van Dijk, P; Maat, A; Wit, H P
In one specimen of the frog species, Rana esculenta, the following were measured: (1) a spontaneous otoacoustic emission; (2) a click-evoked otoacoustic emissions; and (3) a noise evoked otoacoustic emission. From the noise evoked emission response, a first-and a second-order Wiener kernel and the
Fiore, C; Cagini, C; Menduno, P; Toniassoni, I; Desantis, A; Pennacchi, A; Ricci, G; Molini, E
The hearing function was studied in 26 patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in their relatives. Sixteen patients showed bilateral normal hearing when examined with traditional audiometric methods. In these normoacusic patients evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOE) have been studied. The EOE offer a unique opportunity to measure objectively the function of outer hair cells: they record the amplitude of the energy produced by the outer hair cells of the coclea following an acoustic stimulation. The data have been statistically compared, using the Student's t-test, with those obtained in a homogeneous control-group of normal subjects. In normoacusic subjects with RP the average values of EOE intensity are statistically lower than those of normal subjects in 64 of the 127 frequency bands examined. Moreover, the distribution of the EOE in patients with retinitis pigmentosa proved to be more discontinous than that observed in the normal subjects. The EOE recorded in 14 normoacusic relatives show in some cases small anomalies but the data, on account of the limited sample group, cannot be statistically evaluated. Therefore a subclinical alteration of the Organ of Corti is found in 100% of the patients affected by RP, although they appear to be normoacusic to usual audiometric tests.
Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian
Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.
Gonçalves, R; McBrearty, A; Pratola, L; Calvo, G; Anderson, T J; Penderis, J
Evoked otoacoustic emission testing is the preferred test in human patients for sensorineural deafness screening in neonates and cochlear outer hair cell function monitoring in adults. This study evaluated evoked otoacoustic emission testing for cochlear function assessment in dogs within a clinical setting. Two populations of anaesthetised dogs were included. In group 1 the evoked otoacoustic emission response was compared to the brainstem auditory evoked response in 10 dogs having hearing assessment. Group 2 comprised 43 presumed normal dogs, in which the suitability of two types of evoked otoacoustic emissions, transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, were evaluated (brainstem auditory evoked response was not performed in this group). Valid transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion-product otoacoustic emission responses were successfully recorded within the clinical setting and correctly identified deaf and hearing ears. Within presumed healthy dogs, normal otoacoustic emission response was demonstrated in more than 80% of dogs using a single, short distortion-product otoacoustic emission run and in 78% of dogs with valid transient-evoked otoacoustic emission responses using a series of three repeated transient-evoked otoacoustic emission short runs. Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing provided a rapid, non-invasive frequency-specific assessment of cochlear function. Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission and distortion product otoacoustic emission testing is suitable as a screening procedure to detect loss of cochlear function in dogs, although further investigation is needed. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten
This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated...... and measured here for seven subjects, both for short- and long-latency CEOAEs. Long-latency CEOAEs (duration >20ms) typically indicate the presence of synchronised spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SSOAEs). Temporal suppression can only be linked to changes in CEOAE-compression if the suppressor-click affects...... the CEOAE magnitude. Phase changes induced by the suppressor-click were shown to bias suppression in two ways: (i) when a specific asymmetric measurement method was used and (ii) when synchronisation between the CEOAE and the click-stimuli was incomplete. When such biases were eliminated, temporal...
Silva, Giovanna Cesar; Delecrode, Camila Ribas; Kemp, Adriana Tahara; Martins, Fabiana; Cardoso, Ana Claudia Vieira
Introduction The most commonly used method in neonatal hearing screening programs is transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in the first stage of the process. There are few studies comparing transient evoked otoacoustic emissions with distortion product, but some authors have investigated the issue. Objective To correlate the results of transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions in a Brazilian maternity hospital. Methods This is a cross-sectional, comparative, and prospective study. The study included 579 newborns, ranging from 6 to 54 days of age, born in a low-risk maternity hospital and assessed for hearing loss. All neonates underwent hearing screening by transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. The results were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test to relate the two procedures. Results The pass index on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions was 95% and on distortion product otoacoustic emissions was 91%. The comparison of the two procedures showed that 91% of neonates passed on both procedures, 4.5% passed only on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, 0.5% passed only on distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and 4% failed on both procedures. The inferential analysis showed a significant strong positive relationship between the two procedures. Conclusion The failure rate was higher in distortion product otoacoustic emissions when compared with transient evoked; however, there was correlation between the results of the procedures. PMID:26157501
Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten
This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...
Gegenava, Kh; Japaridze, Sh; Sharashenidze, N; Jalabadze, G; Kevanishvili, Z
Evoked otoacoustic emissions, EOAEs, are proved to be sounds aroused in response to external acoustic stimulus by the cochlear outer hair cells. Transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions, TEOAEs, are the most clinically utilized EOAEs. TEOAEs are detectable in 98% of people with normal hearing, regardless of age or sex, while two ears of any individual produce similar TEOAEs waveforms. The objective of the presented study was the comparison of TEOAE magnitudes in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. The TEOAE occurrence and characteristics in individuals of both samples with audiometrically proved hearing losses and in those without were also specifically examined. 30 smokers and and 30 nonsmokers within the age range of 30-59 years were involved in the present study after informed concent. OAEs were performed to each subject by Madsen Capella's-OAE/middle ear analyzer-GN Otometrics, (Danmark). After OAE testing each subject was performed routine pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry. Obtained results were statistically treated by the student's t-distribution. According to our results 76.6% of smokers and 3.33% of nonsmokers had marked different level decrease in TEOAE amplitude. Audiographic measurments showed altered audiogram in 6.7% of smokers and in 3.33% of nonsmokers. Based on the above mentioned results we suppose that smoking has significant influence on hearing function, especially on cochlear apparatus; At the same time, TOEAE, as a sensitive method can be used for very early detection of hearing loss, even when there are neither any subjective complains nor some changies on audiogram.
Conclusion: The suppression of the transient evoked otoacoustic emission by contralateral white noise did not reach statistically significant levels in tinnitus patients while the amplitude in control group reduced significantly.
SOI, D.; Brambilla, D; COMIOTTO, E.; DI Berardino, F; Filipponi, E.; Socci, M; SPREAFICO, E.; Forti, S.; CESARANI, A.
SUMMARY Several studies have previously demonstrated that postural changes modify evoked otoacoustic emission. In order to evaluate a possible interaction between eye muscles and ciliated cells in the inner ear, we studied the effects of eye lateralization on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Thirty-eight normal hearing subjects with TEOAEs were recruited. Their TEAOEs at threshold level were recorded with contralateral suppression (white noise)...
Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de
Full Text Available Introduction: The correlation between the transient (TEOE and distortion product (DPOAE evoked otoacoustic emissions may be useful for the neonatal auditory screening, mainly in premature infants, who have risk indicators for hearing deficiency. There is need for deepening the knowledge regarding this population cochlea features. Objective: To compare the TEOE and DPOAE in premature infants. To analyze the reproducibility in the TEOE, the amplitude and the sign/noise ratio in the TEOE and DPOAE. Method: TEOE and DPOAE were carried out in 50 premature infants. The tests were correlated as for the criterion "pass/failure" and compared according to amplitude and sign/noise ratio parameters. Results: The TEOE were present in 71% of the sample. The frequency of 3kHz presented a better performance in the average reproducibility, amplitude and sign/noise ratio. The DPOAE were present in 97% of the sample. The frequency of 2kHz had a major average amplitude, the values of the sign/noise ratio increased proportionally in the high frequencies. There was a strong correlation between TEOE and DPOAE in the "pass/failure" criterion (p=0.006. Conclusion: The correlation between the TEOE and DPOAE results was significant. But one method compliments the other and both may be used in the TAN.
All patients were screened to insure otologically normal subjects based on history and otological examination and tympanometry. Examined was done in the KHMC between 1999-2000 using a manually Operated Madson Audiometer, and the IL 088 otodynamic Analyser was used to record transient otoacoustic emission.
Snihur, Adrian W. K.; Hampson, Elizabeth
Effects of sex and handedness on the production of spontaneous and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were explored in a non-hearing impaired population (ages 17-25 years). A sex difference in OAEs, either produced spontaneously (spontaneous OAEs or SOAEs) or in response to auditory stimuli (click-evoked OAEs or CEOAEs) has been reported in…
WIT, HP; VANDIJK, P; AVAN, P
Wavelet analysis was performed to obtain time-frequency analyses of click evoked otoacoustic emissions from normal ears and one ear with a high-frequency hearing loss; mainly to introduce this relatively new method and to show its potentials for emission analysis. The same analysis was then used to
de Kleine, E; Wit, HP; Avan, P; van Dijk, P
Click-evoked and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs and SFOAEs, respectively) were studied in humans during and after postural changes. The subjects were tilted from upright to a recumbent position (head down 30 deg) and upright again. Due to the downward posture change, CEOAEs showed
McBrearty, A; Penderis, J
Background: Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) are widely used for human neonatal deafness screening, but have not been reported for clinical use in dogs. \\ud \\ud Hypothesis/Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of TEOAE testing in conscious puppies and the ability of TEOAE testing to correctly identify deaf and hearing ears, as defined by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). \\ud \\ud Animals: Forty puppies from 10 litters. \\ud \\ud Methods: Prospective study on puppies p...
Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is a perception of sound without external source. The exact etiology of tinnitus is not fully understood, although some researchers believe that the condition usually starts in the cochlea. The aim of this study was to determine the potential contribution of outer hair cell dysfunction to chronic tinnitus, by application of Distortion-Product Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE and also to determine the relationship between tinnitus loudness and the amplitude of these two potentials. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 20 tinnitus patients aged 20–45 years and 20 age- and gender-matched control subjects. DPOAE and TEOAE were performed on each subject. Results: The difference in the amplitudes of TEOAE between the two groups was not significantly different (P=0.08, but the amplitude of DPOAE in patients with tinnitus was significantly lower than the corresponding value in the control subjects (P=0.01. There was no correlation between tinnitus loudness and the amplitudes of neither DPOAE nor TEOAE. Conclusion: Abnormal findings in the DPOAE of tinnitus sufferers suggest some form of cochlear dysfunction in these patients. As there was no correlation between the amplitude of the recorded potentials and tinnitus loudness, factors other than cochlear dysfunction may also influence the loudness of tinnitus.
Xue, S; Mountain, D C; Hubbard, A E
A simple model for the acoustic enhancement of electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions (EEOEs) is presented in this paper. The model is based on the assumption that the enhancement is a result of the local interaction between the electrical current spreading in the scala media and the basilar membrane (BM) response to acoustic input. The analytical, steady-state response of the 1-dimensional linear cable to sinusoidal current injection is derived and is used to predict the current spreading in the cochlea. Acoustic enhancement at an emission generator is modeled as a magnitude change that is a sigmoid function of the local BM motion. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental findings and support our interpretation that the acoustic enhancement of EEOEs reflects BM tuning.
Yalçinkaya, Fulya; Yilmaz, Suna Tokgöz; Muluk, Nuray Bayar
Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are reflections of cochlear energy produced during the processing of sound. The suppression effect identified as the decrease with the additional tone stimulator of the otoacoustic emission amplitude is use for assessing efferent auditory system function. The aim of this study is to investigate the contralateral suppression effect (CSE) of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in children with auditory listening problems (ALPs) compared to normal hearing children. The study group (Group 1) was consisted of 12 ALP children (8 males and 4 females), aged 5-10 years, and associated with receptive and expressive language delay. The control group was consisted of (Group 2) 12 children with normal hearing levels, matched according to gender and age of TEOAEs and CSE of TEOAEs were investigated at 1.0-4.0 kHz in both groups. For right ear, at 1.0 and 3.0 kHz, TEOAE amplitudes of the ALP group were significantly lower than the control group. At 2.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kHz of the right ear and at 1.0-5.0 kHz of the left ear, TEOAE amplitudes were found as not different between ALP and control groups. Suppression values of the ALP group were significantly lower than the control group at 1.0-2.0 kHz of the right ear and at 2.0 kHz of the left ear. At the other frequencies, there was no significant difference between the suppression values of the ALP and control groups. Lower suppression values in ALP group at all frequencies (significant at 1.0-2.0 and 2.0 kHz in the right and left ears, respectively) showed that cochlear and cranial maturation of the ALP group may lower than the control group. Since the age profile in both group is similar, we thought that age's effect on this results is not important. Our results showed that children with ALP have auditory processing difficulties in noisy environment. For understanding the efferent auditory system, patients with auditory processing disorders may be evaluated by the help of
Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses (0.7-8 kHz) were measured in normal-hearing adult ears using click stimuli and chirps whose local frequency increased or decreased linearly with time over the stimulus duration. Chirp stimuli were created by allpass filtering a click with relatively constant incident pressure level over frequency. Chirp TEOAEs were analyzed as a nonlinear residual signal by inverse allpass filtering each chirp response into an equivalent click response. Multi-window spectral and temporal averaging reduced noise levels compared to a single-window average. Mean TEOAE levels using click and chirp stimuli were similar with respect to their standard errors in adult ears. TEOAE group delay, group spread, instantaneous frequency, and instantaneous bandwidth were similar overall for chirp and click conditions, except for small differences showing nonlinear interactions differing across stimulus conditions. These results support the theory of a similar generation mechanism on the basilar membrane for both click and chirp conditions based on coherent reflection within the tonotopic region. TEOAE temporal fine structure was invariant across changes in stimulus level, which is analogous to the intensity invariance of click-evoked basilar-membrane displacement data.
Keefe, Douglas H.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses (0.7–8 kHz) were measured in normal-hearing adult ears using click stimuli and chirps whose local frequency increased or decreased linearly with time over the stimulus duration. Chirp stimuli were created by allpass filtering a click with relatively constant incident pressure level over frequency. Chirp TEOAEs were analyzed as a nonlinear residual signal by inverse allpass filtering each chirp response into an equivalent click response. Multi-window spectral and temporal averaging reduced noise levels compared to a single-window average. Mean TEOAE levels using click and chirp stimuli were similar with respect to their standard errors in adult ears. TEOAE group delay, group spread, instantaneous frequency, and instantaneous bandwidth were similar overall for chirp and click conditions, except for small differences showing nonlinear interactions differing across stimulus conditions. These results support the theory of a similar generation mechanism on the basilar membrane for both click and chirp conditions based on coherent reflection within the tonotopic region. TEOAE temporal fine structure was invariant across changes in stimulus level, which is analogous to the intensity invariance of click-evoked basilar-membrane displacement data. PMID:27914441
McBrearty, A; Penderis, J
Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) are widely used for human neonatal deafness screening, but have not been reported for clinical use in dogs. To investigate the feasibility of TEOAE testing in conscious puppies and the ability of TEOAE testing to correctly identify deaf and hearing ears, as defined by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). Forty puppies from 10 litters. Prospective study on puppies presented for hearing assessment as part of a congenital deafness BAER screening program. Hearing status was determined using BAER. TEOAE testing was performed after the BAER assessment and the results of the TEOAE testing were compared with the hearing status for each ear. Parameters were tested for normality using the D'Agostino Pearson test and comparisons between the deaf and hearing ears were made using Mann-Whitney tests. TEOAE testing was readily performed in puppies presented for congenital deafness screening. Using analysis parameters based on those used in human neonatal hearing screening, TEOAE testing correctly identified all deaf ears, as defined by BAER testing, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 56-100%) for diagnosing deafness and specificity of 78% (95% CI: 66-87%). TEOAE testing is an effective screening modality for identifying congenital sensorineural deafness in dogs. In light of the simpler and less expensive equipment, TEOAE testing has the potential to improve access to hearing screening and through this reduce the prevalence of congenital deafness in the dog. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Loehlin, John C; McFadden, Dennis
A number of trait measures, possibly reflective of prenatal hormonal effects, were obtained in studies of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) carried out with male and female heterosexual and homosexual/bisexual college students. Most of the measures were from a self-report questionnaire; others were from experimenters' ratings or cognitive tests (Mental Rotation Test and Water Level Test). The questionnaire, test, and rating measures included physical characteristics (e.g., height, body type, eye color); spatial abilities; sex roles and sexual orientation; childhood gender nonconformity; and, in the OAE study, presence of homosexuality or bisexuality among relatives. Correlations with sexual orientation were most often consistent with the hypothesis that male homosexuals were undermasculinized and female homosexuals overmasculinized. Some correlations of the questionnaire, test, and rating measures with auditory measures were observed, but most of these were reduced or eliminated by statistically controlling for sex. In supplementary analyses, pigmentation measures appeared to be unrelated to OAEs, and data relevant to several hypotheses in the sexual orientation literature were briefly examined, including childhood gender nonconformity, X-linkage, handedness, and the tendency of homosexuality to run in families.
