene piece transfer, taken together the current knowledge on the primitive RNA character as a biochemical modulator with model organisms from peculiar natural habitats. It is proposed that RNA molecules of special structural signature and functional identity can drive evolution, integrating the ecological pressure of environmental oscillations into genome imprinting by buffering-out epigenetic aberrancies.

  2. A social insect perspective on the evolution of social learning mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Ellouise; Dawson, Erika H

    2017-07-24

    The social world offers a wealth of opportunities to learn from others, and across the animal kingdom individuals capitalize on those opportunities. Here, we explore the role of natural selection in shaping the processes that underlie social information use, using a suite of experiments on social insects as case studies. We illustrate how an associative framework can encompass complex, context-specific social learning in the insect world and beyond, and based on the hypothesis that evolution acts to modify the associative process, suggest potential pathways by which social information use could evolve to become more efficient and effective. Social insects are distant relatives of vertebrate social learners, but the research we describe highlights routes by which natural selection could coopt similar cognitive raw material across the animal kingdom.

  3. The evolution of comprehensive haemophilia care in the United States: perspectives from the frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledort, L M

    2016-09-01

    The establishment of dedicated comprehensive treatment centres more than a half century ago transformed the management of haemophilia in the United States. Formerly, a disease associated with crippling disability and premature death, today, persons with haemophilia who are treated appropriately from infancy and do not develop inhibitors can expect a normal life expectancy and relatively few bleeding episodes. The evolution of the comprehensive haemophilia care, while chastened by the viral epidemics of the 1980s, has been marked by ongoing advances, including prophylaxis, immune tolerance induction, new drugs and gene therapy research. Current challenges include sustaining the comprehensive care model despite decreased funding and expanding the delivery and affordability of comprehensive haemophilia care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Origin and Evolution of Titan's Nitrogen Atmosphere - A Cassini-Huygens Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Sushil K.

    2014-05-01

    Prior to Cassini-Huygens, it was debated how Titan acquired its earth-like atmosphere of nitrogen [1]. This talk will review the history of Titan's atmosphere, models, and the unique role of Cassini-Huygens in understanding the origin and evolution of an atmosphere of nitrogen on Titan. After hydrogen and helium, nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in the solar system. In the colder outer solar system beyond 5 AU, nitrogen is bound to hydrogen in the giant planets. Thus ammonia (NH3), not N2, is the dominant reservoir of nitrogen in these objects. The satellites that form in the relatively warm and dense subnebula of the gas giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, may acquire nitrogen as NH3 during their accretion [2], although some models had proposed N2, not NH3, as the stable form of nitrogen in the subnebulae. The latter is reflected in the atmosphere of Triton, which almost certainly accreted nitrogen directly as N2, since N2 can be the stable form of nitrogen in the very cold environment of Neptune. Before Cassini-Huygens, it was debated whether Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, also acquired its nitrogen directly as N2, putting it in the same class as Neptune's moon Triton half its size, or the nitrogen on Titan was secondary atmosphere, produced from a nitrogen bearing molecule, putting Titan in the class with terrestrial planets. The evidence from Cassini-Huygens to be discussed in this talk leaves no doubt that Titan's nitrogen atmosphere is secondary [3]. Probable scenarios of the sustenance, evolution and reduction or demise of this atmosphere will also be explored. References: [1]Owen T. (2000), Planet. Space Sci. 48, 747-752. [2]Prinn R.G., Fegley B. (1981), Astrophys J. 249, 308-317. [3]Atreya S.K., Lorenz R.D., Waite J.H. (2009), pp 177-199, in Titan (R.H. Brown et al., eds.) Springer.

  5. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    extreme political unrest, nationalism and poverty following the Sino-Japanese and Second World Wars, and despite considerable language barriers. To turn to the more recent developments in theories about the ecosystem and evolution which appear to resonate with Imanishi's work, a selection are considered alongside.

  6. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Biological evolution and technological innovation, while differing in many respects, also share common features. In particular, the implementation of a new technology in the market is analogous to the spreading of a new genetic trait in a population. Technological innovation may occur either through the accumulation of ...

  7. Transient production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants: evolution and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Schiemann, Joachim

    2017-07-18

    During the last two decades the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells. In recent years great advances have been made in improvement of expression vectors, host cell engineering as well as in the development of commercial manufacturing processes. Several GMP-certified large-scale production facilities exist around the world to utilize agroinfiltration method. A number of pharmaceutical proteins produced by transient expression are currently in clinical development. The great potential of transient expression platform in respect to rapid response to emerging pandemics was demonstrated by production of experimental ZMapp antibodies against Ebola virus as well as influenza vaccines. This review is focused on current design, status and future perspectives of plant transient expression system for production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Regional Maritime Contexts and the Maritorium: A Latin American Perspective on Archaeological Land and Sea Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jorge M.; Chapanoff, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    In the field of maritime archaeology, the use of maritime, coastal, riverine, and lacustrine spaces by past societies has been perceived in different and changing viewpoints. These perspectives have flourished in dynamic and varying ways in many countries, and under different theoretical constructs. If in the 1970s the subject was perhaps not recognized as a central research subject by much of our community, it is now not only accepted but it has become a robust area of interest in maritime research. Two concepts in Latin America have been accepted that have had widespread application and influence, namely the regional maritime context and the maritorio. The points of contact between both are so intense that it is possible to speak about a single alternative with two possible names. In this article, their origins, applications, and theoretical influences are presented in a way that unifies these two concepts into a single approach (the maritorium), and examines how these ideas have been applied to research carried out in Mexico, Chile, and Uruguay. These applications are wide ranging, as they include the interconnected complexity between land and sea as used and inhabited by past societies. They have been applied in the study of ship traps, whole fleets, sites of maritime conflict and warfare, exploration activities, and ethnographic research. These will also be presented in light of other concepts of similar interest in the international sphere, such as the widespread concept of the Maritime Cultural Landscape, and also in view of other theoretical frameworks coming from the wider sphere of the profession, such as Landscape Archaeology and Phenomenological Archaeology.

  9. Genomic constellation and evolution of Ghanaian G2P[4] rotavirus strains from a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Do, Loan Phuong; Damanka, Susan; Armah, George E; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of Rotavirus A (RVA) strains, a common cause of severe diarrhoea in children, needs to be based on the analysis at the whole genome level in the vaccine era. This study sequenced the whole genomes of six representative G2P[4] strains detected in Ghana from 2008 to 2013, and analysed them phylogenetically with a global collection of G2P[4] strains and African non-G2P[4] DS-1-like strains. The genotype constellation of the study strains was G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Strains from the same season were highly identical across the whole genome while strains from different seasons were more divergent from each other. The VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1, and NSP5 genes belonged to lineage IVa; the VP6, VP1, NSP2, and NSP3 genes belonged to lineage V, and all these genes evolved in the same fashion as the global strains. In the NSP4 gene, lineages V (2008) and X (2009) were replaced by VI (2012/2013) whereas in the VP3 gene, lineage V (2008/2009) was replaced by VII (2012/2013) and these replacements coincided with the vaccine introduction period (2012). The evolutionary rate of the NSP4 gene was 1.2×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and was rather comparable to that of the remaining 10 genes. The multiple NSP4 lineages were explained by intra-genotype reassortment with co-circulating African human DS-1-like strains bearing G2[6], G3P[6], G6[6] and G8. There was no explicit evidence of the contribution of animal RVA strains to the genome of the Ghanaian G2P[4] strains. In summary, this study revealed the dynamic evolution of the G2P[4] strains through intra-genotype reassortment events leading to African specific lineages such IX and X in the NSP4 gene. So far, there was no evidence of a recent direct involvement of animal RVA genes in the genome diversity of African G2P[4] strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Infant mortality evolution in Romania: perspectives from a country in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlea, A.-M.; Muntele, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades transition was a word used to describe the important mutations that have characterized social and economic structures in Romania. All the changes left their mark on every aspects of life including on population health status, and all modifications were reflected in the evolution of health indicators. Considered one of the most sensitive indicators of living conditions, population health literacy level and healthcare system efficiency infant mortality rate is a negative indicator which reflects the intensity of children deaths before their first anniversary. Based on the current statistical data collected at county level, this research aims to underline the existing spatial differences in Romania at county level, to identify spatial patterns, time trend and to point out the territories that need special attention and a more profound analysis for understanding the causes that are generating them. Using mathematical and statistical methods we have calculated infant mortality for a previous and available period of time (1990 - 2010) and identified a trend influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. With the help of GIS techniques we have created cartographic material for allowing us an easier identification of spatial disparities. Following the global trend, Romania achieved significant progress in reduction infant mortality. From values that exceeded 26 ‰ at the beginning of the nineties this indicator has continued to diminish until 9.79 ‰ in 2010. But, with all the improvements, value is still double in compare with European Union average. Although characteristic for Romania is the general downward trend, at the county level there can be identified different types of evolution and different spatial pattern. Having the lowest economic development level in the country, Northeast and Southeast counties maintain high values for infant mortality rate. Positive examples are given by Bucharest and some central and western districts, all with

  11. The default response to uncertainty and the importance of perceived safety in anxiety and stress: An evolution-theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-06-01

    From a combined neurobiological and evolution-theoretical perspective, the stress response is a subcortically subserved response to uncertainty that is not 'generated' but 'default': the stress response is 'always there' but as long as safety is perceived, the stress response is under tonic prefrontal inhibition, reflected by high vagally mediated heart rate variability. Uncertainty of safety leads to disinhibiting the default stress response, even in the absence of threat. Due to the stress response's survival value, this 'erring on the side of caution' is passed to us via our genes. Thus, intolerance of uncertainty is not acquired during the life cycle, but is a given property of all living organisms, only to be alleviated in situations of which the safety is learned. When the latter is deficient, generalized unsafety ensues, which underlies chronic anxiety and stress and their somatic health risks, as well as other highly prevalent conditions carrying such risks, including loneliness, obesity, aerobic unfitness and old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reef Island Evolution and Dynamics: Insights from the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Perspectives for the Spermonde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kench

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along southwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, the Spermonde Archipelago comprises some 120 islands of variable size and degree of anthropogenic modification. Comparable to adjacent areas in Southeast Asia, the Spermonde Archipelago is characterized by the congregation of a naturally high marine biodiversity and, at the same time, a high population density influencing the surrounding environmental conditions. As a consequence, during the last decades, research projects that have been carried out in the Spermonde mainly focused on social, ecological, political and economic interactions. However, geological and geomorphological aspects of the coral reef islands are less well understood and there have been few studies undertaken since the pioneering work of Umbgrove, Kuenen, and Verstappen in the Indonesian archipelago in the early to mid-twentieth century. Here we review the existing studies, with a focus on the Spermonde Archipelago, and reconcile them with more recent works on reef island evolution and dynamics from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This synthesis shows that reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago are well suited for geomorphological investigations, and provides perspectives for future reef island research in that area that will have global interest. We identify four research priorities: (1 To identify the timing and chronology of island formation; (2 Improved understanding of carbonate budgets and sediment generation that contribute to island building; (3 Document morphological changes in reef islands at seasonal to decadal timescales, and; (4 Quantify the process regime that drives sediment transport and island change with particular focus on the role of different monsoon seasons.

  13. A perspective on the history and evolution of an Oceans and Human Health "metadiscipline" in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, Paul A; Trtanj, Juli M; Collier, Tracy K

    2013-05-01

    We review recent history and evolution of Oceans and Human Health programs and related activities in the USA from a perspective within the Federal government. As a result of about a decade of support by the US Congress and through a few Federal agencies, notably the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, robust Oceans and Human Health (OHH) research and application activities are now relatively widespread, although still small, in a number of agencies and academic institutions. OHH themes and issues have been incorporated into comprehensive federal ocean research plans and are reflected in the new National Ocean Policy enunciated by Executive Order 13547. In just a decade, OHH has matured into a recognized "metadiscipline," with development of a small, but robust and diverse community of science and practice, incorporation into academic educational programs, regular participation in ocean and coastal science and public health societies, and active engagement with public health decision makers. In addition to substantial increases in scientific information, the OHH community has demonstrated ability to respond rapidly and effectively to emergency situations such as those associated with extreme weather events (e.g., hurricanes, floods) and human-caused disasters (e.g., the Deep Water Horizon oil spill). Among many other things, next steps include development and implementation of agency health strategies and provision of specific services, such as ecological forecasts to provide routine early warnings for ocean health threats and opportunities for prevention and mitigation of these risks.

  14. Globalisation of inflammatory bowel disease: perspectives from the evolution of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G; Ng, Siew C

    2016-12-01

    The UK and China provide unique historical perspectives on the evolution of the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, which might provide insight into its pathogenesis. Historical records from the UK document the emergence of ulcerative colitis during the mid-1800s, which was later followed by the recognition of Crohn's disease in 1932. During the second half of the 20th century, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease rose dramatically in high-income countries. Globalisation at the turn of the 21st century led to rapid economic development of newly industrialised countries such as China. In China, the modernisation of society was accompanied by the recognition of a sharp rise in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease is expected to continue to rise in high-income countries and is also likely to accelerate in the developing world. An understanding of the shared and different environmental determinants underpinning the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in western and eastern countries is essential to implement interventions that will blunt the rising global burden of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A phylogenetic and biogeographic perspective on the evolution of poeciliid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Seckinger, Jens; Meyer, Axel

    2007-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of members of the subfamily Poeciliinae (Cyprinodontiformes) are investigated to test alternate hypotheses of diversification resulting from the assembly of the Central America and the Caribbean from the Cretaceous period onwards. We use 4333 aligned base pairs of mitochondrial DNA and 1549 aligned base pairs of nuclear DNA from 55 samples representing 48 ingroup and seven outgroup species to test this hypothesis. Mitochondrial genes analyzed include those encoding the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs; transfer RNAs coding for valine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, asparagine, cysteine and tyrosine; and complete cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I and II; nuclear gene analyzed included the third exon of the recombination activation gene 1 (RAG1). Analyses of combined mtDNA and nuclear DNA data sets result in a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis. This hypothesis is in conflict with the classical taxonomic assignment of genera into tribes and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the taxonomy; however, the molecular hypothesis defines nine clades that are geographically restricted and consistent with the geological evolution of Central America and the Caribbean. Our analyses support multiple colonization events of Middle America followed by a mix of vicariance and dispersal events.

  16. Single incision laparoscopic surgery in gynecology: Evolution, current trends, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Su Min Chern

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for different procedures in various subspecialties. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is a rapidly developing field that may mark the new frontier in laparoscopy. The ongoing and continuous efforts to decrease morbidity and improve cosmesis from laparoscopic surgery has led to minimization in number and size of ports required for these procedures. SILS is laparoscopic surgery performed through a single, small skin incision 15-20 mm in size, usually hidden in the umbilicus. SILS is not a new endeavor, but recent advances in conventional laparoscopic techniques and instrumentation has made SILS more feasible and safer for patients. Within a short span of time there has been an increase in the number of studies and clinical reports depicting the use of SILS in gynecology. As this novel field moves forward, a review of its evolution and current status is requisite. The objective of this article is to review the contemporary literature on SILS in gynecology and the recent advances in techniques and instrumentation used in SILS. The ongoing refinement of surgical techniques and instrumentation has resulted in increasing use of SILS across many subspecialties. Recently published studies have proven the feasibility, safety, and reproducibility of SILS in various gynecologic procedures.

  17. Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of pleistocene horses in the new world: a molecular perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma ago, and nowhere more so than in the Americas. There is no consensus on the number of equid species or even the number of lineages that existed in these continents. Likewise, the origin of the endemic South American genus Hippidion is unresolved, as is the phylogenetic position of the "stilt-legged" horses of North America. Using ancient DNA sequences, we show that, in contrast to current models based on morphology and a recent genetic study, Hippidion was phylogenetically close to the caballine (true horses, with origins considerably more recent than the currently accepted date of c. 10 Ma. Furthermore, we show that stilt-legged horses, commonly regarded as Old World migrants related to the hemionid asses of Asia, were in fact an endemic North American lineage. Finally, our data suggest that there were fewer horse species in late Pleistocene North America than have been named on morphological grounds. Both caballine and stilt-legged lineages may each have comprised a single, wide-ranging species.

  18. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Santana, Rosa Amélia Gonçalves; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Magalhães, Laise Kelma Costa; Mota, Daniel Testa; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Silveira, Henrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers). In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  19. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers. In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  20. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conference 9 – 11 October 2017 A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata 2Key human mobility terms 4Background – 1 billion by 2050: fact... - climate change nexus has recently started receiving attention again – increasing regional and global importance of this topic. • Movement of discourse from migration as a problem that reflects a failure to adapt to changes in the physical environment...

  1. Engine of life and big bang of evolution: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James

    2004-01-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) is the engine for essentially all life on our planet and its beginning 2.5 billion years ago was the 'big bang of evolution.' It produces reducing equivalents for making organic compounds on an enormous scale and at the same time provides us with an oxygenic atmosphere and protection against UV radiation (in the form of the ozone layer). In 1967, when I began my career in photosynthesis research, little was known about PS II. The Z-scheme had been formulated [Hill and Bendall (1960) Nature 186: 136-137] and Boardman and Anderson [(1964) Nature 203: 166-167] had isolated PS II as a discrete biochemical entity. PS II was known not only to be the source of oxygen but of variable chlorophyll fluorescence [Duysens and Sweers (1963) In: Studies on Microalgae and Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp. 353-372. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo] and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence [Arnold and Davidson (1954) J Gen Physiol 37: 677-684]. P680 had just been discovered [Döring et al. (1967) Z Naturforsch 22b: 639-644]. No wonder the 'black box of PS II' was described at that time by Bessel Kok and George Cheniae [Current Topics in Bioenergetics 1: 1-47 (1966)] as the 'inner sanctum of photosynthesis.' What a change in our level of understanding of PS II since then! The contributions of many talented scientists have unraveled the mechanisms and structural basis of PS II function and we are now very close to revealing the molecular details of the remarkable and thermodynamically demanding reaction which it catalyzes, namely the splitting of water into its elemental constituents. It has been a privilege to be involved in this journey.

  2. Multi-character perspectives on the evolution of intraspecific differentiation in a neotropical hylid frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boag Peter T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-character empirical studies are important contributions to our understanding of the process of speciation. The relatively conserved morphology of, and importance of the mate recognition system in anurans, combined with phylogenetic tools, provide an opportunity to address predictions about the relative role of each in the process of speciation. We examine the relationship among patterns of variation in morphology, call characters, and 16S gene sequences across seven populations of a neotropical hylid frog, Hyla leucophyllata, to infer their relative importance in predicting the early stages of population differentiation. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrate that both morphological and call characteristics were significantly variable among populations, characterized by significantly lower intra-population dispersion in call space than morphological space, and significantly greater among-population variation in call structure. We found lack of concordance between a 16S DNA phylogeny of Hyla leucophyllata and the significant population-level differentiation evident in both external morphology and male advertisement call. Comparisons of the reconstructed gene trees to simulated lineages support the notion that variation in call cannot be simply explained by population history. Conclusion Discordance among traits may reflect sampling biases (e.g. single genetic marker effects, or imply a decoupling of evolution of different suites of characters. Diagnostic differences among populations in call structure possibly reflect local selection pressures presented by different heterospecific calling assemblages and may serve as a precursor of species-wide differentiation. Differentiation among populations in morphology may be due to ecophenotypic variation or to diversifying selection on body size directly, or on frequency attributes of calls (mediated by female choice that show a strong relationship to body size.

  3. Organization and Evolution of a Gene-Rich Region of the Mouse Genome: A 12.7-Mb Region Deleted in the Del(13)Svea36H Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Wilming, Laurens; Weekes, Joseph; Gilbert, James G.R.; Ashurst, Jennifer; Peyrefitte, Sandrine; Matthews, Lucy; Cadman, Matthew; McKeone, Richard; Sellick, Chris A.; Arkell, Ruth; Botcherby, Marc R.M.; Strivens, Mark A.; Campbell, R. Duncan; Gregory, Simon; Denny, Paul; Hancock, John M.; Rogers, Jane; Brown, Steve D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Del(13)Svea36H (Del36H) is a deletion of ∼20% of mouse chromosome 13 showing conserved synteny with human chromosome 6p22.1-6p22.3/6p25. The human region is lost in some deletion syndromes and is the site of several disease loci. Heterozygous Del36H mice show numerous phenotypes and may model aspects of human genetic disease. We describe 12.7 Mb of finished, annotated sequence from Del36H. Del36H has a higher gene density than the draft mouse genome, reflecting high local densities of three gene families (vomeronasal receptors, serpins, and prolactins) which are greatly expanded relative to human. Transposable elements are concentrated near these gene families. We therefore suggest that their neighborhoods are gene factories, regions of frequent recombination in which gene duplication is more frequent. The gene families show different proportions of pseudogenes, likely reflecting different strengths of purifying selection and/or gene conversion. They are also associated with relatively low simple sequence concentrations, which vary across the region with a periodicity of ∼5 Mb. Del36H contains numerous evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs). Many lie in noncoding regions, are detectable in species as distant as Ciona intestinalis, and therefore are candidate regulatory sequences. This analysis will facilitate functional genomic analysis of Del36H and provides insights into mouse genome evolution. PMID:15364904

  4. Istoriko-geograficheskaja jevoljucija anklavnosti territorii Kaliningradskoj oblasti [The historical and geographical evolution of the enclavity of the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhkov-Yuryevsky Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the origin, development, change in the status, and extinction of enclave and exclave formations in the territory of the modern Kaliningrad region. The author offers information on their socio-economic and political features. The article identifies enclave (exclave problems peculiar to them, including the land access (passenger and cargo transit of the metropolis to the isolated territory, as well as the issues relating to the origins of state border, border control, visa regime, and political and economic relations to neighbouring states and the mainland. The author reviews cases of evolutional development of enclavity and peaceful and military methods of eliminating enclave formations. Actions towards the solution of political and socioeconomic problems taken in East Prussia are compared to those taken in the Kaliningrad region. The author emphasizes the need to solve the problems of the only Russian exclave region in view of the experience of its historical “predecessors”.

  5. The evolution of groundwater quality in France: perspectives for enduring use for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, J C

    1995-10-27

    France is rich in groundwater. It has many aquifers with renewable resources which are estimated at 100 billion m3/year, of which 3.5 billion m3, or 60% of the water used in France for human consumption, are withdrawn each year. This practice is justified by the often naturally pure quality of the water and by the regularity of the resource. Nevertheless, free aquifers, in spite of natural physical and geochemical barriers, are not sufficiently protected from anthropic surface contamination and when pollutants reach them, the consequences are never negligible, be it from a sanitary, economic or natural heritage point of view. The most extensive pollution is nitrate contamination. Nitrate concentrations have been increasing constantly over the last 30 years and in some regions have gone over the critical threshold of 50 mg/l which is the European standard, and concentrations of 100 mg/l have been measured in some places. The gravity of other types of pollution--mining, industrial or domestic--is determined by the mineral or organic products involved. The cumulative effect of all of this pollution is serious from various standpoints: from an economic and environmental point of view because aquifers contribute to the maintenance of aquatic life, and for our natural heritage because of the long-term degradation of vast aquifers in some very urban and industrial regions. We might, therefore, question the possible long-term use of aquifers as a source of drinking water.

