WorldWideScience

Sample records for evolution environmental impacts

  1. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  2. Evolution of DOHaD: the impact of environmental health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, A C; Schug, T T; Collman, G; Heindel, J J

    2015-04-01

    Environmental exposures have a significant influence on the chronic health conditions plaguing children and adults. Although the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm historically has focused on nutrition, an expanding body of research specifically communicates the effects of chemical exposures on early-life development and the propagation of non-communicable disease across the lifespan. This paper provides an overview of 20 years of research efforts aimed at identifying critical windows of susceptibility to environmental exposures and the signaling changes and epigenetic influences associated with disease progression. DOHaD grants funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in 1991, 2001 and 2011 are identified by grant-analysis software, and each portfolio is analyzed for exposures, disease endpoints, windows of exposure, study design and impact on the field based on publication data. Results show that the 1991 and 2001 portfolios comprised metals, PCBs and air pollutants; however, by 2011, the portfolio has evolved to include or expand the variety of endocrine disruptors, pesticides/persistent organic pollutants and metals. An assortment of brain-health endpoints is most targeted across the portfolios, whereas reproduction and cancer increase steadily over the same time period, and new endpoints like obesity are introduced by 2011. With mounting evidence connecting early-life exposures to later-life disease, we conclude that it is critical to expand the original DOHaD concept to include environmental chemical exposures, and to continue a research agenda that emphasizes defining sensitive windows of exposure and the mechanisms that cause disease.

  3. COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CED STUDIO IN TWO ARCHITECTURE SCHOOLS IN KARACHI: EVOLUTION, PROCESS AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, a studio module was introduced in the final year studies of Bachelor of Architecture programme at the Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi which was the only architecture school in the city at that time. A key objective of this studio module was to sensitize the ‘architects in making’ about context of the built environment, the process through which it was shaped and the forces that contributed in its shaping. The students were assigned to study a micro urban area for indepth investigation and analysis. At the conclusion, analytical presentations followed that also included basic proposals for addressing problems that were identified in the studio exercise. Begun in Dawood College, the studio was adopted by many schools of architecture in the country including the NED University, Karachi. This studio had multiple impacts. Understanding the realities behind creation of urban built environment, realization of multiple roles for professional contribution to ongoing metamorphosis and appreciation of diverse fields of studies within the domain of architectural education and practice were some of the vital aspects. The objectives of this paper are to document the evolution and process of CED studio work. The paper also aims to study the affects of CED work on the perception, understandings and professional orientation of architects who graduated from the schools where CED studio was conducted.

  4. Human-caused environmental change: impacts on plant diversity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, D; Lehman, C

    2001-05-08

    Human-caused environmental changes are creating regional combinations of environmental conditions that, within the next 50 to 100 years, may fall outside the envelope within which many of the terrestrial plants of a region evolved. These environmental modifications might become a greater cause of global species extinction than direct habitat destruction. The environmental constraints undergoing human modification include levels of soil nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and pH, atmospheric CO(2), herbivore, pathogen, and predator densities, disturbance regimes, and climate. Extinction would occur because the physiologies, morphologies, and life histories of plants limit each species to being a superior competitor for a particular combination of environmental constraints. Changes in these constraints would favor a few species that would competitively displace many other species from a region. In the long-term, the "weedy" taxa that became the dominants of the novel conditions imposed by global change should become the progenitors of a series of new species that are progressively less weedy and better adapted to the new conditions. The relative importance of evolutionary versus community ecology responses to global environmental change would depend on the extent of regional and local recruitment limitation, and on whether the suite of human-imposed constraints were novel just regionally or on continental or global scales.

  5. Evolution of disposable baby diapers in Europe: life cycle assessment of environmental impacts and identification of key areas of improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cordella, Mauro; Bauer, Iris; Lehmann, Anja; Schulz, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental aspects related to the life cycle of disposable baby diapers in Europe is presented in this paper with the aim of analysing recent improvements and identifying key environmental areas on which to focus in order to further decrease impacts. Average products available on the European market in recent years have been modelled and evaluated from “cradle to grave”. Results point out the importance of materials in the definition of the environmental ...

  6. Improving diet sustainability through evolution of food choices: review of epidemiological studies on the environmental impact of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, Marlène; Vieux, Florent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Masset, Gabriel; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization defines sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, safe, healthy, culturally acceptable, economically affordable diets that have little environmental impact. This review summarizes the studies assessing, at the individual level, both the environmental impact and the nutritional quality or healthiness of self-selected diets. Reductions in meat consumption and energy intake were identified as primary factors for reducing diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. The choice of foods to replace meat, however, was crucial, with some isocaloric substitutions possibly increasing total diet greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, nutritional adequacy was rarely or only partially assessed, thereby compromising the assessment of diet sustainability. Furthermore, high nutritional quality was not necessarily associated with affordability or lower environmental impact. Hence, when identifying sustainable diets, each dimension needs to be assessed by relevant indicators. Finally, some nonvegetarian self-selected diets consumed by a substantial fraction of the population showed good compatibility with the nutritional, environmental, affordability, and acceptability dimensions. Altogether, the reviewed studies revealed the scarcity of standardized nationally representative data for food prices and environmental indicators and suggest that diet sustainability might be increased without drastic dietary changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  8. Evolution of environmental cues for phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypically plastic characters may respond to multiple variables in their environment, but the evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon have rarely been addressed theoretically. We model the evolution of linear reaction norms in response to several correlated environmental variables, in a population undergoing stationary environmental fluctuations. At evolutionary equilibrium, the linear combination of environmental variables that acts as a developmental cue for the plastic trait is the multivariate best linear predictor of changes in the optimum. However, the reaction norm with respect to any single environmental variable may exhibit nonintuitive patterns. Apparently maladaptive, or hyperadaptive plasticity can evolve with respect to single environmental variables, and costs of plasticity may increase, rather than reduce, plasticity in response to some variables. We also find conditions for the evolution of an indirect environmental indicator that affects expression of a plastic phenotype, despite not influencing natural selection on it. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. X-ray study of the environmental impact on the initial stages of a radio source evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, M.; Siemiginowska, A.; Migliori, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Hardcastle, M.; Ostorero, L.; Stawarz, L.

    2017-10-01

    Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are thought to be among the progenitors of large-scale radio galaxies. They show radio features typically observed in large-scale radio galaxies (jets, lobes, hot spots), but contained within the central 1 kpc region of the host galaxy. Because the CSOs are symmetric and not affected by beaming, their linear radio size can be translated into the source age if one measures the expansion velocity of the radio source. However, if the jet expansion is disturbed, e.g. by a dense interstellar medium (ISM), the ages derived this way may be biased. Until now we did not have means to discriminate between confined and non-confined radio sources. We present our X-ray studies of CSOs performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra. For the first time, the data reveal the evidence in favor of the hypothesis that in a sub-population of CSOs the medium is Compton Thick and the radio jets may be confined. Thus their kinematic ages may be underestimated. We discuss the implications of our results on the high energy emission models of CSOs, the earliest stages of the radio source evolution, jet interactions with the ISM, diversity of the environments in which the jets expand, and jet-galaxy co-evolution.

  11. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Environmental impacts of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eunice; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-12-18

    Divorce is increasingly common around the world. Its causes, dynamics, and socioeconomic impacts have been widely studied, but little research has addressed its environmental impacts. We found that average household size (number of people in a household) in divorced households (households with divorced heads) was 27-41% smaller than married households (households with married heads) in 12 countries across the world around the year 2000 (between 1998 and 2002). If divorced households had combined to have the same average household size as married households, there could have been 7.4 million fewer households in these countries. Meanwhile, the number of rooms per person in divorced households was 33-95% greater than in married households. In the United States (U.S.) in 2005, divorced households spent 46% and 56% more on electricity and water per person than married households. Divorced households in the U.S. could have saved more than 38 million rooms, 73 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, and 627 billion gallons of water in 2005 alone if their resource-use efficiency had been comparable to married households. Furthermore, U.S. households that experienced divorce used 42-61% more resources per person than before their dissolution. Remarriage of divorced household heads increased household size and reduced resource use to levels similar to those of married households. The results suggest that mitigating the impacts of resource-inefficient lifestyles such as divorce helps to achieve global environmental sustainability and saves money for households.

  13. Ejecta evolution during cone impact

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2014-07-07

    We present findings from an experimental investigation into the impact of solid cone-shaped bodies onto liquid pools. Using a variety of cone angles and liquid physical properties, we show that the ejecta formed during the impact exhibits self-similarity for all impact speeds for very low surface tension liquids, whilst for high-surface tension liquids similarity is only achieved at high impact speeds. We find that the ejecta tip can detach from the cone and that this phenomenon can be attributed to the air entrainment phenomenon. We analyse of a range of cone angles, including some ogive cones, and impact speeds in terms of the spatiotemporal evolution of the ejecta tip. Using superhydrophobic cones, we also examine the entry of cones which entrain an air layer.

  14. Environmental Impact of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement and concrete industries are huge. What does this mean in terms of the environment? Concrete and other cementitious materials have both environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper takes a look at how these materials are made, then reviews a number of environmental considerations relating to their production and use.

  15. Risks and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In environmental matters as in other fields, managing a crisis is always more perilous and the results more uncertain than taking preventive measures beforehand. Prevention in environmental matters involves far more than border controls, although those are essential. In New Caledonia perhaps more than elsewhere, an appropriate strategy would also involve monitoring contamination within the territory, particularly island-to-island transfers. Some species may be inoffensive in one part of the t...

  16. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  17. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banks and donors, as well as capacity building activities initiated in the wake of the Rio Declaration.9. Ethiopia ..... the resource base;. • optimizing natural resource use, conservation and management opportunities; .... Environmental Impact Assessment Office of the Addis Ababa City Environmental. Protection Authority. 73.

  19. Environmental Impacts - Marine Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brander, K.; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, Jan P.; Beaugrand, G.; Herr, H.; Garthe, S.; Gilles, A.; Kenny, Andrew; Siebert, Ursula; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Tulp, I.Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a review of what is known about the impacts of climate change on the biota (plankton, benthos, fish, seabirds and marine mammals) of the North Sea. Examples show how the changing North Sea environment is affecting biological processes and organisation at all scales, including

  20. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    , health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...... which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...

  1. Nearshore Berm Discussion Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    straight lines through the sample* *Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater BUILDING STRONG® Definitions • Traditional Placement...drift algae that covers 10 to 100 percent of a substrate* * http://myfwc.com BUILDING STRONG® Definition of Placement Operations Hopper or Split...National Audubon Society, Inc. BUILDING STRONG® Potential Environmental Impacts Nearshore Hardbottom  Support diverse assemblages of algae

  2. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  3. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  4. Environmental impacts of energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R. [Univ. of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Photovoltaics Applications Centre

    1994-12-31

    The cost of energy which society uses has components which we do not pay to utilities but which are met from taxation or through reduced wellbeing. These external costs are often related to environmental impacts, but also include social costs related to energy production in ways which are not simple or direct. This paper discusses the methodologies by which external costs can be quantified and addresses some of the issues on which an international consensus has not yet been reached. (author)

  5. Environmental impact case study : Martinsville bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    At the request of the Environmental Quality Division, the Environmental and Economics Section of the Virginia Highway Research Council conducted an environmental impact study of the proposed Route 220 bypass around Martinsville. This evaluation of th...

  6. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  7. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  8. Evolution under environmental stress at macro- and microscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589-610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717-745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and local stresses based primarily on my own research programs. These examples will include the 1) global regional and local experiment of subterranean mammals; 2) regional experiment of fungal life in the Dead Sea; 3) evolution of wild cereals; 4) "Evolution Canyon"; 5) human brain evolution, and 6) global warming.

  9. Evolution Under Environmental Stress at Macro- and Microscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589–610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717–745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and local stresses based primarily on my own research programs. These examples will include the 1) global regional and local experiment of subterranean mammals; 2) regional experiment of fungal life in the Dead Sea; 3) evolution of wild cereals; 4) “Evolution Canyon”; 5) human brain evolution, and 6) global warming. PMID:21979157

  10. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  11. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section 266.19... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.19 Environmental impact. (a) General. The Administrator has determined that providing... improvement assistance—(1) Environmental assessment. (i) When an applicant requests substitute service...

  12. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific objective hereto is to appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology in demonstrating how the Niger Delta Environment can be preserved for future generation. This paper affirms that Environmental Impact Assessment laws are strictly ...

  13. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, disposition of Bureau of Mines... 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(C)), the National Park...

  14. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of environmental threats to farm lands and the environment in the selected areas. Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a result of land exposure ...

  15. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  16. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    In a recent article in "Science" discussing the Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Gillette (1971) states "The law's instructions for preparing an impact report apparently are not specific enough to insure that an agency will fully, or even usefully, examine the environmental effects of the projects it plans." This report contains a procedure that may assist in developing uniform environmental impact statements. The Department of the Interior and the Council on Environmental Quality will appreciate comments on the procedure here proposed.

  17. Environmental Influences on Pleistocene Hominid Dental Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Considers natural and cultural environmental factors likely to have been responsible for reduction in size of hominid teeth and simplification of their morphology during the Pleistocene. Cites fossil evidence and postulates selective mechanisms. (EB)

  18. Quantitative trait evolution and environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the recent changes in climate, there is an urgent need to understand the evolutionary ability of populations to respond to these changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed individual-based simulations with different shapes of the fitness curve, different heritabilities, different levels of density compensation, and different autocorrelation of environmental noise imposed on an environmental trend to study the ability of a population to adapt to changing conditions. The main finding is that when there is a positive autocorrelation of environmental noise, the outcome of the evolutionary process is much more unpredictable compared to when the noise has no autocorrelation. In addition, we found that strong selection resulted in a higher load, and more extinctions, and that this was most pronounced when heritability was low. The level of density-compensation was important in determining the variance in load when there was strong selection, and when genetic variance was lower when the level of density-compensation was low. CONCLUSIONS: The strong effect of the details of the environmental fluctuations makes predictions concerning the evolutionary future of populations very hard to make. In addition, to be able to make good predictions we need information on heritability, fitness functions and levels of density compensation. The results strongly suggest that patterns of environmental noise must be incorporated in future models of environmental change, such as global warming.

  19. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botdorf, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement presents the impacts associated with the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of mission diversification and changes to land use for Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona...

  20. Evolution of households' responses to the groundwater arsenic crisis in Bangladesh: information on environmental health risks can have increasing behavioral impact over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Soumya; Pfaff, Alexander; Bennear, Lori; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Schoenfeld, Amy; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A national campaign of well testing through 2003 enabled households in rural Bangladesh to switch, at least for drinking, from high-arsenic wells to neighboring lower-arsenic wells. We study the well-switching dynamics over time by re-interviewing, in 2008, a randomly selected subset of households in the Araihazar region who had been interviewed in 2005. Contrary to concerns that the impact of arsenic information on switching behavior would erode over time, we find that not only was 2003-2005 switching highly persistent but also new switching by 2008 doubled the share of households at unsafe wells who had switched. The passage of time also had a cost: 22% of households did not recall test results by 2008. The loss of arsenic knowledge led to staying at unsafe wells and switching from safe wells. Our results support ongoing well testing for arsenic to reinforce this beneficial information.

  1. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  2. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  3. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water resources development; to assess the major challenges to sustainable environmental systems from water resources development perspectives, and to identify major environmental issues that need to ...

  5. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  6. Environmental influences on the evolution of body size in Ammonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, S.; Khong, C.; Pelagio, M.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    A major debate in evolutionary biology and paleobiology focuses on the relative importance of ecological interactions between species versus changes in the physical environment in governing large-scale evolutionary patterns. Body size is among the most important traits of any organism, and so identifying the factors that influence size evolution can shed light on both the causes and consequences of many major evolutionary trends. However, the extent to which body size evolution over time can be explained by changes in the physical versus ecological context remains unknown. In this study, we examined body size evolution in ammonoids, an extinct group of marine cephalopods. We collected a representative body size for each genus from illustrated specimens in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We then examined relative statistical support for six models of size evolution: random walk, directional trend, stasis, and environmental control by oxygen availability, temperature, and global sea level. No model is unambiguously supported over all others. Unbiased random walk was the best supported model (34%) and environmental control by atmospheric pO2 was the second best supported model (22%). Stasis received the least support (evolution of ammonoid size over the entire history of this clade. We speculate that controls on ammonoid size evolution varied through geological time, both due to long-term shifts in the ecological structure of marine communities and short-term perturbations associated with major extinction events.

  7. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  8. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  9. 1995 Environmental Trends Impacts Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-08

    multirnediJ efforts may increase consdicfmd cross- pro€ r m / m u It i med i a I nspzc t I o 115 L) t Army i nstal 1 J t i mi F by reg u I a t cirs 111 II...Environmental education programs. in the K- 12 level pamcularfy. have expanded as a result of the Nimonal Environmental Education . k t of 1990. Public

  10. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  11. Assigment of environmental aspect and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management system (EMS is a part of the management system that includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. The EMS provides the order and consistency for organizations to adress environmental cocerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, and the ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. The ISO 14001 requires the implementation of the EMS in accordance with defined, internationally recognized standards. The ISO standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects & impacts of products (activities services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation & operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking &corrective action, and management review. The Environmental aspect is an element of organization’s activities, product or services that can interact with the environment. A significant environmental aspect is that with a significant environmental impact. The environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an oranization’s activities, products or services.