Bhagat, Shaum; Bass, Johnnie; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew; Wu, Jianrong; Galindo, Carlos-Rodriguez; Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella
The aims of this study were to characterize and quantify time-frequency changes in transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) recorded in children diagnosed with retinoblastoma who were receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. A signal processing technique, the wavelet transform (WT), was used to analyze TEOAE waveforms in narrow-band frequency components. Ten children (aged 3–72 months) diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral retinoblastoma were enrolled in the study. TEOAEs were acquired from the children with linear sequences of 70 dB peSPL clicks. After WT analysis, TEOAE energy, latency, and normalized energy in the narrow-band frequency components were compared before and during carboplatin (average dose 1693 mg/m2) chemotherapy treatment. On a group basis, no significant differences (p>0.05) in pre- and post-carboplatin TEOAE energy, latency, or normalized energy were observed. There were decreases in normalized energy on an individual basis in 10/18 ears in the sample. Exposure to carboplatin chemotherapy did not cause significant changes in TEOAE energy, latency, and normalized energy during treatment. However, long-term monitoring of hearing with measurements of TEOAEs is warranted given the risks of delayed hearing loss in some children receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. PMID:23147804
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs test evaluates the efferent auditory system. In this test, acoustic reflex is an important confounding variable. In recent years, application of this test is growing especially in children suspect to central auditory processing disorder. Therefore, the magnitude of influence of this confounding variable on the suppression of TEOAEs should be made clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acoustic reflex on contralateral suppression of TEOAEs.Methods: This research was performed on 39 normal-hearing adults of both sexes and of 18-26 years of age. Tests were used for the determination of interaural attenuation (IA, acoustic reflex, TEOAEs and contralateral suppression of TEOAEs.Results: TEOAEs amplitudes and their contralateral suppression were significantly higher in females and males respectively (p=0.01. The amount of TEOAEs suppression before reflex activity ranged between 2000 to 3000 Hz. Activation of acoustic reflex significantly increased the magnitude of suppression in all frequency bands (p≤0.01 and maximum suppression occurred in 500 to 1000 Hz.Conclusion: For achieving accuracy of clinical findings, clinicians should always use suppressant levels lower than the acoustic reflex threshold. It is recommended that different norms for males and females be used in contralateral suppression of TEOAEs.
Pigasse, Gilles; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten
Methods to estimate cochlear delay in humans have been traditionally based on either phase-derived group delays from otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), or auditory brainstem responses (ABR). These methods demonstrate large variability in cochlear delay estimates, and are derived from across subject av...
Burke, Sarah M; Menks, Willeke M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie
Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to originate from elevated levels of testosterone during perinatal sexual differentiation. Therefore, CEOAEs may be used as a retrospective indicator of someone's perinatal androgen environment. Individuals diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder (GID), according to DSM-IV-TR, are characterized by a strong identification with the other gender and discomfort about their natal sex. Although the etiology of GID is far from established, it is hypothesized that atypical levels of sex steroids during a critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain might play a role. In the present study, we compared CEOAEs in treatment-naïve children and adolescents with early-onset GID (24 natal boys, 23 natal girls) and control subjects (65 boys, 62 girls). We replicated the sex difference in CEOAE response amplitude in the control group. This sex difference, however, was not present in the GID groups. Boys with GID showed stronger, more female-typical CEOAEs whereas girls with GID did not differ in emission strength compared to control girls. Based on the assumption that CEOAE amplitude can be seen as an index of relative androgen exposure, our results provide some evidence for the idea that boys with GID may have been exposed to lower amounts of androgen during early development in comparison to control boys.
Buller, G; Lutman, M E
The increasing use of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in large neonatal hearing screening programmes makes a standardized method of response classification desirable. Until now methods have been either subjective or based on arbitrary response characteristics. This study takes an expert system approach to standardize the subjective judgements of an experienced scorer. The method that is developed comprises three stages. First, it transforms TEOAEs from waveforms in the time domain into a simplified parameter set. Second, the parameter set is classified by an artificial neural network that has been taught on a large database TEOAE waveforms and corresponding expert scores. Third, additional fuzzy logic rules automatically detect probable artefacts in the waveforms and synchronized spontaneous emission components. In this way, the knowledge of the experienced scorer is encapsulated in the expert system software and thereafter can be accessed by non-experts. Teaching and evaluation of the neural network was based on TEOAEs from a database totalling 2190 neonatal hearing screening tests. The database was divided into learning and test groups with 820 and 1370 waveforms respectively. From each recorded waveform a set of 12 parameters was calculated, representing signal static and dynamic properties. The artifical network was taught with parameter sets of only the learning groups. Reproduction of the human scorer classification by the neural net in the learning group showed a sensitivity for detecting screen fails of 99.3% (299 from 301 failed results on subjective scoring) and a specificity for detecting screen passes of 81.1% (421 of 519 pass results). To quantify the post hoc performance of the net (generalization), the test group was then presented to the network input. Sensitivity was 99.4% (474 from 477) and specificity was 87.3% (780 from 893). To check the efficiency of the classification method, a second learning group was selected out of the
Garinis, Angela C; Keefe, Douglas H; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Putterman, Daniel B; McMillan, Garnett P; Gold, Jeffrey A; Feeney, M Patrick
The goal of this study was to investigate the use of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and middle ear absorbance measurements to monitor auditory function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) receiving ototoxic medications. TEOAEs were elicited with a chirp stimulus using an extended bandwidth (0.71 to 8 kHz) to measure cochlear function at higher frequencies than traditional TEOAEs. Absorbance over a wide bandwidth (0.25 to 8 kHz) provides information on middle ear function. The combination of these time-efficient measurements has the potential to identify early signs of ototoxic hearing loss. A longitudinal study design was used to monitor the hearing of 91 patients with CF (median age = 25 years; age range = 15 to 63 years) who received known ototoxic medications (e.g., tobramycin) to prevent or treat bacterial lung infections. Results were compared to 37 normally hearing young adults (median age = 32.5 years; age range = 18 to 65 years) without a history of CF or similar treatments. Clinical testing included 226-Hz tympanometry, pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 0.25 to 16 kHz and bone conduction from 0.25 to 4 kHz. Experimental testing included wideband absorbance at ambient and tympanometric peak pressure and TEOAEs in three stimulus conditions: at ambient pressure and at tympanometric peak pressure using a chirp stimulus with constant incident pressure level across frequency and at ambient pressure using a chirp stimulus with constant absorbed sound power across frequency. At the initial visit, behavioral audiometric results indicated that 76 of the 157 ears (48%) from patients with CF had normal hearing, whereas 81 of these ears (52%) had sensorineural hearing loss for at least one frequency. Seven ears from four patients had a confirmed behavioral change in hearing threshold for ≥3 visits during study participation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that all three TEOAE conditions were useful for
Norton, S J; Gorga, M P; Widen, J E; Folsom, R C; Sininger, Y; Cone-Wesson, B; Vohr, B R; Mascher, K; Fletcher, K
The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) as tools for identification of neonatal hearing impairment. A total of 4911 infants including 4478 graduates of neonatal intensive care units, 353 well babies with one or more risk factors for hearing loss (Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, 1994) and 80 well babies without risk factor who did not pass one or more neonatal test were targeted as the potential subject pool on which test performance would be assessed. During the neonatal period, they were evaluated using TEOAEs in response to an 80 dB pSPL click, DPOAE responses to two stimulus conditions (L1 = L2 = 75 dB SPL and L1 = 65 dB SPL L2 = 50 dB SPL), and ABR elicited by a 30 dB nHL click. In an effort to describe test performance, these "at-risk" infants were asked to return for behavioral audiologic assessments, using visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) at 8 to 12 mo corrected age, regardless of neonatal test results. Sixty-four percent of these subjects returned and reliable VRA data were obtained on 95.6% of these returnees. This approach is in contrast to previous studies in which, by necessity, efforts were made to follow only those infants who "failed" the neonatal screening tests. The accuracy of the neonatal measures in predicting hearing status at 8 to 12 mo corrected age was determined. Only those infants who provided reliable, monaural VRA test results were included in the analysis. Separate analyses were performed without regard to intercurrent events (i.e., events between the neonatal and VRA tests that could cause their results to disagree), and then after accounting for the possible influence of intercurrent events such as otitis media and late-onset or progressive hearing loss. Low refer rates were achieved for the stopping criteria used in the present study, especially when a protocol
Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a chronic disorder characterized by a variety of symptoms associated with the exposure to chemicals at a concentration below the toxic level. Previous studies have demonstrated peculiar responses in brain activity in these patients with respect to sensory stimuli while the association between chemical sensitivity and other environmental intolerances such as noise sensitivity has been questioned by researchers. In this study, a cohort of 18 MCS patients underwent transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE testing with and without contralateral suppression to evaluate the functionality of the medial olivocochlear (MOC reflex involved in speech-in-noise sensitivity. Results were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 20 and correlation analysis with disease onset and quick environmental exposure sensitivity inventory (qEESI symptom severity scale was performed. Subjects affected by MCS showed statistically significant impairment of MOC reflex, and the onset of the disease and several symptom subscales showed to be correlated to such reduction in some of the frequencies tested. These data suggest that alterations of MOC reflex could be part of the complex features of this disease although more studies are needed to further explore auditory perception disorders in environmental intolerances.
Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis
Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knight, Kristin R; Kraemer, Dale F; Winter, Christiane; Neuwelt, Edward A
The objective is to describe progressive changes in hearing and cochlear function in children and adolescents treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and to begin preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of extended high-frequency audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions for ototoxicity monitoring in children. Baseline and serial measurement of conventional pure-tone audiometry (0.5 to 8 kHz) and evoked distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were conducted for 32 patients age 8 months to 20 years who were treated with cisplatin and/or carboplatin chemotherapy. Seventeen children also had baseline and serial measurement of extended high-frequency (EHF) audiometry (9 to 16 kHz). Audiologic data were analyzed to determine the incidence of ototoxicity using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association criteria, and the relationships between the different measures of ototoxicity. Of the 32 children, 20 (62.5%) acquired bilateral ototoxicity in the conventional frequency range during chemotherapy treatment, and 26 (81.3%) had bilateral decreases in DPOAE amplitudes and dynamic range. Of the 17 children with EHF audiometry results, 16 (94.1%) had bilateral ototoxicity in the EHF range. Pilot data suggest that EHF thresholds and DPOAEs show ototoxic changes before hearing loss is detected by conventional audiometry. EHF audiometry and DPOAEs have the potential to reveal earlier changes in auditory function than conventional frequency audiometry during platinum chemotherapy in children.
Jordana Costa Soares
Full Text Available A potential research project in otoacoustic emissions is the use tone bursts - frequency-specific stimulus. AIM:to study otoacoustic emission responses evoked by tone bursts in neonates with hearing loss risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 neonates with risk factors for hearing loss (study group and 30 neonates without these risk factors (control group were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions at the frequency range of 2,000 and 4,000 hertz. STUDY: Clinical and experimental. RESULTS: There was a right ear advantage in female individuals and in the control group, although without statistical significance. Mean "Response" values at 2,000 hertz were 17.73 dB in the control group and 16.55 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 16.63 dB in the control group and 16.12 dB in the study group for male subjects. At 4,000 hertz, the values were 14.63 dB in the control group and 15.09 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 18.57 dB in the control group and 15.06 dB in the study group for male subjects. CONCLUSION: Tone bursts may help evaluate cochlear function in neonates.Uma possibilidade de pesquisa em emissões otoacústicas é utilização do estímulo de frequência específica "tone burst". OBJETIVO: Verificar as respostas das emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo "tone burst" em neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 21 neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva (grupo estudo e 30 neonatos sem indicadores (grupo controle por meio das emissões otoacústicas nas frequências de 2000 e 4000 hertz. ESTUDO: Clínico e experimental. RESULTADOS: Houve vantagem da orelha direita, do gênero feminino e do grupo controle, embora sem significância estatística. Os valores médios de "Response" em 2000 hertz foram 17,73 dB no grupo controle e 16,55 dB no grupo estudo, para o gênero feminino e 16,63 dB no grupo controle e 16,12 dB no grupo estudo, para o g
Capozzella, A; Loreti, B; Sacco, C; Casale, T; Pimpinella, B; Andreozzi, G; Bernardini, A; Nieto, H A; Scala, B; Schifano, M P; Bonomi, S; Altissimi, G; De Sio, S; Cianfrone, G; Tomei, F; Rosati, M V; Sancini, A
Literary studies underline the effectiveness of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are not affected by the collaboration of the subject examined, in the early diagnosis of hearing loss. Aim of the study is to compare the objective technique of DPOAEs with respect to the pure-tone audiometry in early diagnosis of hearing loss. The clinical research was carried out on 852 workers. All subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and distortion products. The results show: a) a prevalence of subjects with impaired DPOAEs higher than the prevalence of subjects with impaired audiometries in the studied samples; and, after division by gender: b) a prevalence of subjects with impaired DPOAEs higher than the prevalence of subjects with impaired audiometries only in men; c) a prevalence of impaired DPOAEs and of impaired audiometries in men higher than in women. The results suggest the higher effectiveness of DPOAEs compared to pure-tone audiometry in making an early diagnosis of hearing loss.