  6. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  7. THE EVOLUTION AND FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ACTUARIAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Badat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los

  8. Evolution of Area-Averaged Vertical Velocity in the Convective Region of a Midlatitude Squall Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Ms. Svetla Veleva, Mr. Rusty Billingsly, and Capt. Kevin Mattison for their help in unfolding the raw Doppler-velocity fields; Mr. Robert Barritt for...and evolution of this important class of mesoscale convective system (MCS) (e.g., Zipser 1969, 1977; Houze 1977; LeMonc and Zipser 1980; Ogura and Liou...1980; Zipser and LeMone 1980; Gamache and ltouze 1982, 1985; Houze and Rappaport 1984; Heymsfield and Schotz 1985; Smull and Houze 1985, 1987a,b

  9. Frost stress evolution and winter pea ideotype in the context of climate warming at a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castel Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important crop in temperate regions for its high seed protein concentration that is particularly sensitive to abiotic stresses. The abrupt temperature increase known as the “1987/1988 temperature regime shift” that occurs over Europe is questioning how winter pea will perform in the changing climate. This study assessed the winter frost damage evolution along from 1961 to 2015 in Burgundy-Franche-Comté by using: (1 daily observed and gridded regional temperature data and (2 a validated crop winter frost stress model calibrated for pea. This study shows a global decrease of the frost stress nevertheless resulting from a subtle balance between the decrease in its intensity and the increase of the number of events. The frost stress evolution patterns with warming depend on both plant frost resistance level and acclimation rate and are still sensitive to winter climate fluctuations. This study provides relevant information for breeding performant winter crop ideotypes able to moderate detrimental effects of climate change and offering new cropping opportunities in temperate regions.

  10. Assessment and Evolution of the Sustainable Development Ability of Human–Ocean Systems in Coastal Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caizhi Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a crucial source of natural resources for human development, as productive terrestrial resources increasingly reach their limits of economic and ecological exploitation. With increasing human impact on oceans, it is vital to maintain a sustainable human–ocean relationship. We present an indicator system and information entropy model to assess the evolution of human–ocean systems (HOSs according to the dissipative structure theory. Sustainable development ability (SDA scores for HOSs are calculated based on the combination-weighting model. Finally, the Richards model is used to depict the HOSs’ evolution states and periods in different coastal regions of China. The assessment indicates that total entropy is undergoing a process of negentropy; and that order degrees of HOSs are gradually improving. The results also suggest that the sustainable development levels of HOSs are continuously improving. The different coastal regions showed notable disparities of SDA and evolutionary processes, due to a differing resource base, environmental carrying capacity, and socio-economic development. Different limiting factors should determine regional policies for enhancing the SDA process; the key to sustainable development of HOS is achieving a balance between the exploitation of ocean resources for socio-economic development and conserving ecosystem services that are critical to wellbeing and livelihoods.

  11. Biological research in the evolution of cancer surgery: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bernard

    2008-12-15

    During the 19th, and for most of the 20th century, malignant tumors were removed by mutilating radical anatomic dissection. Advances such as anesthesia, asepsis, and blood transfusion made possible increasingly more radical operations. There was no scientific rationale for the operations being performed. Surgery in the 20th century was dominated by the principles of William S. Halsted, who contended that the bloodstream was of little significance as a route of tumor cell dissemination; a tumor was autonomous of its host; and cancer was a local-regional disease that spread in an orderly fashion based on mechanical considerations. Halsted believed that both the extent and nuances of an operation influenced patient outcome and that inadequate surgical skill was responsible for the failure to cure. A new surgical era arose in 1957, when cancer surgery began to be influenced by laboratory and clinical research, with results contrary to Halstedian principles. A new hypothesis resulted in a scientific basis for cancer surgery. Clinical trials supported the thesis that operable cancer is a systemic disease and that variations in local-regional therapy are unlikely to substantially affect survival. Complex host-tumor relationships were shown to affect every aspect of cancer and, contrary to Halsted's thesis, the bloodstream is of considerable importance in tumor dissemination. Clinical trials also have shown that less radical surgery is justified. Studies have shown that improved survival can be achieved with systemic therapy after surgery. Such therapy can reduce both the incidence of distant disease and the tumor recurrence at the tumor site after minimal surgery. The use of systemic therapy in patients who have no identifiable metastatic disease is a drastic departure from previous strategies. New technological innovations resulting from engineering research have improved the quality of life of patients by eliminating the need for some surgical procedures. Because cancer

  12. A 7-bp insertion in the 3' untranslated region suggests the duplication and concerted evolution of the rabbit SRY gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrand Nuno

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work we report the genetic polymorphism of a 7-bp insertion in the 3' untranslated region of the rabbit SRY gene. The polymorphic GAATTAA motif was found exclusively in one of the two divergent rabbit Y-chromosomal lineages, suggesting that its origin is more recent than the separation of the O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus Y-chromosomes. In addition, the remarkable observation of haplotypes exhibiting 0, 1 and 2 7-bp inserts in essentially all algirus populations suggests that the rabbit SRY gene is duplicated and evolving under concerted evolution.

  13. Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Imbalanced Regional Development in Mainland China Using Dmsp-Ols Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Jia, T.

    2017-09-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Programs Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime lights imagery has been widely used to monitor economic activities and regional development in recent decades. In this paper, we firstly processed the nighttime light imageries of the Mainland China from 1992 to 2013 due to the radiation or geometric errors. Secondly, by dividing the Mainland China into seven regions, we found high correlation between the sum light values and GDP of each region. Thirdly, we extracted the economic centers of each region based on their nighttime light images. Through the analysis, we found the distribution of these economic centers was relatively concentrated and the migration of these economic centers showed certain directional trend or circuitous changes, which suggested the imbalanced socio-economic development of each region. Then, we calculated the Regional Development Gini of each region using the nighttime light data, which indicated that social-economic development in South China presents great imbalance while it is relatively balanced in Southwest China. This study would benefit the macroeconomic control to regional economic development and the introduction of appropriate economic policies from the national level.

  14. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  15. Numerical Simulations of the Evolution of Solar Active Regions: the Complex AR12565 and AR12567

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, C.

    2017-05-01

    We have performed numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of two closed active regions (AR). The input magnetic field values were the coronal magnetic field computed as extrapolation coronal from observations of the photospheric magnetic field. The studied active regions, NOAA AR12565 and AR12567, were registered as different bipolar region. Our investigation, the 3D coronal extrapolations, as well as the numerical MHD experiments, revealed that actually they evolved together as a quadrupolar active region. The second region emerged later under the loops system of AR12565 and separated from this one. A natural current sheet formed between then and it plays an important role in the explosive events (flares and coronal mass ejections) occurrence.

  16. Sustaining the grassland sea: Regional perspectives on identifying, protecting and restoring the Sky Island region's most intact grassland valley landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitanjali S. Bodner; Peter Warren; David Gori; Karla Sartor; Steven Bassett

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands of the Sky Islands region once covered over 13 million acres in southeastern Arizona and adjacent portions of New Mexico, Sonora, and Chihuahua. Attempts to evaluate current ecological conditions suggest that approximately two thirds of these remain as intact or restorable grassland habitat. These grasslands provide watershed services such as flood control...

  17. Four Years of North Pacific Mode Water Evolution: A Fukushima Tracer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alison M.; Yoshida, Sachiko; Pike, Steven; Buesseler, Ken O.; Rypina, Irina I.; Jayne, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Here we presents the results of a investigation which uses the tracer information provided by the 2011 direct ocean release of radio-isotopes, (137Cs, 30-year half-life and 134Cs, 2-year half-life) from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to better understand the pathways, mixing and transport of water in the North Pacific Ocean. The main focus is the analysis of cesium observations obtained from the spring 2015 CLIVAR/GO-SHIP occupation of the P16N line in the eastern North Pacific. Nearly four hundred 20 L radionuclide samples were obtained on this cruise between 29 April and 26 June 2015 covering the 152°W line from 3°N to the Alaskan Shelf off Kodiak (56.4°N), crossing the Alaska Gyre at 55°N and making a short (200 nm) line extending from the outer edge of U.S. EEZ coming into Seattle, just to the south of the Canadian border and Line-P. Samples include both profiles from the surface to 1000 m and surface/subsurface pairs that provide an average 1° latitude spacing along 152°W. A clear Fukushima signal is apparent from the surface down to 400 m. The core signal lies at between 0-200 m at about 40°N where Subtropical Mode Water density water outcrops. The densest waters with Fukushima isotopes lie at 440 m in the bottom density range of Dense-Central Mode Water. There is a weak, but detectable signal in the Alaska Current to the north off both Kodiak and Sitka. The deepest detectable 137Cs (weapon's testing) signals are found at and to the north of 45°N at 900-1000 m. There is detectable, background level 137Cs as far south as 3°N, but as of spring 2015 the southernmost 134C signal was found above 200 m at 30°N. This horizontal and vertical pattern of Fukushima radionuclides traces the path of mode waters from their formation regions in the western North Pacific to their outcrop in eastern basin over the four years since their release.

  18. Geochemical and isotopic perspectives on the origin and evolution of the Siletzia Terrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. A.; Weis, D.; Mullen, E.; Kerr, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Siletzia terrane, located in the Cascadia forearc region of Oregon, Washington and Vancouver Island, consists of a series of accreted basaltic pillow lavas, massive flows and intrusive sheets. It represents a late Paleocene-Eocene oceanic large igneous province (LIP), previously proposed to represent an accreted oceanic plateau, hotspot island chain, backarc basin, island arc, or a sequence of slab window volcanics formed by ridge subduction. A province-wide geochemical reassessment of the terrane, including new high precision Sr-Pb-Nd-Hf isotope data on basaltic samples, has been used to assess the validity of the proposed tectonomagmatic models for Siletzia. The trace element data show REE patterns that are flat to LREE enriched with an absence of any arc signatures. These features are comparable to other oceanic plateaus such as the Ontong Java and the Caribbean and so therefore support a mantle plume origin. Initial isotope ratios range from 206Pb/204Pb = 18.869 - 19.673, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.527 - 15.609, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.551 - 39.220, ɛHf = +9.0 - 14.8, ɛNd = +5.0 - 8.0 and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70304 - 0.70397. The isotope signatures become more varied southward across the terrane and reveal two trends: i) HIMU-DMM and ii) another extending from DMM towards the Imnaha component, thought to represent the mantle plume source of the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone 1,2. The data may support the previously proposed idea that the volcanism of the Siletzia terrane represents initial melting of the mantle plume head of the Yellowstone hotspot 3,4,5. Other evidence indicating a LIP origin includes the relatively rapid eruption/intrusion of an estimated magma volume of 2.6 x 106 km3 6 between ~56-49 Ma 5, which, in conjunction with our new elemental and isotopic data, indicates that the Siletzia terrane most likely represents an accreted oceanic plateau. 1. Wolff et al., (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 177-180. 2. Jean et al., (2014) EPSL 389, 119-131 3. Duncan (1982

  19. A new extinct dwarfed buffalo from Sulawesi and the evolution of the subgenus Anoa: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The fossil and extant faunas of Sulawesi, the largest island within the Wallacea biogeographic region, exhibit a high degree of endemism. The lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, two closely-related dwarfed buffaloes, are among the most peculiar endemic mammals of the region. Here, I describe a new species, Bubalus grovesi, from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of South Sulawesi and I give a revised diagnosis of Anoa. Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. differs from all previously described Bubalus in both the size and proportions of the skeleton and in possessing a unique combination of discrete character states. Body mass estimates suggest an average mass of 117 kg for Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. and a body size reduction of about 90% with respect to a typical water buffalo. A comprehensive overview of body mass estimates of dwarfed buffaloes and differences in their dental and postcranial features is included. Finally, new evidence on the taxonomy and island dwarfing of the anoas and available data from different disciplines are used to discuss the timing and mode of their evolution. The representatives of the subgenus Anoa would be dwarfed forms of the Asian water buffalo that arose following dispersal to Sulawesi during the Middle/Late Pleistocene.

  20. Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL CAMARĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania's population has declined steadily from 23.2 million in 1990 to 21.5 million inhabitants in 2007. This overall decline in population is not entirely true for the towns and cities of the North-East Region, as during the same period they recorded both decreases and increases in population due to positive natural balance. The North-East Region (partially superimposed over the historic region of the western Moldova is considered the poorest region in the European Union and a disadvantaged area. The rural young population of Moldova is a reservoir which supplies urban areas and especially large cities. In these circumstances, the small towns of the North-East Region are seeking balance (demographic, economic, functional. This paper examines the demographic evolution of the small towns located in the area under analysis, in the post-communist period, illustrating the types of fluctuations in statistical methods as regards demographic changes and the risk of depopulation in the future, correlated with a lower overall population of Romania.

  1. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guyot

    Full Text Available A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1A, S(1 and S(1B (called together the S(1 regions interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1 locus (including a putative F-box gene were proposed, but candidates for S(1A and S(1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1A, S(1 and the majority of the S(1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1 a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1, (2 the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1A, (3 an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1 regions. Hence, the S(1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal

  2. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    progeny with sex reversal (XXsxr male). In one stroke this demolished the earlier conjecture that the sex-reversal gene in mouse could be a dominant autosomal mutation. These findings (Singh and Jones 1982; Singh et al. 1984) led to the conclusion that a very small region of the mouse. Y chromosome was necessary and ...

  3. Regional background O3 and NOx in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria (TX region: a decadal-scale perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Suciu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 in the lower troposphere is harmful to people and plants, particularly during summer, when photochemistry is most active and higher temperatures favor local chemistry. Local precursor emissions, such as those of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx, together with their chemistry contribute to the O3 and NOx mixing ratios in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria (HGB region. In addition to local emissions, chemistry and transport, larger-scale factors also contribute to local O3 and NOx. These additional contributions (often referred to as regional background are not well quantified within the HGB region, impeding more efficient controls on precursor emissions to achieve compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O3. In this study, we estimate ground-level regional background O3 and NOx in the HGB region and quantify their decadal-scale trends.We use four different approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA to quantify background O3 and NOx. Three of these approaches consist of independent PCA on both O3 and NOx for both 1 and 8 h levels to compare our results with previous studies and to highlight the effect of both temporal and spatial scales. In the fourth approach, we co-varied O3, NOx and meteorology.Our results show that the estimation of regional background O3 has less inherent uncertainty when it was constrained by NOx and meteorology, yielding a statistically significant temporal trend of −0.68 ± 0.27 ppb yr−1. Likewise, the estimation of regional background NOx trend constrained by O3 and meteorology was −0.04 ± 0.02 ppb yr−1 (upper bound and −0.03 ± 0.01 ppb yr−1 (lower bound. Our best estimates of the 17-year average of season-scale background O3 and NOx were 46.72 ± 2.08 ppb and 6.80 ± 0.13 ppb (upper bound or 4.45 ± 0.08 ppb (lower bound, respectively. Average background O3 is consistent with previous studies and

  4. Regional background O3 and NOx in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (TX) region: a decadal-scale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Loredana G.; Griffin, Robert J.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere is harmful to people and plants, particularly during summer, when photochemistry is most active and higher temperatures favor local chemistry. Local precursor emissions, such as those of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), together with their chemistry contribute to the O3 and NOx mixing ratios in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) region. In addition to local emissions, chemistry and transport, larger-scale factors also contribute to local O3 and NOx. These additional contributions (often referred to as regional background) are not well quantified within the HGB region, impeding more efficient controls on precursor emissions to achieve compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O3. In this study, we estimate ground-level regional background O3 and NOx in the HGB region and quantify their decadal-scale trends.We use four different approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA) to quantify background O3 and NOx. Three of these approaches consist of independent PCA on both O3 and NOx for both 1 and 8 h levels to compare our results with previous studies and to highlight the effect of both temporal and spatial scales. In the fourth approach, we co-varied O3, NOx and meteorology.Our results show that the estimation of regional background O3 has less inherent uncertainty when it was constrained by NOx and meteorology, yielding a statistically significant temporal trend of -0.68 ± 0.27 ppb yr-1. Likewise, the estimation of regional background NOx trend constrained by O3 and meteorology was -0.04 ± 0.02 ppb yr-1 (upper bound) and -0.03 ± 0.01 ppb yr-1 (lower bound). Our best estimates of the 17-year average of season-scale background O3 and NOx were 46.72 ± 2.08 ppb and 6.80 ± 0.13 ppb (upper bound) or 4.45 ± 0.08 ppb (lower bound), respectively. Average background O3 is consistent with previous studies and between the approaches used in this study, although the approaches

  5. Spatiotemporal evolution of electron characteristics in the electron diffusion region of magnetic reconnection: Implications for acceleration and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Chen, L.-J.; Hesse, M.; Argall, M. R.; Daughton, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Bessho, N.

    2015-04-01

    Based on particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection, the spatiotemporal evolution of electron velocity distributions in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is reported to illustrate how electrons are accelerated and heated. Approximately when the reconnection rate maximizes, electron distributions in the vicinity of the X line exhibit triangular structures with discrete striations and a temperature (Te) twice that of the inflow region. Te increases as the meandering EDR populations mix with inflowing electrons. As the distance from the X line increases within the electron outflow jet, the discrete populations swirl into arcs and gyrotropize by the end of the jet with Te about 3 times that of the X line. Two dominant processes increase Te and produce the spatially and temporally evolving EDR distributions: (1) electric field acceleration preferential to electrons which meander in the EDR for longer times and (2) cyclotron turning by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer.

  6. Evolution and structural organisation of mitochondrial DNA control region of myiasis-causing flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessinger, A C; Azeredo-Espin, A M

    2000-03-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of the mtDNA control region (called the A+T-rich region in insects) of five dipteran species which cause myiasis: Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, Lucilia eximia Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Dermatobia hominis Linnaeus Jr (Diptera: Oestridae). The control region in these species varies in length from 1000 to 1600 bp. Two structural domains with specific evolutionary patterns were identified. These were (1) conserved sequence blocks containing primary sequence motifs, including dinucleotide pyrimidine-purine series and long T-stretches, located at the 5' end adjacent to the tRNA(Ile) gene and (2) a hypervariable domain at the 3' end characterized by increased nucleotide divergence and size variation. A high frequency of AT transversions at nucleotide substitution level indicated directional mutation pressure. The phylogenetic usefulness of the insect control region is discussed.

  7. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida and microfaunal (benthic foraminifera data, unveiling paleoecological relationships of these organisms and the evolutionary scenario of Guaratiba Mangrove. Radiocarbon results indicate an estimated age of about 2400 yrs cal BP for the core base. Textural, geochemical and benthic foraminifera data suggest that the study area changed significantly during the last 2400 yrs cal BP. It experienced coastal waves action and shoreface processes in the period between ≈2.400-1.400 yrs cal BP; then, this phase gave place to a shallow marine environment similar to that found currently in internal and protected areas of Sepetiba Bay, between ≈1.400-350 yrs cal BP. Thenceforth, the study area evolved to the present mangrove environment. Factors related to climatic oscillations and the formation, evolution and events of rupture of Marambaia sand ridge influenced the late Holocene evolution of the northeast intertidal area of Sepetiba Bay.

  8. Evolution of Mhc Class i Complex Region with Special Reference to Fragmentary Line Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Yoshio; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2008-03-01

    We reviewed the origin and evolution of the two pairs of immune genes, (MHC-B and MHC-C) and (MICA and MICB) in man, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey based mainly on our previous work. Since those genes were well known to have been subject to strong natural selection in evolution, they themselves were not suitable for our study. We thus took another approach to use fragmented and nonfunctional LINEs that had coevolved with the two pairs in the same genomic fragments. Our results showed that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated about 22 Mry (million years) ago, and MICA and MICB duplicated about 14 Myr ago. Interestingly, rhesus monkey was found not to have either pair but many repeats similar to MHC-B. Therefore, we estimated the divergence time of the monkey, and found that it diverged out from a common ancestor of man and chimpanzee about 30 Myr ago. The divergence time was consistent with the duplication times of the two pairs of immune genes. Based on our results we would predict that orangutan and gorilla also have the two pairs, because the both primate species are considered to have diverged less than 14 Myr ago.

  9. Formulating a historical and demographic model of recent human evolution based on resequencing data from noncoding regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Laval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estimating the historical and demographic parameters that characterize modern human populations is a fundamental part of reconstructing the recent history of our species. In addition, the development of a model of human evolution that can best explain neutral genetic diversity is required to identify confidently regions of the human genome that have been targeted by natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have resequenced 20 independent noncoding autosomal regions dispersed throughout the genome in 213 individuals from different continental populations, corresponding to a total of approximately 6 Mb of diploid resequencing data. We used these data to explore and co-estimate an extensive range of historical and demographic parameters with a statistical framework that combines the evaluation of multiple models of human evolution via a best-fit approach, followed by an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC analysis. From a methodological standpoint, evaluating the accuracy of the parameter co-estimation allowed us to identify the most accurate set of statistics to be used for the estimation of each of the different historical and demographic parameters characterizing recent human evolution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model in which modern humans left Africa through a single major dispersal event occurring approximately 60,000 years ago, corresponding to a drastic reduction of approximately 5 times the effective population size of the ancestral African population of approximately 13,800 individuals. Subsequently, the ancestors of modern Europeans and East Asians diverged much later, approximately 22,500 years ago, from the population of ancestral migrants. This late diversification of Eurasians after the African exodus points to the occurrence of a long maturation phase in which the ancestral Eurasian population was not yet diversified.

  10. Analysis of Flow Evolution and Thermal Instabilities in the Near-Nozzle Region of a Free Plane Laminar Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Barrios-Piña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the evolution of a free plane laminar jet in the near-nozzle region. The jet is buoyant because it is driven by a continuous addition of both buoyancy and momentum at the source. Buoyancy is given by a temperature difference between the jet and the environment. To study the jet evolution, numerical simulations were performed for two Richardson numbers: the one corresponding to a temperature difference slightly near the validity of the Boussinesq approximation and the other one corresponding to a higher temperature difference. For this purpose, a time dependent numerical model is used to solve the fully dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Density variations are given by the ideal gas law and flow properties as dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered nonconstant. Particular attention was paid to the implementation of the boundary conditions to ensure jet stability and flow rates control. The numerical simulations were also reproduced by using the Boussinesq approximation to find out more about its pertinence for this kind of flows. Finally, a stability diagram is also obtained to identify the onset of the unsteady state in the near-nozzle region by varying control parameters of momentum and buoyancy. It is found that, at the onset of the unsteady state, momentum effects decrease almost linearly when buoyancy effects increase.

  11. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  12. Are We Living in a Converging World? Regional Disparities and Convergences from a Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Blizkovsky

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse regional disparity and convergence at a global level. Six global macro-regions were reflected: the EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, CIS and China. They represented 70% of global GDP and 65% of the global population. The disparities were measured for 223 micro-regions within three macro-regions (EU, NAFTA and China) and for 55 meso-regions (countries) within five macro-regions (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, MERCOSUR and CIS). The study period was 2000-2008 (subject to avail...

  13. Study of Gutenberg-Richter coefficients considering time evolution for different mexican seismic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizales Velazquez, Carlos; Angulo Brown, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, we propose a division of the Mexican Pacific coast and we study the time evolution of the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients ("a" and "b" values) along the 2006-2016 period by means of the sliding time window method. We observed that the sequences of a and b values obtained, are positively correlated as it must be, because otherwise it would represent a seismic dynamics incompatible with a self-organized critical system "the earth crust". Furthermore, we analyze the variation of the modal value "a/b" showing be a better estimator of seismic activity that only a or b parameters. Finally, we perform size window variation analysis to keep constant the seismic energy released by N-events into the time window.

  14. STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF SEASONALITY IN AGRI-TOURISM, BY REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Daniela Matei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourist activity, in general, is influenced by seasonality phenomenon, which means that the company's marketing policy must adapt supply to the specific needs of consumers, no matter the time of year. However, the services demand have identified opportunities in tourism, while implicit threats. It is therefore necessary to analyze the material, financial, technical and managerial aspects of agro pension. These resources illustrates the possibility of upgrading the capacity of existing accommodation. In the study we used as indicators the number of arrivals and the number of overnight stays in agro hostels in Romania, by region, for 2010 and 2014,by months, thus obtaining data on the influence of seasonality. We concluded that agri-tourism records the highest number of tourists in summer (July-September, but in some regions it begins to develop in winter also. The only region with almost permanent activity is Bucharest-Ilfov, which has the lowest number of rural locations.