  12. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  13. Low-Environmental Impact Tram Vehicle Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an assessment of the range of low-environmental impact tram vehicles that could be used at National Wildlife Refuges and public lands throughout...

  14. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  15. Potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the overall evaluation of this scheme included an assessment of the potential environmental impacts that could arise. An initial environmental evaluation was conducted from a point approximately 40 kilometres upstream of Rundu in Namibia, to the distal end of the Okavango Delta at Maun in Botswana. Hydrological ...

  16. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer...

  17. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed action...

  18. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal... is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... the potential for impacts and issues associated with various socioeconomic and environmental resources...

  19. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  20. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little consideration has been given to the environmental impact of gaseous anaesthetic use. All currently used volatile anaesthetics are halogenated and chemically similar to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), giving them the potential to impact the environment negatively via both ozone depletion and global warming. Overall ...

  1. Environmental impact of seasonal integrated aquaculture ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of fingerponds, particularly on hydrology and biodiversity, was low, although land-use changes at the immediate site where the ponds were dug had direct impacts. Whereas this study was based on short-term monitoring of experimental fingerponds, scaling up of these systems may increase their ...

  2. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  3. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  4. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  5. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  6. Impact of evolution on the eustachian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2008-03-01

    I posit that humans appear to be the only species that develops otitis media. If animals in the wild had developed middle-ear disease to any significant degree, they would have been selected out during evolution because they would not have survived their predators given the associated hearing loss. Why do humans have otitis media? Evolution has had a significant impact. It is well known that humans are born 12 months too early, which is the result of adaptations to bipedalism and our big brain that, over time, resulted in a relatively small female pelvic outlet compared with nonhuman primates. As a consequence of too early a birth, not only is our immune system immature, but the eustachian tube is too short and floppy in the first year of life. But why is otitis media still common in older individuals? What other adaptation is uniquely human? We developed speech that was associated with descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, which, along with a decrease in prognathism (i.e., facial flattening), resulted in a change in palatal morphology as compared with other primates. Comparative anatomic and physiologic studies have demonstrated significant differences between humans and monkeys, especially in the muscles of the eustachian tube. Paradoxic constriction, as apposed to dilation, on swallowing is a common tubal dysfunction in humans and certain monkey models with chronic middle-ear effusion. My hypothesis is that chronic otitis media with effusion in patients with tubal constriction is a consequence of adaptation for speech and that, most likely, the levator veli palatini muscle is the cause.

  7. The Evolution of Environmental Policy in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Louis Edmonds

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how the evolution of China’s policy and study of the environment are reflected in the scholarly literature, paying special attention to the impact of the country’s environmental developments on international relations. In particular, it examines accounts of how China has moved from an isolated national scientific and environmental control infrastructure into the centre of international environmental debates as its society has opened and the geographical scale of ecological problems has expanded. The paper also identifies the continuing inhibitors to China’s ability to control environmental degradation – including lack of transparency, elite manipulation, and bureaucratic weaknesses – despite the opening of China’s system to limited participation of civil society in its environmental debates.

  8. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  9. Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betton, C. I.

    Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

  10. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  11. 78 FR 37846 - Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement... from various resource management alternatives contained in the subject document. The Final EIS/EIR: (1... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area Resource...

  12. Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Tikul, Nachawit; Srichandr, Panya

    2011-01-01

    Building and construction has consumed a lot of various resources and emitted pollution.  These cause environmental problems, especially global warming.  The buildings and constructions in various regions and different styles will lead to different environmental problems and levels of seriousness.   The objective of this research is to assess the global warming impact from the use of construction materials in residential buildings since this type of buildin...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  14. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  15. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F D; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-12-19

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle-income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8-12.2%, 7.7-19.4%, and 7.2-18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4-17.0%, 24.5-31.9%, and 8.8-14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19-0.53 Gt CO2 eq⋅a-1, 4.32-10.6 Gt [Formula: see text] eq⋅a-1, and 1.5-2.8 million km2, while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  17. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  18. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  19. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management... examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used throughout the... Impact Statement To examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used...

  20. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  1. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for proposed transportation improvements in Davis County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program...

  2. The Environmental Impacts Of The Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Sergey; Efimov, Viktor; Korchagina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the main indicators of the Russian coal industry's impact on the environment: the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere for the year 2016 compared with 2015. It also identifies actual values of the environmental safety targets of the coal industry and the main investments in the nature protection. For prevention, restriction and minimization the negative impact on the environment, the coal industry has proposed the packages of managerial and technical measures.

  3. The environmental policy of companies: evolutions and perspectives; La politique environnementale des entreprises: evolutions et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarq, F.; Martin, V.

    1999-07-01

    This document presents the stakes of the environmental management in French companies and the role played by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME) in adapting the French environmental plan, developed by the public authorities, to the small and medium-size companies and industries. The risks of environmental impact are numerous and linked with a bad mastery of the consumption of raw materials, energy and water and with a bad control of waste effluents (impact on ecosystems and on public health). In order to facilitate the application of the environmental plan, the international standard organization (ISO) has developed the series of ISO 14000 standards. This work was carried out by the technical committee 207 which has developed a common approach for the environmental management of processes and products. This paper focusses on the ISO 14001 standard, on its philosophy and on its accreditation procedure, and on the application of the European eco-audit regulation for the promotion of the continuous improvement of the environmental performances of companies. The Ademe has developed the 'company environment plan' (PEE) in order to define, grade and quantify the objectives of an environmental policy at the scale of companies. Different types of environmental indicators can be defined to characterize the environmental impact of the activities of companies and reported in an 'environmental report' in order to precise the financial effort made by companies to respect the regulations or to evaluate the possible financial consequences of the non-respect of the environmental regulations. (J.S.)

  4. Environmental variations drive polyploid evolution in neotropical Eugenia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R M; Machado, R M; Forni-Martins, E R; Verola, C F; Costa, I R

    2016-10-24

    Polyploidy is one of the most important mechanisms of speciation and diversification in plant evolution. Polyploidy results in genetic variation among individuals of the same species and even between populations, and may be responsible for differences in environmental tolerance between populations of the same species. This study determined chromosome numbers of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae, x = 11) for 26 populations of 14 species by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Nine species (13 populations) were diploid (2n = 2x = 22), but diploid and/or polyploid cytotypes were found in the other five species (13 populations), with 2n = 33, 2n = 44, and 2n = 55. Data on chromosome number/ploidy level for other Eugenia species/populations were collected from the literature and included in this cytogeographic analysis. For each collection point (32 species and 62 populations), environmental variables were recorded using georeferencing techniques through the DIVA-GIS v.7.5 program. Environmental variables such as temperature, altitude, rainfall, solar radiation, soil type, and vegetation were analyzed with the R program, using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests, principal component analysis, and graphic analyses, such as scatterplots, boxplots, and barplot. Polyploid and diploid populations had different spatial distribution patterns and were found in areas subjected to different environmental conditions. Polyploid individuals were collected from locations with more adverse environmental conditions, usually at higher elevations than the diploid individuals. Polyploidy allows species to occur at locations with varying environmental conditions. As diploidy and polyploidy occur under different environmental conditions, species with cytotypes exhibit wide environmental tolerance.

  5. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  6. 77 FR 67345 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Clearwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Corps of Engineers (Corps) in conjunction with the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Sanitation Districts) has completed a Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Clearwater Program AGENCY: U.S...

  7. Post-construction environmental and social impact analysis (ESIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harcourt – Eungu highway in Southeastern Nigeria. The impact study focused on the Environmental and Social Impact Analysis (ESIA) because of the social and environmental impacts of road projects. The basic tool used in this analysis is ...

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring under Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring under Ethiopian Law. AA Tesfaye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  9. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species Structure in a Near Coastal Tropical River, Southeastern Nigeria. ... Eighteen physico-chemical parameters were sampled and analyzed using standard and analytical methods of water analysis. Generated databases obtained were subjected to statistical ...

  10. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss c...

  11. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  12. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  13. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  14. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  15. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  17. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action involving...

  18. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-prepared final generic environmental impact statements; environmental assessments and records of decisions... impact statement for the post operating or post combined license stage or an environmental assessment, as... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95...

  19. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental...

  20. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  1. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposal or its impacts. (b) Preparation. (1) Except for proposals for legislation, environmental impact... interest in the outcome of the project. (h) Proposals for Legislation. Legislative environmental impact... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section...

  2. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.

  3. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru, E-mail: hanzawa@ngk.co.jp [NGK Insulators, LTD., Mizuho, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO{sub 2} produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO{sub 2} by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  5. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact...

  6. Significance of Environmental Density in Shocked Poststarburst Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliff, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Shocked POstarbusrt Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) comprises 1,066 galaxies undergoing the transformation from blue cloud late-type spirals to red sequence non-star-forming early-type ellipticals and lenticulars. They are selected via spectral analysis of ionized gas line ratios, which indicate shocked objects, and Balmer H-δ equivalent width, which select recently formed stars, but not active star formation. E+A galaxies (Zabludoff et al. 1996), like SPOGs, contain young stars but, unlike SPOGs, no emission lines consistent with star formation. They differ in that the quality used to discern SPOGs, their shocks, produces H-α lines that prevent them from being found via the same criteria as E+As. Thus, SPOGs can be found before being entirely stripped of their gas, and, while E+As are largely red and dead, found leaving the green valley, SPOGS are mostly entering it. The environmental density data for SPOGs was retrieved via the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) radial velocity constrained cone tool, which provides counts and densities within spheres of radii 1, 5, and 10 Mpc from the center of search as well as relative positions and redshifts of objects. The kinematic morphology-density relation (Cappellari et al. 2011) is employed as a point of comparison for how SPOGs’ environmental densities might relate to morphological and spectroscopic factors, including tidal features, asymmetry, and color, in order to fully understand the role of environmental factors in SPOGS object evolution.

  7. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before an accurate model of transformations and transport of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  8. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be...

  10. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at Henness...

  11. Environmental impact of mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Francisco; Saenz-Díez, Juan-Carlos; Martínez, Eduardo; Jiménez, Emilio; Blanco, Julio

    2016-09-01

    This research analyses the environmental impact of the creation of Agaricus bisporus compost packages. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs-outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a 1 year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Companies' strategies to decrease environmental impacts: the French example of the environmental impacts assessments law implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Borderon, Séverine; Sanseverino-Godfrin, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Companies' impacts on biodiversity can provoke irreversible damage. Biodiversity is drastically decreasing, and alarming preoccupations related to climate change arise. It is important to take conscience that humans' activities play an important part on such a result. In order to help companies to limit their impact on biodiversity, the law has developed tools such as environmental impact assessments. It aims at responsibilising firms by improving their knowledge on th...

  13. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  14. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. A theoretical model of the evolution of actuarial senescence under environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H; Cohen, A A; Isaksson, C

    2015-11-01

    Free-living organisms are exposed to a wide range of stressors, all of which can disrupt components of stress-related and detoxification physiology. The subsequent accumulation of somatic damage is widely believed to play a major role in the evolution of senescence. Organisms have evolved sophisticated physiological regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental perturbations, but these systems are likely to be constrained in their ability to optimise robustness to multiple stressors due to functional correlations among related traits. While evolutionary change can accelerate due to human ecological impacts, it remains to be understood how exposure to multiple environmental stressors could affect senescence rates and subsequently population dynamics and fitness. We used a theoretical evolutionary framework to quantify the potential consequences for the evolution of actuarial senescence in response to exposure to simultaneous physiological stressors--one versus multiple and additive versus synergistic--in a hypothetical population of avian "urban adapters". In a model in which multiple stressors have additive effects on physiology, species may retain greater capacity to recover, or respond adaptively, to environmental challenges. However, in the presence of high synergy, physiological dysregulation suddenly occurs, leading to a rapid increase in age-dependent mortality and subsequent population collapse. Our results suggest that, if the synergistic model is correct, population crashes in environmentally-stressed species could happen quickly and with little warning, as physiological thresholds of stress resistance are overcome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  17. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  18. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  19. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  1. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  2. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  3. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a legislative...

  4. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and final...

  6. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management... environmental impact statement and notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service plans to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to...

  7. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure project in Los Angeles...

  8. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4699] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8988-6] Environmental Impact Statements...-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02... Impacts, Oakland City to Washington, (IN-64 to US 50), Gibson, Pike and Daviess Counties, IN, Wait Period...

  9. 76 FR 6461 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 01/24/2011 through 01/28/2011 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In..., Evaluates Environmental Impacts of Stationing Army Combat Aviation Brigade at Fort Carson, CO and Joint Base...

  10. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation... Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a project that involves improved...

  11. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek...

  12. 75 FR 69154 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed 24th Street Improvement Project in Kern...

  13. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion and...

  14. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  15. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... Transportation (MDOT), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or...

  16. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  17. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Caddo... Council of Governments (NLCOG), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to...

  18. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Interstate 66 Corridor Tier 1 Final Environmental Impact Statement and Tier 1 Record of Decision, Contact...

  19. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  20. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I...

  1. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  2. The Ecology and Environmental Impact of Fanwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-15

    1992 4. TITLM ANO SU*TE SL PUNDING The Ecology and Environmental Impact of Fanwort E.O. Gangstad, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, D.C. 20314...Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 woads) Fanwort , Cab.mba aro.Qliniana(Gray) is frequently found in acid ponds...Availability Codes Avail and/ or ABSTRACT Special d/7- Fanwort , Cabomba caroliniana (Gray) is frequently found in acid ponds, lakes and quiet streams with a pH

  3. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  4. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Report and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... need for the EITP project is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application for a right.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2 Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING CODE...

  5. 75 FR 80068 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Report/Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... for the EITP is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application under Title V of the.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING CODE...

  6. 77 FR 59180 - Withdrawal of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study, Los... the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study in the Federal Register on September 20, 2005 (70 FR 55116). The study's purpose is to evaluate structural and non-structural means of restoring...

  7. Three topics to the evolution of the environmetal impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verna Coronado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies three topics in order to evaluate the improvements in the regulation of the National System of EnvironmentalImpact Assessment, looking to benefit the people’s trust in the environmental certification. The first one consists in the gradual transition from the prevention paradigm to the integration one, as the purpose of the different instruments that compose the system; the second involves the enrichment in the evaluation of the Environmental Impact Study (EIS, by incorporating the scoping phase; and the third involves adopting additional measures that reinforce the independence of the teams in charge of the elaboration and evaluation of the EIS.

  8. Trophic specialization influences the rate of environmental niche evolution in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Forest, Félix; Lexer, Christian; Pearman, Peter B.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Salamin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The rate of environmental niche evolution describes the capability of species to explore the available environmental space and is known to vary among species owing to lineage-specific factors. Trophic specialization is a main force driving species evolution and is responsible for classical examples of adaptive radiations in fishes. We investigate the effect of trophic specialization on the rate of environmental niche evolution in the damselfish, Pomacentridae, which is an important family of tropical reef fishes. First, phylogenetic niche conservatism is not detected in the family using a standard test of phylogenetic signal, and we demonstrate that the environmental niches of damselfishes that differ in trophic specialization are not equivalent while they still overlap at their mean values. Second, we estimate the relative rates of niche evolution on the phylogenetic tree and show the heterogeneity among rates of environmental niche evolution of the three trophic groups. We suggest that behavioural characteristics related to trophic specialization can constrain the evolution of the environmental niche and lead to conserved niches in specialist lineages. Our results show the extent of influence of several traits on the evolution of the environmental niche and shed new light on the evolution of damselfishes, which is a key lineage in current efforts to conserve biodiversity in coral reefs. PMID:22719034

  9. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts...

  11. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through 06/25/210. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  12. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through 12/30/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  13. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street... comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  14. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03/04/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice: In...

  15. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through 01/04/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  16. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare and...

  17. 78 FR 78955 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/16/2013 through 12/20/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  18. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/11/2010 Through 10/15/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  19. 78 FR 5439 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/14/2013 Through 01/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section 309...

  20. 75 FR 72823 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements ] Filed 11/15/2010 Through 11/19/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  1. 78 FR 4143 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/07/2013 Through 01/11/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  2. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK ACTION: Notice of intent... issuing this notice to advise the public that FHWA will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Meetings will be held in the early Spring of 2013 to receive oral and written comments on environmental...

  3. 76 FR 36613 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the proposed United... (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory...

  4. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  5. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... variety of environmental impacts, the sensitive environmental nature of the proposed site, and/or the existence of highly controversial environmental impacts. (b) CEQ regulations. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR..., interested organizations and persons, including minority and low-income populations. The grantee and OPD...

  6. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Impact phenomena as factors in the evolution of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 to 200 large impact basins could have been formed on the early Earth. These large impacts may have resulted in extensive volcanism and enhanced endogenic geologic activity over large areas. Initial modelling of the thermal and subsidence history of large terrestrial basins indicates that they created geologic and thermal anomalies which lasted for geologically significant times. The role of large-scale impact in the biological evolution of the Earth has been highlighted by the discovery of siderophile anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and associated with North American microtektites. Although in neither case has an associated crater been identified, the observations are consistent with the deposition of projectile-contaminated high-speed ejecta from major impact events. Consideration of impact processes reveals a number of mechanisms by which large-scale impact may induce extinctions.