Aithal, Sreedevi; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Swanston, Andrew
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test performance of wideband absorbance (WBA) in terms of its ability to predict the outer and middle ear status as determined by nine reference standards. Automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), high-frequency (1000 Hz) tympanometry (HFT), transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests were performed on 298 ears (144 right, 154 left) of 192 (108 males, 84 females) neonates with a mean age of 43.7 hours (SD = 21.3, range = 8.3 to 152.2 hr). WBA was measured from 0.25 to 8 kHz using clicks under ambient pressure conditions. Test performance of WBA was assessed in terms of its ability to identify conductive conditions in neonates when compared with nine reference standards (including four single tests and five test batteries) using the receiver operating characteristic analysis. The test performance of WBA against the test battery reference standards was better than that against single test reference standards. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached a high value of 0.78 for HFT + TEOAE + DPOAE and AABR + TEOAE + DPOAE reference standards. Within the ears that passed each of the reference standards, there were no significant differences in WBA. However, for the ears that failed each of the test standards, there were significant differences in WBA. The region between 1 and 4 kHz provided the best discriminability to evaluate the conductive status compared with other frequencies. WBA is a desirable measure of conductive conditions in newborns due to its high performance in classifying ears with conductive loss as determined by the best performing surrogate gold standards (HFT + TEOAE + DPOAE and AABR + TEOAE + DPOAE).
Hearing impairment in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection based on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and brain evoked response audiometry stimulus click (BERA Click) examinations
Airlangga, T. J.; Mangunatmadja, I.; Prihartono, J.; Zizlavsky, S.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (congenital CMV) infection is a leading factor of nongenetic sensorineural hearing loss in children. Hearing loss caused by CMV infection does not have a pathognomonic configuration hence further research is needed. The development of knowledge on hearing loss caused by congenital CMV infection is progressing in many countries. Due to a lack of research in the context of Indonesia, this study assesses hearing impairment in children with congenital CMV infection in Indonesia, more specifically in the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Our objective was to profile hearing impairment in children 0-5 years of age with congenital CMV infection using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Brain Evoked Response Audiometry Stimulus Click (BERA Click) examinations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Cipto Mangunkusum Hospital from November, 2015 to May 2016 with 27 children 0-5 years of age with congenital CMV infection. Of individual ears studied, 58.0% exhibited sensorineural hearing loss. There was a significant relationship between developmental delay and incidence of sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects with a developmental delay were 6.57 times more likely (CI 95%; 1.88-22.87) to experience sensorineural hearing loss. Congenital CMV infection has an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss in children.
Bergevin, Christopher; Salerno, Anthony
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) have become a hallmark feature in modern theories of an `active' inner ear, given their numerous correlations to auditory function (e.g., threshold microstructure, neurophysiological tuning curves), near universality across tetrapod classes, and physiological correlates at the single hair cell level. However, while several different classes of nonlinear models exist that describe the mechanisms underlying SOAE generation (e.g., coupled limit-cycle oscillators, global standing waves), there is still disagreement as to precisely which biophysical concepts are at work. Such is further compounded by the idiosyncratic nature of SOAEs: Not all ears emit, and when present, SOAE activity can occur at seemingly arbitrary frequencies (though always within the most sensitive range of the audiogram) and in several forms (e.g., peaks, broad `baseline' plateaus). The goal of the present study was to develop new signal processing and stimulation techniques that would allow for novel features of SOAE activity to be revealed. To this end, we analyzed data from a variety of different species: human, lizard, and owl. First, we explored several strategies for examining SOAE waveforms in the absence of external stimuli to further ascertain what constitutes `self-sustained sinusoids' versus `filtered noise'. We found that seemingly similar peaks in the spectral domain could exhibit key differences in the time domain, which we interpret as providing critical information about the underlying oscillators and their coupling. Second, we introduced dynamic stimuli (swept-tones, tone bursts) at a range of levels, whose interaction with SOAEs could be visualized in the time-frequency domain. Aside from offering a readily accessible way to visualize many previously reported effects (e.g., entrainment, facilitation), we observed several new features such as subharmonic distortion generation and competing pulling/pushing effects when multiple tones were
Dejaco, Daniel; Aregger, Fabian C; Hurth, Helene V; Kegele, Josua; Muigg, Veronika; Oberhammer, Lukas; Bunk, Sebastian; Fischer, Natalie; Pinggera, Leyla; Riedl, David; Otieno, Allan; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Adegnika, Ayola A; Riechelmann, Herbert; Lackner, Peter; Zorowka, Patrick; Kremsner, Peter; Schmutzhard, Joachim
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) monitor cochlear function. High pass rates have been reported for industrialized countries. Pass rates in low and middle income countries such as Sub-Saharan Africa are rare, essentially lower and available for children up to 4 years of age and frequently based on hospital recruitments. This study aims at providing additional TEOAE pass rates of a healthy Sub-Saharan cohort aged 1-10 years with data from Gabon, Ghana and Kenya. Potentially confounding factors (recruitment site, age) are taken into consideration. Healthy children were recruited in hospitals, schools and kindergartens. Inclusion criteria were age 1-10 years and normal otoscopic findings. Exclusion criteria were any sickness or physical ailment potentially impairing the hearing capacity. Five measurements per ear were performed with Capella Cochlear Emission Analyzer (MADSEN, Germany). An overall wave reproducibility of above 60% served as pass-criterion. Pass rates were compared between recruitment sites and age groups (1-5 and 6-10 years). Overall pass rate was 87.5% (n = 264; 231 passes vs. 33 fails). Of these 84.0% of hospital recruited children passed (n = 156; 131 passes vs. 25 fails), compared to 92.6% of community recruitments (n = 108; 100 passes vs. 8 fails), which was significantly different p = 0.039). If analyzed by age groups, this difference was only observed in children younger than 6 years (p = 0.007). Hospitals as recruitment sites for healthy controls seem to affect TEOAE pass rates. We advise for a cautious approach when recruiting healthy TEOAE control collectives under the age of 6 in a hospital setting. In children older than 6 years conventional pure-tone audiometry remains the standard method for hearing screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.
Objective: For a noise-exposed group of workers, group-averaged and individual changes were compared for pure-tone audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in order to see if they exhibit the same pattern in time. Design:
An alternative strategy for universal infant hearing screening in tertiary hospitals with a high delivery rate, within a developing country, using transient evoked oto-acoustic emissions and brainstem evoked response audiometry.
Mathur, N N; Dhawan, R
To formulate an alternative strategy for universal infants hearing screening in an Indian tertiary referral hospital with a high delivery rate, which could be extended to similar situations in other developing countries. The system should be able to diagnose, in a timely fashion, all infants with severe and profound hearing losses. One thousand newborn were randomly selected. All underwent testing with transient evoked oto-acoustic emissions (TEOAE) in the first 48 hours of life. All TEOAE failures were followed up and repeat tests were performed at three weeks, three months and six months of age. Infants with acceptable TEOAE results at any of the four ages were discharged from the study. Infants with unacceptable TEOAE results at all the four ages underwent brainstem evoked response audiometry and oto-endoscopy. The 'pass rate' for TEOAE testing was calculated for all four ages. The time taken to perform TEOAE and brainstem evoked response audiometry was recorded for all subjects. These recordings were statistically analysed to find the most suitable strategy for universal hearing screening in our hospital. The pass rate for TEOAE was 79.0 per cent at audiometry. Obstructed and collapsed external auditory canals were the two factors that significantly affected the specificity of TEOAE in infants results are generated, such that a larger number must undergo brainstem evoked response audiometry, wasting time and resources. This can easily be avoided by delaying TEOAE screening until three months of age, when it has a substantially lower false positive outcome. We expect that implementation of this alternative strategy in our hospital will maximise the benefits of such a programme.
Renata Mota Mamede Carvallo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Abnormalities in auditory function of newborns may occur not only because of preterm birth, but also from the use of medications and from diseases related to prematurity. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the inhibitory effect from stimulation of the olivocochlear efferent system on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in preterm neonates, comparing these data with those from full-term neonates. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, contemporary cohort study with 125 neonates, pooled into two groups: full-term (72 full-term neonates, 36 females and 36 males, born at 37-41 weeks of gestational age; and preterm (53 neonates, 28 males and 25 females, born at ≤36 weeks of gestational age, evaluated at the corrected gestational age of 37-41 weeks. Otoacoustic emissions were recorded using linear and nonlinear click-evoked stimuli, with and without contralateral stimulation. RESULTS: The inhibitory effect of the efferent pathway in otoacoustic emissions was different (p = 0.012 between groups, and a mean reduction of 1.48 dB SPL in full-term births and of 1.02 dB SPL in preterm births was observed for the non-linear click-evoked stimulus. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a reduced inhibitory effect of the olivocochlear efferent system on otoacoustic emissions in preterm neonates.
Buki, B; Chomicki, A; Dordain, M; Lemaire, JJ; Wit, HP; Chazal, J; Avan, P
Although it seems likely that body till or surgically provoked variations in intracranial pressure (ICP) can result in variations of intralabyrinthine pressure, the channels for pressure transmission remain controversial and the reasons why evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) exhibit attendant
Sisto, R; Cerini, L; Gatto, M P; Gherardi, M; Gordiani, A; Sanjust, F; Paci, E; Tranfo, G; Moleti, A
The ototoxic effect of the exposure to styrene is evaluated, also in the presence of simultaneous exposure to noise, using otoacoustic emissions as biomarkers of mild cochlear damage. Transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded and analyzed in a sample of workers (15 subjects) exposed to styrene and noise in a fiberglass manufacturing facility and in a control group of 13 non-exposed subjects. Individual exposure monitoring of the airborne styrene concentrations was performed, as well as biological monitoring, based on the urinary concentration of two styrene metabolites, the Mandelic and Phenylglyoxylic acids. Noise exposure was evaluated using wearable phonometers, and hearing loss with pure tone audiometry. Due to their different job tasks, one group of workers was exposed to high noise and low styrene levels, another group to higher styrene levels, close to the limit of 20 ppm, and to low noise levels. A significant negative correlation was found between the otoacoustic emission levels and the concentration of the styrene urinary metabolites. Otoacoustic emissions, and particularly distortion products, were able to discriminate the exposed workers from the controls, providing also a rough estimate of the slope of the dose-response relation between otoacoustic levels and styrene exposure.
van Dijk, P; Wit, HP
A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission
Paula Botelho da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to identify cochlear dysfunction and occurrence of tinnitus in young adults exposed to drums noise of a college band. Methods: the sample included 50 subjects: 25 musicians (study group and 25 non-musicians (control group. The procedures included anamnesis, pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function. Results: positive correlation between the occurrence of tinnitus and the variables exposure time and use of personal stereos was found. Overall, the study group showed significantly lower Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, when compared to the control group. In the study group, there was a tendency toward worse response in 6 kHz(f2 in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in both ears. The Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function did not differ between groups nor did its slope. Conclusion: in general, otoacoustic emissions were worse in noise-exposed young people (study group when compared to the unexposed (control group, indicating that the test may be important in early identification of cochlear changes.
Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte; Voetmann, Jan
Distortion Product Oto-acoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Transient Evoked Oto-acoustic Emissions (TEOAE) were measured in subjects before and after attendance to live music. The changes measured were compared to the exposure levels measured at the position of the subject. The main objectives...... of this experiment were two fold: 1) to assess the validity of the proposed measurement protocol to measure changes in DPOAE and TEOAE after a concert; 2) to test the reliability of the oto-acoustic emission measurement system under field conditions; Initial results shows that it is possible to measure changes...... in hearing after exposures of relative short duration (results will be presented....
Objective: To examine the effects of aging on the existence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in normal adult. Material and methods 40 ... wax or any middle ear pathology which might affect the recording at TEOAEs. After that, ... related to decreased hearing sensitivity and are independent of aging, Previous studies.
Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte; Voetmann, Jan
Distortion Product Oto-acoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Transient Evoked Oto-acoustic Emissions (TEOAE) were measured in subjects before and after attendance to live music. The changes measured were compared to the exposure levels measured at the position of the subject. The main objectives...... of this experiment were two fold: 1) to assess the validity of the proposed measurement protocol to measure changes in DPOAE and TEOAE after a concert; 2) to test the reliability of the oto-acoustic emission measurement system under field conditions; Initial results shows that it is possible to measure changes...... in hearing after exposures of relative short duration (1.5 hours). There are large individual differences both in sound exposure levels as well as in the changes on oto-acoustic emissions produced by similar exposures. Current results will be presented....
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Hammershøi, Dorte
To explore the extent of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) toward low frequencies we measured in 21 normal-hearing human subjects its dependence on the ratio between evoking stimulus frequencies, f1 and f2, at 2f1-f2 distortion frequencies 88, 176 and 264 Hz. The "optimal" ratio evo...
Epp, Bastian; Heiskanen, Vesa; Pulkki, Ville Topias
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are low-intensity sounds present in the ear canal, generated by mechanical processing in the cochlear in the inner ear. OAEs provide a noninvasive technique to sense the mechanical processing of sound in the inner ear. These signals are commonly measured by placing......, and especially SOAE at these low frequencies. In addition, blocking of the ear canal changes the impedance of the middle ear, potentially changing the transmission of acoustical energy from the inner ear to the ear canal, hampering the interpretation of the data in terms of normal listening conditions with open...
McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G
Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were previously shown to be significantly less strong in homosexual and bisexual females than in heterosexual females. Here it is reported that the spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) of those same 60 homosexual and bisexual females were less numerous and weaker than those in 57 heterosexual females. That is, the SOAEs of the homosexual and bisexual females were intermediate to those of heterosexual females and heterosexual males. The SOAE and CEOAE data both suggest that the cochleas of homosexual and bisexual females have been partially masculinized, possibly as part of some prenatal processes that also masculinized whatever brain structures are responsible for sexual orientation. For males of all sexual orientation, the SOAEs were less numerous and weaker than for the females, and there were no significant differences among the 56 heterosexual, 51 homosexual, and 11 bisexual males. All subjects passed a hearing screening test. When all SOAEs above 3000 Hz were excluded (as a control against incipient, undetected hearing loss) the same results were obtained as with the full range of data (550-9000 Hz). The differential use of oral contraceptives by the heterosexual and nonheterosexual females also could not explain the differences in their OAEs.
Schemera, Bettina; Blumsack, Judith T; Cellino, Alice F; Quiller, Travis D; Hess, Bradley A; Rynders, Patricia E
To evaluate distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements in puppies with normal hearing. 23 clinically normal 7.5-to 10.5-week-old puppies. A cross-sectional study was performed. The DPOAE measurements were obtained with a commercially available distortion product otoacoustic measurement system and were performed in a quiet, non-sound-attenuated room. All measurements were obtained from alert puppies and were repeated 1 or 2 times to ensure that the measurements were replicable. Results that were a minimum of 8 dB higher than the noise floor were accepted. Values from the first trial in which emissions were obtained at all test frequencies were used for analysis. Otoacoustic emission measurements were easily obtained, robust, reliable, and consistent with auditory brainstem response and behavioral results. Hearing screening in alert puppies can be accomplished reliably and rapidly with otoacoustic emissions testing. Results supported the possibility of the use of DPOAE measurement in hearing screening of dogs.
Full Text Available subjective method that relies on co-operation from the worker Alternative or adjunct approach is an objective testing method © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 Otoacoustic Emissions Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) are a feasible alternative • Large body of research... in laboratory- main clinical use on identification of hearing loss in newborn babies • Clinically sensitive tool for assessing NIHL and the outer hair cells (OHC) • repeatable results • identify cochlear damage before evidenced on an audiogram – normal...