  15. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Coronal and Interplanetary Evolution of a Solar Eruption Associated with Two Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhu, Bei; Yang, Zhongwei

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the coronal and interplanetary evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) launched on 2010 September 4 from a source region linking two active regions (ARs), 11101 and 11103, using extreme ultraviolet imaging, magnetogram, white-light, and in situ observations from SDO, STEREO, SOHO, VEX, and Wind. A potential-field source-surface model is employed to examine the configuration of the coronal magnetic field surrounding the source region. The graduated cylindrical shell model and a triangulation method are applied to determine the kinematics of the CME in the corona and interplanetary space. From the remote sensing and in situ observations, we obtain some key results: (1) the CME was deflected in both the eastward and southward directions in the low corona by the magnetic pressure from the two ARs, and possibly interacted with another ejection, which caused that the CME arrived at VEX that was longitudinally distant from the source region; (2) although VEX was closer to the Sun, the observed and derived CME arrival times at VEX are not earlier than those at Wind, which suggests the importance of determining both the frontal shape and propagation direction of the CME in interplanetary space; and (3) the ICME was compressed in the radial direction while the longitudinal transverse size was extended.

  16. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  17. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa: Satellite rainfall-estimate perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictability and variability studies over South Africa typically focus on the summer rainfall region and to a lesser extent on the winter rainfall region. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa, a narrow strip located along the Cape...

  18. The Spatial Diffusion of Innovations and the Evolution of Regional Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Fratesi

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo investiga los efectos que concurren a la formación de las bdiferencias regionales en términos de velocidad de la innovación y de difusión territorial del conocimiento. El objetivo es investigar si un aumento en el ritmo de la innovación, idéntico en todas regiones y debido a factores exógenos tales como la "revolución tecnológica" o las políticas que fomentan el "esfuerzo innovador" a nivel regional, pueden ocasionar disparidades mayores. Para contestar a estas preguntas, la inve...

  19. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. Soil modern evolution impact on the C fluxes in Chernozems at the Middle Volga Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanov, Sabir; Yashin, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    There are results of long-term stationary field research on the aridization impact on the carbon fluxes in the topsoil of Chernozemic soils in the representative agricultural and native forest-steppe landscapes in conditions of the Middle Volga region of Russia (educational-experimental farm "Mummovskoe", Saratov region). Especial attention is dedicated to the water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) which are better available for soil microorganisms that utilize them, enhancing CO2 emission. Dominated in the Middle-Volga natural and agro-landscapes soil conditions are unfavorable for mobile humic acid production and accumulation: organic acids and polyphenols gradually mobilized into solution from root excretions and crop residues or woody plant litter are quickly neutralized by calcium, magnesium or sodium ions in topsoil. Most arable Chernozems of the Middle-Volga region are actively degraded due to both topsoil CO2 emission and water-soluble organic substances fluxes in form of sodium and calcium humates and fulvates, as evidenced by sorption lysimetry data on the WSOS fluxes in 15-21 g/m2 over the vegetation period. Additional researches are necessary to evaluate the ratio between soil organic carbon losses through soil erosion processes, topsoil CO2 emission and WSOS profile and lateral fluxes in conditions of different land-use practice and climate conditions to develop the modern climate-smart farming systems in the Middle-Volga region agrolandscapes with potentially very prolific Chernozemic soils.

  1. Evolution of the stature in a backward region of Spain: Castile and Leon, 1830-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno Lázaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the field of anthropometric history, recently of great interest to social and economic historians. An analysis of the height of adult males in Spain’s interior provides a reflection of the nutritional state and biological wellbeing of the society of that region during Spain’s industrialization. Some 29,000 registers relating to military drafts between 1830 and 1940 provide a series of samples of the rural and urban populations of Castilla-León which allow for an analysis of territorial, environmental, and social inequalities, as well as cyclical changes. This analysis reveals that height in this region developed according to a cyclical model determined by environmental and economic factors, diminishing during the second half of the nineteenth century, when malnutrition and under-nutrition were more prevalent in Castilla-León than in other Spanish regions, and not picking up again before the early twentieth century. This reduction in height was more evident in urban environments and among day-labourers. The nutritional status of this region’s population improved significantly during the first half of the twentieth century. Although it was affected during the Civil War and post-war period, this decline was not as great as that experienced in other regions of Spain.

  2. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. The chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies : dissecting the inner regions and their stellar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcolini, A.; D'Ercole, A.; Battaglia, G.; Gibson, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), we undertake an analysis of the chemical properties of their inner regions, identifying the respective roles played by Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and Type II supernovae (SNe II). The effect of

  4. Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Procellarum Region as Revealed by GRAIL Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Besserer, Jonathan; Head, James W., III; Howett, Carly J. A.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Lucey, Paul J.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations, thin crust, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium. The Procellarum region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3200 km in diameter, though supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border the Procellarum region and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dikes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of quasi-rectangular border structures with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the elevated heat flux in the region.

  5. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human NPHP1 Locus Reveal Complex Genomic Architecture and Its Regional Evolution in Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many loci in the human genome harbor complex genomic structures that can result in susceptibility to genomic rearrangements leading to various genomic disorders. Nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1, MIM# 256100 is an autosomal recessive disorder that can be caused by defects of NPHP1; the gene maps within the human 2q13 region where low copy repeats (LCRs are abundant. Loss of function of NPHP1 is responsible for approximately 85% of the NPHP1 cases-about 80% of such individuals carry a large recurrent homozygous NPHP1 deletion that occurs via nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between two flanking directly oriented ~45 kb LCRs. Published data revealed a non-pathogenic inversion polymorphism involving the NPHP1 gene flanked by two inverted ~358 kb LCRs. Using optical mapping and array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified three potential novel structural variant (SV haplotypes at the NPHP1 locus that may protect a haploid genome from the NPHP1 deletion. Inter-species comparative genomic analyses among primate genomes revealed massive genomic changes during evolution. The aggregated data suggest that dynamic genomic rearrangements occurred historically within the NPHP1 locus and generated SV haplotypes observed in the human population today, which may confer differential susceptibility to genomic instability and the NPHP1 deletion within a personal genome. Our study documents diverse SV haplotypes at a complex LCR-laden human genomic region. Comparative analyses provide a model for how this complex region arose during primate evolution, and studies among humans suggest that intra-species polymorphism may potentially modulate an individual's susceptibility to acquiring disease-associated alleles.

  6. Geomorphology, active tectonics, and landscape evolution in the Mid-Atlantic region: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Carter, Mark W.; Berti, Claudio; Counts, Ronald C.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Harbor, David; Harrison, Richard W.; Heller, Matthew J.; Mahan, Shannon; Malenda, Helen; McKeon, Ryan; Nelson, Michelle S.; Prince, Phillip; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Spotilla, James; Whittecar, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the geomorphology community marked the 125th birthday of one of its most influential papers, “The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania” by William Morris Davis. Inspired by Davis’s work, the Appalachian landscape rapidly became fertile ground for the development and testing of several grand landscape evolution paradigms, culminating with John Hack’s dynamic equilibrium in 1960. As part of the 2015 GSA Annual Meeting, the Geomorphology, Active Tectonics, and Landscape Evolution field trip offers an excellent venue for exploring Appalachian geomorphology through the lens of the Appalachian landscape, leveraging exciting research by a new generation of process-oriented geomorphologists and geologic field mapping. Important geomorphologic scholarship has recently used the Appalachian landscape as the testing ground for ideas on long- and short-term erosion, dynamic topography, glacial-isostatic adjustments, active tectonics in an intraplate setting, river incision, periglacial processes, and soil-saprolite formation. This field trip explores a geologic and geomorphic transect of the mid-Atlantic margin, starting in the Blue Ridge of Virginia and proceeding to the east across the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain. The emphasis here will not only be on the geomorphology, but also the underlying geology that establishes the template and foundation upon which surface processes have etched out the familiar Appalachian landscape. The first day focuses on new and published work that highlights Cenozoic sedimentary deposits, soils, paleosols, and geomorphic markers (terraces and knickpoints) that are being used to reconstruct a late Cenozoic history of erosion, deposition, climate change, and active tectonics. The second day is similarly devoted to new and published work documenting the fluvial geomorphic response to active tectonics in the Central Virginia seismic zone (CVSZ), site of the 2011 M 5.8 Mineral earthquake and the integrated record of Appalachian

  7. Temporal Evolution of Regional Drought Detected from GRACE TWSA and CCI SM in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are one of the most devastating natural disasters, which impose increasing risks to humanity and the environment in the 21st century. The recent and continuous drought in China has led to detrimental effects on the local environment and societies in Yunnan Province, thus there is an urgent need to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the drought. The characteristics of the spatial distribution of drought processes and the impact of droughts on soil moisture and water storage remains unclear. In this study, the direction, magnitude, start time, and duration of droughts were investigated, based on Total Water Storage Anomalies (TWSA of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCI SM, and observed precipitation data. The spatial patterns of TWSA trends at each time duration segment suggest that the evolution of drought processes is very complex, and can be clustered into three zones. The spatial distribution of TWSA revealed that the drought status lasted more than one year longer in the north and east parts compared to other parts of Yunnan Province. Water losses occurred in the south part, while water gains were found in the central, north, and east parts of Yunnan Province, from 2002 to 2014, indicating a higher possibility of droughts in the south part in the future. Both de-seasonalized TWSA and CCI SM effectively captured the serious drought from 2009 to 2010 in Yunnan, and their spatial patterns were found to be consistent. The drought detected from CCI SMA had a one-month lag and TWSA had a two-month lag, in comparison to the meteorological drought from precipitation data, which indicates that the drought data derived from CCI SMA and TWSA are better able to represent the impact of droughts, particularly on agriculture. The contribution of surface SM changes in TWSA was determined to be about 41.94%, suggesting that variations in soil moisture only explain less than half of

  8. Evolution of transcription factor binding sites in mammalian gene regulatory regions: handling counterintuitive results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, James E; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-06-01

    The remodeling of transcription factor binding sites is one of the major engines of evolutionary change, yet almost all available examples of this involve sites from regulatory modules brought online during development. Developmental modules are known to enjoy some type of canalization, which allows considerably more cryptic change than would be assumed for nondevelopmental modules. It remains an open question, then, how frequently binding site remodeling occurs in general. There are strong intuitive reasons to expect that regulatory constancy, and hence binding site conservation in general, is the rule, yet little systematic work has been done to verify this. In the present article, we show that the most obvious way of approaching this problem--which is simply to collect experimentally verified binding sites from the literature without further analysis, create multispecies alignments, and apply conservation algorithms--leads to counterintuitive and ultimately inaccurate results. This is because of the low complexity of typical binding sites and, consequently, because of the frequency with which strings resembling legitimate sites occur throughout the genome. In vitro results can easily be confounded by this. Applying one traditional conservation algorithm and two novel algorithms to a data set that ought to be representative of binding sites in general, but which is taken from the literature directly, we find that only 58% of sites appear to be conserved. However, after the data set is carefully vetted against binding site overloading, and after the likelihood of a specific type of compensatory evolution is evaluated, conservation rates as high as 94% appear reasonable.

  9. Chemical evolution of soil profile from humid regions: The role of the rare elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eluvial-illuvial distribution of rare metals in forest soils is expressed more vividly than the distribution of Fe and Al the more. This is applies primarily to lanthanides: Y, La, Ce. In particular, this difference is noticeable in light Al–Fe-humus podzols, where highly differentiated elements of platinum group. The type of metals exposed to eluvial-illuvial distribution depends on the mineralogical composition of the parent rock and has a pronounced regional dimension.

  10. Soil organic carbon evolution at the regional scale : overcoming uncertainties & quantifying driving forces

    OpenAIRE

    Goidts, Esther

    2009-01-01

    "Soil is a non-renewable resource (…) vital to human activities and ecosystem survival" (EC, 2006). Soil protection requires studies and monitoring based on indicators of its quality. Soil organic matter content (SOM) is one the most relevant of these indicators. However, the inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC), the main component of SOM, is challenging at the regional scale due to its inherent large spatial variability and its slow dynamics. Uncertainties can reach high levels preventing ...

  11. Evolution of Action Potential Alternans in Rabbit Heart during Acute Regional Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Martišienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the development of the spatiotemporal pattern of action potential alternans during acute regional ischemia. Experiments were carried out in isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart using a combination of optical mapping and microelectrode recordings. The alternans pattern significantly changed over time and had a biphasic character reaching maximum at 6–9 min after occlusion. Phase I (3–11 minutes of ischemia is characterized by rapid increase in the alternans magnitude and expansion of the alternans territory. Phase I is followed by gradual decline of alternans (Phase II in both magnitude and territory. During both phases we observed significant beat-to-beat variations of the optical action potential amplitude (OAPA alternans. Simultaneous microelectrode recordings from subepicardial and subendocardial layers showed that OAPA alternans coincided with intramural 2 : 1 conduction blocks. Our findings are consistent with the modeling studies predicting that during acute regional ischemia alternans can be driven by 2 : 1 conduction blocks in the ischemic region.

  12. Latin American Perceptions of Regional Identity and Leadership in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Onuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public opinion plays a growing role in foreign policy formation in democratic societies. In this study, we use survey data from The Americas and the World project to establish whether Latin Americans share a common regional identity, and regard Brazil as a regional leader. Our results indicate that the majority of Brazilians do not identify themselves as Latin Americans. Moreover, while they believe their country is the most suitable candidate for regional leadership, they are unwilling to bear the costs of assuming such a role. Our study also explores perceptions of regional identity and Brazilian leadership in other Latin American countries, based on their own respective power aspirations. It shows that less powerful Latin American nations recognise Brazil as a regional leader, but citizens in middle powers, like Argentina and Mexico, still believe their countries should play a prominent regional role.

  13. Collective Efficacy of a Regional Network: Extending the Social Embeddedness Perspective of Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Nabeel; Léo-Paul, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Through participatory observation and in-depth interviews with members of the Memon community, in Pakistan, this paper probes into how the collective efforts of a regional network can facilitate entrepreneurship, social enterprises and regional development. The setting is a developing country that is lacking a large-scale entrepreneurial culture. Despite caste differences, Memons throughout the Karachi region meet and share experiences with other Memon members of their network – including Mem...

  14. Regional R&D efficiency in Korea from static and dynamic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ungkyu; Asmild, Mette; Kunc, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) efficiency has gained great attention in regional innovation research. This study examines the R&D efficiency patterns of 15 Korean regions for 2005–09. It employs data envelopment analysis to identify the regions' R&D performances relative to the best practices fro......&D productivity over time because of their inability to catch up with the best practices....

  15. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  16. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-07-01

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since 35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test for the validity of each tectonic scenario we employ thermomechanical modeling of the 3-D subduction evolution. From each tectonic scenario we configure an initial condition for numerical modeling that mimics the perceived subduction geometry at 35 Ma. We seek to optimize the fit between observed and predicted slab morphology by varying the nonlinear viscoplastic rheology for mantle, slab, and continental margins. From a wide range of experiments we conclude that a tectonic scenario that starts from NW dipping subduction confined to the Balearic margin at 35 Ma is successful in predicting present-day slab morphology. The other two scenarios (initial subduction from Gibraltar to the Baleares and initial subduction under the African margin) lead to mantle structure much different from what is tomographically imaged. The preferred model predicts slab rotation by more than 180°, east-west lithosphere tearing along the north African margin and a resulting steep east dipping slab under the Gibraltar Strait. The preferred subduction model also meets the first-order temporal constraints corresponding to Mid-Miocene ( 16 Ma) thrusting of the Kabylides onto the African margin and nearly stalled subduction under the Rif-Gibraltar-Betic arc since the Tortonian ( 8 Ma). Our modeling also provides constraints on the rheological properties of the mantle and slab, and of continental margins in the region.

  17. Delayed Gratification Habitable Zones: When Deep Outer Solar System Regions Become Balmy During Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan

    2003-06-01

    Like all low- and moderate-mass stars, the Sun will burn as a red giant during its later evolution, generating of solar luminosities for some tens of millions of years. During this post-main sequence phase, the habitable (i.e., liquid water) thermal zone of our Solar System will lie in the region where Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects orbit. Compared with the 1 AU habitable zone where Earth resides, this "delayed gratification habitable zone" (DGHZ) will enjoy a far less biologically hazardous environment - with lower harmful radiation levels from the Sun, and a far less destructive collisional environment. Objects like Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects, which are known to be rich in both water and organics, will then become possible sites for biochemical and perhaps even biological evolution. The Kuiper Belt, with >105 objects >=50 km in radius and more than three times the combined surface area of the four terrestrial planets, provides numerous sites for possible evolution once the Sun's DGHZ reaches it. The Sun's DGHZ might be thought to only be of academic interest owing to its great separation from us in time. However, ~109 Milky Way stars burn as luminous red giants today. Thus, if icy-organic objects are common in the 20-50 AU zones of these stars, as they are in our Solar System (and as inferred in numerous main sequence stellar disk systems), then DGHZs may form a niche type of habitable zone that is likely to be numerically common in the Galaxy.

  18. Recombination and evolution of duplicate control regions in the mitochondrial genome of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs at the 3' end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P

  19. [Evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in mothers of newborns from 8 autonomous regions (Spain), 1996-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisdedos, Teresa; Díez, Mercedes; Díaz, Asunción; Muñoz, Lourdes; García, Alfredo

    2008-09-06

    To asses the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence evolution of newborns' mothers. Unlinked anonymous study of HIV antibodies in blood spots for congenital metabolic disorders detection in newborns, from 1996 to 2005; in Baleares, Canarias, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y León, Galicia, Melilla and Murcia Regions, including Valencia from 2003 on. HIV-antibodies screening was performed through ELISA and results were confirmed using immunoblot. Global prevalence rates were stable through the period in the 7 initially enrolled regions, near to 1 per thousand; however, during the first 5-year period the prevalence tended to increase (p Baleares and Valencia showed the highest rates, although Baleares showed a declining trend. Canarias is the only region that displays an increasing trend. HIV prevalence in newborns' mothers remained steady during the 10-year period, but after a phase of significant increase the tendency has reverted. Data presented in this paper show the importance of monitoring HIV prevalence among women who give birth, and emphasise the need of improving antenatal prophylaxis programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission.

  20. Evolution of a hypervariable region of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in humans and other hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Knight, Alec; Deininger, Prescott L

    2004-06-01

    Alu repeats in primates have been shown to evolve at a neutral mutation rate, as anticipated for non-coding autosomal loci. However, we have identified Alu elements within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene that exhibited highly accelerated rates of evolution. In humans, a 100- and 25-fold increase in average divergence, for an upstream Alu (Alu U) and a downstream Alu (Alu D) respectively, was estimated based on sequence analysis among eight individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds. None of these individuals demonstrated identical sequences within a 950 base region consisting of these two Alu elements. The hypervariability of this genetic region in the nuclear genome yields a potentially powerful tool for human population studies, forensics and paternity. Additionally, the mutation rate of Alu U among non-human hominoids was also accelerated, although to a lesser extent of roughly 3-fold that of other Alu elements. Sequence analysis of various Hominoidea species demonstrated its utility as a phylogenetic tool. The mechanism for the hypervariability in mutation rates is unclear, but may be accelerated as a result of Alu-mediated gene conversion in the human lineage.

  1. Barriers to Regionalized Surgical Care: Public Perspective Survey and Geospatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Abelson, Jonathan S; Yeo, Heather L

    2017-10-23

    To describe public willingness to participate in regionalized surgical care for cancer. Improved outcomes at high-volume centers following complex surgery have driven a push to regionalize surgical care. Patient attitudes toward regionalization are not well described. As part of the Cornell National Social Survey, a cross-sectional telephone survey was performed. Participants were asked about their willingness to seek regionalized care in a hypothetical scenario requiring surgery. Their responses were compared with demographic characteristics. A geospatial analysis of hospital proximity was performed, as well as a qualitative analysis of barriers to regionalization. Cooperation rate was 48.1% with 1000 total respondents. They were an average of 50 years old (range 18 to 100 years) and 48.9% female. About 49.6% were unwilling to travel 5 hours or more to seek regionalized care for improved survival. Age >70 years [odds ratio (OR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.19-0.60] and perceived distance to a center >30 minutes (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.86) were associated with decreased willingness to seek regionalized care, while high income (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.39-3.16) was associated with increased willingness. Proximity to a major center was not associated with willingness to travel (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.22). Major perceived barriers to regionalization were transportation, life disruption, social support, socioeconomic resources, poor health, and remoteness. Americans are divided on whether the potential for improved survival with regionalization is worth the additional travel effort. Older age and lower income are associated with reduced willingness to seek regionalized care. Multiple barriers to regionalization exist, including a lack of knowledge of the location major centers.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of Lapita decoration do not support branching evolution or regional population structure during colonization of Remote Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Ethan E; Lipo, Carl P

    2010-12-12

    Intricately decorated Lapita pottery (3100-2700 BP) was made and deposited by the prehistoric colonizers of Pacific islands, east of the main Solomon's chain. For decades, analyses of this pottery have focused on the ancestor-descendant relationships of populations and the relative degree of interaction across the region to explain similarities in Lapita decoration. Cladistic analyses, increasingly used to examine the evolutionary relationships of material culture assemblages, have not been conducted on Lapita artefacts. Here, we present the first cladistic analysis of Lapita pottery and note the difficulties in using cladistics to investigate datasets where a high degree of horizontal transmission and non-branching evolution may explain observed variation. We additionally present NeighborNet and phenetic distance network analyses to generate hypotheses that may account for Lapita decorative similarity.

  3. Geology of the Thaumasia region, Mars: Plateau development, valley origins, and magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed the complex geologic history of the Thaumasia region of Mars on the basis of detailed geologic mapping and relative-age dating of rock units and structure. The Thaumasia plateau dominates the region and consists of high lava plains partly surrounded by rugged highlands, mostly of Noachian and Hesperian age. Long-lived faulting centered near Syria Planum and at lesser sites produced radiating narrow grabens during the Noachian through Early Amazonian and concentric wrinkle ridges during the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian. Fault activity peaked during the Noachian and waned substantially during Late Hesperian and Amazonian time. Volcanism on the Thaumasia plateau was particularly active in comparison with other martian cratered highlands, resulting in fourteen volcanoes and numerous outcrops of smooth, ridged, and lobate plains materials. A particularly extensive set of overlapping lava-flow units was emplaced sequentially from Thaumasia Planum to Syria Planum, spanning from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian; lobate flows succeeded smooth flow at the beginning of the Late Hesperian. Deep crustal intrusion and a thickened, buoyant crust may have caused the uplift of the plateau during the Noachian and Early Hesperian, resulting in outward-verging fold-and-thrust plateau margins. This structural style appears similar to that of the young ranges of the Rocky Mountains in the western U.S. Within the plateau, several sites of volcanotectonic activity and valley erosion may be underlain by large and perhaps long-lived magmatic intrusions. One such site occurs at the headland of Warrego Valles. Here, at least two episodes of valley dissection from the Noachian to Early Hesperian occurred during the formation of two nearby rift systems. The site also is a locus of intersection for regional narrow grabens during the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian. However, at the site, such faults diverge or terminate, which suggests that a resistant body of

  4. The Spatial Diffusion of Innovations and the Evolution of Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fratesi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investiga los efectos que concurren a la formación de las bdiferencias regionales en términos de velocidad de la innovación y de difusión territorial del conocimiento. El objetivo es investigar si un aumento en el ritmo de la innovación, idéntico en todas regiones y debido a factores exógenos tales como la "revolución tecnológica" o las políticas que fomentan el "esfuerzo innovador" a nivel regional, pueden ocasionar disparidades mayores. Para contestar a estas preguntas, la investigación se enfoca en el papel que juega el conocimiento compartido entre diferentes territorios y muestra que, debido al conocimiento acumlado y a paridad de esfuerzo innovador, no se mantienen los mismos ingresos per capita. Además, la velocidad de la innovación no es el único factor determinante, porque la facilidad de difusión del conocimiento a través del territorio, también juega un rol de igual importancia. Para apoyar esta idea, primero se construye un nuevo y simple modelo estático que amplía simétricamente los modelos conocidos de comercio Norte-Sur y que identifica a los verdaderos productores de bienes cuya tecnica de producción es patrimonio de las dos regiones. Después a partir del primer modelo, se introducen dos formas reducidas que van a representar los flujos dinámicos de la innovación y de la difusión -una con un método probabilistico y la otra con un método multiequilibrio-. Las dos formas reducidas llevan a la misma conclusión: el aumento en el ritmo de la innovación, aún en regiones idénticas estructuralmente, puede generar disparidades regionales en los ingresos per capita, si la acumulación del conocimiento y el spillover son esencialmente locales. Finalmente resulta que el efecto de divergencia del mayor ritmo en la innovación puede ser contrarestado con un aumento en la velocidad de la difusión territorial del conocimiento.