  8. Impact of environmental factors on lung defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The lungs are one of the most important organs exposed to environmental agents. The lungs have the ability to protect themselves by both immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms. An individual's susceptibility to the impact of environmental agents will determine their adverse effects. This article focuses on air pollution, in particular ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM and sulphur dioxide (SO2. O3 inhalation first modifies the ciliary cells. O3 is an extremely strong oxidant, since it increases the permeability of epithelial cells and decreases mucociliary clearance. NO2 is a less potent and less reactive oxidant pollutant and impairs the function of epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. PM induces oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells, and increases tumour necrosis factor-beta, interleukin (IL-6, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta and nuclear factor-kappaB. Diesel exhaust particulate, contained in PM, increases IL-8 production. High concentrations of SO2 increase the production of reactive oxygen species in the lungs. In conclusion, air pollution certainly interferes with aspecific and specific lung defences, thus facilitating the development of pulmonary diseases, such as exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergies and asthma.

  9. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  10. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  11. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of

  12. Environmental impacts of changes to healthier diets in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Koning, A. de; Verheijden, M.; Kleijn, R.; Wolf, O.; Pérez-Domínguez, I.; Rueda-Cantuche, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Food consumption causes, together with mobility, shelter and the use of electrical products, most life cycle impacts of consumption. Meat and dairy are among the highest contributors to environmental impacts from food consumption. A healthier diet might have less environmental impacts. Using the

  13. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria and the process of delivering it was examined with oil and gas projects. ... Analysis of data/sample and impact quantification; Drafting of EIA report of impact quantification through which the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is obtained to ...

  14. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  15. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  16. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...... * Nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) * Photochemical ozone formation (smog) * Stratospheric ozone depletion This set of well-established impact categories is commonly used and spans the main part of the environmental concerns that are presently generally considered important. Core activities at the origin...... of environmental impacts From analysing the data and models applied in the considered studies, it has been found that the by far largest share of the major environmental pressures affecting those environmental impact categories originate from a limited number of human activities referred to as "core activities...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  19. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin, H; Gates, R. S; Green, A. R; Mitloehner, F. M; Moore, P. A; Wathes, C. M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified...

  20. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  1. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  2. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  3. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  4. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  5. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  6. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  7. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  8. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  9. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Environmental Management Act. Effort should focus on public awareness and human resource capacity development so that the EIA process is diligently executed and that enforcement and follow-ups are properly done by the Department of Environmental Affairs which is a lead agency on environmental issues in Malawi.

  10. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  11. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  12. Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, van der F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Verweij, P.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  13. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  14. Decreasing the overall environmental impact of the Dutch diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Gerard F.H.; Tyszler, Marcelo; Veer, van 't Pieter; Blonk, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. Design: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9–69 years,

  15. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  16. 76 FR 49526 - Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared to respond to the terms of the existing Trunk Highway (TH) 53 easement across the United Taconite mine. FOR FURTHER...

  17. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction.

  18. Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While a neglected area of research, the environmental impacts of hosting mega events have increasingly been highlighted with a focus on the carbon footprint of mega events and the notion of the greening of events. This article examines visitor perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Durban ...

  19. Inductive analysis about the impact of climate warming on regional geomorphic evolution in arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anayit, Mattohti; Abulizi, Mailiya

    2016-04-01

    Climate change on the surface of earth will produce a chain reaction among so many global natural environmental elements. Namely, all the issues will be affected by the climate change, just like the regional water environment, formation and development of landscape, plants and animals living environment, the survival of microorganisms, the human economic environment and health, and the whole social environment changes at well. But because of slow frequency of climate change and it is volatility change, its influence on other factors and the overall environmental performance is not obvious, and its reflection performs slowly. Using regional weather data, we calculated qualitatively and quantitatively and did analysis the impact of climate warming on Xinjiang (a province of China) geomorphic evolution elements, including the ground weather, erosion rate, collapse change, landslide occurrences changes and impact debris flow, combining the field survey and indoor test methods. Key words: climate change; the geomorphic induction; landscape change in river basin; Xinjiang

  20. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  3. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Knegtering, E; Drees, JM; Geertsema, P; Huitema, HJ; Uiterkamp, AJMS; Huitema, Hans J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs r...

  4. Environmental impacts on reproductive health and fertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodruff, T. J

    2010-01-01

    .... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...

  5. Beyond Rio? The Evolution of International Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnee, Jutta

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the expansion and innovation in the use of international environmental law mechanisms to address the problems of global environmental protection. Presents initiatives involving customary international law, forms of international agreements, nonbinding "soft law," and an example involving Canada's biodiversity commitments. (MDH)

  6. The Impact of Darwinian Evolution on Medicine: The Maternal Side of the Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mishmar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex disorders are common in the human population and are caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Therefore the quest for the genetic basis of such disorders has much similarity to deciphering the genetic basis of macro-evolutionary processes, such as speciation. Here I discuss conceptual connections between the principles underlying and processes occurring in disease and evolution. Special focus is given to the tremendous mitochondrial genetic variability in the population and within individuals and the impact of both types of variability on evolutionary processes and diseases.

  7. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Cap 191. This Act promotes Environmental Assessment, gives it the legal support and defines the institutional set up for the management of the environment. However, Tanzania still grapples with EIA ineffectiveness in guiding development decisions and environmental management arising from various projects. Numerous ...

  8. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Perez, Alejandro; Grafton, Bernadette; Mohai, Paul; Hardin, Rebecca; Hintzen, Katy; Orvis, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To complement a recent flush of research on transnational environmental justice movements, we sought a deeper organizational history of what we understand as the contemporary environmental justice movement in the United States. We thus conducted in-depth interviews with 31 prominent environmental justice activists, scholars, and community leaders across the US. Today’s environmental justice groups have transitioned from specific local efforts to broader national and global mandates, and more sophisticated political, technological, and activist strategies. One of the most significant transformations has been the number of groups adopting formal legal status, and emerging as registered environmental justice organizations (REJOs) within complex partnerships. This article focuses on the emergence of REJOs, and describes the respondents’ views about the implications of this for more local grassroots groups. It reveals a central irony animating work across groups in today’s movement: legal formalization of many environmental justice organizations has made the movement increasingly internally differentiated, dynamic, and networked, even as the passage of actual national laws on environmental justice has proven elusive.

  10. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  11. Environmental stability affects phenotypic evolution in a globally distributed marine picoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C-Elisa; Rost, Björn; Collins, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention—selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in stable environments and use single or few representatives of a species, genus or functional group. Here we investigate whether and by how much environmental fluctuations contribute to changes in ecologically important phytoplankton traits such as C:N ratios and cell size, and test the variability of changes in these traits within the globally distributed species Ostreococcus. We have evolved 16 physiologically distinct lineages of Ostreococcus at stable high CO2 (1031±87 μatm CO2, SH) and fluctuating high CO2 (1012±244 μatm CO2, FH) for 400 generations. We find that although both fluctuation and high CO2 drive evolution, FH-evolved lineages are smaller, have reduced C:N ratios and respond more strongly to further increases in CO2 than do SH-evolved lineages. This indicates that environmental fluctuations are an important factor to consider when predicting how the characteristics of future phytoplankton populations will have an impact on biogeochemical cycles and higher trophic levels in marine food webs. PMID:26125683

  12. Nursery Pest Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    United States Forest Service

    1994-01-01

    The Forest Service, in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, is presenting three alternative ways of managing pests (weeds, diseases, insects, and animals) at the Lucky Peak Nursery in the Intermountain Region.

  13. Hypervelocity impacts and the evolution of planetary surfaces and interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Wesley Andres

    2009-06-01

    The thesis consists of five studies relating impact processes to the evolution of planetary interiors as well as impact structures on planetary surfaces. Chapter 2 is concerned with developing methods for estimating the amount of heat deposited deep in terrestrial mantles by large impacts. Chapter 3 makes use of these results to compute the consequences of impact-related thermal buoyancy perturbations in numerical models of subsolidus convection. Among the important results of this work is a relation for the time-scale on which a buoyancy anomaly flattens and spreads before it is halted by convective downflows, as well as a condition that indicates for what perturbation magnitudes and Rayleigh numbers the flow is significantly slowed at a global scale. Chapter 4 describes a structural model of Endurance Crater in Meridiani Planum on Mars, which is constrained by observations gathered by the MER- B Opportunity rover. These results reveal new insights about the planform shape of the crater excavation flow, as well as the connection between crater shape and pre-existing structures in target materials. The study presented in chapter 5 relates the planimetric shape of simple impact craters on Mars ( D Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  14. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  15. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  16. Adaptive Multiscale Modeling of Geochemical Impacts on Fracture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, S.; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Deng, H.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding fracture evolution is essential for many subsurface energy applications, including subsurface storage, shale gas production, fracking, CO2 sequestration, and geothermal energy extraction. Geochemical processes in particular play a significant role in the evolution of fractures through dissolution-driven widening, fines migration, and/or fracture sealing due to precipitation. One obstacle to understanding and exploiting geochemical fracture evolution is that it is a multiscale process. However, current geochemical modeling of fractures cannot capture this multi-scale nature of geochemical and mechanical impacts on fracture evolution, and is limited to either a continuum or pore-scale representation. Conventional continuum-scale models treat fractures as preferential flow paths, with their permeability evolving as a function (often, a cubic law) of the fracture aperture. This approach has the limitation that it oversimplifies flow within the fracture in its omission of pore scale effects while also assuming well-mixed conditions. More recently, pore-scale models along with advanced characterization techniques have allowed for accurate simulations of flow and reactive transport within the pore space (Molins et al., 2014, 2015). However, these models, even with high performance computing, are currently limited in their ability to treat tractable domain sizes (Steefel et al., 2013). Thus, there is a critical need to develop an adaptive modeling capability that can account for separate properties and processes, emergent and otherwise, in the fracture and the rock matrix at different spatial scales. Here we present an adaptive modeling capability that treats geochemical impacts on fracture evolution within a single multiscale framework. Model development makes use of the high performance simulation capability, Chombo-Crunch, leveraged by high resolution characterization and experiments. The modeling framework is based on the adaptive capability in Chombo

  17. Footprints in the wind? Environmental impacts of wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoha, P. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the environmental impacts of wind power development and examines noise generated by wind turbines, noise control methods, visual impacts and visibility, and the impact on wildlife and natural habitat. Details are given of other impacts such as electromagnetic interference and the disposal of materials used in the manufacture of parts of wind energy converters. Political issues and social costs of wind energy are considered.

  18. Holocene evolution of the Tabasco delta – Mexico : impact of climate, volcanism and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, C.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This research revealed the impact of climate, volcanism and humans on the late Holocene evolution of a tropical delta in southern Mexico. Palynological, tephrochronological, limnological, geomorphological and sedimentological techniques have been applied to reconstruct the evolution of the

  19. Tracking the evolution in corporate environmental performance in Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    to answer how stakeholders' perceived influence develops over time and whether those changes affect firms' environmental activities. Starting in 1995, and every fourth year following, we distributed a pre-tested structured questionnaire to a random sample of small and medium-sized industrial firms...... in Denmark. Before concluding, key implications for corporate managers and other affected decision-makers are addressed. Despite the continuing economic crisis, our findings indicate that environmental management initiatives have successfully moved up on industry’s strategic agenda to become an enduring...

  20. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  1. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  2. Impact of environmental justice analysis on transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    This report presents the findings of a study sponsored by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT): Impact of Environmental Justice (EJ) on Transportation Planning. The objectives of the study were to determine the state of the practice of EJ ...

  3. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  4. Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tracey K. Tromp; Run-Lie Shia; Mark Allen; John M. Eiler; Y. L. Yung

    2003-01-01

    The widespread use of hydrogen fuel cells could have hitherto unknown environmental impacts due to unintended emissions of molecular hydrogen, including an increase in the abundance of water vapor in the stratosphere...

  5. 77 FR 1550 - Environmental Impact Statement: Erie County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... issuing a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed Peace Bridge Expansion Project in the city... Identification Number: 5753.58). The Peace Bridge Expansion Project (project) is a proposal for operational...

  6. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  8. Environmental education: impact and knowledge of its purposes and nature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aracely Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Education ( EE ) , especially schooling , was institutionalized worldwide approximately 40 years ago as the best alternative to the break in the nature- human population , but today its global impact , regional...

  9. The impact of retail electricity tariff evolution on solar photovoltaic deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Cole, Wesley J.; Frew, Bethany; Margolis, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This analysis explores the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the deployment of solar photovoltaics. It suggests that ignoring the evolution of tariffs resulted in up to a 36% higher prediction of the capacity of distributed PV in 2050, compared to scenarios that represented tariff evolution. Critically, the evolution of tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios that were examined.

  10. The Environmental Impacts of Consumption: Research Methods and Driving Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Willi; Hertwich, Edgar; Hubacek, Klaus; Korytarova, Katrina; Ornetzeder, Michael; Weisz, Helga

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an operational method to determine the direct and indirect environmental impacts of Austrian household's consumption pattern and to apply this method together with social research methods to evaluate the household's consumption pattern of two different settlements. The operational method is set up on the Household Environmental Impact (HEI) assessment based on household interviews, and without conducting a full consumer expenditure survey. The empirica...

  11. 78 FR 13609 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... construction of bicycle and pedestrian lanes, paths, and facilities, landscaping, track and railbed maintenance...-21 intended to streamline environmental review by making changes in the Agencies' environmental..., a tribal summary impact statement is not required. Executive Order 13211 (Energy Effects) The...

  12. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  13. Review article: Potential Impact of Climate and Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review article: Potential Impact of Climate and Environmental Changes on Occurrenceand Transmission of Arboviral Diseases of Livestock in Nigeria. ... our ability to predict and prevent emergence and or re-emergence of vector-borne livestock diseases occasioned by climate and environmental changes in Nigeria.

  14. environmental impact of aggregate mining by crush rock industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... matter and gaseous emission poses serious environmental problem to both the inhabitant and the workers at Crush Rock ... Environment Impact of Aggregate Mining of Crush Rock Industry. 129 farmland and human ...... Environmental. Audit Report of Port Harcourt Flour Mill Port Har- court. Report No.

  15. Spatial information in environmental impact assessments: Experiences in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.; Bregt, A.K.; Ligtenberg, A.; Kibutu, T.N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized as being beneficial to various stakeholders during the development of a variety of projects. In Kenya, the legal framework for EIA was set out in 1999 following enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), and

  16. Socio – economic and environmental impact of artisanal mining in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the socio – economic and environmental impact of artisanal mining in parts of Naraguta Sheet 168. Geochemical data, environmental analysis from previous studies and on the spot interviews and interactions were employed to obtain the data for this study. Results revealed over 5000 ...

  17. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City...

  18. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    yet of a higher concrete class, while cost optimization by considering extra constructability factors provided thicker sections and easier to construct design. This dissimilarity in the results highlights the importance of combining environmental impact (and its associated environmental cost......) and investment cost to find more material-efficient, economical, sustainable and time-effective bridge solutions....

  19. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  1. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  2. Environmental impact of noise from mobile outdoor equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de; Gerretsen, E.; Borst, J.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of European Directive 2000/14/EC relating to the noise emission by equipment for use outdoors, an environmental impact assessment was required to investigate the need for new or tighter noise limits. In contrast to other environmental noise sources, the operating

  3. Environmental impact evaluation using an agent based simulation framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental issues play an increasingly important role in aviation, affecting the desirability of novel technologies directly. The desirability of a certain technology with respect to environmental issues is determined by the system of systems level impact instead of the often used system level

  4. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assessed the impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. The paper reviewed sources of environmental degradation as a result of agriculture practices that has direct link with soil erosion, desert encroachment and unabated deforestation as well as poor soil conservation methods. Evidences from ...

  5. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    data analysis-lack of certainty- lack of consideration to the compara- tive impacts ... pacts, including checklists, matrices; overlaying maps and networks are among ..... Agency's Office of Research and Development. Ecol. Indicators ...

  6. Environmental impacts of stormwater management and pollutant discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Stormwater management systems are necessary to protect people and assets from flooding and pollution, especially in densely built, sealed urban areas. The possible solutions range from underground pipes and basins, where rain water is often handled together with wastewater, to local and multi...... in runoff are one possible source of (local) environmental impacts, the stormwater management system itself is a source of emissions. Raw material extraction, construction, operation, renewal, and disposal all cause environmental impacts at a more regional or even global scale. These impacts can...... be quantified using life cycle assessment, which on the other hand usually neglects the impacts from local emissions, even though these may potentially be significant. By integrating local emissions into the assessment, we are able to quantify the total environmental impacts of stormwater management solutions...

  7. Environmental Impact: University Programs in Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Schoenfeld, Clay

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed and used to measure various aspects of environmentally-related materials/activities in curriculum, internship and placement programs, public service, faculty interests, and institutional liaisons in journalism and mass media communications programs at United States colleges and universities. Background information,…

  8. Environmental impact assessment: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wathern, Peter

    1988-01-01

    ... projects. Enshrined in legislation in the USA, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Japan and, latterly, in the European Community, EIA is an integral part of environmental management. The 'science' and 'art' of EIA are inextricably linked, but the distinction between them is useful and is reflected in the organization of the book. An introductory chapter p...