Kössl, Manfred; Coro, Frank; Seyfarth, Ernst-August; Nässig, Wolfgang A
Sensitive hearing organs often employ nonlinear mechanical sound processing which produces distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. Such emissions are also recorded from insect tympanal organs. Here we report high frequency distortion-product emissions, evoked by stimulus frequencies up to 95 kHz, from the tympanal organ of a notodontid moth, Ptilodon cucullina, which contains only a single auditory receptor neuron. The 2f1-f2 distortion-product emission reaches sound levels above 40 dB SPL. Most emission growth functions show a prominent notch of 20 dB depth (n = 20 trials), accompanied by an average phase shift of 119 degrees , at stimulus levels between 60 and 70 dB SPL, which separates a low- and a high-level component. The emissions are vulnerable to topical application of ethyl ether which shifts growth functions by about 20 dB towards higher stimulus levels. For the mammalian cochlea, Lukashkin and colleagues have proposed that distinct level-dependent components of nonlinear amplification do not necessarily require interaction of several cellular sources but could be due to a single nonlinear source. In notodontids, such a physiologically vulnerable source could be the single receptor cell. Potential contributions from accessory cells to the nonlinear properties of the scolopidial hearing organ are still unclear.
Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte; Borg, Carsten
The objectives of this investigation were to document typical sound exposure levels at concerts and to relate them to measurable changes on hearing. Changes in the auditory function of human subjects were measured using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Transient Evoked Otoacou...... to background noise than the TEOAE measurements and may therefore be better suited for field assessments; The estimated exposure levels cannot predict the changes observed in the OAE measurements....
Möckel, Doreen; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred
Tympanal hearing organs of insects emit distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which in mammals are used as indicator for nonlinear cochlear amplification, and which are highly vulnerable to manipulations interfering with the animal's physiological state. Although in previous studies, evidence was provided for the involvement of auditory mechanoreceptors, the source of DPOAE generation and possible active mechanisms in tympanal organs remained unknown. Using laser Doppler vibrometry in the locust ear, we show that DPOAEs mechanically emerge at the tympanum region where the auditory mechanoreceptors are attached. Those emission-coupled vibrations differed remarkably from tympanum waves evoked by external pure tones of the same frequency, in terms of wave propagation, energy distribution, and location of amplitude maxima. Selective inactivation of the auditory receptor cells by mechanical lesions did not affect the tympanum's response to external pure tones, but abolished the emission's displacement amplitude peak. These findings provide evidence that tympanal auditory receptors, comparable to the situation in mammals, comprise the required nonlinear response characteristics, which during two-tone stimulation lead to additional, highly localized deflections of the tympanum.
Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J
Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...
Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi
Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provid...
Avan, P; Buki, B; Maat, B; Dordain, M; Wit, HP
Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are generated within the cochlea in response to external sounds, and they can be acoustically detected in the external auditory meatus after backward propagation through the middle ear. In addition to being used to probe the cochlear mechanisms, they are expected
Mansfield, J D; Baghurst, P A; Newton, V E
Popular concern about widespread damage to the hearing from exposure to amplified music continues, although there has been little firm evidence of permanent effects in casual listeners. Measurement of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) provides a sensitive technique for testing outer hair cell (OHC) function, and was used in this study of 28 young adults aged 18-25 years, whose only significant source of noise exposure was loud music, to look for evidence of poorer cochlear function in those of greater exposure; they provided 27 right ears and 27 left ears suitable for measurement of TEOAE strength. Estimates of subjects' total noise dose were obtained from self-reports of the duration and intensity of their exposure to music and other sources of noise. Ears with greater exposure to loud music showed significantly weaker TEOAEs than less exposed ears in response to a 4 kHz tone burst, or in response to a saturating (82 dBSPL) click if the response was treated with a high-frequency bandpass filter (2-4 kHz) (pmusic is seen first in the 2 kHz region of the emission spectrum, and later at higher frequencies; and that for a given amount of exposure, TEOAE weakness (or OHC damage) is more advanced in left ears than in right.
Christensen, Anders Tornvig
. From 2012 to 2015 he was employed at Aalborg University, pursuing a PhD degree in the field of otoacoustic emissions. Anders was a visiting research student at the National Center for Audiology, Western University, in Canada, the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems in Germany, and the Auditory...
Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Torrente, Marina
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are weak sounds that can be recorded in the external ear. They are generated by the active amplification of the outer hair cells, and are by many believed to reflect the status of the most vulnerable part of the hearing better than ordinary behavioral thresholds...
Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte
losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...
Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte
losses than pure-tone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stiumulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...
Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano de
Full Text Available Introduction: The noise is a harmful agent to the hearing, being frequent in urban and work environments. Among the structures of the hearing system, the outer hair cells are the first to be injured, and otoacoustic emissions identify minimal cochlear alterations. Objective: Analyze cochlear alterations with otoacoustic emissions transient evoked in individuals exposed to combined risk: noise and chemical products. Method: 49 workers of a cement company participated of the research, aged between 19 and 49 years old, exposure time of at least two years and normal hearing thresholds. Was performed an anamnesis and otoacoustic emissions before and post work activity. The results of the exam were related with the variable: time of exposure to the noise, age, exposure to chemical products and sound habits. The statistical tests used were: T of Student, chi-squared Pearson test and Fisher's exact test and is characterized by a prospective clinical study. Results: At the first testing, had presence of emissions in all of the workers. The average of amplitude is of 10,22 dBSPL in the right ear and 9,48 dBSPL in the left ear. In the second testing there were a variation of 0,69 dBSPL in the lef ear and 0,42 dBSPL in the right ear, of which 79,6% of individuals had presence of emission bilaterally and 20,4% absence in at least one ear. Analyzing the relation between variations of emissions with the variable was not observed statistically significant data. Conclusion: The otoacoustic emissions in the workers health search to prevent the damage to the hearing system through cochlear changings.
Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A
For a noise-exposed group of workers, group-averaged and individual changes were compared for pure-tone audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in order to see if they exhibit the same pattern in time. Baseline and 17-months follow-up hearing status was examined with pure-tone audiometry, TEOAEs, and DPOAEs. A total of 233 noise-exposed employees were measured, while 60 subjects from this group contributed to test-retest reliability measures. Group-averaged changes and individual shifts followed similar patterns: decreases for audiometry at 6-8 kHz and DPOAE at 1.5 kHz, and enhancements for DPOAE at 3 kHz. TEOAEs showed an overall deterioration while both individual deteriorations and enhancements were larger than chance. DPOAE at 6 kHz showed the largest group-averaged change, while the number of individual shifts was not significant. There were no clear relations between changes in audiometry and changes in OAE. Significant individual OAE changes do not necessarily follow the same pattern as the group-averaged results. This limits the applicability of OAE testing for the monitoring of individual subjects. Furthermore, hearing deterioration might manifest itself in a local enhancement of otoacoustic emissions and not only in the form of decreases in amplitude.
Snihur, A W K; Hampson, E
The production of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) by the cochlea is a sexually dimorphic trait. Although often hypothesized to be influenced by testosterone in utero, little attention has been devoted to the possibility that levels of circulating sex steroids in adulthood might modulate the sex difference in OAE production. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether oral contraceptive (OC) use affects OAE production in women, revisiting a question originally posed by McFadden [(2000) Hearing Research 142:23-33]. Forty-five males and 50 females were tested. The women were retrospectively classified based on whether or not they were using OCs at present. Two types of OAEs were quantified: those produced spontaneously (spontaneous otoacoustic emissions or SOAEs) and those produced in response to click stimuli (click-evoked otoacoustic emissions or CEOAEs). Women currently using OCs showed a defeminized pattern of OAE production: they produced fewer SOAEs, SOAEs with significantly less power, and smaller CEOAE response amplitudes compared with naturally cycling women who were tested irrespective of phase of the menstrual cycle. It is proposed that the observed group difference may be mediated by the interaction of circulating estradiol with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) receptors in the cochlea. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kössl, Manfred; Möckel, Doreen; Weber, Melanie; Seyfarth, Ernst-August
Sensitive hearing organs often employ nonlinear mechanical sound processing which generates distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Such emissions are also recordable from tympanal organs of insects. In vertebrates (including humans), otoacoustic emissions are considered by-products of active sound amplification through specialized sensory receptor cells in the inner ear. Force generated by these cells primarily augments the displacement amplitude of the basilar membrane and thus increases auditory sensitivity. As in vertebrates, the emissions from insect ears are based on nonlinear mechanical properties of the sense organ. Apparently, to achieve maximum sensitivity, convergent evolutionary principles have been realized in the micromechanics of these hearing organs-although vertebrates and insects possess quite different types of receptor cells in their ears. Just as in vertebrates, otoacoustic emissions from insects ears are vulnerable and depend on an intact metabolism, but so far in tympanal organs, it is not clear if auditory nonlinearity is achieved by active motility of the sensory neurons or if passive cellular characteristics cause the nonlinear behavior. In the antennal ears of flies and mosquitoes, however, active vibrations of the flagellum have been demonstrated. Our review concentrates on experiments studying the tympanal organs of grasshoppers and moths; we show that their otoacoustic emissions are produced in a frequency-specific way and can be modified by electrical stimulation of the sensory cells. Even the simple ears of notodontid moths produce distinct emissions, although they have just one auditory neuron. At present it is still uncertain, both in vertebrates and in insects, if the nonlinear amplification so essential for sensitive sound processing is primarily due to motility of the somata of specialized sensory cells or to active movement of their (stereo-)cilia. We anticipate that further experiments with the relatively simple ears
Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arruda, Priscila Oliveira; Silva, Isabella Monteiro de Castro
The hormonal changes that occur in a short time span promote modifications all over the woman's body, with physical and emotional manifestations which are frequently observed. to evaluate the activity of the external ciliated cells in women during their menstrual cycle, observing the effect of hormonal changes caused by the cycle in their 3 phases. this is a longitudinal prospective study where 21 women between 20 and 35 years old who did not take any contraceptive medicine were assessed. Transient otoacoustic emissions were evaluated by distortion product during the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle (luteal, follicular and ovulatory phases). The SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. the phases of menstrual cycle do not alter the amplitude and reproducibility values of the transient otoacoustic emissions. We noticed a difference between the ears in the frequency of 1.5 KHz in the amplitude of emissions by distortion product, and the right ear showed the highest values. There are no significant differences in transient otoacoustic emissions and distortion products in the phases of the menstrual cycle.
Vural, Alperen; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Aydın, Mesut; Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Arlı, Turan; Okuducu, Hacı; Dizdar, Denizhan; Külahlı, İsmail
In patients with a perforated tympanic membrane, topically administered medication reaches the middle ear and thus creates a risk of ototoxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible ototoxic effect of the antifungal medication nystatin when administered to the rat middle ear cavity. Three groups (negative control, positive control, and study groups), each containing eight rats, were formed. Before the drug administration, distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded in both ears of each rat. Saline (0.09% NaCl), gentamycin, and nystatin solutions were transtympanically injected into the middle ear cavities of the negative control, positive control, and study groups, respectively, for five consecutive days. Seven days after the last infiltration, the control otoacoustic emission was measured, and the data of the 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz frequencies were statistically analyzed. There were no significant changes between the 1st and 2nd measures in the negative control group (0.09% NaCl) (p>0.05), whereas there were significant changes between the 1st and 2nd measures in the positive control group (gentamycin) and study group (nystatin) (p<0.05). Ototopical medications carry a risk of ototoxicity in patients with perforated ear drums. In the present study, it was shown that nystatin, an antifungal that can be ototopically used in the treatment of otomycosis, may cause a decrease in otoacoustic emissions in rats when administered into the middle ear cavities.
procedures and tests as were performed during session 1 and served as post-experimental audiometry , tympanometry, and SFOAE evaluations. Audiometry results ...Distribution Unlimited. Exposure to hazardous noise results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity within the cochlea that causes damage to...the outer hair cells, the result is noise-induced, sensorineural hearing loss. Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are an electrophysiological
Analysis of transient otoacoustic emissions and brainstem evoked auditory potentials in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia Análise das emissões otoacústicas transientes e dos potenciais evocados auditivos do tronco encefálico em neonatos com hiperbilirrubinemia
Daniela Polo Camargo da Silva
Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is toxic to the auditory pathways and to the central nervous system, leaving sequelae such as hearing loss and encephalopathy. AIM: to assess the hearing of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs and brainstem evoked auditory potentials (BEAP. Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we had two groups: GI (n-25, neonates with hyperbilirubinemia; GII (n-22, neonates without hyperbilirubinemia and without risk factors for hearing loss. All the neonates had up to 60 days of life and were submitted to TOAE and BEAP. RESULTS: 12 neonates from GI and 10 from GII were girls and 13 from GI and 12 from GII were boys. TOAEs were present in all the children, however with lower amplitudes in GI, especially in the frequencies of 2 and 3KHz (p A hiperbilirrubinemia é tóxica às vias auditivas e ao sistema nervoso central, deixando sequelas como surdez e encefalopatia. OBJETIVOS: avaliar a audição de neonatos portadores de hiperbilirrubinemia, utilizando-se a pesquisa das emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes (EOAET e dos potenciais evocados auditivos do tronco encefálico (PEATE. Estudo prospectivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Constituíram-se dois grupos: GI (n-25, neonatos com hiperbilirrubinemia; GII (n-22, neonatos sem hiperbilirrubinemia e sem fatores de risco para surdez. Todos os neonatos tinham até 60 dias de vida e foram submetidos à EOAET e ao PEATE. RESULTADOS: 12 neonatos de GI e 10 de GII eram meninas e 13 de GI e 12 de GII eram meninos. As EOAET estavam presentes em todas as crianças, porém com amplitudes menores em GI, especialmente nas frequências de 2 e 3KHz (p < 0,05. No PEATE, observou-se discreto prolongamento de PV e de LI-V em GI. As alterações observadas nesses testes não se correlacionaram aos níveis séricos da bilirrubinemia. CONCLUSÕES: Em neonatos portadores de hiperbilirrubinemia, menores amplitudes das EOAET e discreto prolongamento de PV e de LI
Keppler, H; Degeest, S; Dhooge, I
Chronic tinnitus is associated with reduced auditory input, which results in changes in the central auditory system. This study aimed to examine the relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. For audiometry, the parameters represented the edge frequency of hearing loss, the frequency of maximum hearing loss and the frequency range of hearing loss. For distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the parameters were the frequency of lowest distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and the frequency range of reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Sixty-seven patients (45 males, 22 females) with subjective chronic tinnitus, aged 18 to 73 years, were included. No correlation was found between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. However, tinnitus pitch fell mostly within the frequency range of hearing loss. The current study seems to confirm the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the frequency range of hearing loss, thus supporting the homeostatic plasticity model.