  5. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...

  6. Perspective analysis 2020. Hordaland future role as petroleum region; Perspektivanalyse 2020. Hordalands fremtidige rolle som petroleumsregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrefjord, Ole; Heum, Per

    2011-07-01

    The report compiles developments and challenges for the petroleum industry in Norway. It forms the context for assessing the Hordaland petroleum region. Scenarios are developed and discussed and Norway, Hordaland part by combining the scope of global trends in the extent to which national (and regional) are able to tackle the challenges that the petroleum industry must be prepared to meet.(eb)

  7. Multiscale evolution of surface air temperature in the arid region of Northwest China and its linkages to ocean oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Bai, Ling; Xu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The global climate has experienced unprecedented warming in the past century. The multiscale evolution of the warming is studied to better understand the spatial and temporal variation patterns of temperature. In this study, based on the yearly surface air temperature from the gridded CRU TS 3.22 dataset and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), we investigated the multiscale evolution of temperature variability in the arid region of Northwest China (ARNC) from 1901 to 2013. Furthermore, the possible influences on the ARNC temperature change from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and dipole mode index (DMI) were also discussed. The results indicated that in the past century, the overall temperature in the ARNC has showed a significant non-linear upward trend, and its changes have clearly exhibited an interannual scale (quasi-2-3 and quasi-6-7-year) and an interdecadal scale (quasi-14, quasi-24, and quasi-70-year). Compared with the reconstructed interannual variation, the reconstructed interdecadal variability plays a decisive role in the ARNC warming and reveals the climatic pattern transformation from the cold period to the warm period before and after 1987. Additionally, there were also regional differences in the spatial patterns of change trend in the ARNC temperature at a given time. We also found that the AMO and PDO had significant impacts on the ARNC temperature fluctuation at an interdecadal scale, whereas the DMI had a more important role in warming at the annual scale, which suggests that the importance of oceans cannot be ignored when considering climate change. Our findings deepen the understanding of the temperature changes all over the ARNC in the context of global warming.

  8. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  9. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given their high interaction rate (1GHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment’s data storage capacity (1KHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a combination of hardware and software triggers to select interesting collisions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an integral part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have the RoIB more operationally maintainable in the new run, which will reach higher luminosities with an increased complexity of L1 triggers. We are responsible for migrating the ...

  10. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00060668; Blair, Robert; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Rifki, Othmane; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given the high interaction rate (40 MHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment's data storage capacity (1 kHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a hardware trigger that reduces the rate to 100 kHz and software based triggers to select interesting interactions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an essential part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom VME based RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have a more flexible RoIB and more operationally maintainable in the future, as the LHC reaches higher luminosity and ATLAS increases t...

  11. Impact of Public Education and Regional Economic Growth in China: A Shadow-Price Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Education development is a critical component for a modern economy as the illiteracy rate can hinder economic growth. The illiteracy rate in China has decreased rapidly since 1980s, but there still exists an imbalance in distribution of educational resources among different regions. In order to explore the impacts of education quality on regional economic growth, we employ a quadratic directional distance function to derive the shadow prices of illiteracy for 31 provinces in China. In this case, shadow price is interpreted as the opportunity cost of reducing the illiteracy rate. The results show that the highest shadow price of illiteracy is observed in the middle region. Looking at individual provinces, Zhejiang shows the lowest shadow price of illiteracy, whereas Shanxi features the highest one. The shadow price of illiteracy showed a downward trend in the eastern region, while increasing trends were observed for the middle and the western regions during 2005–2011. Moreover, the gap between the eastern region on the one side and the middle and the western regions on the other side has been increasing.

  12. Trends and Perspectives of Social and Economic Development of the Perm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliya Kh. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of the article is study the current prerequisites and trends of the economic development of the Perm Region to formulate proposals and recommendations within the framework of the program for the long-term development of regional social and economic systems. The main hypothesis of the article is that the social and economic development of the Perm Region requires the creation of innovative ways to develop promising areas of business based on relevant trends and assumptions.Methods: the methodology of solving the tasks is based on the use of the method of dialectical research, methods of economic analysis, forecasting, situational and system analysis, expert assessments and analysis of empirical data.Results: the results of the work are to study the economic processes in the region, including indicators and indicators of the region's social and economic development, and further develop recommendations and proposals for the development of priority areas in project management and selection of optimal project planning models to ensure sustainable development of the region and its competitiveness.Conclusions and Relevance: priority goals for solving the current economic problems of the Perm Region are to increase the income of the population and increase the revenue of the regional budget. To increase the pace and ensure the stability of economic growth, increase the real income of citizens, achieve technological leadership, a consistent solution to a number of specific tasks is necessary. It is important that the implementation of economic policy should be based on building partnerships between public authorities and entrepreneurship, aimed at increasing the efficiency of companies and the development of the economy of the region.

  13. Study on Hainan Tourism Development Strategy from the Perspective of Regional Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi

    2017-12-01

    At present, Regional tourism has become the focus of all walks of life. It marks a new stage of China’s tourism development and makes a profound change in development strategy. Regional tourism will lead China’s tourism industry to a new level, open up a new world of the overall strategy. Hainan was identified as the country’s first “regional tourism to create demonstration province”, for the exploration experience, making a demonstration, It’s not only the trend, but also the inevitable result of experience in the construction of Hainan International Tourism Island, which has the overall strategic significance

  14. Tourism demand in the Algarve region: Evolution and forecast using SVARMA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Soares, Filomena; Silva, Eliana Costa e.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism is one of the Portuguese economy's key sectors, and its relative weight has grown over recent years. The Algarve region is particularly focused on attracting foreign tourists and has built over the years a large offer of diversified hotel units. In this paper we present multivariate time series approach to forecast the number of overnight stays in hotel units (hotels, guesthouses or hostels, and tourist apartments) in Algarve. We adjust a seasonal vector autoregressive and moving averages model (SVARMA) to monthly data between 2006 and 2016. The forecast values were compared with the actual values of the overnight stays in Algarve in 2016 and led to a MAPE of 15.1% and RMSE= 53847.28. The MAPE for the Hotel series was merely 4.56%. These forecast values can be used by a hotel manager to predict their occupancy and to determine the best pricing policy.

  15. Implementation and evolution of a regional chronic disease self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Nash, Kate; Irving, Hannah; Davidson, Rachel

    2016-08-15

    To establish a comprehensive, community-based program to improve and sustain self-management support for individuals with chronic diseases and complement office-based strategies to support behaviour change. Health service delivery organizations. The Champlain Local Health Integration Network (LHIN), a health district in Eastern Ontario. We created Living Healthy Champlain (LHC), a regional organization providing peer leader training and coordination for the group Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP); skills training and mentorship in behaviour change approaches for health care providers; and support to organizations to integrate self-management support into routine practice. We used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the overall program's impact by exploring its reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance. A total of 232 Stanford CDSMP sessions (63 during the pilot project and 169 post-pilot) have been held at 127 locations in 24 cities across the Champlain LHIN, reaching approximately 4,000 patients. The effectiveness of the service was established through ongoing evidence reviews, a focus group and a pre-post utilization study of the pilot. LHC trained over 300 peer volunteers to provide the Stanford CDSMP sessions, 98 of whom continue to activelyhost workshops. An additional 1,327 providers have been trained in other models of self-management support, such as Health Coaching and Motivational Interviewing. Over the study period, LHC grew from a small pilot project to a regional initiative with sustainable provincial funding and was adopted by the province as a model for similar service delivery across Ontario. A community-based self-management program working in partnership with primary care can be effectively and broadly implemented in support of patients living with chronic conditions.

  16. Impact of Public Education and Regional Economic Growth in China: A Shadow-Price Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhiqian Yu; Ning Zhu; Tomas Baležentis

    2017-01-01

    .... In order to explore the impacts of education quality on regional economic growth, we employ a quadratic directional distance function to derive the shadow prices of illiteracy for 31 provinces in China...

  17. New approaches in European governance? Perspectives of stakeholders in the Danube macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sielker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro-regional cooperation in the EU are networks that use the horizontal and vertical dimension of the multilevel governance system to influence both strategic decision-making as well as implementation activities. Drawing on an analysis of expert interviews in the Danube Region the paper scrutinizes stakeholders’ shared views towards expectations, challenges and added values, and thereby seeks to explain why a trend towards macro-regions arises and for what reasons stakeholders are getting involved. The analysis of the drivers for stakeholders’ commitment in the EU Danube Region Strategy shows that new governance arrangements need to be adjustable to different contexts, allow for negotiation and new network creation whilst simultaneously offering the political ability to act. The evidence presented suggests that multilevel governance in the EU is becoming increasingly complex, embracing more and different types of cooperation, with soft characteristics as crucial elements.

  18. Innovation performance and clusters : a dynamic capability perspective on regional technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttmer, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This research provides a novel, empirically tested, actionable theory of cluster innovativeness. Cluster innovativeness has for long been subject of research and resulting policy efforts. The cluster's endowment with assets, such as specialized labor, firms, research institutes, existing regional

  19. Impact of Public Education and Regional Economic Growth in China: A Shadow-Price Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Ning Zhu; Tomas Baležentis

    2017-01-01

    Education development is a critical component for a modern economy as the illiteracy rate can hinder economic growth. The illiteracy rate in China has decreased rapidly since 1980s, but there still exists an imbalance in distribution of educational resources among different regions. In order to explore the impacts of education quality on regional economic growth, we employ a quadratic directional distance function to derive the shadow prices of illiteracy for 31 provinces in China. In this ca...

  20. Time and regional perspectives of food insecurity during the economic crisis in Portugal, 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Gregório

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (FI has received much attention in recent years, even in high-income countries, due to the increasing trend of poverty and social inequalities indicators, as a result of the global financial crisis. The establishment of a monitoring system of FI becomes a priority for food and nutrition policies. Our study aims to evaluate FI trends during the economic crisis in Portugal and to identify regional disparities throughout the country. Data derived from three surveys conducted by the Portuguese Directorate-General of Health, concerning FI of the Portuguese population, during the period that Portugal was under the International Monetary Fund financial assistance program (2011–2013. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and FI was evaluated using a psychometric scale. Logistic regression models were used to identify regional disparities in FI. The prevalence of FI was relatively unchanged at national and regional levels, during the analysis period. Data from 2013 indicates a high prevalence of FI (50.7%, including 33.4% for low FI, 10.1% for moderate FI and 7.2% for severe FI. Disparities according health region were also found for household FI. Algarve, Lisboa and Vale do Tejo were the two regions with the highest levels of FI, even after controlling for other socioeconomic variables. High levels of FI found in Portugal and the different regional profiles suggest the need for regional strategies, in particular in the most affected regions based on a broader action with different policy sectors (health, social security, municipalities and local institutions in the field of social economy.

  1. Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon M. Ochara

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: The title of this critique, ‘Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective’, sought to capture a paradox in the prescriptive nature and universalistic leaning of current leadership theories; yet local realities may call for being cognisant of (possible extant) regional ontologies. Motivation for the study: The argumentation and analysis developed in this article were based on a synthesis of ideas from literature to evolv...

  2. Evolution of groundwater composition in the depression cone of Riga region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, B.; Kalvans, A.; Delina, A.; Perkone, E.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Riga is the capital of Latvia with around 0.9 million inhabitants where the main water supply is centralised and decentralised, mostly from groundwater sources, that is from the the Arukilas-Amatas multi-aquifer system, which consists of sandstones and siltstone. These rocks belong to the middle and upper Devonian and have good properties for groundwater extraction: they have high permeability and are widely spread. Below this system lies the middle Devonian Narvas aquitard, that consists of marl and clay. But in the southern and western part of Riga this system covers the upper Devonian Salaspils formation which consists of marl and gypsum. In the second half of the 20th century an intensive groundwater extraction from the Arukilas-Amtas multi-aquifer system took place in Riga, causing sharp and significant lowering of piezometric surfaces. The maximal decline of groundwater level was observed in 1972, when it was 16 m lower than the average. From the end of 80's started a regeneration of water table, when the volume of water usage began to decrease. Nowadays piezometric surface in the Arukilas-Amatas multi-aquifer system is being renewed and fluctuations are insignificant. The territory, where natural regime of groundwater has changed and that is induced by antropogenic effect is called "Large Riga". To track chemical changes and evolution in the Arukila-Amata multi-aquifer system long - term monitoring data is used. Data on major ions and piezometric surfaces from 45 monitoring wells that groups in 17 monitoring stations is being analysed. The area is dived into three zones - central, middle and periphery, which differ from each other by the volume of the groundwater level decline. These zones are determined from maps, that shows the piezometric surface difference between two periods: 1949-1951, that describes the natural situation, and 1970-1972, where the minimal groundwater level in the Gauja aquifer was observed. On this basis it was studied how rapidly

  3. Air quality in the megacity of São Paulo: Evolution over the last 30 years and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Kumar, Prashant; de Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Ynoue, Rita Yuri; Martins, Jorge; Martins, Leila D.; Nogueira, Thiago; Perez-Martinez, Pedro; de Miranda, Regina Maura; Albuquerque, Taciana; Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz Teixeira; Oyama, Beatriz; Zhang, Yang

    2017-06-01

    We present a comprehensive review of published results from the last 30 years regarding the sources and atmospheric characteristics of particles and ozone in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). During the last 30 years, many efforts have been made to describe the emissions sources and to analyse the primary and secondary formation of pollutants under a process of increasing urbanisation in the metropolitan area. From the occurrence of frequent violations of air quality standards in the 1970s and 1980s (due to the uncontrolled air pollution sources) to a substantial decrease in the concentrations of the primary pollutants, many regulations have been imposed and enforced, although those concentrations do not yet conform to the World Health Organization guidelines. The greatest challenge currently faced by the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency and the local community is controlling secondary pollutants such as ozone and fine particles. Understanding the formation of these secondary pollutants, by experimental or modelling approaches, requires the description of the atmospheric chemical processes driven by biofuel, ethanol and biodiesel emissions. Exposure to air pollution is the cause of many injuries to human health, according to many studies performed not only in the region but also worldwide, and affects susceptible populations such as children and the elderly. The MASP is the biggest megacity in the Southern Hemisphere, and its specifics are important for other urban areas that are facing the challenge of intensive growth that puts pressure on natural resources and worsens the living conditions in urban areas. This text discusses how imposing regulations on air quality and emission sources, mainly related to the transportation sector, has affected the evolution of pollutant concentrations in the MASP.

  4. The Late Cenozoic Climatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Mount Everest Region, Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah

    The collision of India and Eurasia constructed the Himalayan Mountains. Questions remain regarding how subsequent exhumation by climatic and tectonic processes shaped the landscape throughout the Late Cenozoic to create the complex architecture observed today. The Mount Everest region underwent tectonic denudation by extension and bestrides one of the world's most significant rain shadows. Also, glacial and fluvial processes eroded the Everest massif over shorter timescales. In this work, I review new bedrock and detrital thermochronological and geochronological data and both one- and two-dimensional thermal-mechanical modeling that provides insights on the age range and rates of tectonic and erosional processes in this region. A strand of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS), a series of prominent normal-sense structures that dip to the north and strike along the Himalayan spine, is exposed in the Rongbuk valley near Everest. Using thermochronometric techniques, thermal-kinematic modeling, and published (U-Th)/Pb geochronology, I show exhumation rates were high ( 3-4 mm/a) from at least 20 to 13 Ma because of slip on the STDS. Subsequently, exhumation rates dropped drastically to ≤ 0.5 mm/a and remain low today. However, thermochronometric datasets and thermal-kinematic modeling results from Nepal south of Everest reveal a sharp transition in cooling ages and exhumation rates across a major knickpoint in the river profile, corresponding to the modern-day Himalayan rainfall transition. To the north of this transition, exhumation histories are similar to those in Tibet. Conversely, < 3 km south of the transition, exhumation rates were relatively low until the Pliocene, when they increased to 4 mm/a before slowing at 3 Ma. Such contrasting exhumation histories over a short distance suggest that bedrock exhumation rates correlate with modern precipitation patterns in deep time, however, there are competing interpretations regarding this correlation. My work

  5. Tectonics and Evolution of the Ukrainian Black Sea from new regional seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovba, S.; Khriachtchevskaia, O.

    2009-04-01

    A new set of seismic reflection profiles with total length of 10000 km was acquired by Naftogaz of Ukraine in 2005. The seismic record length is 15 s in the deep water area and 9 s in the Odessa Shelf. The high-quality seismic data allow studying the structure of the whole sedimentary cover with the thickness of up to 9 km in Karkinit Through of Odessa shelf and up to 20 km in the Western Black Sea Basin. Typical (half)grabens were formed by Early Cretaceous rifting over the wide area of the Black Sea. The distribution of main rift faults has been reconstructed in areas of Karkinit Through, Gubkin Swell, Zmeiniy Uplift, most southern part of the East European Platform. The reconstruction confirms our previous conclusion that before the compression event at the end of Middle Eocene the Early Cretaceous Karkinit Rift and subsequent Late Cretaceous - Middle Eocene post-rift basin occupied the area of present-day Gubkin Swell and Zmeiniy Uplift. The rift basin extended likely further to the west in Dobrogea onshore region. It is not excluded the Early Cretaceous extension was an oblique to the direction of main tectonic units that had existed in the area of Odessa Shelf before the Early Cretaceous rifting. The rifting probably began in Early Cretaceous within the whole Black Sea region. The post-rift thermal subsidence lasted from the Campanian of Late Cretaceous to the end of Middle Eocene. The oblique (?) compression stresses affected the whole Ukrainian Black Sea at the end of Middle Eocene just as the stresses caused inversion tectonics in Balkans, Great Caucasus, Pontides. The strongest inversion caused by the stresses occurred in the western part of Karkinit Through (Gubkin Swell and Zmeiniy Uplift), Andrusov and Shatsky Ridges. The last two ridges represent strongly inverted major (half)grabens. Such insight on the origin of the structures has never been discussed earlier. Since the Middle Eocene there were at least four pulses of compression that caused

  6. A qualitative study of staff perspectives of patient non-attendance in a regional primary healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahinoor; Doran, Frances; Avila, Catharine; Nancarrow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Non-attendance at health appointments reduces health service efficiency, is costly to services, and can risk patient health. Reminder systems are widely used to overcome forgetfulness, the most common reason for non-attendance; however, other factors, such as patient demographics and service accessibility, may also affect attendance rates. There is limited primary research on the reasons for patient non-attendance in the Australian healthcare setting, although the success of preventative health initiatives requires ongoing monitoring of patients. This study aims to improve our understanding of the Australian experience by examining staff perspectives. This qualitative study explored staff perspectives of the reasons for non-attendance in a large, regional general practice super clinic, which has a low socioeconomic catchment, and serves a large Aboriginal population. The practical barriers to attendance of travel, cost, and waiting times had largely been overcome with transport provision, free medical care and responsive appointment times, but paradoxically, these were seen to devalue allocated appointments and reinforce the expectations of "on-demand" health care. For Aboriginal patients specifically, a distrust of authority, combined with poor health literacy was perceived to impact negatively on the uptake of diagnostic tests, filling of prescriptions, health monitoring, and adherence to medication. The results suggest a complex interplay between poor health literacy and low patient self-worth; a funding system that encourages "five-minute medicine and prevents doctors getting to the root cause of patient problems or having the ability to provide health education.

  7. Women's perspectives on marriage and rights in Morocco: risk factors for forced and early marriage in the Marrakech region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Hamzali, Somia; Oulami, Najia; Le Hjir, Fatima Zehra; Abdallaoui, Mariam; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of the new Family Law, or Moudawana, in Morocco, effectively raising the minimum age for marriage, the number of girls being forced into wedlock is rising. This increase has been a source of concern from a women's rights perspective. The present study explored women's experiences and perspectives in relation to factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Using a participatory approach, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were held with women in both urban and rural settings in the greater Marrakech region. Overall, 125 women, between 18 and 69 years of age, participated in the study. Our findings highlight the need for more open dialogue between (grand)parents and children. Overall, the Moudawana is perceived as a considerable step forward for women's rights, yet study findings show that current policy provisions are not effective in abolishing forced marriages. Findings point to the need for a redefinition of the role of organisations, women's associations and other groups, with the recommendation that they focus their future efforts on awareness-raising among older generations and refrain from directly intervening in cases of forced marriage. Sensitisation efforts, including the use of popular media, are crucial to reach members of this older population group, where illiteracy remains widespread.

  8. Constraints on the Miocene landscape evolution of the Eastern Alps from the Kalkspitze region, Niedere Tauern (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertnig, Florian; Stüwe, Kurt; Woodhead, Jon; Stuart, Finlay M.; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    In order to unravel aspects of the Miocene landscape evolution of the eastern European Alps, we present geomorphic and isotopic data from the western Niedere Tauern region (Austria). The region is critical for such interpretations, because it is one of the few regions along the topographic axis of the Eastern Alps where the highest peaks (up to 2500 m a.s.l.) are dominated by limestone. As such, the region contains a record of Miocene landscape-forming events that survived the Pleistocene glaciations, not preserved elsewhere in the central Eastern Alps. This record includes karst caves, karstified planation surfaces and crystalline fluvial pebbles (Augenstein Formation) preserved on planation surfaces and in karst caves. Caves in the region occur in three distinct levels that correlate with well-known cave levels in the Northern Calcareous Alps, although they are somewhat higher in the Niedere Tauern. In part, these cave elevations also correlate with three planation surfaces and knickpoints of major streams draining the region, testifying their pre-glacial origin. We report details of a karst cave (Durchgangshöhle) from the highest cave level located at 2340 m a.s.l. In this cave, allochthonous fluvial gravels are present, overgrown by speleothems. One speleothem yielded an early middle Pleistocene U-Pb age (682 ± 17 ka). We regard this as a minimum age for the erosion of the fluvial cave deposits during Marine Isotope Stages 17 or 16. Carbon and oxygen isotope data of these speleothems imply a climate that is consistent with this interpretation. Cosmogenic 21Ne data of fluvial quartz clasts collected from the surface on plateaus of the Northern Calcareous Alps suggest minimum exposure durations of 115 and 262 ka. They probably reflect successive exposure since removal of the sediment cover of the Oligocene Augenstein Formation during the Pleistocene. While our geochronological data fail to record aspects of the earlier Miocene uplift history, they are

  9. LABOUR MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT REGION SOUTH WEST OLTENIA – REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabontu Cecilia Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the South West Oltenia Region have developed important activities in different areas. The most important activities are related to agriculture and natural potential and deposits, the South West Oltenia being one of the most important energy providers in the country. In this area that we brought into talk we find all sectors of the national economy. Agriculture is considered to be an important branch with a significant share in regional GDP with industry (food, non-ferrous metallurgy aluminum, chemical, electrical, machinery, light industry but we must also talk about the tertiary sector gets consistent in the economy of the region as well as nationally. We have proposed in this paper to provide an overview of the labor market in the Development South-West Oltenia Region,integrating it into national labor market realities. We will follow this to see if the labor market in the South-West Oltenia Region, reflect, generally, national trends. To analyze what we are proposed we used the latest official labor market statistics but to have a clearer picture on this field we used data provided by the National Commission of Forecasting, indicating the source.