  9. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  10. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 1: Environmental Factors and Forcing Processes Affecting Morphological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is the first of two CHETNs focused on improving technologies to forecast coastal foredune...morphodynamic evolution of coastal foredunes. Part 2 reviews modeling approaches to forecast these changes and develops a probabilistic modeling framework to

  11. LCROSS Impact Conditions and Ejecta Evolution: Insight from Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Colaprete, A.

    2009-12-01

    from these experiments is a factor of ~10 less than predicted by methods above (Korycansky, et al 2009). Analysis of the LCROSS ejecta emergence and evolution, when compared with scaled experimental results, will provide an understanding of the impact conditions as well as constraints on the properties of the regolith.

  12. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  13. Environmental Effects On Galaxy Evolution In Semi-analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Jung, I.; Yi, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the evolution of galaxy morphology and its mixture in various halo environments by taking advantages of N-body simulations and semi-analytic approach. Dark matter halos have different growth histories depending on the long-range density (voids vs clusters). Since dynamical properties of dark matter halos decide their merger timescales and galaxy properties residing in the halos, different dark matter halo assemblies make different galaxy merger histories. Thus, it is expected that galaxies in voids and clusters may show different evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures because galaxy mergers play a pivotal role in the galaxy morphology transformation. To examine it, dark matter halo merger trees in various density regions are extracted from N-body simulations, and the evolutionary histories of galaxies are computed with our semi-analytic model code based on the N-body backbones. We present the difference of evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures of galaxies that reside in voids and dense regions.

  14. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  15. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  16. Large-Scale Impact Cratering and Early Earth Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Cintala, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The surface of the Moon attests to the importance of large-scale impact in its early crustal evolution. Previous models of the effects of a massive bombardment on terrestrial crustal evolution have relied on analogies with the Moon, with allowances for the presence of water and a thinner lithosphere. It is now apparent that strict lunar-terrestrial analogies are incorrect because of the "differential scaling" of crater dimensions and melt volumes with event size and planetary gravity. Impact melt volumes and "ancient cavity dimensions for specific impacts were modeled according to previous procedures. In the terrestrial case, the melt volume (V(sub m)) exceeds that of the transient cavity (V(sub tc)) at diameters > or = 400 km. This condition is reached on the Moon only with transient cavity diameters > or = 3000 km, equivalent to whole Moon melting. The melt volumes in these large impact events are minimum estimates, since, at these sizes, the higher temperature of the target rocks at depth will increase melt production. Using the modification-scaling relation of Croft, a transient cavity diameter of about 400 km in the terrestrial environment corresponds to an expected final impact "basin" diameter of about 900 km. Such a "basin" would be comparable in dimensions to the lunar basin Orientale. This 900-km "basin" on the early Earth, however, would not have had the appearance of Orientale. It would have been essentially a melt pool, and, morphologically, would have had more in common with the palimpsests structures on Callisto and Ganymede. With the terrestrial equivalents to the large multiring basins of the Moon being manifested as muted palimpsest-like structures filled with impact melt, it is unlikely they played a role in establishing the freeboard on the early Earth. The composition of the massive impact melt sheets (> 10 (exp 7) cu km) produced in "basin-forming" events on the early Earth would have most likely ranged from basaltic to more mafic for the

  17. The environmental impact of poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Rodić V.; Perić L.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Vukelić N.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the animal production is to produce animal proteins of high value in a sustainable manner. However, sustainability is not easy to define. It is a complex phenomenon, which includes integration of economic, social, and environmental dimensions of the certain production, within a given socio-economic context. In this respect, poultry production meets first two dimensions - it provides affordable dietary item for consumers and profit for produc...

  18. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  19. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, E; Drees, JM; Geertsema, P; Huitema, HJ; Uiterkamp, AJMS; Huitema, Hans J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies

  20. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new

  1. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  2. Managing environmental impact of bouldering as a niche outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper proposes a normative management instrument to help environmental managers in the field of outdoor recreation and conservation limit the impact of sport climbing, bouldering in particular, as an action-sport activity. Evidence of the rising popularity of the bouldering sport and its associated impacts on ...

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) On Project Design: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) On Project Design: An Emperical Approach. ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... The research work, studied and exposed the nature, concept and composition of both project design and EIA, and as such anchored centrally on the level of impacts of EIA ...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  5. The evolution and impact of testing baghouse filter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh; Clark, Christina; Mckenna, John

    2012-08-01

    In 1995, the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program for the purpose of generating both independent and credible performance verification of innovative technologies and helping to accelerate acceptance of these products into the marketplace to further benefit the environment and protect public health. The EPA has approved a testing protocol under this program to verify the performance of commercially available filtration products for pulse-jet baghouses in removingfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 microm; PM2.5). This verification testing protocol was later used as a basis for the development of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D6830-02 and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Method 11057. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California and the EPA s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) highly encourage the use of ETV/ASTM-verified filtration media. This paper highlights the evolution of the standard test methods, the EPA's and SCAQMD's regulatory activities, the benefits of using verified filtration media, and the importance of including the filter performance testing in future consideration of baghouse permitting, baghouse operation and maintenance (O&M) plans, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and bag monitoring plans.

  6. The evolution of biotechnology and its impact on health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ronald; Kaitin, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    For more than three decades the field of biotechnology has had an extraordinary impact on science, health care, law, the regulatory environment, and business. During this time more than 260 novel biotechnology products were approved for over 230 indications. Global sales of these products exceeded $175 billion in 2013 and have helped sustain a vibrant life sciences sector that includes more than 4,600 biotech companies worldwide. In this article we examine the evolution of biotechnology during the past three decades and the profound impact that it has had on health care through four interrelated and interdependent tracks: innovations in science, government activity, business development, and patient care. The future impact of biotechnology is promising, as long as the public and private sectors continue to foster policies and provide funds that lead to scientific breakthroughs; governments continue to offer incentives for private-sector biotech innovation; industry develops business models for cost-effective research and development; and all stakeholders establish policies to ensure that the therapeutic advances that mitigate or cure medical conditions that currently have inadequate or no available therapies are accessible to the public at a reasonable cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Monitoring Ecological Impacts of Environmental Surface ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimized cell-based metabolomics has been used to study the impacts of contaminants in surface waters on human and fish metabolomes. This method has proven to be resource- and time-effective, as well as sustainable for long term and large scale studies. In the current study, cell-based metabolomics is used to investigate the impacts of contaminants in surface waters on biological pathways in human and ecologically relevant cell lines. Water samples were collected from stream sites nationwide, where significant impacts have been estimated from the most potentially contaminated sources (i.e. waste water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations, mining operations, and plant-based agricultural operations that use intensive chemical applications). Zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) were used to study exposure impacts on in vitro metabolomes. In addition, a small number of water samples were studied using two human cell lines (liver cells, HepG2 and brain cells, LN229). The cellular metabolites were profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Detailed methods and results will be reported. Presented at SETAC North America 37th Annual Meeting

  8. Environmental impact quantification and correlation between site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to quantify the most significant impact from the polluted environment and to review the correlation between pollution indicators and the content and structures of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy). Heavy metals as mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel are considered as pollution indicators.

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Generators in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Lapčík

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes author´s experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of wind generators. The introductorypart of paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic in frame of fulfilling the European Union´s limits in branch ofrenewable energy resources utilization. Next part of paper deals with analysis of impacts of wind generators on the environment.The final part of paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process (pursuant to the ActNo. 100/2001 Coll. in the field of wind power in the Czech Republic.

  10. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  11. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts......In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...

  12. The impact of oxygen on metabolic evolution: a chemoinformatic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Ying; Kong, De-Xin; Qin, Tao; Li, Xiao; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of planetary oxygen likely transformed the chemical and biochemical makeup of life and probably triggered episodes of organismal diversification. Here we use chemoinformatic methods to explore the impact of the rise of oxygen on metabolic evolution. We undertake a comprehensive comparative analysis of structures, chemical properties and chemical reactions of anaerobic and aerobic metabolites. The results indicate that aerobic metabolism has expanded the structural and chemical space of metabolites considerably, including the appearance of 130 novel molecular scaffolds. The molecular functions of these metabolites are mainly associated with derived aspects of cellular life, such as signal transfer, defense against biotic factors, and protection of organisms from oxidation. Moreover, aerobic metabolites are more hydrophobic and rigid than anaerobic compounds, suggesting they are better fit to modulate membrane functions and to serve as transmembrane signaling factors. Since higher organisms depend largely on sophisticated membrane-enabled functions and intercellular signaling systems, the metabolic developments brought about by oxygen benefit the diversity of cellular makeup and the complexity of cellular organization as well. These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular link between oxygen and evolution. They also show the significance of chemoinformatics in addressing basic biological questions.

  13. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing to...

  14. The evolution of the terrestrial vertebrates: environmental and physiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A A

    1985-04-02

    Physiological evidence has long been used to suggest that the gnathostomous vertebrates (those possessing jaws) were primitively fresh water. The same was also the case for the Osteichthyes (bony fish) and the Tetrapoda (Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia). However, the geological evidence favours a marine origin for the vertebrates as a whole, and, for the gnathostomes and the osteichthyans in particular. Some of the earliest amphibian remains may be associated with tidally influenced sediments. Furthermore, during the early part of the Devonian, fresh water chemistry may well have been different from that of today, lessening the divide between marine and non-marine environments. Urea formation via the ornithine cycle, and urea retention in the body fluids, are useful adaptations for terrestrial life. They prevent excessive water loss associated with the elimination of nitrogenous waste. These abilities may have been primitive for the gnathostomes, and were developed in the marine environment to reduce osmotic dehydration. In the aqueous medium, gaseous exchange is effected by the gills. These organs are, on the whole, useless in air. For vertebrates, air-breathing is effected by an inflatable sac, with moist linings, and an internal location. Some form of air-breathing sac was primitive for the osteichthyans, and may have been primitive for the gnathostomes. Again, this adaptation for terrestrial life developed in response to conditions experienced in the marine, aquatic environment. A new model of tetrapod evolution is proposed in the light of the basic marine origin and character of the ancestors of the tetrapods.

  15. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  16. The significance of environmental impacts: an exploration of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinker, Peter N.; Beanlands, Gordon E.

    1986-01-01

    Since environmental impact assessment (EIA) is concerned primarily with significant environmental impacts, the concept of impact significance deserves to be defined and applied rigorously. In this article use of the term over the past 15 years in EIA documentation is reviewed. Some recent attempts at elucidating the concept are summarized. Four perspectives on impact significance that emerged from a series of workshops on the ecological basis for EIA are presented. These perspectives include (a) statistical (related to problems of isolating project-induced changes from natural variation), (b) ecological (related to the importance of project-induced changes from a purely ecological perspective), (c) social (related to the acceptability of project-induced changes in important environmental attributes), and (d) project (related to whether project-induced changes will indeed influence project decision making). The following synthesis is proposed: Any exercise in judging the significance of an environmental impact should thoroughly consider (a) the importance of the environmental attribute in question to project decision makers, (2) the distribution of change in time and space, (c) the magnitude of change, and (d) the reliability with which change has been predicted or measured. The implications of considering these factors are discussed.

  17. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  18. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  19. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  20. The impact of resource quality on the evolution of virulence in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Min; Boots, Mike

    2017-03-07

    Understanding the drivers of parasite evolution and in particular disease virulence remains a major focus of evolutionary theory. Here, we examine the role of resource quality and in particular spatial environmental heterogeneity in the distribution of these resources on the evolution of virulence. There may be direct effects of resources on host susceptibility and pathogenicity alongside effects on reproduction that indirectly impact host-parasite population dynamics. Therefore, we assume that high resource quality may lead to both increased host reproduction and/or increased disease resistance. In completely mixed populations there is no effect of resource quality on the outcome of disease evolution. However, when there are local interactions higher resource quality generally selects for higher virulence/transmission for both linear and saturating transmission-virulence trade-off assumptions. The exception is that in castrators (i.e., infected hosts have no reproduction), higher virulence is selected for both low and high resource qualities at mixed local and global infection. Heterogeneity in the distribution of environment resources only has an effect on the outcome in castrators where random distributions generally select for higher virulence. Overall, our results further underline the importance of considering spatial structure in order to understand evolutionary processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements, 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-12-01

    This document provides recommendations for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) preparation of environmental assessments and environmental impact statements under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance prepared these recommendations in consultation with the Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Environment and following coordination with the DOE NEPA Community. The recommendations should materially aid those responsible for preparing and reviewing NEPA documents to focus on significant environmental issues, adequately analyze environmental impacts, and effectively present the analysis to decisionmakers and the public. The recommendations are not all-encompassing, however; preparers must apply independent judgment to determine the appropriate scope and analytical requirements of NEPA for each proposal. These recommendations do not constitute legal requirements, but are intended to enhance compliance with existing NEPA regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, 10 CFR Part 1021).

  2. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. environmental impacts of crud local government area ol impacts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... breeding, sea turtle nesting, mangroves rainforests. Also drinking water sources are pollu thus potable water have become very scarce. presence of oil spillages causes a major impact on riverine ecosystem and is a likely determinant fa of the poor water quality in oil producing commun like Ibeno (Akoroda ...

  4. Environmental impact of seawater desalination plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutaz, I S

    1991-01-01

    Enormous amounts of seawater are desalted everyday worldwide. The total world production of fresh water from the sea is about 2621 mgd (9.92 million m(3) day(-1) 1985 figures). Desalting processes are normally associated with the rejection of high concentration waste brine from the plant itself or from the pretreatment units as well as during the cleaning period. In thermal processes, mainly multistage flash (MSF) thermal pollution occurs. These pollutants increase the seawater temperature, salinity, water current and turbidity. They also harm the marine environment, causing fish to migrate while enhancing the presence of algae, nematods and tiny molluscus. Sometimes micro-elements and toxic materials appear in the discharged brine.This paper will discuss the impact of the effluents from the desalination plants on the seawater environment with particular reference to the Saudi desalination plants, since they account for about 50% of the world desalination capacity.

  5. Effects of low environmental impact buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrini, A.; Persia, L. [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The quality of life in modern cities cannot be improved without a more sustainable mobility system. The introduction of new-conception vehicles, with lower energy consumption, and less noise and noxious emissions, can substantially contribute to mitigating the effects of traffic externalities. The results presented in this paper come from a research project called FLEETS, which was conducted in the city of Terni (Italy). The project, supported by EC DG XVII (Energy), dealt with the introduction of 12-m hybrid buses and the testing of biofuel and self-cleaning electrostatic mufflers. The paper focuses on the technical assessment of the buses' efficiency in terms of consumption and pollutant emission, measured by sensors able to monitor bus performance in real-time, installed on both conventional and new-conception buses. Hybrid bus reliability and impacts on users' attitude and PT (public transport) patronage were also assessed. (author)

  6. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption......Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...

  7. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  8. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  9. Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reimer, Nils; Jochmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, a dramatic decline of the Arctic sea-ice extent is observed which results in an increase of shipping activities. Even though this provides commercial and social development opportunities, the resulting environmental impacts need to be investigated and monitored. In order to understand the impact of shipping in arctic areas, the method described in this paper determines the travel time, fuel consumption and resulting exhaust emissions of ships navigating in arctic waters. The investigated case studies are considering ship particulars as well as environmental conditions with special focus on ice scenarios. Travel time, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission were investigated for three different vessels, using different passages of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in different seasons of years 1960, 2000 and 2040. The presented results show the sensitivity of vessel performance and amount of exhaust emissions to optimize arctic traffic with respect to efficiency, safety and environmental impact.

  10. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  11. Access network evolution: optical fibre to the subscribers and impact on the metropolitan and home networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanclou, P.; Belfqih, Z.; Charbonnier, B.; Duong, T.; Frank, F.; Genay, N.; Huchard, M.; Guignard, P.; Guillo, L.; Landousies, B.; Pizzinat, A.; Ramanitra, H.; Saliou, F.; Durel, S.; Urvoas, P.; Ouzzif, M.; Le Masson, J.