Perfil audiométrico e de emissões otoacústicas evocadas por produto de distorção em gestores de trânsito expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído Audiometric profile and evoked otoacoustic emissions per product of distortion in transit managers, exposed to carbon monoxide and noise
Soraya de Carvalho Rocha
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o perfil audiométrico e de emissões otoacústicas evocadas por produto de distorção em gestores de trânsito, expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído, bem como constatar a presença de ambos agentes nos postos de trabalho. MÉTODO:estudo transversal, descritivo, com 37 gestores do trânsito, submetidos a anamnese, meatoscopia, audiometria tonal e emissões otoacústicas, distribuídos em: G1, composto por 18 indivíduos sem histórico de exposição concomitante a monóxido de carbono e ruído; e, G2, formado por 19 trabalhadores expostos simultaneamente aos dois agentes. Para pesquisa da presença dos agentes no ambiente foram utilizadas audiodosímetrias e avaliações de curta duração com medidor instantâneo. As variáveis de anamnese foram analisadas segundo o teste t Student e Mann-Whitney. Para as medidas de otoemissões acústicas e de limiares tonais utilizou-se testes de qui-quadrado (χ2 ou exato de Fisher e dos postos sinalizados de Wilcoxon com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: foi constatada presença de monóxido de carbono e ruído durante a atividade dos trabalhadores. Não foi observada diferença significante na idade e tempo de função. O G2 obteve média de limiares tonais maior que G1, para orelha direita, em 1KHz (p=0,050 e para orelha esquerda em 3KHz (p=0,016 e 4KHz (p=0,028; e, comparados os limiares tonais alterados G2 apresentou diferença maior em 3KHz na orelha esquerda (p=0,003. Nas emissões otoacústicas, G2 apresentou maior ausência de respostas que G1 em 2.730Hz e 3.218Hz (p=0.016 para orelha direita. CONCLUSÃO: trabalhadores expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído apresentaram piores resultados audiométricos e nas emissões otoacústicas quando comparado ao grupo de não expostos.PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing profile and otoacoustic emission evoked by distortion product in Traffic Managers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide, as well as to establish the presence of both agents
Bhagat, Shaum P.; Bass, Johnnie K.; White, Stephanie T.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Wilson, Matthew W.; Wu, Jianrong; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos
Objective Carboplatin is a common chemotherapy agent with potential ototoxic side effects that is used to treat a variety of pediatric cancers, including retinoblastoma. Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina that is usually diagnosed in young children. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission tests offer an effective method of monitoring for ototoxicity in young children. This study was designed to compare measurements of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions obtained before and after several courses of carboplatin chemotherapy in order to examine if (a) mean distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels were significantly different; and (b) if criterion reductions in distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels were observed in individual children. Methods A prospective repeated measures study. Ten children with a median age of 7.6 months (range, 3–72 months) diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral retinoblastoma were examined. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were acquired from both ears of the children with 65/55 dB SPL primary tones (f2= 793–7996 Hz) and a frequency resolution of 3 points/octave. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels in dB SPL were measured before chemotherapy treatment (baseline measurement) and after 3–4 courses of chemotherapy (interim measurement). Comparisons were made between baseline and interim distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels (collapsed across ears). Evidence of ototoxicity was based on criterion reductions (≥ 6 dB) in distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels. Results Significant differences between baseline and interim mean distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels were only observed at f2=7996 Hz. Four children exhibited criterion reductions in distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels. Conclusions Mean distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels at most frequencies were not changed following 3–4 courses of carboplatin chemotherapy in children with
Verhulst, Sarah; Shera, Christopher A.; Harte, James
This study investigates whether time-dependent compression mechanisms in the cochlea are necessary to explain dynamic properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Dynamic properties of click-evoked OAEs (CEOAEs) have been observed in temporal suppression; the effect where the CEOAE magnitude...... is reduced when a click is presented less than 10ms before the test click. A timedomain model of the cochlea that represented the basilar membrane (BM) as a cascade of coupled bandpass filters was used to investigate the cochlear origin of temporal suppression in CEOAEs. The model, implemented with a time......-invariant nonlinearity, was able to simulate temporal suppression, but was unable to account for the exact time scale and magnitude of the effect. The results suggest that temporal overlap of BMimpulse responses can account for suppression in CEOAEs, but that an additional time-dependent cochlear gain mechanism may...
Burns, Edward M
This report is an addendum to a previous report by Burns [(2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3166-3176] that measured spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 18 subjects, whose ages at the time of initial measurement ranged from 6 to 42 yr, for follow-up periods of up to 19.5 yr. The major finding of that report was that the frequencies of all SOAEs, in all subjects, declined over time, with an average decline of 0.25% per year. In this report seven SOAEs in the oldest subject were measured for an additional 13.7 yr, for a total follow-up of 33 yr, to age 75.
Mena-Domínguez, Eduardo A; Benito-Orejas, José I; Ramírez-Cano, Beatriz; Morais-Pérez, Darío; Muñoz-Moreno, M Fe
In the first 6 months of life, 226Hz tympanometry is considered an ineffective procedure for the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. With the introduction of universal hearing screening, the use of high frequency 1000Hz (1kHz) tympanometry has been recommended. To optimise the diagnosis of neonatal hearing loss, we present this comparison, from the clinical point of view, of the results of 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry in infants. We designed a prospective study of 100 children under 9 months of age proceeding from our hearing screening program. We compare the result of tympanometry with binocular microscopy and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. The application of transient otoacoustic emissions, otomicroscopy and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry has shown its usefulness in the management of otitis media with effusion of young infants, with a similar effectiveness between the 4 tests. The joint use of otomicroscopy, transient otoacoustic emissions and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry, has allowed us to diagnose otitis media with effusion in young infants more accurately than each test separately. We recommend initial use of 1kHz tympanometry, at least in children younger than 7 months, but in the presence of hearing loss or an unclear result, 226Hz tympanometry is a good diagnostic complement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.
Mills, D M; Rubel, E W
Cochlear function was monitored in adult gerbils using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) during intraperitoneal injection of furosemide. All stimulus parameters were varied independently over a wide range, the stimulus frequencies f1 and f2 from 1 to 16 kHz, and the stimulus levels L1 and L2 from 20 to 80 dB SPL. The observed emissions at 2f1-f2 and 3f1-2f2 could be considered to be made up of two distinct components: (1) an 'active' source which depended in a complex way on the stimulus frequencies and levels, which was dominant at low and moderate stimulus levels, and which, by definition, was eliminated by sufficient furosemide intoxication; and (2) a 'passive' source which was essentially the same at all frequencies, with a level dependence given approximately by a simple power law distribution. The change from the active to the passive source was usually accompanied by an abrupt shift in emission phase angle. A simple summation model was shown to account for the observed form of this transition. The amount of the decrease in 2f1-f2 emission amplitude after furosemide injection was approximately independent of frequency and consistent for the middle frequency ratios and intensity levels (f2/f1 approximately equal to 1.3, L1 x L2 approximately equal to 55 x 50 dB SPL). It was concluded that the combination of DPOAE with furosemide injection can usefully be employed as a probe of active cochlear mechanics.
Bergevin, Christopher; Walsh, Edward J; McGee, JoAnn; Shera, Christopher A
Otoacoustic emissions (sound emitted from the ear) allow cochlear function to be probed noninvasively. The emissions evoked by pure tones, known as stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs), have been shown to provide reliable estimates of peripheral frequency tuning in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Here, we apply the same methodology to explore peripheral auditory function in the largest member of the cat family, the tiger (Panthera tigris). We measured SFOAEs in 9 unique ears of 5 anesthetized tigers. The tigers, housed at the Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, NE), were of both sexes and ranged in age from 3 to 10 years. SFOAE phase-gradient delays are significantly longer in tigers--by approximately a factor of two above 2 kHz and even more at lower frequencies--than in domestic cats (Felis catus), a species commonly used in auditory studies. Based on correlations between tuning and delay established in other species, our results imply that cochlear tuning in the tiger is significantly sharper than in domestic cat and appears comparable to that of humans. Furthermore, the SFOAE data indicate that tigers have a larger tonotopic mapping constant (mm/octave) than domestic cats. A larger mapping constant in tiger is consistent both with auditory brainstem response thresholds (that suggest a lower upper frequency limit of hearing for the tiger than domestic cat) and with measurements of basilar-membrane length (about 1.5 times longer in the tiger than domestic cat).
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are sounds emitted by the ear and provide a non-invasive probe into mechanisms underlying peripheral auditory transduction. This study focuses upon a comparison of emission properties in two phylogenetically similar pairs of gecko: Gekko gecko and Hemidactylus turcicus and Eublepharis macularius and Coleonyx variegatus. Each pair consists of two closely related species within the same subfamily, with quantitatively known morphological properties at the level of the auditory sensory organ (basilar papilla) in the inner ear. Essentially, the comparison boils down to an issue of size: how does overall body size, as well as the inner-ear dimensions (e.g., papilla length and number of hair cells), affect peripheral auditory function as inferred from OAEs? Estimates of frequency selectivity derived from stimulus-frequency emissions (emissions evoked by a single low-level tone) indicate that tuning is broader in the species with fewer hair cells/shorter papilla. Furthermore, emissions extend outwards to higher frequencies (for similar body temperatures) in the species with the smaller body size/narrower interaural spacing. This observation suggests the smaller species have relatively improved high-frequency sensitivity, possibly related to vocalizations and/or aiding azimuthal sound localization. For one species (Eublepharis), emissions were also examined in both juveniles and adults. Qualitatively similar emission properties in both suggests that inner-ear function is adult like soon after hatching and that external body size (e.g., middle-ear dimensions and interaural spacing) has a relatively small impact upon emission properties within a species.
Akinpelu, Olubunmi V; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J
Otoacoustic emissions have frequently been used for newborn hearing screening. However, they have low specificities and high referral rates. The presence of amniotic fluid in the middle ear is one reason for these problems. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of human amniotic fluid on otoacoustic emissions and on middle-ear function. Forty-six chinchillas were randomly divided into eight groups based on the type (amniotic fluid or normal saline) and volume (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 ml) of liquid introduced into the middle ear. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and wideband reflectance (WBR) measurements were taken under inhalational anaesthesia before and after introduction of middle-ear liquid. The differences in these measurements were subjected to statistical analyses. Prospective controlled animal study. Significant reductions of DPOAE levels and increases in WBR occurred across all frequencies when there was liquid in the middle ear, and the changes became greater for increased volumes of liquid. Changes in the noise level had important effects on the otoacoustic-emission signal-to-noise ratio at the three lowest frequencies. Both human amniotic fluid and saline in the chinchilla middle ear resulted in changes in otoacoustic-emission detection patterns and WBR that may be relevant to newborn hearing screening. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Emissão otoacústica evocada transitória: instrumento para detecção precoce de alterações auditivas em recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions: tool for early detection of hearing alteration in full-term and preterm neonates
Cristiane Fregonesi Dutra Garcia
early diagnostic and intervention in the hearing alterations are of fundamental importance in the infantile development. The register of the otoacoustic emissions has been enlargement indicated for being a fast exam, easily applied. Aim: The objectives of the present study were to value the peripheral hearing function of full term neonate and adequate and small preterm neonate for the gestacional age, by the research of the transient otoacoustic emissions, identifying the prevalence of hearing alterations in this population; to verify the influence from the variable gestacional ages and weight in the moment of the birth, as well as the kinds of treatment, mechanics ventilations, administration of ototoxicity medicines and the permanence in the incubator and to analyze the factors that interfere in the programs of neonatal hearing screening. Study design: Clinical prospective. Material and method: There were appraised 157 children, whose 43 were born full term, 79 preterm adequate to gestacional age and 35 small preterm to gestacional age. It had been observed that premature neonates fail more in the answers from otoacoustic emissions. Results: The prevalence of conductive hearing impairment in the population studied was from 29 ears to 1000 and for the sensory-neural hearing impairment from the 16 to 1000. The low weight children in the birth were the most difficult to be appraised. The transient otoacoustic emissions were observed from the beginning of 27 gestacional weeks old. The kinds of treatments used were factors that influenced negatively in the answers of the otoacoustic emissions in premature groups. Conclusion: The early diagnostic work of the hearing impairment must be objective of the interdisciplinary team -- neonatologist, pediatrician, ear/nose and throat doctor, audiologist and speech-language pathologist, nurse and relatives -- and must be followed, immediately, by the early interventions programs.
Wooles, N; Mulheran, M; Bray, P; Brewster, M; Banerjee, A R
To examine whether distortion product otoacoustic emissions can serve as a replacement for pure tone audiometry in longitudinal screening for occupational noise exposure related auditory deficit. A retrospective review was conducted of pure tone audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission data obtained sequentially during mandatory screening of brickyard workers (n = 16). Individual pure tone audiometry thresholds were compared with distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes, and a correlation of these measurements was conducted. Pure tone audiometry threshold elevation was identified in 13 out of 16 workers. When distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes were compared with pure tone audiometry thresholds at matched frequencies, no evidence of a robust relationship was apparent. Seven out of 16 workers had substantial distortion product otoacoustic emissions with elevated pure tone audiometry thresholds. No clinically relevant predictive relationship between distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude and pure tone audiometry threshold was apparent. These results do not support the replacement of pure tone audiometry with distortion product otoacoustic emissions in screening. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions at frequencies associated with elevated pure tone audiometry thresholds are evidence of intact outer hair cell function, suggesting that sites distinct from these contribute to auditory deficit following ototrauma.
Bergevin, Christopher; Velenovsky, David S; Bonine, Kevin E
The tectorial membrane (TM) is widely believed to play an important role in determining the ear's ability to detect and resolve incoming acoustic information. While it is still unclear precisely what that role is, the TM has been hypothesized to help overcome viscous forces and thereby sharpen mechanical tuning of the sensory cells. Lizards present a unique opportunity to further study the role of the TM given the diverse inner-ear morphological differences across species. Furthermore, stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs), sounds emitted by the ear in response to a tone, noninvasively probe the frequency selectivity of the ear. We report estimates of auditory tuning derived from SFOAEs for 12 different species of lizards with widely varying TM morphology. Despite gross anatomical differences across the species examined herein, low-level SFOAEs were readily measurable in all ears tested, even in non-TM species whose basilar papilla contained as few as 50-60 hair cells. Our measurements generally support theoretical predictions: longer delays/sharper tuning features are found in species with a TM relative to those without. However, SFOAEs from at least one non-TM species (Anolis) with long delays suggest there are likely additional micromechanical factors at play that can directly affect tuning. Additionally, in the one species examined with a continuous TM (Aspidoscelis) where cell-to-cell coupling is presumably relatively stronger, delays were intermediate. This observation appears consistent with recent reports that suggest the TM may play a more complex macromechanical role in the mammalian cochlea via longitudinal energy distribution (and thereby affect tuning). Although significant differences exist between reptilian and mammalian auditory biophysics, understanding lizard OAE generation mechanisms yields significant insight into fundamental principles at work in all vertebrate ears. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Acute acoustic traumas are caused by exposure to extremely high noise levels ranging from milliseconds to several hours' duration. In pure tone audiometry they range from the C5 dip to basomediocochlear sensorineural hearing loss. Their pathogenesis is assumed to consist of micromechanical-traumatic and biochemical-metabolic damage to the outer hair cells. In order to establish the changes to the DPOAE (distortion products of otoacoustic emissions), 17 patients were examined after sustaining acute acoustic trauma. The causes included firework explosions, anti-tank rocket launchers, vehicle tyre bursting, rock concerts, hand-gun shots, sub-machine gun fire, hand grenade explosion, exploding car battery. The pure tone audiogram, tympanogram, tinnitus maskability and DPOAE (both DP-gram and growth rate in various frequencies) were determined in all patients. If the event had occurred some time ago, measurements were taken only once; in acute cases measurements were repeated at different times. In nine patients with persistent hearing impairment, clear DPs were found in the unaffected frequencies but were completely absent in the affected frequency range. Four of these patients were unilaterally and two patients were bilaterally affected; three patients had a different (not noise-induced) hearing loss on the opposite side. In eight patients with regressive hearing loss, DPs were by contrast detectable throughout the entire frequency range, their amplitudes only rising slightly as hearing recovered. Of these eight patients, three were unilaterally and five bilaterally affected. DPOAE seem to indicate the likelihood of recovery of hearing threshold after an acute acoustic trauma. In cases with DPs completely absent in the affected frequency range, the prognosis seems to be much worse than in cases with present DPs in the frequency range of hearing.
vanDijk, P; Manley, GA; Gallo, L; Pavusa, A; Taschenberger, G
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in the barn owl Tyto alba guttata (five ears), and in three lizard species (Callopistes maculatus, one ear; Varanus exanthematicus, seven ears; Gerrhonotus leiocephalus, one ear). The barn owl ears emitted one or two emission frequencies; the lizard
Le Prell, Colleen G.; Yagi, Masao; Kawamoto, Kohei; Beyer, Lisa A.; Atkin, Graham; Raphael, Yehoash; Dolan, David F.; Bledsoe, Sanford C.; Moody, David B.