  10. A regional perspective on the spatial concentration in Romania’s international trade in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Stangaciu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I aimed at analyzing the territorial structure of the international trade in Romania in 2011 on the level of each development region. Starting from the values of the export and import trade flows pertaining to each region of Romania and using statistical methods of analysis, we processed the existing data in order to determine the distribution of foreign trade and to emphasize the regional poles of competitiveness from this point of view. Since other indexes, such as the trade balance or the import/export coverage ratio, are also marks of competitiveness and of the increase or decrease in the performance of a certain economy, we also calculated these indexes for each region of the country. In order to statistically substantiate the existence of a certain degree of spatial concentration of the Romanian international trade in different regions of the country, we resorted to the boxplot graphical representation and to the Gini square and the Gini index respectively.

  11. Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.; Codella, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Molinari, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion in a similar fashion to low-mass stars. In this scenario, bipolar outflows ejected along the disk axis play a fundamental role, and their study can help characterize the different evolutionary stages involved in the formation of a high-mass star. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease in the SiO line intensity as the object evolves. Aims: The present study aims to characterize the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time and to study the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta (Spain) to map 14 high-mass star-forming regions in the SiO (2-1), SiO (5-4), and HCO+ (1-0) lines, which trace the molecular outflow emission. The FTS backend, covering a total frequency range of ~15 GHz, allowed us to simultaneously map several dense gas (e.g., N2H+, C2H, NH2D, H13CN) and hot-core (CH3CN) tracers. We used the Hi-GAL data to improve the previous spectral energy distributions and obtained a more accurate dust envelope mass and bolometric luminosity for each source. We calculated the luminosity-to-mass ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO. Results: We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all fourteen sources and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs with luminosities 103-104L⊙. We find an increase in the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolves, and a decrease in the SiO abundance with time from 10-8 to 10-9. The SiO (5-4) to (2-1) line ratio is found to be low at the ambient gas velocity, and increases as we move to red-/blue-shifted velocities, indicating that the excitation conditions of the SiO change with the velocity of the gas. In particular, the high-velocity SiO gas component seems to arise from

  12. Regional Convergence in Greece (1995–2005: A Dynamic Panel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Tsionas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of regional convergence in Greece during the period 1995–2005. Following the theoretical concept of Barro and Salla-i-Martin, 1990 (β- and σ-convergence concepts, several tests are conducted to test for conditional or unconditional convergence across Greek regions including GMM estimation of Barro regressions. The results indicate absence of convergence across NUTS II regions while there is evidence of convergence at prefectural level (NUTS III. The effect of agriculture industry and services sector is examined and services are found to have significant impact on growth and convergence. Finally, we examine the effect of the implementation of the European funding programs in some detail.

  13. Promoting Collaboration in Jabodetabekjur: A Learning Regions Perspective on Knowledge-Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rahmat Yananda

    2017-06-01

    regional cooperation; (4 unalignment with the national urban development strategies; and (5 loss of momentum in KBE development. Learning regions can be constructed by analyzing a path or trajectories combined with the potentials of the urban region elements (Academicians, Businesses, Communities and Governments. They can also be constructed via governance approach and development of appropriate organizational models. City’s administrations should take active roles as the initiator of the collaboration process opted by certain types and activities. Strategy and policy – making related to collaboration gave rise to: (1 KBE development themes; (2 vision/ mission statements; and (3 principles of engagement and capacities. Resources gaps were found and can be applied as inputs to build joint projects, namely: (1 incubation and innovation centers; and (2 product innovation promotion center.

  14. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  15. Geostatistical analyses of communication routes in a geo-strategic and regional development perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is a key concept in regional development, with numerous ties to territorial cohesion and polycentricity. Moreover, it also exhibits a geo-strategic function, anchored in the international relationships between countries and continents. The article reviews several case studies, placing analyses of the Romanian accessibility in a broader context. The results show that regional development, overall EU connectivity and possible transit fluxes are prevented by the configuration or lack of communication routes. Increasing the accessibility of regions must be a priority of governments, regardless of political opinions. It is expected that the transition of economy to post-carbon era or other models – green economy, knowledge-based economy etc. – to result into the emergence of new poles and axes of development, and ensure transport sustainability.

  16. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  17. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  18. Relationship between geohydrology and Upper Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the eastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capítulo, Leandro Rodrigues; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-07-01

    The Upper Pleistocene-Holocene geological evolution, which is characterized by its landscape-forming energy and is related to geological and geomorphological complexity, has an impact on the groundwater dynamics of coastal aquifers. The geological configuration of a sector of the east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires was analyzed, as well as its connection with the geological and geomorphological history of the region during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, and its influence on the regional and local geohydrological behaviour. This analysis was based on the application of the concept of hydrofacies. Boreholes were drilled and sampled (with depths of up to 40 m), and vertical electrical sounding, electrical tomography and pumping tests were undertaken. The description of the cutting samples by means of a stereo microscope, the interpretation of satellite images, and the construction of lithological and hydrogeological profiles and flow charts were carried out in the laboratory, and then integrated in a GIS. The identification of the lithological units and their distribution in the area allowed the construction of an evolutionary geological model for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Three aquifer units can be recognized: one of Late Pleistocene age (hydrofacies E) and the other two of Holocene age (hydrofacies A and C); their hydraulic connection depends on the occurrence and thickness variation of the aquitard units (hydrofacies B and D). The approach adopted allows the examination of the possibilities for groundwater exploitation and constitutes an applied conceptual framework to be taken into consideration when developing conceptual and numerical models at the local and regional scales.

  19. On the Relationship between Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Rivers and Prehistoric Settlements Distribution in the Songshan Mountain Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In 8000–3000 aBP; in the Songshan Mountain Region, large-scale river sedimentation occurred. This increased the elevation of river beds that were higher than today. After 3000 aBP; the upper reaches of the rivers experienced a down cut; while the lower reaches experienced continuing sedimentation. The data on the elevation of prehistoric settlements above the river levels were obtained from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. These data were corrected according to the evolutionary features of fluvial landforms in order to obtain synchronous elevations above river levels of prehistoric settlements. The relationship between sediment distribution and the Holocene geomorphic evolution was investigated through the statistical analysis of the elevation above the river levels. Outputs from our analyses enabled us to differentiate three evolutionary stages. During the first one, related to Peiligang culture (9000–7500 aBP, populations mainly settled on both hilly relief and high plateaus depending on their agriculture production modes. During the second stage, from Yangshao (7500–5000 aBP to the Longshan period (5000–4000 aBP, settlements were mainly distributed on mountainous areas and hilly lands to avoid flooding and to develop agriculture. Finally, during the Xiashang culture (4000–3000 aBP, a large number of settlements migrated to the plain area to facilitate trade of goods and cultural exchanges.

  20. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  1. Age structure and expansion of pinon-juniper woodlands: a regional perspective in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; E. Durant McArthur; Dustin D. Johnson; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the expansion of woodlands in the Intermountain West; however, few have compared the chronology of expansion for woodlands across different geographic regions or determined the mix and extent of presettlement stands. We evaluated tree age structure and establishment for six woodlands in four ecological provinces in the central and...

  2. Agglomeration, Innovation and Regional Development: Theoretical Perspectives and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Henri L.F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are central to the quest for regional development. In the globally-connected knowledge-driven economy, the relevance of agglomeration forces that rely on proximity continues to increase, paradoxically despite declining real costs of information, communication and

  3. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  4. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan; Evolution recente et perspectives d'evolution de l'industrie petroliere en federation de Russie et plus specialement dans la Republique du Bachkortostan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  6. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  7. [Moroccan migration to the Netherlands: the perspective from the regions of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mas, P

    1991-03-01

    The author "presents an analysis of factors explaining Moroccan labour migration to the Netherlands since the 1960s, focusing on the history, ethnology, economy and socio-political structure of the Moroccan Rif.... The Rifians of Northern Morocco make up some 70 [percent of the] 150,000 Moroccans who have settled in the Netherlands. Labour migration to Western Europe evolved from a traditional pattern of circular migration within North Africa. Since the 1970s settlement in and migration to the Netherlands have become permanent features [in the] changing character of the region of origin. Traditional perceptions of push and pull factors no longer apply. The region has become dependent on migration and is not integrated into the Moroccan economy as a whole." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  8. Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  9. The organization of social work with ethnic minorities: a regional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Aharkov

    2014-03-01

    The main problems that exist in social work with ethnic minorities are the next: low financing of social work with ethnic minorities programs, a lack of educational training programs for social workers and volunteers, a lack of skills and knowledge of the cultural characteristics of different ethnic groups, no cooperation with the heads of national minorities in the region, public misunderstanding of the nature and importance of social work with ethnic minorities, a high risk of burnout for the social workers.

  10. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  11. Mother-child emotional availability in ecological perspective: three countries, two regions, two genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Heslington, Marianne; Gini, Motti; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Giusti, Zeno; Zingman de Galperín, Celia

    2008-05-01

    This study used a cross-national framework to examine country, region, and gender differences in emotional availability (EA), a prominent index of mutual socioemotional adaptation in the parent-child dyad. Altogether 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. mothers and their daughters and sons from both rural and metropolitan areas took part in home observations when the children were 20 months old. In terms of country, Italian mothers were more sensitive and optimally structuring, and Italian children were more responsive and involving, than Argentine and U.S. dyads. In terms of region, rural mothers were more intrusive than metropolitan mothers, and boys from metropolitan areas were more responsive than boys from rural areas. In terms of gender, mothers of girls were more sensitive and optimally structuring than mothers of boys, and daughters were more responsive and involving than sons. Understanding how country, region, and gender influence EA exposes forces that shape child development, parent-infant interaction, and family systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Emergence of Sociopolitical Complexity at Gournia: Local and Regional Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2200 and 1900 B.C.E., the coastal site of Gournia on Crete grew substantially in size and population, eventually emerging as a regional center for production and export. At the same time, other sites in the Mirabello region were destroyed, and new sites were established in defensible locations. People from the Cycladic islands fled to Crete and established new settlements on the north coast, possibly in response to a climatic upheaval. How did Gournia manage to emerge as a prosperous center, amidst the turmoil and chaos sweeping through the Mirabello region at this time? This article proposes that by successfully integrating immigrant populations into a new lower class, elites at Gournia reorganized craft production, which fueled economic prosperity. Recent excavations at Gournia support this hypothesis. There is new evidence for intensive ceramic production at the northern periphery of the site in the Late Prepalatial period. In the Protopalatial period, an expansive new architectural complex with craft workshops was constructed near an elaborate residence, suggesting that elites played an important role in the centralization of production and redistribution at Gournia.

  13. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  14. REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN WEST AFRICA (1960-2015: BALANCE AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Alpha Diallo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks, through a historical analysis of the regional West African integration process, to reaffirm the pioneering region in terms of socio-economic integration, political and cultural, but also to highlight the persistence of the difficulties and challenges of the political unity consolidation in the region, especially after the internalization of colonial boundaries. The article has set the goal to understand why, despite the enormous efforts and several attempts, the pan-Africanist dream of autonomy, unity and development is still below expectations? It starts with the hypothesis that the difficulties are historical in nature (colonial heritage and structural linked to difficult relationship between the internal processes of statebuilding and the inclusion of it in the international system dominated by capitalist imperialism of the colonial and neo-colonial countries. Namely, the low speed of the economic integration process, political and socio-cultural process and especially the lack of autonomy is closely tied to unfinished independence processes due to endogenous and exogenous factors.

  15. APPROACHING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE SYSTEMIC VIEW ON THE LOCAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru BOTEZAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After the first theories of the local development (congestion and scale effects, the contemporary socio–economical sciences have refined the concept and added to the equation of the regional development a more complex variable: the local system seen as a whole. To be more precise, by this method the analysis regards not only the regional variables as factors which determine or influence a certain trajectory of the development (as in the Marshall case, but also the variable becomes the local system itself characterized by unity and its own dynamic. The economics owes this systemic approach to a more general philosophy which emerged within the social sciences. This is why, in order to understand the concept of local system from the economic point of view, we need to situate it in a wider profile of the systemic approach within the social sciences. This paper attempts to connect the arguments proposed by systemic analysis, a fashionable topic in the mainstream of the ’80 years of the previous century with the contemporary strategic approach towards regional development.

  16. Metropolitan Innovation and Sustainability in China—A Double Lens Perspective on Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and integrates a double lens investigation framework on sustainability and diversities of innovation at the city level in China. Lens I concerns economic performance with the energy intensiveness of the production mode and Lens II involves a four-dimensional model with the current and potential elements of innovation at the city level. Based on 106Chinese cities data, sample cities grouped in Traditional Regions (TRs, Top Economic Regions (TEs and New Economy Regions (NEs of the 9 groups are clarified via the Investigation Lens I, with respect to production power, market openness and energy intensive use. The further research findings through the Investigation Lens II show that there are clear connections between innovation and sustainability and such connections are diversified due to economic reasons but also importantly, due to potential factors of human resource and knowledge creation. Cities in TEs group and especially NEs group in China are important on innovation and sustainability while southern cities in China are more innovative, with a higher potentiality of economic growth than cities in northern China. Industrial tradition and business culture can be one of the key factors influencing local innovation and sustainability.

  17. Minimum Wages and Regional Disparity: An analysis on the evolution of price-adjusted minimum wages and their effects on firm profitability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...

  18. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    The Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with the

  19. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W.P.; Spakman, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Tonga–Kermadec–Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with

  20. Reduced and reversed temperature dependence of blood oxygenation in an ectothermic scombrid fish: implications for the evolution of regional heterothermy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy Darren; Rummer, J L; Sepulveda, C A; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

    2010-01-01

    speculated that these unusual blood-O(2) binding characteristics may have preceded the evolution of vascular heat exchangers and regional heterothermy in fishes.

  1. New perspective on the regionalization of the anterior forebrain in Osteichthyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Bloch, Solal; Vernier, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    In the current model, the most anterior part of the forebrain (secondary prosencephalon) is subdivided into the telencephalon dorsally and the hypothalamus ventrally. Our recent study identified a new morphogenetic unit named the optic recess region (ORR) between the telencephalon and the hypothalamus. This modification of the forebrain regionalization based on the ventricular organization resolved some previously unexplained inconsistency about regional identification in different vertebrate groups. The ventricular-based comparison also revealed a large diversity within the subregions (notably in the hypothalamus and telencephalon) among different vertebrate groups. In tetrapods there is only one hypothalamic recess, while in teleosts there are two recesses. Most notably, the mammalian and teleost hypothalami are two extreme cases: the former has lost the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) neurons, while the latter has increased them. Thus, one to one homology of hypothalamic subregions in mammals and teleosts requires careful verification. In the telencephalon, different developmental processes between Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) have already been described: the evagination and the eversion. Although pallial homology has been long discussed based on the assumption that the medial-lateral organization of the pallium in Actinopterygii is inverted from that in Sarcopterygii, recent developmental data contradict this assumption. Current models of the brain organization are largely based on a mammalian-centric point of view, but our comparative analyses shed new light on the brain organization of Osteichthyes. © 2017 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Evolution of the Intracranial Approaches to Jugular Foramen Tumors: A Surgeon's Personal Perspective Through Three Illustrative Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Walter C; Felbaum, Daniel

    2016-03-12

    Tumors of the jugular foramen remain challenging lesions despite advances in surgical technique and medical technology. Tumors with extensive extra- and intracranial components necessitate both radical neck dissection maneuvers combined with skull base approaches. We present a single surgeon's perspective in managing these difficult tumors.

  3. Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling: a Copernicus marine research project in the framework of Service Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, Vassilios; De Mey, Pierre; Ayoub, Nadia; Kailas, Marios; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2017-04-01

    The project entitled Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling (SCRUM) aims at strengthening CMEMS in the areas of ocean uncertainty quantification, ensemble consistency verification and ensemble data assimilation. The project has been initiated by the University of Athens and LEGOS/CNRS research teams, in the framework of CMEMS Service Evolution. The work is based on stochastic modelling of ocean physics and biogeochemistry in the Bay of Biscay, on an identical sub-grid configuration of the IBI-MFC system in its latest CMEMS operational version V2. In a first step, we use a perturbed tendencies scheme to generate ensembles describing uncertainties in open ocean and on the shelf, focusing on upper ocean processes. In a second step, we introduce two methodologies (i.e. rank histograms and array modes) aimed at checking the consistency of the above ensembles with respect to TAC data and arrays. Preliminary results highlight that wind uncertainties dominate all other atmosphere-ocean sources of model errors. The ensemble spread in medium-range ensembles is approximately 0.01 m for SSH and 0.15 °C for SST, though these values vary depending on season and cross shelf regions. Ecosystem model uncertainties emerging from perturbations in physics appear to be moderately larger than those perturbing the concentration of the biogeochemical compartments, resulting in total chlorophyll spread at about 0.01 mg.m-3. First consistency results show that the model ensemble and the pseudo-ensemble of OSTIA (L4) observation SSTs appear to exhibit nonzero joint probabilities with each other since error vicinities overlap. Rank histograms show that the model ensemble is initially under-dispersive, though results improve in the context of seasonal-range ensembles.

  4. The ecology of organizations in Danish tourism: a regional labour perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    demonstrates and discusses the dynamics of regional tourism development in terms of the establishment, the survival and mortality of restaurants and accommodation facilities. This study of the ecology of organisations unveils a considerable turbulence, i.e. considerable numbers of firm entries as well as exits....... Stability tends to correlate positively with urbanisation. In addition, the higher stability of enterprises in urban areas results in qualitatively different types of employment but, surprisingly, size and age of the organisation rather than managerial capacity or trained personnel seem to determine...

  5. Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Smith, Gavin J D; Saunders, Richard M K

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the magnoliid basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) are investigated using chloroplast DNA sequences from five regions: psbA-trnH spacer, trnL-F, matK, rbcL, and atpB-rbcL spacer. Over 4000 nucleotides from 51 species (of the total 53) were sequenced. The five cpDNA datasets were analyzed separately and in combination using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all three phylogenetic methods, based on the combined data, strongly support the monophyly of Pseuduvaria following the inclusion of Craibella phuyensis. The trees generated using MP were less well resolved, but relationships are similar to those obtained using the other methods. ML and Bayesian analyses recovered trees with short branch lengths, showing five main clades. This study highlights the evolutionary changes in seven selected morphological characters (floral sex, stamen and carpel numbers, inner petal color, presence of inner petal glands, flowering peduncle length, and monocarp size). Although floral unisexuality is ancestral within the genus, several evolutionary lineages reveal reversal to bisexuality. Other phylogenetic transitions include the evolution of sapromyophily, and fruit-bat frugivory and seed dispersal, thus allowing a wide range of adaptations for species survival.

  6. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Md Abdur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas.Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management.

  7. Unfavorable regions in the ramachandran plot: Is it really steric hindrance? The interacting quantum atoms perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Peter I; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-11-05

    Accurate description of the intrinsic preferences of amino acids is important to consider when developing a biomolecular force field. In this study, we use a modern energy partitioning approach called Interacting Quantum Atoms to inspect the cause of the φ and ψ torsional preferences of three dipeptides (Gly, Val, and Ile). Repeating energy trends at each of the molecular, functional group, and atomic levels are observed across both (1) the three amino acids and (2) the φ/ψ scans in Ramachandran plots. At the molecular level, it is surprisingly electrostatic destabilization that causes the high-energy regions in the Ramachandran plot, not molecular steric hindrance (related to the intra-atomic energy). At the functional group and atomic levels, the importance of key peptide atoms (O i -1 , C i , N i , N i +1 ) and some sidechain hydrogen atoms (H γ ) are identified as responsible for the destabilization seen in the energetically disfavored Ramachandran regions. Consistently, the O i -1 atoms are particularly important for the explanation of dipeptide intrinsic behavior, where electrostatic and steric destabilization unusually complement one another. The findings suggest that, at least for these dipeptides, it is the peptide group atoms that dominate the intrinsic behavior, more so than the sidechain atoms. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  9. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  10. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...

  11. Combined multibeam and LIDAR bathymetry data from eastern Long Island Sound and westernmost Block Island Sound-A regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Parker, Castle E.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Long Island Sound are of great interest to the Connecticut and New York research and management communities because of this estuary's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. The completed, geologically interpreted digital terrain models (DTMs), ranging in area from 12 to 293 square kilometers, provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 12 multibeam and 2 LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) contiguous bathymetric DTMs, produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations, into one dataset that covers much of eastern Long Island Sound and extends into westernmost Block Island Sound. The new dataset is adjusted to mean lower low water, is gridded to 4-meter resolution, and is provided in UTM Zone 18 NAD83 and geographic WGS84 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea floor-feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the grid include exposed bedrock outcrops, boulder lag deposits of submerged moraines, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of the oscillating and asymmetric tidal currents. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic artifacts visible in the bathymetric data include a dredged channel, shipwrecks, dredge spoils, mooring anchors, prop-scour depressions, buried cables, and bridge footings. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental

  12. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early

  13. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...

  14. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  15. Production and use of regional climate model projections - A Swedish perspective on building climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars; Nikulin, Grigory; Nilsson, Carin; Persson, Gunn; Strandberg, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    We describe the process of building a climate service centred on regional climate model results from the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4. The climate service has as its central facility a web service provided by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute where users can get an idea of various aspects of climate change from a suite of maps, diagrams, explaining texts and user guides. Here we present the contents of the web service and how this has been designed and developed in collaboration with users of the service in a dialogue reaching over more than a decade. We also present the ensemble of climate projections with RCA4 that provides the fundamental climate information presented at the web service. In this context, RCA4 has been used to downscale nine different coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to 0.44° (c. 50 km) horizontal resolution over Europe. Further, we investigate how this ensemble relates to the CMIP5 ensemble. We find that the iterative approach involving the users of the climate service has been successful as the service is widely used and is an important source of information for work on climate adaptation in Sweden. The RCA4 ensemble samples a large degree of the spread in the CMIP5 ensemble implying that it can be used to illustrate uncertainties and robustness in future climate change in Sweden. The results also show that RCA4 changes results compared to the underlying AOGCMs, sometimes in a systematic way.

  16. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  17. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-04-30

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial).The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  18. HIV and HTLV-I infections in the Americas: a regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T C; Zacarias, F R; St John, R K

    1989-07-01

    With over 143,000 cases of AIDS reported to the World Health Organization from 145 countries and with an estimated 5 to 10 million people worldwide infected with HIV, AIDS has become firmly established as a global pandemic. In the region of the Americas over 100,862 cases of AIDS have been reported with indigenous transmission documented in 45 to 46 countries. While North America has the highest annual number of AIDS cases per population, with 72 cases/million, the Caribbean subregion has a disproportionately high number of cases, with annual rates as high as 200 to 300 cases/million population for some countries. Despite differences in absolute number of cases, there has been a remarkable similarity in the temporal rate of increase of AIDS in the countries of the Americas, reflecting delayed introduction of the virus to some areas with an early exponential increase similar to that observed initially in the United States. Although the modes of transmission of HIV are the same throughout the region, evidence of increasing bisexual and heterosexual transmission, particularly in the Caribbean subregion, has resulted in a lower male-to-female ratio of AIDS cases and increased perinatal transmission. Clinically, a resurgence of diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, and tuberculosis has been documented in association with HIV infection in many tropical countries of the Americas. With relatively high rates of HTLV-I infection already established in the Caribbean subregion, the overall public health problems of the Americas will be markedly potentiated by further spread of these 2 human retroviruses. If HIV infection continues to penetrate the poor and less advantaged populations in Latin America and the Caribbean, the potential exists for a massive epidemic in the Americas that may rapidly parallel the situation in Africa.

  19. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  20. Multidate remote sensing approaches for digital zoning of terroirs at regional scales: case studies revisited and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Carey, Victoria A.; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    output map was appropriate at the scale of cooperative wineries and the scale of the union of grapegrowers. For the Stellenbosch-Paarl region, 55 Sauvignon Blanc vineyards previously characterized in terms of grape/vine/wine quality in several earlier studies were used to introduce expert knowledge as a basis for bootstrapped regression tree calculations, which enabled uncertainty assessment of final map results. Further perspectives related to the spatial monitoring of vine phenology according to the output terroir units and the possible characterization of both within/between terroir spatio-temporal variability of vegetative growth were initiated for the Southern Rhone terroirs considering a SPOT4-Take Five satellite time series acquired from February to June 2013 in the framework of the SPOT4-Take Five program of the French Space Agency (CNES).