    2008-11-01

    This article describes broadband optical access network evolution including high speed interfaces for fixed and mobile services. The impact of network access evolution on network architecture and transmission equipment localization on the metropolitan network is also mentioned. Some technical challenges are also discussed, namely concerning the optical extended budget, as well as the impact of access evolution on the metropolitan network. The access bit rate evolution has also an impact on the home network by the necessity of offering connectivity to customers at 1 Gbit/s, for example, over plastic optical fibre. To cite this article: P. Chanclou et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  12. The diversity and evolution of ecological and environmental citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Michael J O; Tweddle, John C; Savage, Joanna; Robinson, Lucy D; Roy, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science-the involvement of volunteers in data collection, analysis and interpretation-simultaneously supports research and public engagement with science, and its profile is rapidly rising. Citizen science represents a diverse range of approaches, but until now this diversity has not been quantitatively explored. We conducted a systematic internet search and discovered 509 environmental and ecological citizen science projects. We scored each project for 32 attributes based on publicly obtainable information and used multiple factor analysis to summarise this variation to assess citizen science approaches. We found that projects varied according to their methodological approach from 'mass participation' (e.g. easy participation by anyone anywhere) to 'systematic monitoring' (e.g. trained volunteers repeatedly sampling at specific locations). They also varied in complexity from approaches that are 'simple' to those that are 'elaborate' (e.g. provide lots of support to gather rich, detailed datasets). There was a separate cluster of entirely computer-based projects but, in general, we found that the range of citizen science projects in ecology and the environment showed continuous variation and cannot be neatly categorised into distinct types of activity. While the diversity of projects begun in each time period (pre 1990, 1990-99, 2000-09 and 2010-13) has not increased, we found that projects tended to have become increasingly different from each other as time progressed (possibly due to changing opportunities, including technological innovation). Most projects were still active so consequently we found that the overall diversity of active projects (available for participation) increased as time progressed. Overall, understanding the landscape of citizen science in ecology and the environment (and its change over time) is valuable because it informs the comparative evaluation of the 'success' of different citizen science approaches. Comparative evaluation

  13. The tracking of environmental costs : motivations and impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Henri, Jean-François; Boiral, Olivier; Roy, Marie-Josée

    2013-01-01

    Most accounting systems separately capture and accumulate one portion of the overall environmental costs of firms, while the remainder is embedded in other cost pools, such as general overhead costs or administrative costs. Little empirical evidence has been provided to explain the impacts of cost accounting systems that make a larger portion of firms' total environmental costs visible. The aim of this study is to conceptually and empirically examine the relationships among the tracking of en...

  14. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE DISCOURSE AND ISOMORPHISM IN HIGH ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPANIES LISTED ON BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Manoel do Nascimento Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are submitted to social pressure towards making decisions for the sake of more environmental responsibility. These organizations respond by adopting managing strategies, and by developing environmental policies whose results must be demonstrated to stakeholders. In this scenario, this study aims at analyzing the characteristics of environmental information presented in management reports, in explanatory notes and in balance sheets produced by companies with a high environmental impact listed on BM&FBovespa, identifying possible isomorphic behaviors. In order to reach that goal, a qualitative research was conducted with an analysis of management reports, balance sheets and explanatory notes for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 by 44 companies. Results provide evidence that companies present similar behavior concerning environmental issues. The management reports contain the largest amount of information related to the environment, the most highlighted categories were Environmental Policies, Product Impact, Processes and Other environmental information. Besides that, the segments that disclosed the most environmental information were Paper and Cellulose, Metalworking, Exploration and Refinement whereas the largest companies, evaluated by total assets, disclosed more environmental information.

  16. Environmental policy challenge crime in Republic Serbia and its impact on environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vojislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law and ecological security representing nearly two related fields that have a scientific discipline in our legal security framework introduced in the first decade of this century. Despite this fact, the legal norms that regulate the protection and safety of the environment have been studied in the framework of other disciplines, and their etymology suggests that environmental regulations have existed in the ninth century, first as a prohibitive provision 'is prohibited'. It is known that environmental law to a certain extent based on criminal law norms and the norms of a protective object with the environment - Ekos. The fact of regulation of a large number of offenses in this field indicates the significance of the criminal policy which is in the field of environmental law and environmental security provides criminal protection. In this paper, in addition to general introductory remarks on environmental law, environmental safety and environmental tort, consider the area of combating environmental crime, the share of primary and secondary subjects of criminal procedural and international cooperation, particularly in combating transnational environmental crime. In the end, considering the environmental impact of crime on ecological security, clarifying the possible forms of threats and extent of the reaction.

  17. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  18. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  19. Environmental impact evaluation of chemical substances. Possibilities of bioindicator processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heublein, D.

    1986-02-01

    The chemicals law obliges manufacturers or importers of novel chemical substances to perform comprehensive tests in order to assess these substances for their impacts on health and environment prior to their marketing. However, the testing procedure is of a limited use for evaluating the effects of chemicals on ecological systems; this may be supplemented to by bioindicator processes. The first step of a comprehensive concept for detecting the environmental impacts of chemicals continuously in time and across territory was completed by the institution of the environmental samples bank which is to be supplemented to by a comprehensive monitoring programme and, correspondingly, by massive expansion of pertinent ecosystem research. (orig.).

  20. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption.......This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  1. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  2. Programmes for the evaluation of the environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtyla, P

    2009-11-01

    The article provides an overview of the different components of programmes for the evaluation of the environmental impact of accelerator facilities. The starting point is the knowledge of radiation and radionuclides that may be encountered in the environment of accelerators. The second step is an efficient environmental monitoring programme suitable for the given source term. The results of the monitoring programme provide an input for models calculating the maximum effective dose received by members of the public, so expressing the dosimetric impact of the facility.

  3. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  4. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement. ...

  5. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include responses...

  6. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  7. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  8. 10 CFR 51.70 - Draft environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-general. 51.70... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.70 Draft environmental impact statement—general. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a draft environmental impact statement as soon as practicable...

  9. The evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve concept: The review of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevičius Romualdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe the evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve, from its origin up to its present status, and to systemise the results of the empirical studies of the relationship between the emissions of greenhouse gases and economic growth. The environmental Kuznets curve indicates that at the early stages of economic growth, pollution increases with the growing use of resources, but when a certain level of income per capita is reached, the trend reverses so that, at a higher development stage, further economic growth leads to the improvement of the environment. The paper starts with a description of the most influential theories of the environmental economics that helps to highlight an effective environmental approach. The article may be useful for scientists and policy makers, analysing the trends of the economic development of various countries and the problems of the relationship between the environmental indicators and economic growth.

  10. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  12. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Seiji; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells to demonstrate: (1) molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, (2) the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and (3) interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  14. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  15. 78 FR 75913 - Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland... Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland... security and management). Activities under the Environmental Assessment, Sodium Residuals Reaction/Removal...

  16. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  17. 78 FR 8683 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Re-evaluation has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Doucette, Environmental Program Manager, Federal... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick...

  18. Redefining Scope: The True Environmental Impact of Smartphones?

    OpenAIRE

    Suckling, James; Lee, Jacquetta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the literature surrounding the environmental impact of mobile phones and the implications of moving from the current business model of selling, using and discarding phones to a product service system based upon a cloud service. The exploration of the impacts relating to this shift and subsequent change in scope is explored in relation to the life cycle profile of a typical smartphone. Methods: A literature study is conducted into the existing literature in order to define ...

  19. Environmental Innovation Impact analysis with the GMR-Europe Model

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Attila; HAU-HORVÁTH, ORSOLYA; Szabó, Norbert; Járosi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces and applies a modelling system that is suitable for the impact assessment of environmental innovations referred to as “Blue Economy” innovations. The paper’s contribution to the literature is threefold. First, the building of a multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which provides the theoretical framework for studying the economic impacts of using waste as a production input. Second, the creation of an empirical methodology through which new Blue Econo...

  20. 76 FR 58833 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... and waste, visual resources, socioeconomics, real estate, tribal trust, recreation, and environmental... sustainability of all Klamath Basin communities. Statement of Purpose and Need and Proposed Action The Purpose...

  1. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  2. IMPACT Observatory: tracking the evolution of clinical trial data sharing and research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Gabelica, Mirko; Banzi, Rita; Martinić, Marina Krnić; Pulido, Bibiana; Mahmić-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Reveiz, Ludovic; Šimić, Josip; Utrobičić, Ana; Hrgović, Irena

    2016-10-15

    The opening of research data is emerging thanks to the increasing possibilities of digital technology. The opening of clinical trial (CT) data is a part of this process, expected to have positive scientific, ethical, health, and economic impacts thus contributing to research integrity. The January 2016 proposal by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors triggered ample discussion about CT data sharing and reconfirmed the need for an ongoing assessment of its dynamics. The IMProving Access to Clinical Trials data (IMPACT) Observatory aims to play such a role, and assess the data sharing culture, policies, and practices of key players, the impact of their interventions on CTs, and contribute to a transformation of research. The objective of this paper is to present the IMPACT Observatory as well as share some of its preliminary findings. Methods include a scoping study of research, surveys, interviews, and an environmental scan of research data repositories. Our preliminary findings indicate that although opening of CT data has not yet been achieved, its evolution is encouraging. Initiatives by key players contribute to increasing of CT data sharing, and many barriers are shrinking or disappearing. The major barrier is the lack of data sharing standards, from preparing data for public sharing to its curatorship, findability and access. However, experiences accumulated by sharing CT data according to "upon request" or "open" mechanisms could inform the development of such standards. The Vivli, CORBEL-ECRIN and Open Trials projects are currently working in this direction.

  3. The evolution of environmental tolerance and range size: a comparison of geographically restricted and widespread Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Seema N; Angert, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The geographic ranges of closely related species can vary dramatically, yet we do not fully grasp the mechanisms underlying such variation. The niche breadth hypothesis posits that species that have evolved broad environmental tolerances can achieve larger geographic ranges than species with narrow environmental tolerances. In turn, plasticity and genetic variation in ecologically important traits and adaptation to environmentally variable areas can facilitate the evolution of broad environmental tolerance. We used five pairs of western North American monkeyflowers to experimentally test these ideas by quantifying performance across eight temperature regimes. In four species pairs, species with broader thermal tolerances had larger geographic ranges, supporting the niche breadth hypothesis. As predicted, species with broader thermal tolerances also had more within-population genetic variation in thermal reaction norms and experienced greater thermal variation across their geographic ranges than species with narrow thermal tolerances. Species with narrow thermal tolerance may be particularly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions due to lack of plasticity and insufficient genetic variation to respond to novel selection pressures. Conversely, species experiencing high variation in temperature across their ranges may be buffered against extinction due to climatic changes because they have evolved tolerance to a broad range of temperatures. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Evolution to environmental contamination ablates the circadian clock of an aquatic sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldsnow, Kayla D; Relyea, Rick A; Hurley, Jennifer M

    2017-12-01

    Environmental contamination is a common cause of rapid evolution. Recent work has shown that Daphnia pulex, an important freshwater species, can rapidly evolve increased tolerance to a common contaminant, sodium chloride (NaCl) road salt. While such rapid evolution can benefit organisms, allowing them to adapt to new environmental conditions, it can also be associated with unforeseen tradeoffs. Given that exposure to environmental contaminants can cause circadian disruption, we investigated whether the circadian clock was affected by evolving a tolerance to high levels of road salt. By tracking the oscillations of a putative clock gene, period, we demonstrated that D. pulex express per mRNA with approximately 20-hr oscillations under control conditions. This putative circadian rhythm was ablated in response to high levels of salinity; populations adapted to high NaCl concentrations exhibited an ablation of period oscillation. Moreover, we showed that while gene expression is increased in several other genes, including clock, actin, and Na+/K+-ATPase, upon the adaptation to high levels of salinity, per expression is unique among the genes we tracked in that it is the only gene repressed in response to salt adaptation. These results suggest that rapid evolution of salt tolerance occurs with the tradeoff of suppressed circadian function. The resultant circadian disruption may have profound consequences to individuals, populations, and aquatic food webs by affecting species interactions. In addition, our research suggests that circadian clocks may also be disrupted by the adaptation to other environmental contaminants.

  5. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, `resources' and `climate change' categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  6. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, ‘resources’ and ‘climate change’ categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  7. The environmental impacts of beach sport tourism events: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...

  8. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  9. Cultural Factor in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nugraheni, Siwi

    2000-01-01

    Analisis mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) atau Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) merupakan salah satu cara menganalisis proyek pembangunan sebelum dilaksanakan, untuk mengetahui apakah proyek tersebut berpotensi merusak lingkungan. Dalam pelaksanannya, studi AMDAL sering tereduksi artinya menjadi analisis dan sisi lingkungan secara fisik, sementara itu factor social dan budaya masyarakat di lokasi proyek acapkali terabaikan. Makalah ini akan menyoroti tentang perlunya studi AMDAL memasu...

  10. Environmental Impact and Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsire is a local meat delicacy (kebab) in northern Nigeria, which has become popular and widely acceptable throughout the country and even beyond. Three production sites of tsire were evaluated for the environmental impact and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) on the microbiological and chemical qualities ...

  11. Environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of illegal refineries severely impacted biodiversity, aesthetic scenery of the forest, regeneration of plant species and destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment, through vocational training and environmental education can ameliorate the ...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) On Project Design: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... been purported improvement in the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as it regards proper and sustainable construction of developmental projects. However, a thorough look at the process, indicate that the majority of project proponents prefer to lobby rather than carry out the exercise, and ...

  14. Environmental and Health Impacts Associated with Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' perceived impacts of agrochemical usage included getting sick, deaths of people and animals and environmental pollution. Information obtained from this study was used to identify appropriate foci and target groups for interventions to reduce the health risks associated with the usage of agrochemicals in the area.

  15. The Environmental Impact of Oilfield Formation Water on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact resulting from the discharge of treated oilfield formation water into freshwater samples collected from this stream with no previous history of pollution from oil exploration activities was assessed in terms of changes in water quality parameters such as Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen ...

  16. Environmental impacts of products: Policy relevant information and data challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Eder, P.; Suh, S.

    2006-01-01

    The research and analysis presented in this special issue shows that the same limited number of consumption categories are consistently revealed to be responsible for the largest share of environmental impact: mobility (automobile and air transport), food (meat, poultry, fish, and dairy followed by

  17. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that...

  18. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule...

  19. Assessment of Environmental Impact and the Nutritive Value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental impact and nutritive value of water hyacinth (WH) in ruminant nutrition in Nigeria. In the first experiment, biomass yield, chemical composition, secondary metabolites and mineral content of WH harvested during the four sub seasons of the year were ...

  20. Environmental Impact of Aggregate Mining of Crush Rock Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of aggregate mining operation such as noise, dust, air quality, suspended particulate matter and gaseous emission poses serious environmental problem to both the inhabitant and the workers at Crush Rock Industries Limited at Old Netim in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State.

  1. The impact of environmental temperature on lithium serum levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Fase, Sandra; Martens, Edwin P.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.

    Objectives: Three studies have reported a seasonal variation in lithium serum levels, with higher levels during summer. Our objective was to investigate the impact of actual environmental temperature on lithium serum levels. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using available records of

  2. Environmental Impacts of Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gmünder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  3. Assessment of Charcoal Production and Impact of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, plant species currently used for charcoal production were identified in major charcoal production centres or supply basins (SBs) in Togo. Impact of environmental policies on this activity were also assessed. Therefore, a sample of 310 charcoal producers in four SBs in different ecological areas throughout Togo, ...

  4. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT 84118...

  5. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can...

  6. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations on Air Quality in Umuahia, Nigeria. ... Hence a conclusion was drawn from the findings that the primary pollutant to consider when building filling station are the VOCs and methane and that the minimum safe distance to site a filling station is a distance of ...

  8. Geology and Environmental Impact Assessment and Benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... continuous ridge in north-south direction of about 18 kms and average height of 350 meters above sea level. In hand specimen, the granitic rocks vary from medium, porphyritic to coarse variety from light colored to medium dark colored. Key Words: Geology, Environmental impact, Assessment, Benefit and Granitic Rocks.

  9. Environmental Impacts of Shipping to and from Citronen Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.

    of the Greenland Sea is generally scarce. Furthermore, the pack ice habitat is very dynamic, and it is therefore concluded that icebreaking in these waters is likely to have only limited environmental impacts. Open water is present along the coasts between Nordostrundingen and Hovgaard Ø June...

  10. Reducing the environmental impact of a gas operated cogeneration installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie Sabin Ioan

    2017-01-01

    The amount of energy saved yearly, the specific fuel consumption and the environmental impact were determined by the comparative study. The diagrams representing the variation of the performance indicators according to the operation period were also created. The usefulness of the paper consists in the creation of the yearly optimum installation operation time chart.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment of Selected Sawmills in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived health ailments associated with sawmilling operations by the respondents are Catarrh (66.7%), Headache and Fatigue (14.3%) and cornea inflammation (4.8%). These ailments significantly depend on level of income as well as job categories (p<0.05). Other perceived environmental impacts include noise, ...

  12. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the world has always been punctuated by cycles of violence, regardless of time, region or race. Genocide, which is one of the worst forms of violence, has always led to horrific socio-economic and environmental impacts. The last decade of the 20th century was the most turbulent Rwanda has ever experienced ...

  13. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana. FHWA...

  14. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  15. Modeling the impacts of environmental policies on agricultural imports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, B.A.; Scatasta, S.

    2005-01-01

    For current policy debates in agricultural and food industries, policy analysts need to evaluate the impacts of how proposed changes in domestic environmental regulations may alter agricultural trade in the future. Given the industry-specific nature of many policies issues, analysts need sector and

  16. Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Milk Quotas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldock, D.; Bartley, J.; Burrell, A.M.; Colman, D.; Hart, K.; Pointereau, P.; Silcock, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of the different systems for allocation and transfer of milk quota under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in individual Member States of the European Union (EU). In particular, it seeks to identify the ways in which differences in the

  17. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  18. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  19. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  20. The impact on environmental stressors on apiculture in Africa | Maus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybees are important as pollinators of agricultural crops as well as of producers of bee products like honey and beeswax. Honeybees are exposed to various environmental stressors that can significantly affect apiculture. These stressors can vary in their prevalence and impact between different regions. In Africa ...