Brief cochlear excitotoxicity produces temporary neural swelling and transient deficits in auditory sensitivity; however, the consequences of long-lasting excitotoxic insult have not been tested. Chronic intra-cochlear infusion of the glutamate agonist AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) resulted in functional deficits in the sound-evoked auditory brainstem response, as well as in behavioral measures of hearing. The electrophysiological deficits were similar to those observed following acute infusion of AMPA into the cochlea; however, the concentration-response curve was significantly shifted as a consequence of the slower infusion rate used with chronic cochlear administration. As observed following acute excitotoxic insult, complete functional recovery was evident within 7 days of discontinuing the AMPA infusion. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions were not affected by chronic AMPA infusion, suggesting that trauma to outer hair cells did not contribute to AMPA-induced deficits in acoustic sensitivity. Results from the current experiment address the permanence of deficits induced by chronic (14 day) excitotoxic insult as well as deficits in psychophysical detection of longer duration acoustic signals.
Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Jędrzejczak, W. Wiktor; Piłka, Edyta; Cieślicka, Magdalena; Skarżyński, Henryk
Background The problem of the potential impact of personal music players on the auditory system remains an open question. The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by means of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), whether listening to music on a personal player affected auditory function. Material/Methods A group of 20 normally hearing adults was exposed to music played on a personal player. Transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs), as well as pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds, were tested at 3 stages: before, immediately after, and the next day following 30 min of exposure to music at 86.6 dBA. Results We found no statistically significant changes in OAE parameters or PTA thresholds due to listening to the music. Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to music at levels similar to those used in our study does not disturb cochlear function in a way that can be detected by means of PTA, TEOAE, or DPOAE tests. PMID:25116920
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Acute otitis media (AOM is the most common causes of acquired hearing loss in children with increasing incidence. In young children the diagnosis is restricted to otoscopy and tympanometry whereas evaluation of the auditory function is impossible due to noncompliance during pure tone audiometry. For this purpose, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, especially transient evoked ones (TEOAEs, can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AOM on TEOAEs in young children before and after treatment course.Material & Methods: In an analytic, cross-sectional design, 42 young children with AOM, both sexes, aged 2 to 4.5 years were evaluated through tympanometry and transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs. TEOAEs signal to noise ratio (SNR and reproducibility of AOM patients were compared before, two weeks and six weeks after the treatment course. Then AOM responses were compared with an age-matched control group. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.Results: Our findings revealed that TEOAE parameters in AOM subjects were the most affected on highest frequencies. Significant changes of TEOAE parameters were found 2 weeks after the treatment with further improvement 6 weeks after the treatment course (P 0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there was an improvement in TEOAE SNR and band reproducibility in serial TEOAEs measurements. Thus,application of TEOAEs is a beneficial method to follow up medical treatment in young children with AOM. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:17-21
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Acute otitis media (AOM is the most common causes of acquired hearing loss in children with increasing incidence. In young children the diagnosis is restricted to otoscopy and tympanometry whereas evaluation of the auditory function is impossible due to noncompliance during pure tone audiometry. For this purpose, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, especially transient evoked ones (TEOAEs, can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AOM on TEOAEs in young children before and after treatment course. Material & Methods: In an analytic, cross-sectional design, 42 young children with AOM, both sexes, aged 2 to 4.5 years were evaluated through tympanometry and transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs. TEOAEs signal to noise ratio (SNR and reproducibility of AOM patients were compared before, two weeks and six weeks after the treatment course. Then AOM responses were compared with an age-matched control group. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: Our findings revealed that TEOAE parameters in AOM subjects were the most affected on highest frequencies. Significant changes of TEOAE parameters were found 2 weeks after the treatment with further improvement 6 weeks after the treatment course (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there was an improvement in TEOAE SNR and band reproducibility in serial TEOAEs measurements. Thus,application of TEOAEs is a beneficial method to follow up medical treatment in young children with AOM.
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are used extensively in hearing evaluations. Changes in middle ear pressure may have an effect on both forward and backward transmission of signals through the middle ear. The effect that such changes have on OAEs may depend on extent of pressure change, stimulus frequency, and stimulus level. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of these variables on distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) and cochlear microphonic distortion products (CMDPs) for a wide range of stimuli. Pigmented adult guinea pigs were experimental subjects. An animal surgical model was established to manipulate pressure in the middle ear and CMDP and DPOAE were simultaneously measured. The effects on forward transmission were determined from the CMDP data. It was assumed that the DPOAE measures were affected by changes in both forward and backward transmission. The effects on backward transmission were determined from the DPOAE data after the effect on forward transmission were subtracted out. For all conditions the frequency ratio rm f_2/f_1 was held at 1.2 and the level ratio rm L_1/L_2 was 10 dB. The effects on forward transmission were similar to those for backward transmission in all experimental conditions. Negative pressure had a greater effect than positive pressure. Positive pressures of +10 and +20 cmH_2O affected transmission for low frequency stimuli (f_2 = 1620 and 2680 Hz) but had little effect for high frequency stimuli (f_2 = 6980 and 10250 Hz). Negative pressures of -2.5 to -10 cmH_2O affected transmission across all frequencies tested. The effect at low frequencies is hypothesized to be related to tympanic membrane stiffness. The effect of negative pressure at high frequencies may be related to change in the incudostapedial joint. The slope of growth function decreased with the pressure change for DPOAEs but changed little for CMDPs. The decrease in slope for DPOAEs suggests that the level chosen for analysis can influence the result of the
Reuter, Karen; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda
In a previous study  distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured both before and after a moderate sound exposure, which caused a reduction of DPOAE levels. After the exposure DPOAEs had often levels below the noise floor. In the present paper it is discussed, whether these ...
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
Measurements of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at Aalborg University are performed with the commercial system ILO96 from Otodynamics. The default measuring setup is not adequate for monitoring the recovery of DPOAEs after noise exposure because (1) data collection is interrupte...
de Kleine, E; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P; Avan, P
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were studied in humans during and after postural changes. The subjects were tilted from upright to a recumbent position (head down 30 degrees) and upright again in a 6-min period. The SOAEs were recorded continuously and analyzed off-line. The tilting caused
Buki, B; de Kleine, E; Wit, HP; Avan, P
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to affect the phases and levels of lower-frequency distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in a characteristic: manner suggestive of an increase in the stiffness of the stapes system. likely in relation to an attendant increased intracochlear
Ribeiro, Georgea Espindola; da Silva, Daniela Polo Camargo; Montovani, Jair Cortez
To evaluate the effects of perinatal asphyxia on the level of the response to transient otoacoustic emissions in infants. Otoacoustic emissions in 154 neonates were performed: 54 infants who suffered asphyxia at birth, measured by Apgar score and medical diagnosis, and 100 infants without risk were compared. Scores less than 4 in the first minute and/or less than 6 in the fifth minute were considered as "low Apgar". Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Kruskal, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests. Lower levels of response were observed in transient otoacoustic emission in the group that suffered perinatal asphyxia, with significant values for the frequencies 2,000, 3,000, and 4,000Hz in the right ear, and 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the left ear. The analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of the otoacoustic emissions evidenced low performance of outer hair cells in neonates who had perinatal asphyxia, which may affect the development of listening skills in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, ...
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
The amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) decreases temporarily after exposure to a sound of moderate level. These changes show similarities to the changes observed in absolute hearing thresholds after similar sound exposures. To be able to assess changes over time across...... short duration tonal exposures....
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
Exposure to sound of moderate level temporarily attenuates the amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). These changes are similar to the changes observed in absolute hearing thresholds after similar sound exposures. To be able to assess changes over time across a broad freq...
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
The typical measurement of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) relies on the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) to extract amplitude and phase of the response at the 2f1-f2 DPOAE frequency, f1 and f2 being the frequencies of the stimulus. The DFT measures the DPOAE response accur...
Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated
Wolter, Nikolaus E; Harrison, Robert V; James, Adrian L
Mediated by the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels are reduced by presentation of contralateral acoustic stimuli. Such acoustic signals can also evoke a middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) that also attenuates recorded DPOAE levels. Our aim is to clearly differentiate these two inhibitory mechanisms and to analyze each separately, perhaps allowing the development of novel tests of hearing function. DPOAE were recorded in real time from chinchillas with normal auditory brainstem response thresholds and middle ear function. Amplitude reduction and its onset latency caused by contralateral presentation of intermittent narrow-band noise (NBN) were measured. Stapedius and tensor tympani muscle tendons were divided without disturbing the ossicular chain, and DPOAE testing was repeated. Peak reduction of (2f1 - f2) DPOAE levels occurred when the center frequency of contralateral NBN approximated the primary tone f2, indicating an f2-frequency-specific response. For a 4.5-kHz centered NBN, DPOAE (f2 = 4.4 kHz) inhibition was 0.1 dB (p < 0.001). This response remained present after tendon division, consistent with an MOCS origin. Low-frequency NBN (center frequency: 0.5 kHz) reduced otoacoustic emission levels (0.1 dB, p < 0.001) across a wide range of DPOAE frequencies. This low-frequency response was abolished by division of the middle ear muscle tendons, clearly indicating MEMR involvement. Following middle ear muscle tendon division, DPOAE inhibition by contralateral stimuli approximating the primary tone f2 persists, whereas responses evoked by lower contralateral frequencies are abolished. This distinguishes the different roles of the MOCS (f2 frequency specific) and MEMR (low frequency only) in contralateral modulation of DPOAE. This analysis helps clarify the pathways involved in an objective test that might have clinical benefit in the testing of neonates.
Torre, Peter; Grace, Jennifer; Hansen, Christina; Millman, Paige; Martin, Hannah
The prevalence of personal music (PM) system use with earphones is high among young adults. Although previous research has demonstrated that the majority of these adults may not be listening at levels or for durations considered dangerous, the long-term consequences of PM system use are not fully understood. In this report the relationship between self-reported PM use (i.e., non, light, moderate, or heavy) and peripheral auditory function as assayed through distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) components and fine structure was explored. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between PM system use and peripheral auditory function. One hundred and one (N = 101) young adults, 18 to 30 years of age, with normal hearing. Survey data were first obtained to determine PM system user status along with type of earphones used, most common listening volume, and most common listening duration. Once normal-hearing sensitivity was confirmed with a hearing screening, the DPOAE research protocol was administered. DPOAEs (2f1 to f2) were measured between 1 and 6 kHz with stimulus levels fixed at L1, L2 = 55,40 dB SPL and f2/f1 = 1.22. DPOAE level as well as fine-structure depth and spacing in 1/3rd octave (oct) bands around 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz were compared across various PM system user groups. The ear-canal DPOAE was separated into the so-called generator and characteristic frequency (CF) components. The characteristics of the components were also compared across user groups. Almost all participants reported listening to a PM system between < 1 hr/d to 3 hr/d, and 67% of the participants reported medium/comfortable as the most common volume used during a typical day. There was no significant effect of user status on 3rd oct DPOAE data, 1/3rd oct band component data, or fine-structure spacing data. Women exhibited significantly higher DPOAE as well as generator and CF component levels in the lower half of the frequency range evaluated. There were no
Torre, Peter; Grace, Jennifer
Young adults experience some type of recreational noise exposure on a daily basis; this includes using personal music (PM) systems with earphones. In most cases, this exposure is intermittent and the short-term effects of this exposure on the auditory system are becoming better understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of one hour of music exposure using a PM system on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) absolute levels and generator and characteristic frequency (CF) component levels. Young adults (n = 101) between 18-30 years with normal hearing participated listened to one hour of music through earphones. A second group of young adults (n = 21) served as controls and did not listen to music, but sat in the sound-treated room for one hour. Otoscopy, tympanometry, and a hearing screening (≤20 dB HL at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) were completed in a randomly determined test ear. Preferred listening level, in dBA, was obtained and DPOAEs (2f1-f2) were measured between 1 and 6 kHz with stimulus levels fixed at L1,L2 = 55,40 dB SPL. Absolute DPOAE levels, along with generator and CF components levels were measured before and after each participant listened to one hour of music at their preferred level in a quiet setting. For data analyses, absolute DPOAE and generator and CF component levels were collapsed into 1/3rd octave bands centered around 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Mean preferred listening level was 57.8 dBA, with males having a higher mean level of 61.1 dBA compared with females who had a mean level of 55.7 dBA. Females and males had negligible mean changes in absolute DPOAE levels at 1, 1.5, and 2 kHz, but males had 0.4-1 dB mean decreases after music at 3, 4, and 6 kHz compared to females, although not statistically significant. For DPOAE generator component data, females had small mean decreases for the two lower frequencies whereas males had mean decreases of 0.4-0.8 dB at 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Because of missing data, analyses of
Plinkert, P K; Zenner, H P
Direct observations of the basilar membrane movements show that sound perception can no longer be regarded as a passive process: vulnerable, energy-consuming amplification processes are required in the cochlea. The outer hair cells (OHC) fulfil this demand morphologically and functionally. These sensory cells have a double role: they perceive sound and thus modulate the cochlear biomechanics through their motile activity. The key event of sound transduction is performed by the inner hair cells (IHC) after active sound amplification in the OHC. The control of the OHC is assured by the efferent olivocochlear fibres which release acetylcholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the synaptic cleft at the basal pole of the OHC. Nicotinergic acetylcholine and GABA receptors within the outer cell membrane of OHC were identified and characterised. The application of the neurotransmitter GABA to the basal pole of vital OHC leads to a reversible elongation of the cylindrical cell body while ACh induces a reversible, slow contraction of the sensory cells. These two neurotransmitters are supposed to counteract in the control of the cochlear amplifier. The reciprocal distribution of ACh and GABA receptors and their counteracting function (contraction vs elongation) has an additional impact on the modulation of OHC function. The result is an even more diversified control of the cochlear amplifier. The energy-consuming cochlear amplifications are reflected by an epiphenomenon, i.e. the otoacoustic emissions (OAE). These are emitted by the cochlea and can be divided into "spontaneous OAE", "transitory evoked OAE" (TEOAE), "stimulus frequency OAE" and "distortion product OAE". The TEOAE are now an integrated part of audiological diagnosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Pérez, Martha; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred
The mechanical tuning of the ear in the moth Empyreuma pugione was investigated by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). DPOAE audiograms were assessed using a novel protocol that may be advantageous for non-invasive auditory studies in insects. To evoke DPOAE, two-tone stimuli within frequency and level ranges that generated a large matrix of values (960 frequency-level combinations) were used to examine the acoustic space in which the moth tympanum shows its best mechanical and acoustical responses. The DPOAE tuning curve derived from the response matrix resembles that obtained previously by electrophysiology, and is V-shaped and tuned to frequencies between 25 and 45 kHz with low Q10dB values of 1.21±0.26. In addition, while using a comparable stimulation regime, mechanical distortion in the displacement of the moth's tympanal membrane at the stigma was recorded with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corresponding mechanical vibration audiograms were compared with DPOAE audiograms. Both types of audiograms have comparable shape, but most of the mechanical response fields are shifted towards lower frequencies. We showed for the first time in moths that DPOAE have a pronounced analogy in the vibration of the tympanic membrane where they may originate. Our work supports previous studies that point to the stigma (and the internally associated transduction machinery) as an important place of sound amplification in the moth ear, but also suggests a complex mechanical role for the rest of the transparent zone.