  1. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system of the Periadriatic region: a geophysical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Fabio; Brandmayr, Enrico; Panza, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    We present a multiscale 3D model of the crust and upper mantle of the Periadriatic region showing how the Adriatic plate, the Northern indent of the African promontory, is involved in the Apennines, Alpine, and Dinarides subduction zones, respectively surrounding its western, northern, and eastern margins. The model is obtained through the ensemble of cellular models expressed in terms of shear waves velocity (Vs), thickness and density of the layers, to a depth of 350 km. These physical properties are obtained by means of advanced non-linear inversion techniques, such as the "hedgehog" inversion method of group and phase velocity dispersion curves for the determination of Vs and the non-linear inversion of gravity data by means of the method GRAV3D. The model obtained at the scale of 1°x1° is analysed along selected sections perpendicular to the orogenic complexes of the study area (Apennines, Alps, Dinarides) and it confirms the existence of deep structural asymmetries between E- and W-directed subduction zones. The asymmetry found between the almost vertical Apenninic subduction and the Alpine-Dinaric subduction, which is in turn characterized by a low dip angle, can be ascribed to an eastward mantle flow taking place in the low velocity zone (LVZ) that characterizes the top of the very shallow asthenosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The high-resolution model obtained for the Alpine region at a scale of 0.5°x0.5° enlightens the extreme variability of the crustal thickness as well the small scale heterogeneities in the upper mantle beneath the study area. The density model clearly shows that the subducting lithosphere turns out to be less dense than the surrounding mantle. A temperature model of the mantle layers is obtained by means of an advanced conversion technique of Vs to temperature that takes in account variable chemical composition and bulk water content. The superposition of different geodynamic mechanisms in the mentioned areas is coherent with

  2. Implementing a Swedish regionalized medical program supported by digital technologies: possibilities and challenges from a management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Fanny L M

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Umeå University in Sweden was facing its first attempt to transform the existing medical program into a regionalized medical program (RMP), supported by the use of digital technologies. The Swedish RMP means that students are distributed in geographically separated groups while doing their five clinical clerkship semesters. To provide medical students with ways of undertaking their theoretical studies when geographically distributed, digital technologies are used for educational and administrative purposes. In this article, the Swedish RMP will be described and related to previous international research on educating medical students in rural settings. The aim of this article was, from a management perspective, to understand if and how contradictions arise during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP, supported by digital technologies. Based on this analysis, a further aim was to discuss, from a management perspective, the possibilities and challenges for improvement of this medical educational practice, as well as to provide implications for other similar changes in medical programs internationally. To identify possible contradictions during the implementation process, ethnographically inspired observations were made during management work meetings, before and during the first regionalized semester. In addition, in-depth follow-up interviews were held in May and June 2011 with six management executives of the Swedish RMP, concerning their expectations and experiences of the implementation process. The qualitative and activity theory (AT)-inspired analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes and seven sub-themes. The analysis suggests that a number of contradictions arose during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP. For instance, a contradiction constituted as a conflict between the university management and some teachers concerning how digital technologies and technology enhanced learning (TEL) could and should be used when

  3. Coupling dynamical and collisional evolution of small bodies:. an application to the early ejection of planetesimals from the Jupiter-Saturn region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, Sébastien; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2003-11-01

    We present a new algorithm designed to compute the collisional erosion of a population of small bodies undergoing a complex and rapid dynamical evolution induced by strong gravitational perturbations. Usual particle-in-a-box models have been extensively and successfully used to study the evolution of asteroids or KBOs. However, they cannot track the evolution of small bodies in rapid dynamical evolution, due to their oversimplified description of the dynamics. Our code is based on both (1) a direct simulation of the dynamical evolution which is used to compute local encounter rates and (2) a classical fragmentation model. Such a code may be used to track the erosional evolution of the planetesimal disk under the action of newly formed giant-planets, a passing star or a population of massive planetary-embryos. We present here an application to a problem related to the formation of the Oort cloud. The usually accepted formation scenario is that planetesimals, originally formed in the giant planet region, have been transported to the Oort cloud by gravitational scattering. However, it has been suggested that, during the initial transport phase, the mutual large encounter velocities might have induced a rapid and intense collisional evolution of the planetesimal population, potentially causing a significant reduction of the Oort cloud formation process. This mechanism is explored with our new algorithm. Because the advantages of our new approach are better highlighted for a population undergoing a violent dynamical evolution, we concentrate in this paper on the planetesimals originally in the Jupiter-Saturn region, although it is known that they are only minor contributors to the final Oort cloud population. A wide range of parameters is explored (mass of the particle disk, initial size-distribution, material strength): depending upon the assumed parameter values, we find that from 15 to 90% of the mass contained in bodies larger than 1 km survives the collisional

  4. The geographical identification (GI under geographic perspective for coalho cheese in agreste region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janieire Dorlamis Cordeiro Bezerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This theme, geographic identification, although it has an intrinsic relationship with space and the organization of it, is little studied in Geography. For GI becomes tool to promote territorial development this should be linked to a policy not only economic but social and environmental, seeking to reach the marginalized producers in order to avoid social exclusion. GI coalho cheese Agreste of Pernambuco is indication of origin (IO which will help in spatial changes. To obtain a certification studies will required to contribute to the achievement of the GI, and futher after certification further research will be extremely necessary in order to manage the certification process and inclusion of family farming. Therefore, it will possible to conclude that the coalho cheese GI Agreste Pernambuco in fact included the family farmer, enhancing production, improving their income and enabling the rise. Therefore, the certification will bring beyond recognition in the region, a socio-spatial change, which in the future will involve studies of socio-economic indicators, with the interaction of man with the territory, how to adopt it and use it, contextualizing the space changes.

  5. Hidden Broad-line Regions in Seyfert 2 Galaxies: From the Spectropolarimetric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-05-01

    The hidden broad-line regions (BLRs) in Seyfert 2 galaxies, which display broad emission lines (BELs) in their polarized spectra, are a key piece of evidence in support of the unified model for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, the detailed kinematics and geometry of hidden BLRs are still not fully understood. The virial factor obtained from reverberation mapping of type 1 AGNs may be a useful diagnostic of the nature of hidden BLRs in type 2 objects. In order to understand the hidden BLRs, we compile six type 2 objects from the literature with polarized BELs and dynamical measurements of black hole masses. All of them contain pseudobulges. We estimate their virial factors, and find the average value is 0.60 and the standard deviation is 0.69, which agree well with the value of type 1 AGNs with pseudobulges. This study demonstrates that (1) the geometry and kinematics of BLR are similar in type 1 and type 2 AGNs of the same bulge type (pseudobulges), and (2) the small values of virial factors in Seyfert 2 galaxies suggest that, similar to type 1 AGNs, BLRs tend to be very thick disks in type 2 objects.

  6. Barriers to mental health services utilization in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: service users' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Ide, Izibeloko Omi; Uys, Leana

    2013-01-01

    There is only one neuro-psychiatric hospital for over four million people in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low-income groups in urban and rural areas who access care through public mental health clinics are at greater risk of not accessing the needed mental health care. This study aimed to explored barriers that prevent people from utilizing mental health services, and to identifies key factors to increase access and improved service delivery. A qualitative study was conducted among 20 service users attending the outpatient clinic of Rumuigbo neuropsychiatric hospital. Ten participants were caregivers and 10 were clients, both having accessed services for at least one year. The mean age was 37.7 years, 60% were males, 40% were unemployed and only 15% had a regular monthly income, while 65% live in rural areas. Barriers observed in mental health services use were physical, financial and cultural. These include absence of service in rural communities, poor knowledge of mental health services, stigma, transportation problems, waiting time at the facility and cost of service. Stigma remains a strong barrier to accessing mental health services, and extensive efforts need to be made to overcome ignorance and discrimination. Mental health services need to be provided throughout the health care system to enable people to access them locally and affordably, preventing the need to travel and promoting service uptake and treatment continuation.

  7. Barriers to mental health services utilization in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: service users’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Ide, Izibeloko Omi; Uys, Leana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is only one neuro-psychiatric hospital for over four million people in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low-income groups in urban and rural areas who access care through public mental health clinics are at greater risk of not accessing the needed mental health care. This study aimed to explored barriers that prevent people from utilizing mental health services, and to identifies key factors to increase access and improved service delivery. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among 20 service users attending the outpatient clinic of Rumuigbo neuropsychiatric hospital. Ten participants were caregivers and 10 were clients, both having accessed services for at least one year. Results The mean age was 37.7 years, 60% were males, 40% were unemployed and only 15% had a regular monthly income, while 65% live in rural areas. Barriers observed in mental health services use were physical, financial and cultural. These include absence of service in rural communities, poor knowledge of mental health services, stigma, transportation problems, waiting time at the facility and cost of service. Conclusion Stigma remains a strong barrier to accessing mental health services, and extensive efforts need to be made to overcome ignorance and discrimination. Mental health services need to be provided throughout the health care system to enable people to access them locally and affordably, preventing the need to travel and promoting service uptake and treatment continuation. PMID:23785564

  8. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic

  9. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chertova, M. V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322943264; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164; Geenen, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837784; Van Den Berg, A. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073350532; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since ~35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test

  10. Ductile and brittle structural evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area: an independent analysis based on local and regional constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, Giulio (Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway))

    2008-10-15

    This report discusses the main aspects of the ductile and brittle deformational evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Based on the interpretation of existing potential field geophysical data, it is suggested that the structural ductile grain of the region is controlled by large, c. EW trending shear zones with an overall sinistral strike-slip kinematics. The Oskarshamn Shear Zone (OSZ) and the Mederhult lineament are two examples of these shear zones and it is proposed that the ductile lineaments mapped in Laxemar-Simpevarp are genetically linked to shearing accommodated by these shear zones. The structural interpretation of the geophysical imagery of the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area and the available meso-scale structural information indicate that the Laxemar-Simpevarp study area can be interpreted as the analogue of a large-scale S/C' structural pattern. In detail, the Aespoe shear zone and other similarly oriented ductile shears represent C' shear bands that deform sinistrally the intervening EW lineaments (the S surfaces), which locally are significantly crenulated/folded in response to their asymptotic bending into the C' shears. This geometric and kinematic interpretation implies that, in contrast to existing reconstructions and models, EW- and not NE-trending shear zones become the main structural ductile feature of the region. Shear forces acting parallel to these main zones can successfully explain all the ductile structures described and reported from the area. The greatest compressive stress at the time of ductile shearing would trend NE-SW. The brittle deformation history of the region is complex and results from the multiple reactivation of fracture- and fault sets caused by the many orogenic episodes that affected the area during 1.5 Gyr of geological brittle evolution. Fault-slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleo-stress states. In the general absence of time markers that help constrain

  11. “No generics, Doctor!” The perspective of general practitioners in two French regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Riner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generic medicines are essential to controlling health expenditures. Their market share is still small in France. The discourse and practices of prescribers may play a major role in their use. The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs toward generic medicines in two French regions with the lowest penetration rate of these products. Methods An observational study was carried out from October 2015 to February 2016 in Guadeloupe and Martinique. The first qualitative phase involved a diversified sample of 14 GPs who underwent semi-structured interviews. The second phase involved a random sample of 316 GPs (response rate = 74% who were administered a structured questionnaire developed from the results of the first phase. Results Seventy-eight percent of the participants defined a generic drug as a drug containing an active substance identical to a brand-name drug, but only 11% considered generic drugs to be equivalent to brand-name drugs, and the same proportion believed that the generic drugs were of doubtful quality. The primary recognized advantage of generic medicines was their lower cost (82%. The main drawbacks cited were the variability of their presentation (44%, the confusion that they caused for some patients (47%, frequent allegations of adverse side effects (37% and a lack of efficacy (24%, and frequent refusal by patients (26%. Seventy-four percent of the participants stated that they adapted their prescribing practices to the situation, and of this group, 47% prescribed the originator product simply on demand. Conclusion Most surveyed GPs were not hostile towards generic medicines. They were caught between the requirements of health insurance regimes and the opposition of numerous users and suggested that the patient information provided by health authorities should be improved and that drug composition and packaging should be made uniform.

  12. "No generics, Doctor!" The perspective of general practitioners in two French regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Béatrice; Bussy, Adèle; Hélène-Pelage, Jeannie; Moueza, Nycrees; Lamy, Sébastien; Carrère, Philippe

    2017-11-09

    Generic medicines are essential to controlling health expenditures. Their market share is still small in France. The discourse and practices of prescribers may play a major role in their use. The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) toward generic medicines in two French regions with the lowest penetration rate of these products. An observational study was carried out from October 2015 to February 2016 in Guadeloupe and Martinique. The first qualitative phase involved a diversified sample of 14 GPs who underwent semi-structured interviews. The second phase involved a random sample of 316 GPs (response rate = 74%) who were administered a structured questionnaire developed from the results of the first phase. Seventy-eight percent of the participants defined a generic drug as a drug containing an active substance identical to a brand-name drug, but only 11% considered generic drugs to be equivalent to brand-name drugs, and the same proportion believed that the generic drugs were of doubtful quality. The primary recognized advantage of generic medicines was their lower cost (82%). The main drawbacks cited were the variability of their presentation (44%), the confusion that they caused for some patients (47%), frequent allegations of adverse side effects (37%) and a lack of efficacy (24%), and frequent refusal by patients (26%). Seventy-four percent of the participants stated that they adapted their prescribing practices to the situation, and of this group, 47% prescribed the originator product simply on demand. Most surveyed GPs were not hostile towards generic medicines. They were caught between the requirements of health insurance regimes and the opposition of numerous users and suggested that the patient information provided by health authorities should be improved and that drug composition and packaging should be made uniform.

  13. Historical perspective on seismic hazard to Hispaniola and the northeast Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, W.H.; Flores, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the long-term seismic activity of the North-American/Caribbean plate boundary from 500 years of historical earthquake damage reports. The 2010 Haiti earthquakes and other earthquakes were used to derive regional attenuation relationships between earthquake intensity, magnitude, and distance from the reported damage to the epicenter, for Hispaniola and for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The attenuation relationship for Hispaniola earthquakes and northern Lesser Antilles earthquakes is similar to that for California earthquakes, indicating a relatively rapid attenuation of damage intensity with distance. Intensities in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands decrease less rapidly with distance. We use the intensity-magnitude relationships to systematically search for the location and intensity magnitude MI which best fit all the reported damage for historical earthquakes. Many events occurred in the 20th-century along the plate-boundary segment from central Hispaniola to the NW tip of Puerto Rico, but earlier events from this segment were not identified. The remaining plate boundary to the east to Guadeloupe is probably not associated with M > 8 historical subduction-zone earthquakes. The May 2, 1787 earthquake, previously assigned an M 8–8.25, is probably only MI 6.9 and could be located north, west or SW of Puerto Rico. An MI 6.9 earthquake on July 11, 1785 was probably located north or east of the Virgin Islands. We located MI I 7.7) and May 7, 1842 (MI 7.6) earthquakes ruptured the Septentrional Fault in northern Hispaniola. If so, the recurrence interval on the central Septentrional Fault is ~300 years, and only 170 years has elapsed since the last event. The recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the Hispaniola subduction segment is likely longer than the historical record. Intra-arc M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes may occur every 75–100 years in the 410-km-long segment between the Virgin Islands and Guadeloupe.

  14. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.

    2007-05-01

    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  15. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES IN A MUTUALISM OF SEPIOLID SQUID AND BIOLUMINESCENT BACTERIA: COMBINED USAGE OF MICROBIAL EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION AND TEMPORAL POPULATION GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, W.; Punke, E. B.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    The symbiosis between marine bioluminescent Vibrio bacteria and the sepiolid squid Euprymna is a model for studying animal–bacterial Interactions. Vibrio symbionts native to particular Euprymna species are competitively dominant, capable of outcompeting foreign Vibrio strains from other Euprymna host species. Despite competitive dominance, secondary colonization events by invading nonnative Vibrio fischeri have occurred. Competitive dominance can be offset through superior nonnative numbers and advantage of early start host colonization by nonnatives, granting nonnative vibrios an opportunity to establish beachheads in foreign Euprymna hosts. Here, we show that nonnative V. fischeri are capable of rapid adaptation to novel sepiolid squid hosts by serially passaging V. fischeri JRM200 (native to Hawaiian Euprymna scolopes) lines through the novel Australian squid host E. tasmanica for 500 generations. These experiments were complemented by a temporal population genetics survey of V. fischeri, collected from E. tasmanica over a decade, which provided a perspective from the natural history of V. fischeri evolution over 15,000–20,000 generations in E. tasmanica. No symbiont anagenic evolution within squids was observed, as competitive dominance does not purge V. fischeri genetic diversity through time. Instead, abiotic factors affecting abundance of V. fischeri variants in the planktonic phase sustain temporal symbiont diversity, a property itself of ecological constraints imposed by V. fischeri host adaptation. PMID:22519773

  16. THE PLANNING OF HUMAN RESOURCES (STATE APPARATUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF GOVERNANCE: A STUDY ON REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT BOARD OF MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurube E.H.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study is the Planning of Quality Improvement of Human Resources (State Apparatus in the Perspective of Good Governance, A Study on the Program of State Apparatus Capacity Improvement in Regional Employment Board of Malang. This study used a qualitative research (naturalistic with a research strategy of observation. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze the planning of human resources quality improvement in the perspective of good governance in the Regional Employment Board of Malang; to determine the supporting factors and improve the quality of resources in the planning of human resources quality improvement in the perspective of good governance in the Regional Employment Board of Malang. The development of employees’ capacity carried out by the Regional Employment Board of Malang is intended to strengthen the organization and as an effort to establish a system of good governance. Given the number of local officials who must be served and managed by the employees of Regional Employment Board, this requires an effort of capacity building through the planning of human resources quality improvement in a systematic way and in accordance with the principles of good governance characteristics.

  17. REGIONAL GOVERNMENT'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PROTECTION OF INDONESIAN WORKER EMPLOYED (TKIs ABROAD (Review of Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Lasatu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia is to protect and realize the welfare of citizens. Therefore, the main responsibility of the government is to provide protection and guarantee to every citizen to get a job and a decent living for humanity. Limitations of domestic employment, as well as the public's desire to work overseas, should be responded positively by the government, by formulating regulations both at the central and regional levels. This study will examine the roles and responsibilities of local governments as an effort the law protection against Indonesian Migrant Worker working abroad.This research is a normative legal research with approach of legislation and concept approach and analyzed qualitatively to give perspective on legal issue to the object of this research study. The results show that the responsibility of local government, especially in the pre-placement, post-placement, and empowerment phase of placement of migrant workers, while the placement of migrant workers is the responsibility of the central government. Implementation of local government responsibilities should be supported by regulations established by local governments.

  18. Ecological extension of the theory of evolution by natural selection from a perspective of Western and Eastern holistic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment; (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among the types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not clearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist with, others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy of Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of component populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions. In particular, I employ what I call the scientific principle of dependent-arising (SDA), which is tailored for scientific use and is based on Buddhism principle called "pratītya-samutpāda" in Sanskrit. The SDA principle asserts that there exists a higher-level system, or entity, which includes a focal process of a system as a part within it; this determines or generates the conditions required for the focal process to work in a particular way. I conclude that the ecosystem generates (1) selective environments for component species through ecosystem dynamics; (2) new genetic types through lateral gene transfer, hybridization, and symbiogenesis among the component species of the ecosystem; (3) mechanistic processes of replacement of an old type with a new one. The results of this study indicate that the ecological extension of the theoretical model of adaptive evolution is required for better understanding of adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The radiological protection of the environment: evolution and perspectives; La proteccion radiologica del medioambiente: evolucion y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A.; Robles, B.

    2013-09-01

    The radiation protection of the environment has led to growing interest in the last 25 years. Currently it is internationally accepted the need for a system which allows to explicitly demonstrate that the environment is adequately protected against the harmful effects of ionising radiation. to contribute to the development of this system, many international, European and national organizations have been actively working in the last decades. This paper describes how the radiological protection of the environment has evolved in the last decades, highlighting the knowledge acquired and the methodologies and tools developed, as well as the future perspectives in the field. (Author)

  20. Perspectives in absorbed dose metrology with regard to the technical evolutions of external beam radiotherapy; Perspectives en metrologie de la dose face aux evolutions techniques de la radiotherapie externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvenet, B.; Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Lab. National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barthe, J. [CEA Saclay (LIST), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents several R and D axes in absorbed close metrology to meet the needs resulting from the technical evolutions of external beam radiotherapy. The facilities in operation in France have considerably evolved under the impulse of the plan Cancer launched in 2003: replacements and increase of the number of accelerators, substitution of accelerators for telecobalt almost completed and acquisition of innovative facilities for tomo-therapy and stereotaxy. The increasing versatility of facilities makes possible the rapid evolution of treatment modalities, allowing to better delimit irradiation to tumoral tissues and spare surrounding healthy tissues and organs at risk. This leads to a better treatment efficacy through dose escalation. National metrology laboratories must offer responses adapted to the new need, i.e. not restrict themselves to the establishment of references under conventional conditions defined at international level, contribute to the improvement of uncertainties at all levels of reference transfer to practitioners: primary measurements under conditions as close as possible to those of treatment, characterization of transfer and treatment control dosimeters., metrological validation of treatment planning tools... Those axes have been identified as priorities for the next years in ionizing radiation metrology at the European level and included in the European. Metrology Research Programme. A project dealing with some of those topics has been selected in the frame of the Eranet+ Call EMRP 2007 and is now starting. The LNE-LAM is strongly engaged in it. (authors)

  1. From action to language: comparative perspectives on primate tool use, gesture and the evolution of human language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The papers in this Special Issue examine tool use and manual gestures in primates as a window on the evolution of the human capacity for language. Neurophysiological research has supported the hypothesis of a close association between some aspects of human action organization and of language representation, in both phonology and semantics. Tool use provides an excellent experimental context to investigate analogies between action organization and linguistic syntax. Contributors report and contextualize experimental evidence from monkeys, great apes, humans and fossil hominins, and consider the nature and the extent of overlaps between the neural representations of tool use, manual gestures and linguistic processes. PMID:22106422

  2. Disrupted tRNA Genes and tRNA Fragments: A Perspective on tRNA Gene Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kanai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with lengths of approximately 70–100 nt. They are directly involved in protein synthesis by carrying amino acids to the ribosome. In this sense, tRNAs are key molecules that connect the RNA world and the protein world. Thus, study of the evolution of tRNA molecules may reveal the processes that led to the establishment of the central dogma: genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. Thanks to the development of DNA sequencers in this century, we have determined a huge number of nucleotide sequences from complete genomes as well as from transcriptomes in many species. Recent analyses of these large data sets have shown that particular tRNA genes, especially in Archaea, are disrupted in unique ways: some tRNA genes contain multiple introns and some are split genes. Even tRNA molecules themselves are fragmented post-transcriptionally in many species. These fragmented small RNAs are known as tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs. In this review, I summarize the progress of research into the disrupted tRNA genes and the tRFs, and propose a possible model for the molecular evolution of tRNAs based on the concept of the combination of fragmented tRNA halves.