  1. Use of the guild concept in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landres, Peter B.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify and expand several ideas concerning use of the guild concept in environmental impact assessment Background material on the concept and examples of its use are given. It is argued that for purposes of environmental assessment a resource-based guild approach is preferable to a taxonomic-based approach. Validity of the guild concept, problems in classifying species into guilds, implications of guild membership, and usefulness of guild analyses are discussed. I conclude that only with a thorough knowledge of both its limitations and benefits will it be possible to fully use the guild concept for understanding organizational processes in communities and ecosystems and for assessing environmental impacts.

  2. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lacour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption.MethodsFood intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED, and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age.ResultsParticipants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissionsQ5vsQ1 = 838/1,664 kg CO2eq/year, −49.6%, P < 0.0001; CEDQ5vsQ1 = 4,853/6,775 MJ/year, −26.9%, P < 0.0001; land occupationQ5vsQ1 = 2,420/4,138 m2/year, −41.5%, P < 0.0001. Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only

  4. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  5. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  6. The environmental impact of micro/nanomachines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-22

    Environmental sustainability represents a major challenge facing our world. Recent advances in synthetic micro/nanomachines have opened new horizons for addressing environmental problems. This review article highlights the opportunities and challenges in translating the remarkable progresses in nanomotor technology toward practical environmental applications. It covers various environmental areas that would benefit from these developments, including nanomachine-enabled degradation and removal of major contaminants or nanomotor-based water quality monitoring. Future operations of autonomous intelligent multifunctional nanomachines, monitoring and responding to hazardous chemicals (in a "sense and destroy" mode) and using bioinspired chemotactic search strategies to trace chemical plumes to their source, are discussed, along with the challenges of moving these exciting research efforts to larger-scale pilot studies and eventually to field applications. With continuous innovations, we expect that man-made nano/microscale motors will have profound impact upon the environment.

  7. Environmental impact: an ethical awakening of interest for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María CASAS JERICÓ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the unwholesome human behaviour on nature has evinced an environmental and anthropological crisis, largely rooted in erroneous and inherited understandings of modernity. The causes that have estranged human beings from their environment are complex and varied, but they necessarily need to be addressed by education. The detailed analysis of some of the causes of unsustainability and its effects (either visible or non-visible may contribute to foster environmental literacy, which is essential to achieve the urgent adoption of a sustainable development model, both socially and environmentally fair.In this paper, some possible causes of the breach between human beings and nature are analysed. It is shown also how the environmental impact evidence may be an excellent resource to teach about these causes, thus contributing to the education on sustainable development.

  8. Congruent evolution of genetic and environmental robustness in microRNA

    CERN Document Server

    Szöll?si, Gergely J

    2008-01-01

    Genetic robustness, the preservation of an optimal phenotype in the face of mutations, is critical to the understanding of evolution as phenotypically expressed genetic variation is the fuel of natural selection. The origin of genetic robustness, whether it evolves directly by natural selection or it is a correlated byproduct of other phenotypic traits, is, however, unresolved. Examining microRNA (miRNA) genes of several eukaryotic species, Borenstein and Ruppin [PNAS 103:6593(2006)], showed that the structure of miRNA precursor stem-loops exhibits significantly increased mutational robustness in comparison with a sample of random RNA sequences with the same stem-loop structure. The observed robustness was found to be uncorrelated with traditional measures of environmental robustness -- implying that miRNA sequences show evidence of the direct evolution of genetic robustness. These findings are surprising as theoretical results indicate that the direct evolution of robustness requires high mutation rates and/...

  9. Competition drives trait evolution and character displacement between Mimulus species along an environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; James, Brooke; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2017-05-01

    Closely related species may evolve to coexist stably in sympatry through niche differentiation driven by in situ competition, a process termed character displacement. Alternatively, past evolution in allopatry may have already sufficiently reduced niche overlap to permit establishment in sympatry, a process called ecological sorting. The relative importance of each process to niche differentiation is contentious even though they are not mutually exclusive and are both mediated via multivariate trait evolution. We explore how competition has impacted niche differentiation in two monkeyflowers, Mimulus alsinoides and M. guttatus, which often co-occur. Through field observations, common gardens, and competition experiments, we demonstrate that M. alsinoides is restricted to marginal habitats in sympatry and that the impacts of character displacement on niche differentiation are complex. Competition with M. guttatus alters selection gradients and has favored taller M. alsinoides with earlier seasonal flowering at low elevation and floral shape divergence at high elevation. However, no trait exhibits the pattern typically associated with character displacement, higher divergence between species in sympatry than allopatry. Thus, although character displacement was unlikely the process driving initial divergence along niche axes necessary for coexistence, we conclude that competition in sympatry has likely driven trait evolution along additional niche axes. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Environmental and Physiological Factors Affect Football Head Impact Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalik, Jason P; Sumrall, Adam Z; Yeargin, Susan W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; King, Kevin B; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W

    2017-10-01

    Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Because concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature. A prospective cohort of 18 Division I college football players (age, 21.1 ± 1.4 yr; height, 187.7 ± 6.6 cm; mass, 114.5 ± 23.4 kg). Data were collected during one control and three experimental sessions. During each session, the Head Impact Telemetry System recorded head impact biomechanics (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and severity profile) and in-helmet temperature. A wet bulb globe device recorded environmental conditions, and CorTemp™ Ingestible Core Body Temperature Sensors recorded gastrointestinal temperature. Our findings suggest that linear acceleration (P = 0.57), rotational acceleration (P = 0.16), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (P = 0.33) are not influenced by environmental or physiological conditions. We did not find any single or combination of predictors for impact severity. Rotational acceleration was approaching significance between our early experimental sessions when compared with our control session. More research should be conducted to better understand if rotational accelerations are a component of impact magnitudes that are affected due to changes in environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status.

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement Space Shuttle Program Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Quality Air Pollution Control District 105 East Anapamu Street 4440 Calle Real Santa Barbara, CA 93101 Santa Barbara, CA 93110 FROMt Cecilia Ann Terry...Lompoc, CA 93436 The American Cetacean Society National Headquarters P.O. Box 4416 San Pedro, CA 90731 FROM: Millie Payne -Executive Secretary 8...Ttolphonao266-1611 • - . OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ?I October 28, 1977 TiO: Albert F. Reynolds, Environmental Quality Coordinator F"OM: Cecilia Ann Terry

  12. 76 FR 50324 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    .../ Environmental Impact Statement for the California High-Speed Rail Project Merced to Fresno Section AGENCY... to Fresno Section (Project). FRA is the lead Federal agency and the California High-Speed Rail... Draft EIR/EIS should be sent to the California High-Speed Rail Authority, Merced to Fresno EIR/EIS...

  13. Impact of Environmental Parameters on Marathon Running Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Helou, Nour; Tafflet, Muriel; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tolaini, Julien; Marc, Andy; Guillaume, Marion; Hausswirth, Christophe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of all runners' performances in the largest marathons worldwide and to determine which environmental parameters have the maximal impact. Methods We analysed the results of six European (Paris, London, Berlin) and American (Boston, Chicago, New York) marathon races from 2001 to 2010 through 1,791,972 participants' performances (all finishers per year and race). Four environmental factors were gathered for each of the 60 races: temperature (°C), humidity (%), dew point (°C), and the atmospheric pressure at sea level (hPA); as well as the concentrations of four atmospheric pollutants: NO2 – SO2 – O3 and PM10 (μg.m−3). Results All performances per year and race are normally distributed with distribution parameters (mean and standard deviation) that differ according to environmental factors. Air temperature and performance are significantly correlated through a quadratic model. The optimal temperatures for maximal mean speed of all runners vary depending on the performance level. When temperature increases above these optima, running speed decreases and withdrawal rates increase. Ozone also impacts performance but its effect might be linked to temperature. The other environmental parameters do not have any significant impact. Conclusions The large amount of data analyzed and the model developed in this study highlight the major influence of air temperature above all other climatic parameter on human running capacity and adaptation to race conditions. PMID:22649525

  14. Impact of environmental parameters on marathon running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour El Helou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of all runners' performances in the largest marathons worldwide and to determine which environmental parameters have the maximal impact. METHODS: We analysed the results of six European (Paris, London, Berlin and American (Boston, Chicago, New York marathon races from 2001 to 2010 through 1,791,972 participants' performances (all finishers per year and race. Four environmental factors were gathered for each of the 60 races: temperature (°C, humidity (%, dew point (°C, and the atmospheric pressure at sea level (hPA; as well as the concentrations of four atmospheric pollutants: NO(2-SO(2-O(3 and PM(10 (μg x m(-3. RESULTS: All performances per year and race are normally distributed with distribution parameters (mean and standard deviation that differ according to environmental factors. Air temperature and performance are significantly correlated through a quadratic model. The optimal temperatures for maximal mean speed of all runners vary depending on the performance level. When temperature increases above these optima, running speed decreases and withdrawal rates increase. Ozone also impacts performance but its effect might be linked to temperature. The other environmental parameters do not have any significant impact. CONCLUSIONS: The large amount of data analyzed and the model developed in this study highlight the major influence of air temperature above all other climatic parameter on human running capacity and adaptation to race conditions.

  15. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  16. 16 CFR 1.84 - Draft environmental impact statements: Availability and comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.84 Draft environmental impact statements: Availability and comment. Except for proposals for legislation, environmental impact statements shall be prepared in two stages: Draft... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statements...

  17. 10 CFR 51.80 - Draft environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.80 Draft environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) The NRC staff will either prepare a draft environmental...

  18. 36 CFR 220.5 - Environmental impact statement and record of decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.5 Environmental impact statement and record of decision. (a) Classes of actions normally requiring environmental impact statements...

  19. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need for...

  20. 77 FR 26316 - Progress Energy Florida; Final Environmental Impact Statement for Combined Licenses for Levy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida; Final Environmental Impact Statement for Combined Licenses for Levy... published a final environmental impact statement (EIS), NUREG-1941, ``Environmental Impact Statement for.... Douglas Bruner, Environmental Projects Branch 1, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T6C20M...

  1. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72 Section 51.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact...

  2. Environmental impacts of Major Flood Events: Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reible, D. D.

    2008-05-01

    The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina provides many lessons for the environmental and engineering communities and raises serious public policy questions about risk management. Although serious environmental and waste management concerns were highlighted as a result of the flooding, many were not observed in the extensive environmental sampling that occurred. The potential environmental consequences were of concern because of the many chemical plants, petroleum facilities, and contaminated sites, including Superfund sites, in the areas covered by floodwaters. The potential sources of toxics and environmental contaminants included metal-contaminated soils typical of old urban areas. Compounding these concerns is the presence of hazardous chemicals commonly stored in households and commercial establishments and the fuel and motor oil in approximately 350,000 flooded automobiles. Uncontrolled biological wastes from both human and animal sources also contributed to the pollutant burden. There were concerns associated with the immediate impacts of the flooding, the disposal of the debris and wastes in the aftermath, as well as the long- term legacy associated with contaminants in homes and yards. This discussion focuses on successes and failures in responding to each of these concerns as well as lessons learned for future major flooding events. Special attention is paid to some of the unique hazards posed by Katrina, including water quality impacts associated with debris disposal, high indoor concentrations of contaminants due to fractionation from outdoor soils, and mold.

  3. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  4. 43 CFR 46.415 - Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statement content... Impact Statements § 46.415 Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements. The Responsible Official may use any environmental impact statement format and design as long as...

  5. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Impact Evaluation of the Water Discharge Networks from Mining Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cristian Rada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents an optimistic scenario for the evolution of contemporary civilization. The object of this paper is to define certain evaluation criteria regarding the performances of water discharge networks from mining works, and propose a method for aggregating the specific indicators for monetary costs, energetic costs, and environmental impact-related costs. The global pollution index (GPI represents a method for assessing environment health status or pollution levels. The GPI quantitatively expresses this status based on its index, which results from a ratio between the ideal value and the given value of certain quality indices that are considered specific for the analyzed environmental factors at certain moments. The proposed method in this paper tries to perform a synergistic aggregation of the balance sheet of harmfulness and classic balance sheets for matter and energy for an industrial process.

  6. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... reproducing and self-sustaining populations of salmon and other fish. Water Management Goal--To reduce or... and the California Department of Water Resources have prepared a joint Final Program Environmental... alternatives considered in the Draft PEIS/R to achieve the Stipulation of Settlement's restoration and water...

  7. 77 FR 17091 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... air quality, biological resources, cultural resources, geological resources and hazards, land use... Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended, and the California Environmental Quality Act, the... . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  8. 77 FR 35946 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Building Los Angeles City Library, San Pedro Branch Los Angeles City Library, Wilmington Branch Los Angeles Public Library, Central Branch Questions or requests concerning the Final EIS/EIR should be directed to... sufficient in scope to address federal, state, and local requirements and environmental issues concerning the...

  9. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE. Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on

  10. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  12. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  13. Using large impacts to constrain the thermal evolution of the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, S.; Tosi, N.; Plesa, A.-C.; Ruedas, T.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal evolution models of the terrestrial planets are directly constrained by only few observations (nature, volume, and age of the crust). In this work we show how local data sets, pertaining to the volume and time of emplacement of volcanic material within large impact basins, can provide additional constraints on the global evolution of Mercury, Mars, and the Moon.

  14. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society.

  15. The impact of domestic environmental policies on international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobey, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In industrialized countries, the cost of environmental control in the most polluting industries is a significant percentage of total costs. In theory, these environmental control coats encourage reduced specialization in the production of polluting outputs in countries with stringent environmental regulations. In contrast, countries that fail to undertake an environmental protection program should increase their comparative advantage in the production of items that damage the environment. The pollution-haven hypothesis argues that such countries will tend to become havens for the world's dirty industries. Both Heckscher-Ohlin and specific-factors trade models provide a theoretical framework for this hypothesis. In these models, the environment is treated as an additional factor of production. The analysis focuses on the impact of domestic environmental regulations on international specialization, factor returns, and real exchange rates. The thesis examines the type of environmental problems confronting low income countries and evaluates the conditions under which their lax pollution control measures may be socially optimal. It is argued that poverty-related pollution is a more critical problem in these countries than pollution related to industrial effluents. Previous empirical tests of the pollution-haven hypothesis are very limited. A major goal is to provide information on the level of stringency of environmental protection policies across countries and to test whether these policies affect the composition of international trade. A set of 58 countries are studied and a cross-section Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek model of trade is used to conduct the empirical analysis. This model is extended to allow for non-homothetic preferences and economies of scale/product differentiation. Environmental protection policies have not significantly affected international comparative advantage and the pattern of world trade.

  16. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  17. The impact of pollution on stellar evolution models

    OpenAIRE

    Dotter, Aaron; Chaboyer, Brian

    2003-01-01

    An approach is introduced for incorporating the concept of stellar pollution into stellar evolution models. The approach involves enhancing the metal content of the surface layers of stellar models. In addition, the surface layers of stars in the mass range of 0.5-2.0 Solar masses are mixed to an artificial depth motivated by observations of lithium abundance. The behavior of polluted stellar evolution models is explored assuming the pollution occurs after the star has left the fully convecti...

  18. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  19. Environmental Impacts of Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gmünder; Reena Singh; Stephan Pfister; Alok Adheloya; Rainer Zah

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function...

  20. The Environmental Impact of the Future Anthropogenic Copper Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Løhre, Anne-Jori S

    2014-01-01

    This master`s thesis has discussed two problems of modern society; shortage of copper resources and an increase of electricity use and global warming potential (GWP) from copper production in the future. Unlike most studies regarding environmental impacts from copper production, this study is; comprehensive considering that it includes a dynamic life cycle and is forward-looking regarding a number of factors which have high relevance for the result. The methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA...

  1. Poverty and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Price Reforms in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Radevic, Dragana; Klytchnikova, Irina; Silva, Patricia MR.

    2009-01-01

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated--which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase....

  2. How repeatable is the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT)? Comparing independent global impact assessments of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumschick, Sabrina; Measey, G John; Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F Andre; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M; Davies, Sarah J; Thorp, Corey J; Rebelo, Alexander D; Blackburn, Tim M; Kraus, Fred

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of impacts some alien species cause to native environments makes them targets for regulation and management. However, which species to target is not always clear, and comparisons of a wide variety of impacts are necessary. Impact scoring systems can aid management prioritization of alien species. For such tools to be objective, they need to be robust to assessor bias. Here, we assess the newly proposed Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) used for amphibians and test how outcomes differ between assessors. Two independent assessments were made by Kraus (Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 46, 2015, 75-97) and Kumschick et al. (Neobiota, 33, 2017, 53-66), including independent literature searches for impact records. Most of the differences between these two classifications can be attributed to different literature search strategies used with only one-third of the combined number of references shared between both studies. For the commonly assessed species, the classification of maximum impacts for most species is similar between assessors, but there are differences in the more detailed assessments. We clarify one specific issue resulting from different interpretations of EICAT, namely the practical interpretation and assigning of disease impacts in the absence of direct evidence of transmission from alien to native species. The differences between assessments outlined here cannot be attributed to features of the scheme. Reporting bias should be avoided by assessing all alien species rather than only the seemingly high-impacting ones, which also improves the utility of the data for management and prioritization for future research. Furthermore, assessments of the same taxon by various assessors and a structured review process for assessments, as proposed by Hawkins et al. (Diversity and Distributions, 21, 2015, 1360), can ensure that biases can be avoided and all important literature is included.