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently......, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f1 and f2. The stimulus...... known from higher frequencies. Toward low frequencies, however, the bell broadens and the optimal ratio increases proportionally to the bandwidth of an auditory filter as defined by the equivalent rectangular bandwidth. The DPOAE phase rotates monotonously as a function of the stimulus ratio, and its...
Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a promising method to monitor early noise-induced hearing losses. When distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are obtained with a high-frequency resolution, a ripple structure across frequency can be seen, called DPOAE fine structure. In this study DPOAE...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normal-hearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different ages and exposure histories. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameter's ripple place, ripple width, ripple...... and vary from subject to subject within groups. The results do not indicate that the DPOAE fine structure alters with the state of hearing, as it is suggested in the literature. The data analysis is still in process at this stage. ...
Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Reichenbach, Tobias
A hearing sensation arises when the elastic basilar membrane inside the cochlea vibrates. The basilar membrane is typically set into motion through airborne sound that displaces the middle ear and induces a pressure difference across the membrane. A second, alternative pathway exists, however: stimulation of the cochlear bone vibrates the basilar membrane as well. This pathway, referred to as bone conduction, is increasingly used in headphones that bypass the ear canal and the middle ear. Furthermore, otoacoustic emissions, sounds generated inside the cochlea and emitted therefrom, may not involve the usual wave on the basilar membrane, suggesting that additional cochlear structures are involved in their propagation. Here we describe a novel propagation mode within the cochlea that emerges through deformation of the cochlear bone. Through a mathematical and computational approach we demonstrate that this propagation mode can explain bone conduction as well as numerous properties of otoacoustic emissions.
Lucia Bencke Geyer
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis involves the use of ototoxic drugs, mainly aminoglycoside antibiotics. Due to the use of these drugs, fibrocystic patients are at risk of developing hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hearing of patients with cystic fibrosis by High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 39 patients (7-20 years of age with cystic fibrosis and a control group of 36 individuals in the same age group without otologic complaints, with normal audiometric thresholds and type A tympanometric curves. High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions tests were conducted. RESULTS: The study group had significantly higher thresholds at 250, 1000, 8000, 9000, 10,000, 12,500, and 16,000 Hz (p = 0.004 as well as higher prevalence of otoacoustic emission alterations at 1000 and 6000 Hz (p = 0.001, with significantly lower amplitudes at 1000, 1400, and 6000 Hz. There was a significant association between alterations in hearing thresholds in High Frequency Audiometry with the number of courses of aminoglycosides administered (p = 0.005. Eighty-three percent of patients who completed more than ten courses of aminoglycosides had hearing loss in High Frequency Audiometry. CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients with cystic fibrosis who received repeated courses of aminoglycosides showed alterations in High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. The implementation of ten or more aminoglycoside cycles was associated with alterations in High Frequency Audiometry.
Geyer, Lucia Bencke; Menna Barreto, Sergio Saldanha; Weigert, Liese Loureiro; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro
The treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis involves the use of ototoxic drugs, mainly aminoglycoside antibiotics. Due to the use of these drugs, fibrocystic patients are at risk of developing hearing loss. To evaluate the hearing of patients with cystic fibrosis by High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. Cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 39 patients (7-20 years of age) with cystic fibrosis and a control group of 36 individuals in the same age group without otologic complaints, with normal audiometric thresholds and type A tympanometric curves. High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions tests were conducted. The study group had significantly higher thresholds at 250, 1000, 8000, 9000, 10,000, 12,500, and 16,000Hz (p=0.004) as well as higher prevalence of otoacoustic emission alterations at 1000 and 6000Hz (p=0.001), with significantly lower amplitudes at 1000, 1400, and 6000Hz. There was a significant association between alterations in hearing thresholds in High Frequency Audiometry with the number of courses of aminoglycosides administered (p=0.005). Eighty-three percent of patients who completed more than ten courses of aminoglycosides had hearing loss in High Frequency Audiometry. A significant number of patients with cystic fibrosis who received repeated courses of aminoglycosides showed alterations in High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. The implementation of ten or more aminoglycoside cycles was associated with alterations in High Frequency Audiometry. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Bhagat, Shaum P; Davis, Anne M
The purpose of this study was to examine if a pre-determined exposure level and duration of MP3 player music would result in significant changes in cochlear function when measured with audiometric and physiological methods. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), synchronized spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SSOAEs), and hearing thresholds were measured in 20 normal-hearing adults before and after a 30-minute MP3 player music exposure. DPOAEs were acquired with 65/45 dB SPL primary tones (f(2)=0.842-7.996 kHz) with a frequency resolution of 8 points/octave. A probe microphone system recorded ear-canal music levels and was used to equalize levels at approximately 85 dBC across individuals during the music presentation. Comparison of pre- and post-exposure measurements revealed no significant differences in hearing thresholds, but DPOAE levels in half-octave bands centered from 1.4-6.0 kHz were significantly reduced following the music exposure. Post-exposure shifts in SSOAE frequency and level were highly variable in individuals identified with SSOAEs. The results for the exposure conditions explored in this study indicate that changes in otoacoustic emissions may precede the development of music-induced hearing threshold shifts.
Aguilera-Tello, Silvia A; Gutiérrez-Farfán, Ileana; Chamlati-Aguirre, Laura E; Alatorre-Miguel, Efrén; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo
Speech perception that takes place in the cochlea is involved in the process of language. The objective was to describe the findings in transient otoacoustic emissions in children with language problems before and after 6 months of speech therapy. There were 17 children with language problems between 3 and 6 years of age diagnosed with anarthric language delay (expressive and mixed language disorder). They underwent medical history, otoscopy, intelligence level testing, initial language test, tympanometry of 226Hz, audiometry and transient otoacoustic emission test. We evaluated the 17 patients again after 6 months of attending speech therapy. The percentage of overall reproducibility of transient otoacoustic emissions in both ears was adequate to perform frequency analysis. We found a statistically significant difference (P≤0.01) in the frequency of 1kHz reproducibility when comparing results before and after therapy in the right ear. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) when comparing the results of audiometry at frequencies of 0.5, 1.5, 2, 4 and 8kHz in the right ear and a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the frequency of 3kHz in the left ear. The analysis of sound through the cochlea is involved in the process of language acquisition. A poor processing of speech sounds in the peripheral system could result in poor processing at the central level. Consequently, it is important to consider our results when making a diagnosis and carrying out rehabilitation treatment in children with language disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
and legislation correlates to a higher risk of hearing damage. Subjects were exposed to two types of binaural recordings consisting of a continuous broad-band noise-exposure normalized to LEX,8h = 80~dB and the interaction of the previous stimulus with a noise of impulsive character normalized to LEX,8h = 75 + 5......Temporary changes in the hearing of human subjects were monitored with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) after control sound exposures in a laboratory. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate whether the +5~dB penalty for impulsiveness used in international standards...
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
and legislation correlates to a higher risk of hearing damage. Subjects were exposed to two types of binaural recordings consisting of a continuous broad-band noise-exposure normalized to LEX,8h = 80 dBA and the interaction of the previous stimulus with a noise of impulsive character normalized to LEX,8h = 75 + 5......Temporary changes in hearing of the subjects were monitored with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) after control sound exposures in a laboratory. The objectives of the experiment was to investigate whether the +5 dB penalty for impulsiveness used in international standards...
Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the
Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi
Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL) and exposure time. This case-control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30-11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift.
Mom, T; Montalban, A; Bascoul, A; Gilain, L; Avan, P
Still today, Menière's disease (MD) can be definitively diagnosed only on post-mortem findings of endolymphatic hydrops. Otoacoustic emission (OAE) phase has been shown to be highly sensitive to intracranial pressure. Preliminary analysis of OAEs in MD patients indicated high sensitivity to slight variations in intracranial pressure. The principal objective of the present study was to confirm this specific sensitivity of OAEs in MD. In a prospective study of 32 consecutive cases of acute MD seen in consultation or hospital, 20 patients (23 ears) underwent acoustic phase-shift test: i.e., seated vs. supine OAE phase centered around 1kHz, with results compared to controls. The acoustic phase-shift test was performed in 62.5% of acute patients (58.9% of affected ears). In the control group, the 95% confidence interval for phase shift was between -30° and +45°. Phase shift was significantly elevated, beyond the normal interval, in 18 of the MD patients: range, -80° to +145°. Sensitivity was 90%. Overall, in patients in whom transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) were present, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value 92.3%. The acoustic phase-shift test proved useful and powerful in demonstrating pressure imbalance in acute Menière's disease. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V
Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.
Estudo das emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção durante a prática esportiva associada à exposição à música Distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions study with individuals of a fitness gym
Isabela Freixo Côrtes-Andrade
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a audição dos alunos de uma academia de ginástica durante o exercício físico, analisando os resultados das emissões otoacústicas - produto de distorção (EOAPD, antes e após a exposição à música eletronicamente amplificada. MÉTODOS: foi aplicado um questionário em 20 indivíduos, sendo os mesmos avaliados por meio das EOAPD, antes e após a execução do exercício físico e exposição à música. RESULTADOS: uma elevada porcentagem de exposições extra-ocupacionais e de lazer (65% foi encontrada ao analisar as queixas. Observou-se que 40% dos alunos de academia de ginástica apresentaram dores de cabeça e insônia; sete, intolerância para sons intensos; cinco, plenitude auricular e irritabilidade; cinco, nervosismo; quatro, tontura; e três relataram apresentar zumbidos após as aulas. No teste de EOPD, houve presença de respostas em 100% das orelhas testadas no momento 1 (M1, porém, no momento 2 (M2, houve presença de resposta em 75%. As frequências que apresentaram maior percentual de falhas no momento 2 (M2 foram 3KHz, 4KHz e 5 KHz. CONCLUSÃO: exercício físico associado a elevados níveis de pressão sonora de música provocam alterações nas EOA-PD, principalmente nas frequências de 3000Hz, 4000Hz e 5000Hz. Desse modo, alunos de academia de ginástica que ficam expostos à música eletronicamente amplificada podem estar prejudicando a audição. Há necessidade, portanto, das academias avaliarem as condições acústicas de suas salas de aulas, a partir da análise de profissionais especializados no intuito de verificarem os níveis sonoros, desse modo, observando se estes (NPS estão compatíveis com os valores recomendados pela lei.PURPOSE: to study the hearing of individuals in a fitness gym while exercising, analyzing their distortion product evoked otoacustic emissions (DPOAE test after and before exposure to electronically amplified music. METHODS: a questionnaire was applied to 20
Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim
Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic
Siegel, JH; Cerka, AJ; Recio-Spinoso, A; Temchin, AN; van Dijk, P; Ruggero, MA
When stimulated by tones, the ear appears to emit tones of its own, stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs). SFOAEs were measured in 17 chinchillas and their group delays were compared with a place map of basilar-membrane vibration group delays measured at the characteristic frequency. The
Reuter, Karen; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
The effects of overexposure on the properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are investigated. In total, 39 normal-hearing humans were monaurally exposed to a 1-kHz tone lasting for 3 min at an equivalent threshold sound-pressure level of 105.5 dB. The effects of overexposur...
Sequi-Canet, José M; Sala-Langa, María J; Collar Del Castillo, José I
Most hospitals perform neonatal hearing screening because it is a very useful procedure. Otoacoustic emissions are an ideal technique for this screening. We analyse the possible influence on screening results of some perinatal factors. We collected retrospective data from 8,239 healthy newborns delivered vaginally at the maternity ward of our hospital. We compared multiple perinatal factors vs the results of otoacoustic emissions performed within the first 48 h of life, before discharge. A total of 6.4% of newborns had an abnormal response and failed the screening. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant (P<.0001) positive relationship between breastfeeding and normal otoacoustic emissions (OR: 0.65). Another, less significant factor was female gender. The remaining variables, including origin, education or employment status of the mother, maternal smoking, dystocic delivery, presentation, need for resuscitation, preterm labour (34-36 weeks), weight, length and frequent maternal pathology, such as streptococcus detection, hypothyroidism, hypertension or diabetes, were not significant. Breastfeeding was the most important factor related to a normal response in otoacoustic emissions. It may improve final results and reduce the number of neonates who need to be rescheduled for a repeated test, as well as the associated anxiety and the possibility of losing patients during follow-up. These are major problems in neonatal hearing screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte
Active amplifiers within the cochlea generate, as a by-product of their function, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in response to carefully chosen two-tone stimuli. Focus has been on invoking emissions in a mid-frequency range from 500 to 4000 Hz. Below 500 Hz, physiological noise...... examples of low-frequency DPOAEs exist in the literature. Overcoming the decreasing response level and increasing noise level with decreasing frequency may provide a non-invasive window into the inner-ear mechanics of low-frequency hearing. Eighteen out of 21 young human adults screened (19-30 years) had...... audiometrically normal hearing for inclusion in our experiment. DPOAEs were measured with pure-tone stimuli in four configurations: f2 fixed around a mid-frequency (2050-2180 Hz), f2 fixed around a low frequency (512-545 Hz), fdp fixed at a mid-frequency (1231 Hz) and fdp low frequency (246 Hz). Eight stimulus...
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen
-damage risk-criteria suffer from lack of empirical data needed to quantify impulse noise exposures and assess potential damage. In this experiment human subjects are exposed to binaural recordings of noises from industrial environments. Stimuli consist of impulse noise, continuous noise, and combinations...... of impulse and continuous noise. Noise exposures are normalized to have the same energy (LAeq,8h= 80dB). The effects in the hearing of the subjects are monitored by measuring the recovery of the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) with high-time resolution. The results can be used to investigate...... the validity of current assessment methods and descriptors of the temporal characteristics of sound exposures and their relation to the temporal effects produced on the human hearing as well as investigating selected issues that may lead to possible improvements or alternative measuring methods. [Work...