  3. Negative association between parental care and sibling cooperation in earwigs: a new perspective on the early evolution of family life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J; Thesing, J; Meunier, J

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of family life requires net fitness benefits for offspring, which are commonly assumed to mainly derive from parental care. However, an additional source of benefits for offspring is often overlooked: cooperative interactions among juvenile siblings. In this study, we examined how sibling cooperation and parental care could jointly contribute to the early evolution of family life. Specifically, we tested whether the level of food transferred among siblings (sibling cooperation) in the European earwig Forficula auricularia (1) depends on the level of maternal food provisioning (parental care) and (2) is translated into offspring survival, as well as female investment into future reproduction. We show that higher levels of sibling food transfer were associated with lower levels of maternal food provisioning, possibly reflecting a compensatory relationship between sibling cooperation and maternal care. Furthermore, the level of sibling food transfer did not influence offspring survival, but was associated with negative effects on the production of the second and terminal clutch by the tending mothers. These findings indicate that sibling cooperation could mitigate the detrimental effects on offspring survival that result from being tended by low-quality mothers. More generally, they are in line with the hypothesis that sibling cooperation is an ancestral behaviour that can be retained to compensate for insufficient levels of parental investment. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  5. Why do NRM regional planning processes and tools have limited effect? Presenting the perspective of the end user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Reiter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource managers are required to prepare a plan for managing the natural resources in their regions. Environmental decision support systems (EDSS have been developed to assist managers and stakeholders make decisions about complex natural resource problems. Research has shown that these EDSS are valuable and used internationally. However, sustainability science literature reports that too often these natural resource management (NRM plans are not consulted upon completion, and the EDSS are no longer used. To gain insight into why the EDSS are no longer used after the research and development phase of the NRM planning project, we have asked the stakeholders, as end users of the EDSS tool themselves, to share their perceptions of, and experience with development of the tool and then, the tool itself. This paper reports on the perspectives of the end users of an EDSS used in a South Australian NRM planning project from 2011 to 2013. The findings were mixed in that they show that the majority (90% of respondents felt the EDSS had overall value, yet it was virtually abandoned after the completion of the planning project. Further, just over half of respondents reported that they thought that the EDSS should have been used on a regular basis after the pilot project ended. We conclude that genuine capacity development, aided by the EDSS, took place during the project. However, the lack of use of the EDSS after the pilot project finished was the result of failures both with researcher follow up and especially with the lack of commitment from government agencies who support and influence the array of end users. Unless agencies commit to the changed practices identified by end users that would support ongoing use of EDSS it is inevitable that the legacy value of EDSS development will remain limited.

  6. "Every method seems to have its problems"- Perspectives on side effects of hormonal contraceptives in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebet, Joy J; McMahon, Shannon A; Greenspan, Jesse A; Mosha, Idda H; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J

    2015-11-03

    Family planning has been shown to be an effective intervention for promoting maternal, newborn and child health. Despite family planning's multiple benefits, women's experiences of - or concerns related to - side effects present a formidable barrier to the sustained use of contraceptives, particularly in the postpartum period. This paper presents perspectives of postpartum, rural, Tanzanian women, their partners, public opinion leaders and community and health facility providers related to side effects associated with contraceptive use. Qualitative interviews were conducted with postpartum women (n = 34), their partners (n = 23), community leaders (n = 12) and health providers based in both facilities (n = 12) and communities (n = 19) across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Following data collection, digitally recorded data were transcribed, translated and coded using thematic analysis. Respondents described family planning positively due to the health and economic benefits associated with limiting and spacing births. However, side effects were consistently cited as a reason that women and their partners choose to forgo family planning altogether, discontinue methods, switch methods or use methods in an intermittent (and ineffective) manner. Respondents detailed side effects including excessive menstrual bleeding, missed menses, weight gain and fatigue. Women, their partners and community leaders also described concerns that contraceptives could induce sterility in women, or harm breastfeeding children via contamination of breast milk. Use of family planning during the postpartum period was viewed as particularly detrimental to a newborn's health in the first months of life. To meet Tanzania's national target of increasing contraceptive use from 34 to 60 % by 2015, appropriate counseling and dialogue on contraceptive side effects that speaks to pressing concerns outlined by women, their partners, communities and service providers are needed.

  7. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio

  8. Cultura Organizacional na Perspectiva Cultural Regional BrasileiraOrganizational Culture under the Perspective of the Brazilian Regional CultureCultura Organizacional en la Perspectiva Cultural Regional Brasileña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZZIO, Henrique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEsse ensaio tem como objetivo analisar o contexto cultural brasileiro e a sua influência no universo organizacional a partir de uma perspectiva cultural regional que não se limite à visão funcionalista e avance por meio de conceitos contemporâneos como os fluxos culturais e os códigos culturais locais. Do ponto de vista internacional, os estudos comparativos que trabalham com a perspectiva de adaptação cultural já apresentam um volume significativo de pesquisas que enfatizam as distinções entre regiões ou nações. Mas, quando se trata dessa perspectiva dentro de países culturalmente diversos, parece ainda não haver no campo a mesma expressão. Em países em que é reconhecida a diversidade cultural, como o Brasil, análises que levem em conta as influências dessa variável podem contribuir para a eficiência das relações internas e externas da organização. Arguimos a necessidade das organizações contemplarem em suas ações o que chamamos de legitimidade cultural local, quando as organizações atuam em distintos contextos respeitando os valores e as práticas culturais locais. As diferentes culturas regionais encontradas no Brasil se refletem nos hábitos dos consumidores, no comportamento social e nas atitudes e desempenho das pessoas no trabalho, o que requer efetivamente diferentes e variadas práticas de gestão.ABSTRACTThis essay has the objective of analyzing the Brazilian cultural context and its influence on the organizations universe from a cultural regional perspective that goes beyond the functionalist paradigm and advances through contemporary concepts, like cultural flows and the local cultural codes. In an international perspective, in studies that consider the perspective of cultural adaptation, it is possible finding a significant volume of research that emphasizes the distinctions between regions or nations. On the other hand, when it these studies deal with this perspective inside each culturally

  9. The Evolution of a Teacher during a training of future-teachers in Chemistry in a socio-environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Rios Melo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to interpret the changes in teacher’s beliefs and teaching practice: she was committed to encourage her future teachers to adopt the socio-environmental issues for the development of scientific content in classrooms. The work is an action research conducted by a teacher at a private institution of Higher Education (IHE, in collaboration with other researchers over four years. The analysis used as a reference some concepts of Melanie Klein and the Teacher’s Discourses, drawn from analogies with Lacan’s Discourses. Data analysis allowed raising the difficulties, dilemmas and successes she encountered along the experience, as well as some changes in her educational beliefs and teaching practice. As a result of the process some social and environmental indicators were established which allowed to assess both the evolution of the teacher and the teaching projects of the students.

  10. CURRENT STATE AND EVOLUTION PERSPECTIVES FOR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR BY IMPLEMENTING THE ABC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rof Letitia Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a controversial issue, namely determining and controlling costs in the energy sector, the present study falls within the scope of management accounting and control. This scientific approach was initiated as a result of personal research concerns in the area of accounting, starting from the need to know and quantify costs in a sector of the economy that is less exploited. The main objective of this scientific approach is to address the evolution of the energy sector in a national and international context, in terms of economy and finances, with the aim to underline the need to organize and conduct management accounting in this sector. We will present a few particularities of the energy system, the current status of implementation of a medium and long term strategy aimed at developing the energy sector, as well as the need to adopt modern costing methods in this sector, which ensure operative cost control and performance growth of the entities that operate in this sector. Information on the reviewed topic was conducted by studying the national and international literature in the field, by analyzing the associated legislation, by consulting specialized web-sites and various articles in the database. The main research methods used in this scientific approach were analysis and synthesis, and qualitative research was the type of used research. The results of the research will materialize in providing the necessary conditions for designing an econometric model for implementing the ABC method, the conceptual and ideological delimitation of the ABC method, the deepening of the positive and negative aspects that the implementation of the Activity Based Costing involves. The major implication for the researched field is ensuring success for the implementation of a modern costing method in the energy sector, underlining the shortcomings of the traditional costing methods. The added value of the paper consists in conducting a rigorous study of the

  11. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the southern African region’s economic integration and knowledge management terrain from a spatial perspective. Its purpose is to generate insights relating to the role that space and spatial structure play in determining equity...

  12. Convergent evolution of health information management and health informatics: a perspective on the future of information professionals in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Dixon, B E; Abrams, K

    2015-01-01

    Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment.

  13. Analysis of the Last Decade’s Evolution of Competitiveness in Romania through Regional and Sectoral Lenses

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    BÍBORKA-ESZTER BÍRÓ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of labour productivity by regions and by economic activities as well as average sectoral income levels in Romania are analysed within the framework of this paper. The structure of labour productivity on regional level and by economic activities is an essential component of regional competitiveness besides the structure of regional population, the structure of employment by economic activities in total population at regional level and the structure of total GDP (or GVA on regional level by economic activities. To capture the variation in time of competitiveness, a longer time horizon analysis of the above indicators is needed instead of analysing just one-year data, which would only give a static view on the matter. Our analysis covers the 2000-2008 time horizon and focuses mainly on labour productivity through analysing sectoral GVA and sectoral employment on the level of Romanian NUTS2 development regions, being an important determinant of regional competitiveness.

  14. Assessing the evolution of oases in arid regions by reconstructing their historic spatio-temporal distribution: a case study of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaowen; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Xueqiang; Fan, Peilei

    2017-12-01

    Oasis evolution, one of the most obvious surface processes in arid regions, affects various aspects of the regional environment, such as hydrological processes, ecological conditions, and microclimates. In this paper, the historical spatio-temporal evolution of the cultivated oases in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland watershed in the northwest of China, was assessed using multidisciplinary methods and data from multiple sources, including historical literature, ancient sites, maps and remotely sensed images. The findings show that cultivated oases were first developed on a large scale during the Han Dynasty (121 BC-220) and then gradually decreased in extent from the Six Dynasties period (220-581) to the Sui-Tang period (581-907), reaching a minimum in the Song-Yuan period (960-1368). An abrupt revival occurred during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and continued through the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949), oasis development reached its greatest peak of the entire historical period. The oasis areas during seven major historical periods, i.e., Han, Six Dynasties, Sui-Tang, Song-Yuan, Ming, Qing, and Republic of China, are estimated to have been 1703 km2, 1115 km2, 629 km2, 614 km2, 964 km2, 1205 km2, and 1917 km2, respectively. The spatial distribution generally exhibited a continuous sprawl process, with the center of the oases moving gradually from the downstream region to the middle and even upstream regions. The oases along the main river remained stable during most periods, whereas those close to the terminal reaches were subject to frequent variations and even abandonment. Socio-economic factors were the main forces driving the evolution of cultivated oases in the area; among them, political and societal stability, national defense, agricultural policy, population, and technological progress were the most important.

  15. Chromosome Mapping of Repetitive Sequences in Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae): Implications for Karyotypic Evolution and Perspectives for Biotechnological Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Calado, Leonardo Luiz; Tavares, Manoel; Manzella, João; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-01-01

    The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes) showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB), and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n. The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question. PMID:21541243

  16. Heat in evolution's kitchen: evolutionary perspectives on the functions and origin of the facial pit of pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochmal, Aaron R; Bakken, George S; LaDuc, Travis J

    2004-11-01

    Pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae) possess thermal radiation receptors, the facial pits, which allow them to detect modest temperature fluctuations within their environments. It was previously thought that these organs were used solely to aid in prey acquisition, but recent findings demonstrated that western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) use them to direct behavioral thermoregulation, suggesting that facial pits might be general purpose organs used to drive a suite of behaviors. To investigate this further, we conducted a phylogenetic survey of viperine thermoregulatory behavior cued by thermal radiation. We assessed this behavior in 12 pitviper species, representing key nodes in the evolution of pitvipers and a broad range of thermal environments, and a single species of true viper (Viperidae: Viperinae), a closely related subfamily of snakes that lack facial pits but possess a putative thermal radiation receptor. All pitviper species were able to rely on their facial pits to direct thermoregulatory movements, while the true viper was unable to do so. Our results suggest that thermoregulatory behavior cued by thermal radiation is a universal role of facial pits and probably represents an ancestral trait among pitvipers. Further, they establish behavioral thermoregulation as a plausible hypothesis explaining the evolutionary origin of the facial pit.

  17. What can volumes reveal about human brain evolution? A framework for bridging behavioral, histometric and volumetric perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A de Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An overall relationship between brain size and cognitive ability exists across primates. Can more specific information about neural function be gleaned from cortical area volumes? Numerous studies have found significant relationships between brain structures and behaviors. However, few studies have speculated about brain structure-function relationships from the microanatomical to the macroanatomical level. Here we address this problem in comparative neuroanatomy, where the functional relevance of overall brain size and the sizes of cortical regions have been poorly understood, by considering comparative psychology, with measures of visual acuity and the perception of visual illusions. We outline a model where the macroscopic size (volume or surface area of a cortical region (such as the primary visual cortex, V1 is related to the microstructure of discrete brain regions. The hypothesis developed here is that a larger absolute V1 can process more information with greater fidelity due to having more neurons to represent a field of space. This is the first time that the necessary comparative neuroanatomical research at the microstructural level has been brought to bear on the issue. The evidence suggests that as the size of V1 increases: the number of neurons increases, the neuron density decreases, and the density of neuronal connections increases. Thus, we describe how information about gross neuromorphology, using V1 as a model for the study of other cortical areas, may permit interpretations of cortical function.

  18. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations.

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    Alan McNally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug-resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements.

  19. Delayed Gratification Habitable Zones (DG-HZs): When Deep Outer Solar System Regions Become Balmy During Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.

    2002-09-01

    Late in the Sun's evolution it, like all low and moderate mass stars, it will burn as a red giant, generating 1000s of solar luminosities for a few tens of millions of years. A dozen years ago this stage of stellar evolution was predicted to create observable sublimation signatures in systems where Kuiper Belts (KBs) are extant (Stern et al. 1990, Nature, 345, 305); recently, the SWAS spacecraft detected such systems (Melnick et al. 2001, 412, 160). During the red giant phase, the habitable zone of our solar system will lie in the region where Triton, Pluto-Charon, and KBOs orbit. Compared to the 1 AU habitable zone where Earth resided early in the solar system's history, this "delayed gratification habitable zone (DG-HZ)" will enjoy a far less biologically hazardous environment-- with far lower harmful UV radiation levels from the Sun, and a far quieter collisional environment. Objects like Triton, Pluto-Charon, and KBOs, which are known to be rich in both water and organics, will then become possible sites for biochemical and perhaps even biological evolution. The Sun's DG-HZ may only be of academic interest owing to its great separation from us in time. However, several 108 approximately solar-type Milky Way stars burn as luminous red giants today. Thus, if icy-organic objects are common in the 20-50 AU zones of these stars, as they are in our solar system (and as inferred in numerous main sequence stellar disk systems), then DG-HZs form a kind of niche habitable zone that is likely to be numerically common in the galaxy. I will show the calculated temporal evolution of DG-HZs around various stellar types using modern stellar evolution luminosity tracks, and then discuss various aspects of DG-HZs, including the effects of stellar pulsations and mass loss winds. This work was supported by NASA's Origins of Solar Systems Program.

  20. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayraud Cyrielle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myosin II (or Myosin Heavy Chain II, MHCII is a family of molecular motors involved in the contractile activity of animal muscle cells but also in various other cellular processes in non-muscle cells. Previous phylogenetic analyses of bilaterian MHCII genes identified two main clades associated respectively with smooth/non-muscle cells (MHCIIa and striated muscle cells (MHCIIb. Muscle cells are generally thought to have originated only once in ancient animal history, and decisive insights about their early evolution are expected to come from expression studies of Myosin II genes in the two non-bilaterian phyla that possess muscles, the Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Results We have uncovered three MHCII paralogues in the ctenophore species Pleurobrachia pileus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the MHCIIa / MHCIIb duplication is more ancient than the divergence between extant metazoan lineages. The ctenophore MHCIIa gene (PpiMHCIIa has an expression pattern akin to that of "stem cell markers" (Piwi, Vasa… and is expressed in proliferating cells. We identified two MHCIIb genes that originated from a ctenophore-specific duplication. PpiMHCIIb1 represents the exclusively muscular form of myosin II in ctenophore, while PpiMHCIIb2 is expressed in non-muscle cells of various types. In parallel, our phalloidin staining and TEM observations highlight the structural complexity of ctenophore musculature and emphasize the experimental interest of the ctenophore tentacle root, in which myogenesis is spatially ordered and strikingly similar to striated muscle formation in vertebrates. Conclusion MHCIIa expression in putative stem cells/proliferating cells probably represents an ancestral trait, while specific involvement of some MHCIIa genes in smooth muscle fibres is a uniquely derived feature of the vertebrates. That one ctenophore MHCIIb paralogue (PpiMHCIIb2 has retained MHCIIa-like expression features furthermore suggests that muscular

  1. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayraud, Cyrielle; Alié, Alexandre; Jager, Muriel; Chang, Patrick; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2012-07-02

    Myosin II (or Myosin Heavy Chain II, MHCII) is a family of molecular motors involved in the contractile activity of animal muscle cells but also in various other cellular processes in non-muscle cells. Previous phylogenetic analyses of bilaterian MHCII genes identified two main clades associated respectively with smooth/non-muscle cells (MHCIIa) and striated muscle cells (MHCIIb). Muscle cells are generally thought to have originated only once in ancient animal history, and decisive insights about their early evolution are expected to come from expression studies of Myosin II genes in the two non-bilaterian phyla that possess muscles, the Cnidaria and Ctenophora. We have uncovered three MHCII paralogues in the ctenophore species Pleurobrachia pileus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the MHCIIa / MHCIIb duplication is more ancient than the divergence between extant metazoan lineages. The ctenophore MHCIIa gene (PpiMHCIIa) has an expression pattern akin to that of "stem cell markers" (Piwi, Vasa…) and is expressed in proliferating cells. We identified two MHCIIb genes that originated from a ctenophore-specific duplication. PpiMHCIIb1 represents the exclusively muscular form of myosin II in ctenophore, while PpiMHCIIb2 is expressed in non-muscle cells of various types. In parallel, our phalloidin staining and TEM observations highlight the structural complexity of ctenophore musculature and emphasize the experimental interest of the ctenophore tentacle root, in which myogenesis is spatially ordered and strikingly similar to striated muscle formation in vertebrates. MHCIIa expression in putative stem cells/proliferating cells probably represents an ancestral trait, while specific involvement of some MHCIIa genes in smooth muscle fibres is a uniquely derived feature of the vertebrates. That one ctenophore MHCIIb paralogue (PpiMHCIIb2) has retained MHCIIa-like expression features furthermore suggests that muscular expression of the other paralogue, PpiMHCIIb1, was

  2. An Integrated Geophysical and Tectonic Study of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust in the Snake River Plain Region, Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. R.; Khatiwada, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Snake River Plain region in the Pacific Northwest of North America has been the target of a number of recent studies that have revealed further complexities in its structure and tectonic evolution. Based on surface morphology and Late Cenozoic volcanic activity, the Snake River Plain consists of an eastern and western arm (ESRP and WSRP) that are similar in many respects but also quite different in other respects. Thus, its origin, evolution, structural complexities, the role of extension and magmatism in its formation, and the tectonic drivers are still subjects of debate. Numerous seismic studies have specifically focused on the structure of the ESRP and Yellowstone area. However, crustal-scale studies of the WSRP are limited. We added new gravity data to the existing coverage in the WSRP region and undertook a regional, integrated analysis approach that included magnetic, seismic reflection and refraction profiling, receiver function results, geological and geospatial data, and interpreted well logs. Our integrated geophysical modeling focused on the structure of the WSRP. We generated two crustal models across it at locations where the most existing geophysical and geological constraints were available. We observed both differences and similarities in the structure of the WSRP and ESRP. Although, the shallow crustal structures are different, a mid-crustal mafic intrusion is a major source of the high gravity anomaly values. Within the context of recent studies in the surrounding region, the intersection of the two arms of the Snake River Plain emerges as a major element of a complex tectonic intersection that includes the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, the Northern Nevada Rift, a southwestern extension of the ESRP into northern Nevada, as well as, faulting and volcanism extending northwestward to connect with the Columbia River Basalts region.

  3. Japanese sake and evolution of technology: A comparative view with wine and its implications for regional branding and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sato

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The use of acid and collaboration with the local and regional community is observed in wine production. Similar processes are observed with Japanese sake, and this implies that wine and sake may have similar futures. Visits to sake breweries have potential in the spheres of tourism, regional branding, and destination management.

  4. Influence of Different Slope Aspects on Some Soil Properties and Forest Soils Evolution (Case Study: Rostam Abad Region, Guilan Province

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    M. Zarinibahador

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spatial variation of soil properties is significantly influenced by numerous environmental factors such as landscape features, including position, topography, slope gradient and aspect, parent material, climate and vegetation. Soil properties vary spatially in south- and north-facing hill slopes. This factor (different slope aspects can affect the distribution of soil organic matter, the presence or absence of a layer, pH, nutrient levels, soil mineralogical and micromorphological properties. Topographic factors such as the orientation of the hill slope and the steepness of the slope affect microclimate, vegetation establishment, water movement and erosion. Aspect and slope control the movement of water and materials in a hill slope and contribute to differences in soil properties. Temperature, precipitation and climate vary with elevation and influence pedogenic processes. Accelerated rates of weathering and soil development were found to occur in soils on south-facing slopes. Slopes with a south aspect are dominated by stone and bare soil patches, while slopes with a north aspect are dominated by biotic components. Northern slopes have higher productivity and species diversity compared to Southern slopes. Slope aspect has a significant effect on the composition, species richness, structure and density of plant communities, differed significantly between North- and South- facing slopes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the effects of two slope aspects on some soil properties and soil evolution was investigated in Northern Rostam Abad region in the Guilan Province. Five profiles in Southern hill slope(South-facing hill slopes and five profiles in Northern hill slopes(North-facing hill slopes with 40% slope and same parent material (basaltic andesite and same plant cover were dug. The elevation of two slope aspects was 240 meters from the sea level. Average annual temperatures and precipitation are16 degrees centigrade

  5. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  6. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The geological and structural evolution of the Cerro Tuzgle Quaternary stratovolcano in the back-arc region of the Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Cogliati, S.; Baez, W.; Arnosio, M.; Bustos, E.; Viramonte, J.; Groppelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our paper is to contribute to a better knowledge of the volcanism in the back-arc region of the Central Andes and its relationships with the basement geology, the stress field and the tectonic evolution, by studying in detail the stratigraphy and the structure of the Quaternary Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Puna Plateau. Field mapping and remote sensing analysis reveal the stratigraphic architecture, the geological evolution and the volcanotectonic interactions in the Cerro Tuzgle area. For the first time in a volcano of the Puna Plateau, synthemic units bounded by unconformity surfaces have been defined, unrevealing the temporal and spatial relationships between constructive and destructive phases of the volcano history. Our study indicates that after the emplacement of a small ignimbrite deposit and of few scattered lava domes, the central Cerro Tuzgle volcano built up throughout three distinct phases of edifice construction. The first of these constructive phases ended with a previously unreported destructive event, consisting of ≈ 0.5 km3, catastrophic sector collapse of the volcanic edifice, whose stratigraphic position and main characteristics have been identified. The study suggests that the regional stress regime and the topography of the substrata are the main non-magmatic factors controlling the constructive and destructive phases of the volcano, including the directions of magmatic intrusions, faulting and gravitational sector failure of the volcano. The integration of synthemic stratigraphy and volcanotectonic analysis in the study of volcanic edifices showed to be an effective methodological approach for the understanding of the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Puna Plateau.

  8. Orbitally-driven evolution of Lake Turkana (Turkana Depression, Kenya, EARS) between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma: A sequence stratigraphy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Boës, Xavier; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Lakes act as major archives for continental paleoenvironments, particularly when the evolution of lake levels over time serves as a guide for understanding regional paleohydrology and paleoclimate. In this paper, two sections from the Nachukui Formation (Turkana Depression, East African Rift System) provide a complete record of lake level variability and then paleohydrology for Lake Turkana between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma. This period corresponds to a key time during which important human evolutionary and technological innovations have occurred in East Africa and in the Turkana area. Based on sedimentary facies and sequence analyses on coastal deposits, one long-term regressive-transgressive cycle is identified between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma. Superimposed on this trend, five higher-frequency cycles of lake level change are identified between 1.87 and 1.76 Ma. Origins of these periodicities are attributed to orbital forcings. The extents of bathymetry change and shoreline migration during these periods are explored, suggesting that the period between 1.87 and 1.76 Ma was relatively dry and that climate experienced a relatively low variability. This finding differs strongly from most of the previous paleoenvironmental investigations in the region that argue high climate variability during a relatively wet period. This work emphasizes the importance of using sequence stratigraphy for analyzing lacustrine deposits.