  3. Environmental analysis of Ribeiro wine from a timeline perspective: harvest year matters when reporting environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-05-15

    A series of Galician (NW Spain) wines, such as Rías Baixas and Ribeiro have acquired international renown in the past few years. In this particular study, viticulture, vinification and bottling and packaging in a winery of the Ribeiro appellation were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the largest environmental impacts for four different years of production (2007-2010). The selected functional unit was a 750 mL bottle of Ribeiro white wine, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through direct communication using questionnaires. Results showed considerable annual variability in environmental performance, stressing the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Therefore, environmental scaling was proposed for the assessed wine based on the individual environmental impacts for each harvest year. Furthermore, the main hot spots identified were compost and pesticide production and emissions, in the agricultural phase and bottle production and electricity consumption, in the subsequent stages of wine production, in most of the selected impact categories. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the compost transportation policy, recovery of natural resources for vineyard infrastructure, the introduction of new packaging formats in the bottling process and the use of pesticides with lower toxicity potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental impact assessments of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on the most hyperconcentrated laden river, Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongxian; Miao, Chiyuan; Wu, Jingwen; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-02-01

    The Yellow River is the most hyperconcentrated sediment-laden river in the world. Throughout recorded history, the Lower Yellow River (LYR) experienced many catastrophic flood and drought events. To regulate the LYR, a reservoir was constructed at Xiaolangdi that became operational in the early 2000s. An annual water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) was then implemented, aimed at flood control, sediment reduction, regulated water supply, and power generation. This study examines the eco-environmental and socioenvironmental impacts of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. In retrospect, it is found that the reservoir construction phase incurred huge financial cost and required large-scale human resettlement. Subsequent reservoir operations affected the local geological environment, downstream riverbed erosion, evolution of the Yellow River delta, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity. Lessons from the impact assessment of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir are summarized as follows: (1) The construction of large reservoirs is not merely an engineering challenge but must also be viewed in terms of resource exploitation, environmental protection, and social development; (2) long-term systems for monitoring large reservoirs should be established, and decision makers involved at national policy and planning levels must be prepared to react quickly to the changing impact of large reservoirs; and (3) the key to solving sedimentation in the LYR is not Xiaolangdi Reservoir but instead soil conservation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin. Proper assessment of the impacts of large reservoirs will help promote development strategies that enhance the long-term sustainability of dam projects.

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of saffron production in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Shahvarooghi Farahani, Saeid; Shojaei, Hamidreza; Elhami, Behzad

    2017-02-01

    Saffron is regarded as an important crop in Iranian agricultural economics that needs to be investigated to produce the environmentally friendlier product. In the present study, saffron production as an important agricultural production system in Iran was evaluated thoroughly from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from saffron farmers in Southern Khorasan province of the country with face-to-face questionnaire method during cropping period of 2013-2014. The system boundary was considered from the production of raw input materials to the harvested saffron. In order to identify the main hotspot during cultivation, impact categories were considered using CML methodology and cumulative exergy demand (CExD) indicator. Based on the results, chemical fertilizers N and P were the main hotspots in abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), global warming (GWP), and photochemical oxidation (PO) impact categories, while diesel fuel was the main hotspot in fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), and terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE). Direct emission from diesel fuel combustion (saffron) was the main hotspot only in human toxicity (HT). The small farms had the highest amounts of AD, AC, EP, GWP, and PO indicators in comparison with the medium and large farms. Total CExD indicator for production of 1 kg saffron was 1894.23 MJ eq. Totally, large farms (bigger than 1 ha) had better environmental performance considering all the impact categories.

  6. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  7. Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Cullinan Ranch Specific Plan. Chapter 11. Appendix IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    continued use of the Nichols and Wright’s maps are justified by the fact that, to our knowledge , there are no maps that delineate the historic marshlands...5 f eat ). In the subsurface, young bay mud locally may extend well inland of the marsh l.ine * * where the mud interfingers witb~alluvial deposits of...with the Standards. e. The annexation application and Solano County environmental assessment (Initial Study) questionnarie ’ The application should

  8. Environmental and Economic Impact Assessments of Environmental Regulations for the Agriculture Sector: A Case Study of Potato Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Ian

    2006-01-01

    A multi-year research study was established under the environmental pillar of the Agriculture Policy Framework (APF) to evaluate the role and impact of existing farm level environmental regulations administered by local, provincial, federal governments. The Phase 1 study entitled "Inventory and Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations in the Agricultural Sector" was released in March 2006 on AAFC online. There is a growing concern about the impact and effectiveness o...

  9. Environmental impacts of dispersed development from federal infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T

    2004-06-01

    Dispersed development, also referred to as urban growth or sprawl, is a pattern of low-density development spread over previously rural landscapes. Such growth can result in adverse impacts to air quality, water quality, human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, agricultural land, military training areas, water supply and wastewater treatment, recreational resources, viewscapes, and cultural resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is charged with protecting public health and the environment, which includes consideration of impacts from dispersed development. Specifically, because federal infrastructure projects can affect the progress of dispersed development, the secondary impacts resulting from it must be assessed in documents prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has oversight for NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act requires that U.S. EPA review and comment on federal agency NEPA documents. The adverse effects of dispersed development can be induced by federal infrastructure projects including transportation, built infrastructure, modifications in natural infrastructure, public land conversion and redevelopment of properties, construction of federal facilities, and large traffic or major growth generation developments requiring federal permits. This paper presents an approach that U.S. EPA reviewers and NEPA practitioners can use to provide accurate, realistic, and consistent analysis of secondary impacts of dispersed development resulting from federal infrastructure projects. It also presents 24 measures that can be used to mitigate adverse impacts from dispersed development by modifying project location and design, participating in preservation or restoration activities, or informing and supporting local communities in planning.

  10. Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs. 1051 ± 9 PJ yr-1) and 33% ± 9% of the animal-derived energy (67 ± 17 PJ yr-1 vs. 206 ± 2 PJ yr-1). They produce about 30% ± 13%, by mass, as much feces as Americans (5.1 ± Tg yr-1 vs. 17.2 Tg yr-1), and through their diet, constitute about 25–30% of the environmental impacts from animal production in terms of the use of land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate, and biocides. Dog and cat animal product consumption is responsible for release of up to 64 ± 16 million tons CO2-equivalent methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Americans are the largest pet owners in the world, but the tradition of pet ownership in the US has considerable costs. As pet ownership increases in some developing countries, especially China, and trends continue in pet food toward higher content and quality of meat, globally, pet ownership will compound the environmental impacts of human dietary choices. Reducing the rate of dog and cat ownership, perhaps in favor of other pets that offer similar health and emotional benefits would considerably reduce these impacts. Simultaneous industry-wide efforts to reduce overfeeding, reduce waste, and find alternative sources of protein will also reduce these impacts. PMID:28767700

  11. Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S

    2017-01-01

    In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs. 1051 ± 9 PJ yr-1) and 33% ± 9% of the animal-derived energy (67 ± 17 PJ yr-1 vs. 206 ± 2 PJ yr-1). They produce about 30% ± 13%, by mass, as much feces as Americans (5.1 ± Tg yr-1 vs. 17.2 Tg yr-1), and through their diet, constitute about 25-30% of the environmental impacts from animal production in terms of the use of land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate, and biocides. Dog and cat animal product consumption is responsible for release of up to 64 ± 16 million tons CO2-equivalent methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Americans are the largest pet owners in the world, but the tradition of pet ownership in the US has considerable costs. As pet ownership increases in some developing countries, especially China, and trends continue in pet food toward higher content and quality of meat, globally, pet ownership will compound the environmental impacts of human dietary choices. Reducing the rate of dog and cat ownership, perhaps in favor of other pets that offer similar health and emotional benefits would considerably reduce these impacts. Simultaneous industry-wide efforts to reduce overfeeding, reduce waste, and find alternative sources of protein will also reduce these impacts.

  12. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Ibsen C., E-mail: c.cardenas@utwente.nl [IceBridge Research Institutea, Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Halman, Johannes I.M., E-mail: J.I.M.Halman@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take place within an EIA setting. More specifically, we have identified uncertainties involved in each decision-making step and discussed the extent to which these can be treated and managed in the context of an activity or project that may have environmental impacts. To further demonstrate the relevance of the techniques identified, we have examined the extent to which the EIA guidelines currently used in Colombia consider and provide guidance on managing the uncertainty involved in these assessments. Some points that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in impact assessments in Colombia have been identified. These include the management of stakeholder values, the systematic generation of project options, and their associated impacts as well as the associated management actions, and the evaluation of uncertainties and assumptions. We believe that the relevant and specific techniques reported here can be a reference for future evaluations of other EIA guidelines in different countries. - Highlights: • uncertainty is unavoidable in environmental impact assessments, EIAs; • we have identified some open techniques to EIAs for treating and managing uncertainty in these assessments; • points for improvement that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in EIAs in Colombia have been identified; • the paper provides substantiated a reference for possible examinations of EIAs guidelines in other countries.

  13. Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Okin

    Full Text Available In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs. 1051 ± 9 PJ yr-1 and 33% ± 9% of the animal-derived energy (67 ± 17 PJ yr-1 vs. 206 ± 2 PJ yr-1. They produce about 30% ± 13%, by mass, as much feces as Americans (5.1 ± Tg yr-1 vs. 17.2 Tg yr-1, and through their diet, constitute about 25-30% of the environmental impacts from animal production in terms of the use of land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate, and biocides. Dog and cat animal product consumption is responsible for release of up to 64 ± 16 million tons CO2-equivalent methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gasses (GHGs. Americans are the largest pet owners in the world, but the tradition of pet ownership in the US has considerable costs. As pet ownership increases in some developing countries, especially China, and trends continue in pet food toward higher content and quality of meat, globally, pet ownership will compound the environmental impacts of human dietary choices. Reducing the rate of dog and cat ownership, perhaps in favor of other pets that offer similar health and emotional benefits would considerably reduce these impacts. Simultaneous industry-wide efforts to reduce overfeeding, reduce waste, and find alternative sources of protein will also reduce these impacts.

  14. Studies on the impact of flexibility of environmental regulations on performance and on the link between environmental initiatives and environmental performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, Naren Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates five different hypotheses related to environmental sustainability of UK manufacturing sectors. The hypotheses are 1) Flexible regulation impact performance positively 2) Inflexible regulation impact performance negatively 3) The mediating effect of innovation on the relationship between environmental regulation and performance 4) The moderating effect of innovation on the relationship between environmental regulation and performance 5) There is a close re...

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

    To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi

  17. The asteroid impact connection of planetary evolution with special reference to large Precambrian and Australian impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2014-01-01

    When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution.  Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, ...

  18. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  19. Meat (substitutes) comparing environmental impacts. A Case study comparing Quorn and pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, Joep

    2007-01-01

    The production of food by humans is said to contribute significantly to environmental impacts. Especially meat is seen as part of the diet with a high environmental impact. Replacing this meat with meat substitutes could potentially change this environmen

  20. 78 FR 56869 - Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis Determination for Plutonium-238... Analysis (SA) of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian...

  1. Brede inventarisatie milieu-effecten van veehouderij en landbouw = Environmental impacts of livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inventarization of a wide variety of environmental impacts of agriculture/livestock systems. Sources of the environmental impacts and the importance of agriculture, type of effects and their (ir)reversibility.

  2. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery and...

  3. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  4. Environmental noise, genetic diversity and the evolution of evolvability and robustness in model gene networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Steiner

    Full Text Available The ability of organisms to adapt and persist in the face of environmental change is accepted as a fundamental feature of natural systems. More contentious is whether the capacity of organisms to adapt (or "evolvability" can itself evolve and the mechanisms underlying such responses. Using model gene networks, I provide evidence that evolvability emerges more readily when populations experience positively autocorrelated environmental noise (red noise compared to populations in stable or randomly varying (white noise environments. Evolvability was correlated with increasing genetic robustness to effects on network viability and decreasing robustness to effects on phenotypic expression; populations whose networks displayed greater viability robustness and lower phenotypic robustness produced more additive genetic variation and adapted more rapidly in novel environments. Patterns of selection for robustness varied antagonistically with epistatic effects of mutations on viability and phenotypic expression, suggesting that trade-offs between these properties may constrain their evolutionary responses. Evolution of evolvability and robustness was stronger in sexual populations compared to asexual populations indicating that enhanced genetic variation under fluctuating selection combined with recombination load is a primary driver of the emergence of evolvability. These results provide insight into the mechanisms potentially underlying rapid adaptation as well as the environmental conditions that drive the evolution of genetic interactions.

  5. Adaptive social impact management for conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Hallam, Maery; Bennett, Nathan J

    2017-10-24

    Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits. We bring together insights from social impact assessment, adaptive management, social learning, knowledge coproduction, cross-scale governance, and environmental planning to propose a definition and framework for adaptive social impact management (ASIM). We define ASIM as the cyclical process of monitoring and adaptively managing social impacts over the life-span of an initiative through the 4 stages of profiling, learning, planning, and implementing. We outline 14 steps associated with the 4 stages of the ASIM cycle and provide guidance and potential methods for social-indicator development, predictive assessments of social impacts, monitoring and evaluation, communication of results, and identification and prioritization of management responses. Successful ASIM will be aided by engaging with best practices - including local engagement and collaboration in the process, transparent communication of results to stakeholders, collective deliberation on and choice of interventions, documentation of shared learning at the site level, and the scaling up of insights to inform higher-level conservation policies-to increase accountability, trust, and perceived legitimacy among stakeholders. The ASIM process is broadly applicable to conservation, environmental management, and development initiatives at various

  6. Grain mantles: The impact on grain evolution and selective extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Depletion studies are used to infer the presence of mantles and to constrain grain evolutionary models in the diffuse interstellar medium. The presence of these mantles appears to be important in the evolution of the grains inside diffuse as well as dense clouds. In dense clouds where the element-to-element abundances sometimes differ from those found in diffuse clouds, empirical relationships are starting to emerge between gas abundances and various types of peculiar selective extinction. These peculiar extinction curves may be the results of nonvolatile mantle formation on grain cores or may reflect chemical differences due to variations in the intrinsic metalicity from one cloud to another. A simple model of the time evolution of a parcel of gas and dust as observed by the depletion of two elements is presented. Different studies of grain evolution and selective extinction are discussed and compared.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  8. Environmental impact case study : Route 220, Fincastle to Eagle Rock : Project 0220-002-106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    At the request of the Environmental Quality Division, the Environmental and Economics Section of the Virginia Highway Research Council conducted a study to determine the probable socioeconomic and environmental impact of the proposed dual-laning of R...

  9. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Releases, Environmental Monitoring, Water Resources, Geology, Soils, Air Quality, Demography, Biota... proposed action will not impact effluent releases, environmental monitoring, water resources, geology..., environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography, biota, or cultural or...

  10. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  12. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  13. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts that may arise as a result of this... Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as amended. Based on the EA, and in...

  14. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51 Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  15. 49 CFR 520.24 - Internal processing of draft environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal processing of draft environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.24 Internal processing of draft environmental impact statements. Before... the Associate Administrator for Planning and Evaluation and the Chief Counsel; and prepare a...

  16. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  17. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.97 Final environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) Independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI...

  18. 10 CFR 51.90 - Final environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-general. 51.90... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.90 Final environmental impact statement—general. After receipt and consideration of comments requested pursuant to §§ 51...

  19. 10 CFR 51.76 - Draft environmental impact statement-limited work authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-limited work...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.76 Draft environmental impact statement—limited work authorization. The NRC will prepare a...

  20. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... environmental impacts. There will be minor savings of energy and vehicular use associated with the security... Division of Nuclear Safety, Illinois Emergency Management Agency, regarding the environmental impact of the... COMMISSION ; Docket No. 50-010 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to...

  1. 10 CFR 51.104 - NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 51.104 Section 51.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED....104 NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement. (a)(1) In... scope of NEPA and this subpart are in issue, the NRC staff may not offer the final environmental impact...

  2. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed

  3. 77 FR 51528 - Notice of Public Hearings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Outdoor Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Public Hearings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Outdoor... Agency a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the potential environmental effects of... includes an evaluation of the direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts. Methods to reduce or minimize...

  4. 77 FR 7568 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Corps of Engineers Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Clearwater Program AGENCY: U.S. Army... (Sanitation Districts) has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS... Program is the evaluation of alternatives for new ocean outfalls and rehabilitation of the existing ocean...

  5. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement (WRMP...

  6. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  7. Impact of environmental traders on water markets: An experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, John G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which an environmental agency with a stochastic demand function enters an existing water market to buy or sell water for instream use. Previous experimental studies have examined the use of tenders to reduce water extractions and social suasion to maintain aggregate flow levels and compared imposing minimum flow restrictions with subsidizing downstream water use and the allocation of tradeable minimum flow rights. The important contribution of this paper is that it explores the consequence of having an environmental agency enter an existing water market. In this paper we explore the consequences of (1) formally allocating tradeable water rights to the environmental agency, (2) allocating funding to purchase water as required, and (3) having the trading actions of the environmental agency a matter of public record. The research, while contextualized to water markets in this paper, addresses an important and timely issue that could have implication beyond water markets. In pollution permit markets, for example, there is the question of what the impact on the market would be if a government agency were to begin buying back permits, particularly if this represented a relatively large volume of trades and entered into such purchases on a needs basis.

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  9. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project : inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; Mccartney, T.; Mcnulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the

  10. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  11. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  12. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  13. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  14. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  15. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  16. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  17. Capacity development for environmental protection : towards better performing environmental impact assessment systems in low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a legal tool used to support government decisions on projects that could harm the environment. It is applied to such decisions, to study the possible environmental impacts of the proposed project and any mitigating measures necessary to minimize them. In the

  18. Damage evolution in adhesive joints subjected to impact fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Rodriguez, J. P.; Ashcroft, I. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2007-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the effects of low-velocity impacts produced in components and structures by vibrating loads. This type of loading is known as impact-fatigue. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of adhesive joints exposed to low-velocity impacting, to study the impact-fatigue life and to compare this loading regime with standard fatigue (i.e. non-impacting, constant amplitude, sinusoidal fatigue). To this effect, bonded aluminium single lap joints have been subjected to multiple impacting tensile loads and it has been shown that this is an extremely damaging load regime compared to standard fatigue. Two modifications of the accumulated time-stress model have been proposed to characterise the impact-fatigue results presented in this paper. The first model has been termed the modified load-time model and relates the total cumulative loading time of the primary tensile load wave to the mean maximum force. The second model attempts to characterise sample damage under impact-fatigue by relating the maximum force normalised with respect to initial maximum force to the accumulated loading time normalised with respect to the total accumulated loading time. This model has been termed the normalised load-time model. It is shown that both models provide a suitable characterisation of impact-fatigue in bonded joints.

  19. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  20. Bombay high oil spill and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Verlecar, X.N.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    , the research vessel, to take onboard 4 scientists and proceed immediately to the spill area. The ship sailed from Bombay on 20 May evening and reached the site on 21 May morning. d) After reaching the spill area, contact was established with the Coast Guard... of the oil spill (Bombay High region), estimate the magnitude of the oil spill and assess the environmental impact in the Bombay High region. Four scientists from Goa were nominated to the task who proceeded to Bombay and boarded ORV Sagar Kanya. The ship...

  1. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  2. The screening and scoping of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment of carbon capture and storage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are procedural tools which have as goal to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects of, respectively, a proposed project or policy plan. The goal of this article is to explore possible bottlenecks in

  3. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  4. Health Impact Assessment practice and potential for integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population's health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA andSEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health,significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection ofthe environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  5. Radio evolution and the impact on/of audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ala-Fossi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of radio is highly dependent not only on the national cultural contexts but also on the overall social, political and economic development of the societies. In addition, it happens in interplay with all the other forms of media and this is why there is no universal or separate evolution of radio. The growing importance of the internet and increasing popularity of mobile broadband together with the ongoing economic and demographic changes on a global scale continue to have a polarized effect: in the Western world, broadcast radio may have already had its all-time high, while in Asia and Africa, broadcast radio has still a huge potential for growth. 

  6. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  7. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is waste derived from the construction, demolition and renovation of buildings and civil infrastructure. With 900 million tons generated every year in Europe, it is the largest waste stream on the continent. C&DW is mainly constituted of mineral fractions, i...... to potential adverse impacts, especially related to the water-borne emission of pollutants, which need to be avoided. This requires first of all an estimation of their magnitude, and so the goal of this PhD is to provide an assessment of potential environmental impacts related to C&DW utilisation. C...... by appropriate measures within the C&DW waste management system, for instance by promoting source segregation of the concrete fraction stream or actively pursuing its carbonation. We found that leaching of Se, and to a lower extent Cr, Sb, SO4, Cl-, appears critical for C&DW in relation to existing national...

  8. The prospective environmental impacts of Iran nuclear energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshti, Hamed, E-mail: Beheshti@zedat.fu-berlin.de [Renewable Energy Policy Planning, Freie Universitaet Berlin BC CARE, Berlin Center for Caspian Region Energy and Environment Studies, Ihnestrasse 22, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Nuclear energy has direct impacts on the environment. Uranium mining, milling, and enrichment affect the livelihoods around and stress on the water resources. In addition, nuclear power plants consume huge amount of water and elevate the water temperature of the ambient water resources. The Iranian nuclear program has pledged for 20,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2025. The fulfillment of such ambitious target stresses the environment and increases the environmental degradation cost of the country. Iran central semi-arid area and the Persian Gulf are the major regions with high risk of impacts from the current nuclear program. - Highlights: > Fragile ecosystem of the Persian Gulf would not tolerate the ambitious nuclear programs of its coastal countries. > Water resources in Iran inland area are depleting fast due to the unsustainable development on the past. > Iranian nuclear program is going to put an additional serious stress on the water resources of the country.

  9. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  10. Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

  11. Evolution of a microbial nitrilase gene family: a comparative and environmental genomics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eads Jonathan R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completed genomes and environmental genomic sequences are bringing a significant contribution to understanding the evolution of gene families, microbial metabolism and community eco-physiology. Here, we used comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with enzymatic data to probe the evolution and functions of a microbial nitrilase gene family. Nitrilases are relatively rare in bacterial genomes, their biological function being unclear. Results We examined the genetic neighborhood of the different subfamily genes and discovered conserved gene clusters or operons associated with specific nitrilase clades. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate nitrilases which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in their enzymatic properties. We present evidence that Darwinian adaptation acted during one of those transitions and identified sites in the enzyme that may have been under positive selection. Conclusion Changes in the observed biochemical properties of the nitrilases associated with the different gene clusters are consistent with a hypothesis that those enzymes have been recruited to a novel metabolic pathway following gene duplication and neofunctionalization. These results demonstrate the benefits of combining environmental genomic sampling and completed genomes data with evolutionary and biochemical analyses in the study of gene families. They also open new directions for studying the functions of nitrilases and the genes they are associated with.

  12. 75 FR 68333 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    .... The primary environmental issues evaluated include impacts to air quality, soil, airspace, cultural... control mitigation techniques. Impacts to cultural resources, air quality, noise impacts, public land use... DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS...

  13. Damage Evolution in Ballistic Impact of Glass Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Stephan; Russell, Rod; Berry, Don; Levinson, Scott

    2009-06-01

    High-speed photographs were obtained from impact of .50-caliber fragment-simulating projectiles at 1100 m/s onto a 12 mm glass plate bonded with polyurethane to 28 mm of polycarbonate. Impact damage was compared to similar impacts on multi-glass-layer targets. Transitions from bundled radial cracks to fan cracks to radial cracks to dicing cracks occurred in both targets, but in the single-glass-layer target, a layer of glass remained adhered to the substrate. Initial damage spread was faster than the maximum crack speed, but fan and radial cracks grew at the crack speed in glass. The damage development is similar to that seen in edge-on-impact experiments reported over the past couple of years, and it is suggested that those experiments should be reinterpreted as showing impact-plate damage and not penetration phenomena.

  14. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  15. Brine Effluents: Characteristics, Environmental Impacts, and Their Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Ariono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brine discharge is one of the largest sources of wastewater from industrial processes. Because of the environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of brine discharge and more rigorous regulations of pollution control, industries have started to focus on waste minimization and improving the process of wastewater treatment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for brine handling by recovering both brine and water or to remove pollutant components so it complies with environmental regulations when discharged. One of the most promising alternatives to brine disposal is reusing the brine, which results in reduction of pollution, minimizing waste volume and salt recovery. The brine may also contain valuable components that could be recovered for profitable use. Also, water recovery from brine effluent is generally performed to save water. In the case of rejected brine from desalination plants, water recovery from higher brine concentrations has huge potential for salt production. This paper gives an overview of different types of brine effluents, their sources and characteristics. Also discussed are impacts of brine on the environment and management options related to their characteristics.

  16. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  18. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  19. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which results in a high water absorption of the recycled secondary aggregate. This leads to lower density and strength, and other durability related properties. The use of most recycled aggregate in concrete structures is still limited to low strength and non-structural applications due to important drop in strength and durability performances generated. Embedding recycled aggregates in concrete is now a current practice in many countries to enhance sustainability of concrete industry and reduce its environmental impacts. The present paper discusses the various possible recycled aggregates used in concrete production, their effect on both fresh and hardened properties as well as durability performances. The economic and environmental impacts of partially or fully substituting natural aggregates by secondary recycled aggregates are also discussed.

  20. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  1. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  2. E-learning in medical education: the potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2017-10-19

    Introduction There is a growing interest in the use of e-learning in medical education. However until recently there has been little interest in the potential environmental benefits of e-learning. This paper models various environmental outcomes that might emerge from the use of an e-learning resource (BMJ Learning) in CPD. Methods We modeled the use of e-learning as a component of CPD and evaluated the potential impact of this use on the learner's carbon footprint. We looked at a number of models - all from the perspective of a General Practitioner (GP). We assumed that all GPs completed 50 h or credits of CPD per year. Results High users of e-learning can reduce their carbon footprint - mainly by reducing their travel to face-to-face events (reducing printing also has a small beneficial effect). A high user of e-learning can reduce the carbon footprint that relates to their CPD by 18.5 kg. Discussion As global warming continues to pose a risk to human and environmental health, we feel that doctors have a duty to consider learning activities (such as e-learning) that are associated with a lower carbon footprint.

  3. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  4. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Serotonin transporter evolution and impact of polymorphic transcriptional regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeby, Karen; Larsen, Svend Ask; Olsen, Line

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary drug target in the current antidepressant therapy. A functional polymorphism in the 2nd intron of the 5HTT gene encoding the SERT has been identified and associated with susceptibility to affective disorders and treatment response to antidepressants...... in the VNTRs of all mammalian SERT genes. The number of these putative binding sites varies proportionally to the length of the VNTR. We propose that the intronic VNTR have been selectively targeted through mammalian evolution to finetune transcriptional regulation of the serotonin expression....

  7. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  8. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  9. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  10. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  11. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ejecta Evolution of Deep Impact: Insight from Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) probe impacted comet 9P/Tempel 1 at an angle of ~30° from local horizontal with a velocity of 10.2 km/s. Examination of the resulting ballistic (e.g., non-vapor driven) ejecta revealed phenomena that largely followed expectations from laboratory investigations of oblique impacts into low-density porous material, including a downrange bias, uprange zone of avoidance, and cardioid (curved) rays (Schultz, et al, 2005, 2007). Modeling of the impact based on canonical models and scaling laws (Richardson, et al, 2007) allowed a first-order reconstruction of the event, but did not fully represent the three-dimensional nature of the ejecta flow-field in an oblique impact essential for interpretation of the DI data. In this study, we present new experimental measurements of the early-time ejecta dynamics in oblique impacts that allow a more complete reconstruction of the ballistic ejecta from the impact, including visualization of the DI encounter and predictions for the upcoming re-encounter with Tempel 1. A suite of hypervelocity 30° impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) for the purpose of interpreting the Deep Impact event. A technique based on Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) permitted non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity within the ejecta curtain. The PTV system developed at the AVGR utilizes a laser light sheet projected parallel to the impact surface to illuminate horizontal “slices” of the ejecta curtain that are then recorded by multiple cameras. Particle displacement between successive frames and cameras allows determination of the three-component velocity of the ejecta curtain. Pioneering efforts with a similar technique (Anderson, et al, 2003, 2006) characterized the main-stage ejecta velocity distributions and demonstrated that asymmetries in velocity and ejection angle persist well into the far-field for oblique impacts. In this study, high-speed cameras

  13. Environmental influences in the evolution of tetrapod hearing sensitivity and middle ear tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Vertebrates inhabit and communicate acoustically in most natural environments. We review the influence of environmental factors on the hearing sensitivity of terrestrial vertebrates, and on the anatomy and mechanics of the middle ears. Evidence suggests that both biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect the evolution of bandwidth and frequency of peak sensitivity of the hearing spectrum. Relevant abiotic factors include medium type, temperature, and noise produced by nonliving sources. Biotic factors include heterospecific, conspecific, or self-produced sounds that animals are selected to recognize, and acoustic interference by sounds that other animals generate. Within each class of tetrapods, the size of the middle ear structures correlates directly to body size and inversely to frequency of peak sensitivity. Adaptation to the underwater medium in cetaceans involved reorganization of the middle ear for novel acoustic pathways, whereas adaptation to subterranean life in several mammals resulted in hypertrophy of the middle ear ossicles to enhance their inertial mass for detection of seismic vibrations. The comparative approach has revealed a number of generalities about the effect of environmental factors on hearing performance and middle ear structure across species. The current taxonomic sampling of the major tetrapod groups is still highly unbalanced and incomplete. Future expansion of the comparative evidence should continue to reveal general patterns and novel mechanisms.

  14. The Evolution of Green Growth Policy: An Unwelcome Intrusion on Global Environmental Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of green growth emerged in 2009. Since then, policy makers and practitioners have largely adopted the term. Although rather intermittently, there have been academic observations on green growth, with the term often being cited as a paradigm and a policy guide for generating new sources of growth. The most important reasons for the surge in green growth today as a new trend and an international agenda item are the rather unsatisfactory results and pitfalls of sustainable development, which has failed at promoting a tangible international environmental principle or a concrete policy framework. Green growth has been proposed as an alternative simultaneously to foster the dynamics of global environmental governance and to reinvigorate the world economy. This study examines to what extent green growth plays a complementary role in existing global environmental governance. Available evidence provides reasonable grounds for arguing that a positive outcome may well be expected from the evolution of green growth architecture and followed by practical policies. It became a global agenda out of a few influential national governments' control. However, decision makers in the leading countries, both developed and developing must be willing to continue implementing what has been discussed and agreed thus far, beyond changes in political leadership and administrations.

  15. Neurotoxicology and development: human, environmental and social impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonny; London, Leslie; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2014-12-01

    The 12th International symposium of the Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology, International Commission on Occupational Health was held in Cape Town, South Africa on March 24-27, 2013. Reflecting the meeting aiming to build greater focus on challenges facing working populations and communities in developing countries, the Symposium theme was Neurotoxicology and Development: Human, Environmental and Social Impacts. A total of 23 countries were represented with strong participation from 5 African countries. In addition to the more traditional topics of these Symposia, like metal, solvents and pesticides neurotoxicity, the conference embraced several new themes including affective disorders arising from chemical exposure, neurodevelopmental impacts in early life and novel approaches to genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for the assessment of neurotoxic impact. The theme of the conference prompted extensive discussions, which have laid the basis for a number of new directions for research, advocacy and capacity building to prevent and manage chemical neurotoxicity in workplace and community settings across the globe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse environmental impact: 30-year search for a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, David A; Muessig, Paul H; Jensen, Loren D

    2002-03-08

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b) of the act: "adverse environmental impact" (AEI). Section 316(b) requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regarding AEI were reinvigorated following the 1995 Consent Decree requiring EPA to propose new rules to implement Section 316(b). This article reviews and compares eight proposed definitions of AEI. Six of the definitions define AEI as impact expressed at the population or higher level of biological organization. The two remaining definitions are unrelated to populations: a 1% cropping of the near-field organisms and "one fish equals AEI". The latter definition is based on the desire of some stakeholders to define AEI as the loss of any public trust resources. Equating loss of public trust resources with AEI hampers consensus on a definition because a societal-based policy concept (public trust resources) is commingled with science-based definitions based on population effects. We recommend that a population-based definition of AEI be incorporated into Section 316(b) guidance and observe that this will not preclude a state from exercising its law and policy to protect public trust resources.

  17. Environmental disasters: preparing for impact assessments and operational feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Pierre; Bard, Denis; Noiville, Christine; Lahidji, Reza

    2008-01-01

    On March 24, 2006, the French Minister of Environment asked the Committee for Prevention and Precaution (CPP), an independent multidisciplinary committee created in 1996, to conduct a methodological analysis of operational feedback of natural and technological disasters to determine if France is equipped to collect the information and data necessary for the assessment, and optimal management of a disaster and its consequences. The Committee's analysis was based on the testimony it heard from 13 experts--scientists and representatives of associations and advocacy groups--and its review of the literature, including operational feedback reports. Its response to the Minister focused on the assessment of the health, social, environmental, and economic impacts of disasters and on their operational feedback (defined as the systematic analysis of a past event to draw lessons for the management of the risk), as practiced in France. It presents the results of the literature review about the consequences of disasters, expert's views on the current utility and limitations of impact assessments and operational feedback, the CPP's discussion of these results, and its recommendations to improve impact assessment and operational feedback of disasters. These recommendations cover preparation for and activation of data collection and operational feedback, financial provisions, coordination of stakeholders, education and training in disaster preparedness, and the distribution and use of data from operational feedback.

  18. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  19. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J LeMonte

    Full Text Available Polymer coated urea (PCU is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3 and aqueous (NO3(- N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1 (control to 200 kg N ha(-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®. Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.