  9. The role of the humoral immune response in the molecular evolution of the envelope C2, V3 and C3 regions in chronically HIV-2 infected patients

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    Novo Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate, for the first time, the short-term molecular evolution of the HIV-2 C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions and its association with the immune response. Clonal sequences of the env C2V3C3 region were obtained from a cohort of eighteen HIV-2 chronically infected patients followed prospectively during 2–4 years. Genetic diversity, divergence, positive selection and glycosylation in the C2V3C3 region were analysed as a function of the number of CD4+ T cells and the anti-C2V3C3 IgG and IgA antibody reactivity Results The mean intra-host nucleotide diversity was 2.1% (SD, 1.1%, increasing along the course of infection in most patients. Diversity at the amino acid level was significantly lower for the V3 region and higher for the C2 region. The average divergence rate was 0.014 substitutions/site/year, which is similar to that reported in chronic HIV-1 infection. The number and position of positively selected sites was highly variable, except for codons 267 and 270 in C2 that were under strong and persistent positive selection in most patients. N-glycosylation sites located in C2 and V3 were conserved in all patients along the course of infection. Intra-host variation of C2V3C3-specific IgG response over time was inversely associated with the variation in nucleotide and amino acid diversity of the C2V3C3 region. Variation of the C2V3C3-specific IgA response was inversely associated with variation in the number of N-glycosylation sites. Conclusion The evolutionary dynamics of HIV-2 envelope during chronic aviremic infection is similar to HIV-1 implying that the virus should be actively replicating in cellular compartments. Convergent evolution of N-glycosylation in C2 and V3, and the limited diversification of V3, indicates that there are important functional constraints to the potential diversity of the HIV-2 envelope. C2V3C3-specific IgG antibodies are effective at reducing viral population size

  10. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

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    García-Aguirre Laura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct

  11. Increased amylosucrase activity and specificity, and identification of regions important for activity, specificity and stability through molecular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Veen, Bart A; Skov, Lars K; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    , several variants are expected to be improved concerning activity and/or thermostability. Most of the amino acid substitutions observed in the totality of these improved variants are clustered around specific regions. The secondary sucrose-binding site and beta strand 7, connected to the important Asp393...

  12. Thoughts on controls on evolution and dispersal of benthos in the Magellan-Scotia Sea region: a workshop proposal

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    Michael R.A. Thomson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc and the Scotia Sea comprise a geologically young feature of the Earth’s surface that evolved over the last 40 million years (Ma or so, between the southern tip of South America and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. With the notable exception of the much younger South Sandwich Islands, the islands, banks and seamounts of the arc represent dispersed fragments of a previous continental link between southern South America (Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula. The benthic marine shelf faunas of the region are the focus of the IBMANT (Investigación Biolólogica Marina en Magallanes relacionada con la Antártida programme, and those of the surrounding oceanic deeps are the focus of ANDEEP (Antarctic Benthic Deep-Sea Biodiversity. Elucidating the potential relationships between the faunas of the region and the profound geographical, oceanographic and climatic changes undergone by the region in later Cenozoic time is hampered by significant unknowns in the geological history, the expense of further geoscientific exploration to fill these, and a general lack of communication between the biological and geological science communities. It is suggested that the time is opportune for a truly multidisciplinary workshop at which all the involved science communities have much to gain from the others.

  13. The early Eocene birds of the Messel fossil site: a 48 million-year-old bird community adds a temporal perspective to the evolution of tropical avifaunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2017-05-01

    Birds play an important role in studies addressing the diversity and species richness of tropical ecosystems, but because of the poor avian fossil record in all extant tropical regions, a temporal perspective is mainly provided by divergence dates derived from calibrated molecular analyses. Tropical ecosystems were, however, widespread in the Northern Hemisphere during the early Cenozoic, and the early Eocene German fossil site Messel in particular has yielded a rich avian fossil record. The Messel avifauna is characterized by a considerable number of flightless birds, as well as a high diversity of aerial insectivores and the absence of large arboreal birds. With about 70 currently known species in 42 named genus-level and at least 39 family-level taxa, it approaches extant tropical biotas in terms of species richness and taxonomic diversity. With regard to its taxonomic composition and presumed ecological characteristics, the Messel avifauna is more similar to the Neotropics, Madagascar, and New Guinea than to tropical forests in continental Africa and Asia. Because the former regions were geographically isolated during most of the Cenozoic, their characteristics may be due to the absence of biotic factors, especially those related to the diversification of placental mammals, which impacted tropical avifaunas in Africa and Asia. The crown groups of most avian taxa that already existed in early Eocene forests are species-poor. This does not support the hypothesis that the antiquity of tropical ecosystems is key to the diversity of tropical avifaunas, and suggests that high diversification rates may be of greater significance. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  15. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  16. The evolution of a UK regional tobacco control office in its early years: social contexts and policy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Heckler, Serena; White, Martin; Sengupta, Soumen; Chappel, David; Hunter, David J; Mason, James; Milne, Eugene; Lewis, Susan

    2009-09-01

    The Smoke Free North East Office (SFNEO) is the first dedicated tobacco control office in the UK coordinating a regional tobacco control network, Smoke Free North East (SFNE). On the basis of ethnographic research conducted between 2006 and 2008, this article examines the context for SFNEO's emergence at this time and in this region of England, and the main policy and practice challenges it has faced in its early years. SFNE formed in a favourable political and cultural climate, although regional champions were crucial in setting it up. It has worked well in branding itself and in taking advantage of the opportunity to lobby in support of comprehensive smoke-free legislation, although the success of the legislation presents a risk that people will regard SFNE's work as finished. There is a need for independent sustainable funding, strong partnership working and the 'bringing together' of existing organizations under its leadership for an organization such as SFNE to succeed. SFNE offers a model that is transferable to other places as well as to other public health concerns such as alcohol, and has been taken up by public health planners and policy makers with alacrity. This indicates a general perception that SFNE plays an effective role in public health delivery.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the Xdh region in Drosophila pseudoobscura and an analysis of the evolution of synonymous codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M A

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Xdh region of Drosophila pseudoobscura is presented. The Xdh gene structure and organization are compared with the homologous region in D. melanogaster. This locus is shown to have similar organization in the two species, although an additional intron and three insertion/deletion events are described for the D. pseudoobscura coding region. The encoded proteins are predicted to have very similar charges and hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains even though 11% of the amino acids are different. A gene 5' to Xdh, putative l(3)s12, is suggested from sequence similarity between the species. Synonymous differences at the Xdh locus between the two species are analyzed using a new method described in the preceding paper by Lewontin. This analysis shows that synonymous positions within the Xdh locus are evolving at very different rates, being dependent on level of codon redundancy. A comparison of synonymous divergence between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura in five additional genes reveals variation in the level of synonymous substitution.

  18. [National and regional market penetration rates of generic's high dosage buprenorphine: its evolution from 2006 to 2008, using reimbursed drug database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczek, Christelle; Frauger, Elisabeth; Micallef, Joëlle; Allaria-Lapierre, Véronique; Reggio, Patrick; Sciortino, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    To assess the national market penetration rate (PR) of generic high-dosage buprenorphine (HDB) in 2008 and its evolution since their marketing (2006), and making a point for each dosage and at regional level. Retrospective study over data using national and regional health reimbursement database over three years (2006-2008). In 2008, the generic HDB's national MPR was 31%. The PR for each dosage were 45% for 0.4 mg, 36% for 2 mg and 19% for 8 mg. The (PR) based on Defined Daily Dose (DDD) was 23% in 2008, 15% in 2007 and 4% in 2006. In 2008, at the regional level, disparities were observed in the adjusted penetration rate from 15% in Île de France to 39% in Champagne Ardennes Lorraine. The national PR of generic HDB has increased. There are differences in MPR in terms of dosage and area. However, this PR is still low (in 2008, 82% of the delivered drugs are generics). © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Molecular archaeology of Flaviviridae untranslated regions: duplicated RNA structures in the replication enhancer of flaviviruses and pestiviruses emerged via convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Dmitri J; Jones, Ian M; Gould, Ernest A; Gritsun, Tamara S

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structures in the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTR) of the viruses of the family Flaviviridae, previously identified as essential (promoters) or beneficial (enhancers) for replication, have been analysed. Duplicated enhancer elements are revealed as a global feature in the evolution of the 3'UTR of distantly related viruses within the genera Flavivirus and Pestivirus. For the flaviviruses, duplicated structures occur in the 3'UTR of all four distantly related ecological virus subgroups (tick-borne, mosquito-borne, no known vector and insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFV). RNA structural differences distinguish tick-borne flaviviruses with discrete pathogenetic characteristics. For Aedes- and Culex-associated ISFV, secondary RNA structures with different conformations display numerous short ssRNA direct repeats, exposed as loops and bulges. Long quadruplicate regions comprise almost the entire 3'UTR of Culex-associated ISFV. Extended duplicated sequence and associated RNA structures were also discovered in the 3'UTR of pestiviruses. In both the Flavivirus and Pestivirus genera, duplicated RNA structures were localized to the enhancer regions of the 3'UTR suggesting an adaptive role predominantly in wild-type viruses. We propose sequence reiteration might act as a scaffold for dimerization of proteins involved in assembly of viral replicase complexes. Numerous nucleotide repeats exposed as loops/bulges might also interfere with host immune responses acting as a molecular sponge to sequester key host proteins or microRNAs.

  20. Kinematic evolution of a regional-scale gravity-driven deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: The Lamu Basin case-history (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Koyi, H. A.; Porreca, M.

    2017-08-01

    The deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DWFTBs) are geological structures recently explored thanks to advances in offshore seismic imaging by oil industry. In this study we present a kinematic analysis based on three balanced cross-sections of depth-converted, 2-D seismic profiles along the offshore Lamu Basin (East African passive margin). This margin is characterized by a regional-scale DWFTB (> 450 km long), which is the product of gravity-driven contraction on the shelf that exhibits complex structural styles and differing amount of shortening along strike. Net shortening is up to 48 km in the northern wider part of the fold-and-thrust belt (≈ 180 km), diminishing to 95% of net shortening was produced in < 10 Myr (during Paleocene). During this acme phase, which followed a period of high sedimentation rate, thrusts were largely synchronous and the shortening rate reached a maximum value of 5 mm/yr. The kinematic evolution reconstructed in this study suggests that the structural evolution of gravity-driven fold-and-thrust belts differs from the accretionary wedges and the collisional fold-and-thrust belts, where thrusts propagate in-sequence and shortening is uniformly accommodated along dip.

  1. Chloroplast DNA analysis of Tunisian cork oak populations (Quercus suber L.): sequence variations and molecular evolution of the trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessamad, A; Baraket, G; Sakka, H; Ammari, Y; Ksontini, M; Hannachi, A Salhi

    2016-10-24

    Sequences of the trnL-trnF spacer and combined trnL-trnF region in chloroplast DNA of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) were analyzed to detect polymorphisms and to elucidate molecular evolution and demographic history. The aligned sequences varied in length and nucleotide composition. The overall ratio of transition/transversion (ti/tv) of 0.724 for the intergenic spacer and 0.258 for the pooled sequences were estimated, and indicated that transversions are more frequent than transitions. The molecular evolution and demographic history of Q. suber were investigated. Neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li) ruled out the null hypothesis of a strictly neutral model, and Fu's Fs and Ramos-Onsins and Rozas' R2 confirmed the recent expansion of cork oak trees, validating its persistency in North Africa since the last glaciation during the Quaternary. The observed uni-modal mismatch distribution and the Harpending's raggedness index confirmed the demographic history model for cork oak. A phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the distribution of Q. suber trees occurs independently of geographical origin, the relief of the population site, and the bioclimatic stages. The molecular history and cytoplasmic diversity suggest that in situ and ex situ conservation strategies can be recommended for preserving landscape value and facing predictable future climatic changes.

  2. The perspective of private practitioners regarding tuberculosis case detection and treatment delay in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimer Solomon A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging all health care providers in tuberculosis (TB control has been incorporated as an essential component of World Health Organization's Stop TB Strategy and the Stop TB Partnership's global plan 2006-2015. Ethiopia has a growing private health sector. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of private practitioners (PPs in TB case detection and assess their perspectives on TB treatment delay in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Results A cross-sectional study among 112 PPs selected from private health facilities (PHF in the region was conducted. The study was carried out between May and August 2008 and data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Group differences were analyzed using one-way Anova test and a p-value of In this study, PPs saw a median of 12 TB suspects and 1.5 patients a week. The mean number of TB suspects and patients seen varied significantly among the different professions with p Conclusion PPs manage a substantial number of TB suspects and patients in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The GHF delay observed among TB patients referred by PPs to GHF is unnecessary. Expanding PPM-DOTS in the region and improving the quality of TB care at both government and private health facilities reduces treatment delay and increases TB case detection.

  3. Evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid coding (P1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Pande, Veena; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket

    2016-07-01

    Three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (P1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolated in India was analysed. The exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the VP3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. Clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. The rate of evolution of the Indian isolates at the capsid region was found to be 4.96×10(-3)substitutions/site/year. The timescale analysis predicted the most recent common ancestor to have existed during 1962 for Indian FMDV serotype A and around 1998 for the deletion group. The evolutionary pattern of serotype A in India appears to be homogeneous as no spatial or temporal structure was observed. Bayesian skyline plots indicate a sharp decline in the effective number of infections after 2008, which might be a result of mass vaccination or inherent loss of virus fitness. Analyses of variability at 38 known antigenically critical positions in a countrywide longitudinal data set suggested that the substitutions neither followed any specific trend nor remained fixed for a long period since frequent reversions and convergence was noticed. A maximum of 6 different amino acid residues was seen in the gene pool at any antigenically critical site over the decades, suggesting a limited combination of residues being responsible for the observed antigenic variation. Evidence of positive selection at some of the antigenically critical residues and the structurally proximal positions suggest a possible role of pre-existing immunity in the host population in driving evolution. The VP1 C-terminus neither revealed variability nor positive selection, suggesting the possibility that this stretch does not contribute to the antigenic variation and adaptation under immune selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Geography of Multinational Corporations in CEE Countries: Perspectives for Second-Tier City Regions and European Cohesion Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Dogaru; Martijn Burger; Frank Van Oort; Bas Karreman

    2014-01-01

    Las mayores disparidades regionales en los países del centro y este de Europa se observan entre las regiones con las capitales y el resto. Las empresas multinacionales invierten en estas regiones por distintas razones, contribuyendo de manera exógena al desarrollo regional. En este artículo, analizamos las decisiones de localización de las inversiones directas extranjeras entre 2003 y 2010. Encontramos que los factores más importantes de las inversiones extranjeras son la accesibilidad del me...

  5. [Evolution of the antipneumococcal vaccination coverage among children in the region of Tarragona, Spain, 2002-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa Gondar, Olga; Gutiérrez Pérez, Antonia; de Diego Cabanes, Cinta; Vila Rovira, Anna; González Lamban, Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    In Catalonia, as in most Spanish regions, the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine is not publicly funded, except for immunocompromised or high-risk children. This study assessed current vaccine coverage in the region of Tarragona, analyzing trends in vaccine uptakes throughout the 2002-2011 period by analyzing uptakes by year of birth. Cross-sectional multicenter study that included all children vaccine status was determined after clinical record review. Vaccine coverages were compared by chi-squared test. Among the total 521 children, 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.8-49.5) had received CPV. Vaccine coverages were 18.5% (95% CI: 9.3-31.4) for children born between 2002-2003, 38.6% (95% CI: 27.2-51.0) in 2004-2005, 62.5% (95% CI: 51.0-73.0) in 2006-2007, 50.8% (95% CI: 41.7-59.8) in 2008-2009 and 44.6% (95% CI: 36.8-51.3) in 2010-2011 (pVaccine coverage can be considered as intermediate/low. In our population, after a rapid initial increase, vaccination uptakes have decreased in the last 4 years, coinciding with the current economic crisis. In our population, after a rapid initial increase, vaccination uptakes have decreased in the last 4 years.

  6. Inferring nonneutral evolution from contrasting patterns of polymorphisms and divergences in different protein coding regions of enterovirus 71 circulating in Taiwan during 1998-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guang-Wu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus (EV 71 is one of the common causative agents for hand, foot, and, mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, the virus caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Despite the importance of these epidemics, several aspects of the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics, including viral nucleotide variations within and between different outbreaks, rates of change in immune-related structural regions vs. non-structural regions, and forces driving the evolution of EV71, are still not clear. Results We sequenced four genomic segments, i.e., the 5' untranslated region (UTR, VP1, 2A, and 3C, of 395 EV71 viral strains collected from 1998 to 2003 in Taiwan. The phylogenies derived from different genomic segments revealed different relationships, indicating frequent sequence recombinations as previously noted. In addition to simple recombinations, exchanges of the P1 domain between different species/genotypes of human enterovirus species (HEV-A were repeatedly observed. Contrasting patterns of polymorphisms and divergences were found between structural (VP1 and non-structural segments (2A and 3C, i.e., the former was less polymorphic within an outbreak but more divergent between different HEV-A species than the latter two. Our computer simulation demonstrated a significant excess of amino acid replacements in the VP1 region implying its possible role in adaptive evolution. Between different epidemic seasons, we observed high viral diversity in the epidemic peaks followed by severe reductions in diversity. Viruses sampled in successive epidemic seasons were not sister to each other, indicating that the annual outbreaks of EV71 were due to genetically distinct lineages. Conclusions Based on observations of accelerated amino acid changes and frequent exchanges of the P1 domain, we propose that positive selection and subsequent frequent domain shuffling are two important mechanisms

  7. Evolution of the Large Scale Circulation, Cloud Structure and Regional Water Cycle Associated with the South China Sea Monsoon During May-June, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Xiao-Fan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, changes in the large-scale circulation, cloud structures and regional water cycle associated with the evolution of the South China Sea (SCS) monsoon in May-June 1998 were investigated using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and field data from the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX). Results showed that both tropical and extratropical processes strongly influenced the onset and evolution of the SCS monsoon. Prior to the onset of the SCS monsoon, enhanced convective activities associated with the Madden and Julian Oscillation were detected over the Indian Ocean, and the SCS was under the influence of the West Pacific Anticyclone (WPA) with prevailing low level easterlies and suppressed convection. Establishment of low-level westerlies across Indo-China, following the development of a Bay of Bengal depression played an important role in building up convective available potential energy over the SCS. The onset of SCS monsoon appeared to be triggered by the equatorward penetration of extratropical frontal system, which was established over the coastal region of southern China and Taiwan in early May. Convective activities over the SCS were found to vary inversely with those over the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). Analysis of TRMM microwave and precipitation radar data revealed that during the onset phase, convection over the northern SCS consisted of squall-type rain cell embedded in meso-scale complexes similar to extratropical systems. The radar Z-factor intensity indicated that SCS clouds possessed a bimodal distribution, with a pronounced signal (less than 30dBz) at a height of 2-3 km, and another one (less than 25 dBz) at the 8-10 km level, separated by a well-defined melting level indicated by a bright band at around 5-km level. The stratiform-to-convective cloud ratio was approximately 1:1 in the pre-onset phase, but increased to 5:1 in the active phase. Regional water budget calculations indicated that during the

  8. Adapting to climate change from a regional perspective : in search of a requisite policy and legal framework for the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Simone; University of Malta. Institute for European Studies; Pace, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the Mediterranean States’ potential in adopting a regional strategy on climate change adaptation. The author proposes a Mediterranean Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change as the first step to a political/legal regional approach to climate change issues that would supplement the multilateral process under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. According to the author such a strategy would enhance cooperation between ...

  9. Regional inequalities in Espirito Santo: perspective of petroleum exploration; Desigualdades regionais no Espirito Santo: perspectivas da fronteira de exploracao petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Viviane Mozine [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Do donate the subject of the present article look to know the possible impacts about the space distribution of the wealth before the tendencies of exploration of petroleum and natural gas in the Espirito Santo it goes: will it be the exploration activity and production of petroleum and natural gas an element of increase of problems of the regional inequalities? The central object is to examines the the distribution of petroleum royalties among the state region, enforcing or finishing it. (author)

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION QUANTITY VARIABILITY BASED ON ESTIMATED CHANGES BY THE REGIONAL CLIMATIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Furtună

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes are representing one of the major challenges of our century, these being forcasted according to climate scenarios and models, which represent plausible and concrete images of future climatic conditions. The results of climate models comparison regarding future water resources and temperature regime trend can become a useful instrument for decision makers in choosing the most effective decisions regarding economic, social and ecologic levels. The aim of this article is the analysis of temperature and pluviometric variability at the closest grid point to Cluj-Napoca, based on data provided by six different regional climate models (RCMs. Analysed on 30 year periods (2001-2030,2031-2060 and 2061-2090, the mean temperature has an ascending general trend, with great varability between periods. The precipitation expressed trough percentage deviation shows a descending general trend, which is more emphazied during 2031-2060 and 2061-2090.

  11. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature.

  12. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornett, Emily A; Moran, Bruce; Reynolds, Louise A; Charlat, Sylvain; Tazzyman, Samuel; Wedell, Nina; Jiggins, Chris D; Hurst, Greg D D

    2014-12-01

    Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging: the normal evolution of ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalues studied in multiple anatomical regions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, Ulrike [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Sedlacik, Jan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Guellmar, Daniel [University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Biomagnetic Center, Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Werner A.; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Reichenbach, Juergen R. [University Hospital Jena, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of our work was to investigate the process of myelination in healthy patients using the diffusion parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative anisotropy (RA), fractional anisotropy (FA), and eigenvalues. Age-dependent changes were assessed using the slope m of the fit functions that best described the data. Seventy-two patients (3 weeks-19 years) without pathological magnetic resonance imaging findings were selected from all pediatric patients scanned with diffusion tensor imaging over a 5-year period at our institution. ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalue maps were calculated and regions of interest were selected in anterior/posterior pons, genu/splenium of corpus callosum (CC), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (IC), and white matter (WM) regions (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital WM). Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Mean values ranged 71.6 x 10{sup -5} to 90.3 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s (pons/parietal WM) for ADC, 0.32-0.94 (frontal WM/CC) for RA, and 0.36-0.81 (frontal WM/splenium) for FA. Logarithmic fit functions best described the data. Strong age influences were observed for CC, pons, and parietal/frontal WM and changes were significant for all three eigenvalues, most pronounced for perpendicular eigenvalues. Changes in RA and FA differed depending on the structure anisotropy. Changes observed for ADC, RA, FA, and eigenvalues with age were consistent with previous findings. Changes detected for RA and FA varied due to the different scaling of both parameters. We found that the use of the largely linear scaled RA adds more valuable information for the assessment of age-dependent structural changes as compared to FA. Additionally, we report normative values for the diffusion parameters studied. (orig.)

  14. Regional variations of perceived problems in ambulatory care from the perspective of general practitioners and their patients - an exploratory focus group study in urban and rural regions of northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H; Pohontsch, N J; Bole, L; Schäfer, I; Scherer, M

    2017-05-25

    Patients from rural and urban regions should have equitable access to health care. In Germany, the physician-patient-ratio and the supply of medical services vary greatly between urban and rural areas. The aim of our study was to explore the regional variations of the perceived health care problems in ambulatory care from the perspective of affected professionals and laypersons i.e. general practitioners and their patients. We conducted 27 focus groups with general practitioners (n = 65) and patients (n = 145) from urban areas, environs and rural areas in northern Germany. Discussions were facilitated by two researchers using a semi-structured guideline. The transcripts were content analyzed using deductive and inductive categories. General practitioners and patients reported problems due to demographic change and patient behaviour, through structural inequalities and the ambulatory reimbursement system as well as with specialist care and inpatient care.