Williams, Michael A; Malm, Jan; Eklund, Anders; Horton, Nicholas J; Voss, Susan E
A noninvasive method to monitor changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) is required for astronauts on long-duration spaceflight who are at risk of developing the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure syndrome that has some, but not all of the features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We assessed the validity of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to detect changes in ICP. Subjects were eight patients undergoing medically necessary diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion testing for hydrocephalus. DPOAE measurements were obtained with an FDA-approved system at baseline and six controlled ICP levels in ∼3 mmHg increments in random order, with a range from 10.8 ± 2.9 mmHg (SD) at baseline to 32.3 ± 4.1 mmHg (SD) at level 6. For f2 frequencies between 800 and 1700 Hz, when ICP was ≥ 12 mmHg above baseline ICP, DPOAE angles increased significantly and DPOAE magnitudes decreased significantly, but less robustly. Significant changes in DPOAE angle and magnitude are seen when ICP is ≥ 12 mmHg above a subject's supine baseline ICP during CSF infusion testing. These results suggest that the changes in DPOAE angle and magnitude seen with change in ICP are physiologically based, and suggest that it should be possible to detect pathological ICP elevation using DPOAE measurements. To use DPOAE for noninvasive estimation of ICP during spaceflight will require baseline measurements in the head-up, supine, and head-down positions to obtain baseline DPOAE values at different ICP ranges. Williams MA, Malm J, Eklund A, Horton NJ, Voss SE. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and intracranial pressure during CSF infusion testing. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(10):844-851.
Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus, the perception of the sound in the absence of an external acoustic source, disrupts the daily life 1 out of every 200 adults, yet its physiological basis remains largely a mystery. The generation of tinnitus is commonly linked with the impaired functioning of the outer hair cells (OHC inside the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are the objective test used to assess their activity. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the features of Distortion product OtoAcoustic emissions (DPOAE in a group of tinnitus patients with normal hearing and to find out whether there is any difference in DPOAE findings in the tinnitus patients with normal hearing and in persons with normal hearing with no complaint of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of two groups. The subject group consisted of 16 ears of patients, in which 6 subjects were having tinnitus in both ears while 4 subjects were having tinnitus only in one ear. All subjects were aged between 20 to 60 years with complaint of tinnitus with audiometrically normal hearing. Control group was comprised of 16 audiometrically normal hearing ears of persons who were age and gender matched with the subject groups and had no complaint of tinnitus. Both the subject group as well as control group was subjected for DPOAE test. Findings of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t test. Result and conclusion: It was observed that the amplitudes of DPOAE were significantly lower in tinnitus patients than that of persons without complaint of tinnitus, at a frequency of 1281-1560, 5120-6250, 7243-8837 Hz, which imply that decrease of DPOAEs amplitudes may be related to the presence of tinnitus. It can be concluded that there is association between tinnitus and reduced OHC activity which indicate the OHC of cochlea are involved in the generation of tinnitus.
Vassilakis, Pantelis; Narins, Peter M.
Cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded from 10 Rana pipiens and 10 Rana catesbeiana, 5 males and 5 females each. The I/O curves obtained from the amphibian papilla (AP) of both species are very similar to the respective mammalian curves, indicating that, like in the mammalian cochlea, there may be an amplification process active in the frog AP. The DPOAE level dependence on primary levels is also similar to the mammalian case, suggesting a mechanical structure in the frog inner ear may be functioning analogously to the mammalian basilar membrane. DPOAE audiograms were obtained for primary frequencies spanning the animals hearing range and levels determined by the previous experiments. R. catesbeiana produce stronger emissions than R. pipiens and, consistent with previously reported sexual dimorphism in the mammalian and anuran auditory systems, females from both species produce stronger emissions than males. Additionally, the 2f1-f2 DPOAE is generated primarily at the DPOAE frequency place, while the 2f2-f1 DPOAE is generated primarily at a frequency place between the primaries. This difference in mammalian and frog DPOAEs may be linked to an anatomical difference that results in the acoustic energy following opposite paths through the mammalian and frog inner ears. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. DC-00222 to Peter M. Narins.] a)Currently at De Paul Univ., School of Music, Chicago, IL 60614.
SA Moussavi-Najarkola; A Khavanin; R Mirzaei; M Salehnia; A Muhammadnejad; M Akbari
Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most common occupational illnesses. Most of the studies on NIHL were conducted at high noise levels that people are rarely exposed to but in industries. The function of the outer hair cells (OHCs) is impaired after exposure to industrial noise. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are useful in examination of noise-induced level shifts. Objectives: To assess the function of OHCs by DPOAE temporary and permanent level...
Fredriksson, Sofie; Hammar, Oscar; Magnusson, Lennart; Kähäri, Kim; Persson Waye, Kerstin
To validate self-reported hearing-related symptoms among personnel exposed to moderately high occupational noise levels at an obstetrics clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for questionnaire items assessing hearing loss, tinnitus, sound sensitivity, poor hearing, difficulty perceiving speech, and sound-induced auditory fatigue. Hearing disorder was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and HINT (Hearing In Noise Test). Fifty-five female obstetrics personnel aged 22-63 participated; including 26 subjects reporting hearing loss, poor hearing, tinnitus, or sound sensitivity, and 29 randomly selected subjects who did not report these symptoms. The questionnaire item assessing sound-induced auditory fatigue had the best combination of sensitivity ≥85% (95% CIs 56 to 100%) and specificity ≥70% (95% CIs 55 to 84%) for hearing disorder diagnosed by audiometry or otoacoustic emission. Of those reporting sound-induced auditory fatigue 71% were predicted to have disorder diagnosed by otoacoustic emission. Participants reporting any hearing-related symptom had slightly worse measured hearing. We suggest including sound-induced auditory fatigue in questionnaires for identification of hearing disorder among healthcare personnel, though larger studies are warranted for precise estimates of diagnostic performance. Also, more specific and accurate hearing tests are needed to diagnose mild hearing disorder.
Candreia, Claudia; Martin, Glen K; Stagner, Barden B; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L
Baseline distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at several primary-tone levels were compared between naive 2- to 3-month old inbred CBA/CaJ (CBA) and wild-derived MOLF/Ei (MOLF) mice. Only minor DPOAE differences were noted between the two strains and these differences were not systematic across frequency or test levels. These emission findings were consistent with earlier results on auditory brainstem response thresholds reported by others [Zheng et al., Hear. Res. 130 (1999) 94-107] thus suggesting that both CBA and MOLF strains have normal hearing. Subsequent episodes of over-exposure to a 105-dB SPL, octave-band noise centered at 10 kHz for 8 h revealed that MOLF DPOAEs were exceptionally resistant to the adverse aftereffects of excessive noise exposure as compared to CBA mice. Unlike the noise-exposure resistant inbred 129/SvEvTac strain, which has reduced baseline DPOAE levels especially at high frequencies, MOLF mice have normal DPOAEs making the interpretation of noise-exposure effects more straightforward.
Lukashkin, Andrei N; Lukashkina, Victoria A; Russell, Ian J
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) elicited by tones below 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL) are significantly more sensitive to cochlear insults. The vulnerable, low-level DPOAE have been associated with the postulated active cochlear process, whereas the relatively robust high-level DPOAE component has been attributed to the passive, nonlinear macromechanical properties of the cochlea. However, it is proposed that the differences in the vulnerability of DPOAEs to high and low SPLs is a natural consequence of the way the cochlea responds to high and low SPLs. An active process boosts the basilar membrane (BM) vibrations, which are attenuated when the active process is impaired. However, at high SPLs the contribution of the active process to BM vibration is small compared with the dominating passive mechanical properties of the BM. Consequently, reduction of active cochlear amplification will have greatest effect on BM vibrations and DPOAEs at low SPLs. To distinguish between the "two sources" and the "single source" hypotheses we analyzed the level dependence of the notch and corresponding phase discontinuity in plots of DPOAE magnitude and phase as functions of the level of the primaries. In experiments where furosemide was used to reduce cochlear amplification, an upward shift of the notch supports the conclusion that both the low- and high-level DPOAEs are generated by a single source, namely a nonlinear amplifier with saturating I/O characteristic.
Wu, Ye; McNamara, D M; Ziarani, A K
This paper presents the outcome of a software development project aimed at creating a stand-alone user-friendly signal processing algorithm for the estimation of distortion product otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals. OAE testing is one of the most commonly used methods of first screening of newborns' hearing. Most of the currently available commercial devices rely upon averaging long strings of data and subsequent discrete Fourier analysis to estimate low level OAE signals from within the background noise in the presence of the strong stimuli. The main shortcoming of the presently employed technology is the need for long measurement time and its low noise immunity. The result of the software development project presented here is a graphical user interface (GUI) module that implements a recently introduced adaptive technique of OAE signal estimation. This software module is easy to use and is freely disseminated on the Internet for the use of the hearing research community. This GUI module allows loading of the a priori recorded OAE signals into the workspace, and provides the user with interactive instructions for the OAE signal estimation. Moreover, the user can generate simulated OAE signals to objectively evaluate the performance capability of the implemented signal processing technique.
Lee, Gary Jek Chong; Lim, Ming Yann; Kuan, Angeline Yi Wei; Teo, Joshua Han Wei; Tan, Hui Guang; Low, Wong Kein
This study compared the otoacoustic emissions amplitudes of Asian youths at risk of leisure noise exposure through the use of portable music players with their less exposed counterparts. A listening habit survey was conducted. Subjects were divided into two groups for analysis. A subject was placed within the high risk group if he/she reported listening to music at near maximum volume and had a physical measurement of his/her preferred listening level recorded at > 85 dBA. DPOAE and TEOAE levels were measured and compared between the two groups. A total of 1928 students from a tertiary educational institution in Singapore. TEOAE levels were found to be significantly lower in the high risk group at 4 kHz. DPOAE levels were also found to be significantly depressed in the high risk group at 1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz with the largest mean difference at 4 kHz. A four-way ANOVA carried out for OAE amplitudes using gender, ear laterality, risk profile, and years of usage as independent factors also showed that risk profile was a significant factor in determining the OAE amplitude at 4 kHz. We have demonstrated that both DPAOE and TEOAE values are diminished in the Asian subjects at high risk for noise exposure.
Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L
Cochlear damage caused by loud sounds can be attenuated by "sound-conditioning" methods. The amount of adaptation for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured in alert rabbits previously predicted an ear's susceptibility to a subsequent noise exposure. The present study investigated if sound-conditioning influenced the robustness of such DPOAE adaptation, and if such conditioning elicited more protection by increasing the amount of DPOAE adaptation. Toward this end, rabbits were divided into two study groups: (1) experimental animals exposed to a sound-conditioning protocol, and (2) unconditioned control animals. After base-line measures, all rabbits were exposed to an overstimulation paradigm consisting of an octave band noise, and then re-assessed 3 weeks post-exposure to determine permanent changes in DPOAEs. A major result was that prior sound-conditioning protected reductions in DPOAE levels by an average of 10-15 dB. However, DPOAE adaptation decreased with sound-conditioning, so that such conditioning was no longer related to noise-induced reductions in DPOAEs. Together, these findings suggest that sound-conditioning affected neural pathways other than those that likely mediate DPOAE adaptation (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent and/or middle-ear muscle reflexes).
Foust, Terry; Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore; Geroso, Amy
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology, used widely in newborn hearing screening programs and validated by professional organizations as a reliable and objective tool, is beginning to be recognized as superior to subjective methods when screening young children in a variety of settings. This study examines the efficacy of integrating OAE hearing screening into services routinely provided in health care settings. Three federally funded clinics serving low-income and uninsured people in a metropolitan area participated in the 10-month study. Subjects included 846 children (842 in the target population children did not pass the initial screening. Audiological evaluation was sought for children not passing a subsequent OAE screening. Of the 846 children screened, 814 (96%) ultimately passed the screening or audiological assessment and 29 (3%) exited the study. Three children (1 was 5) were identified with permanent hearing loss. The rate of identification of permanent hearing loss in this study is similar to findings from a study of OAE screening in early childhood educational settings. OAE screening holds the potential for being an effective method for helping to identify young children with permanent hearing loss in primary care settings.
Full Text Available Noise influence takes one of the leading roles in the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL. At the same time professional deafness steadily occupies the 5th place in the structure of occupational diseases in Ukraine over the past few years. Of special importance is the problem of pre-clinical and early diagnosis of occupational hearing deterioration, in sense of timely prophylactic and rehabilitation measures in “risk group” workers. The objective research methods play an important role in the diagnosis of auditory analyzer state. Many scientific studies have shown the diagnostic effectiveness of method of otoacoustic emissions recording in the early diagnosis of lesions of receptor part of auditory analyzer. It is known that SHL of noise genesis largely affects the receptor part of the auditory analyzer, for which the OAE method has great practical diagnostic significance. Objective: to study informativity indicators of otoacoustic emission for the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in various occupational groups of coal workers in Ukrainian mines. Materials and Methods: Auditory function of 87 workers of the coal industry (drifters, miners and longwall miners with different levels of industrial noise and hygienic conditions in their workplaces was: 28 studied drifters (group 1, 25 miners (group 2 and 34 longwall miners (group 3. Work experience in noise in these groups was 17,9±1,0; 23,1±1,0 and 22,2±2,0 accordingly. Noise ratio in drifters was 93,6±4,9 dBA, in miners – 92,9±5,5 dBA and in longwall miners – 86,5±6,04 dBA accordingly, while the maximum permitted level is 80 dBA. The research was conducted on the analyzing system "Eclipse" "Interacoustics" (Denmark. All patients underwent registratiov of the caused OAE at frequency distortion product (DPOAE at frequencies 1-6 kHz. The results were rated using variation statistics Student's test. Results: The most prominent violation of the receptor part of the
Jeanson, Lena; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus
The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons). At an LF sound frequency of 30 Hz, a minimal sound level of 102 dB SPL (64 phons) was sufficient to elicit a significant Bounce. In some subjects, however, 93 dB SPL (47 phons), the lowest level used, was sufficient to elicit the Bounce phenomenon and actual thresholds could have been even lower. Measurements with different LF sound frequencies showed a mild reduction of the Bounce phenomenon with increasing LF sound frequency. This indicates that the strength of the Bounce not only is a simple function of the spectral separation between SOAE and LF sound frequency but also depends on absolute LF sound frequency, possibly related to the magnitude of the AC component of the outer hair cell receptor potential.
Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate
The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.
Baldwin, Stacey M; Gajewski, Byron J; Widen, Judith E
Early intervention to reduce the effects of congenital hearing loss requires accurate description of hearing loss. In pediatric audiology, a cross-check principle is used to compare behavioral and physiological tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correspondence of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) minimal response levels (MRLs), otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), tympanometry, and VRA test reliability to determine the odds of obtaining the expected cross-check results. We hypothesized that (1) when MRLs were within normal limits (WNL), OAEs would be present; (2) in the event of normal MRLs and absent OAEs, tympanograms would be abnormal; and (3) in the event of elevated MRLs and present OAEs, the tester's confidence in the MRLs would be judged to be only fair, rather than good. This was a retrospective study. A previous study provided data from 993 infants who had diagnostic audiologic evaluations at 8-12 mo of age. The data were analyzed to compare VRA MRLs with OAE signal-to-noise ratios at 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the three hypotheses related to the correspondence among MRLs, OAEs, tympanometry, and the reliability of MRLs. The probability that OAEs would be present when MRLs were WNL varied from 12 to 26 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When OAEs were absent in the presence of normal MRLs, the odds of abnormal tympanometry varied from 5 to 10 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When MRLs were elevated (>20 dB HL), the odds suggested that examiners judged the MRLs at 1 and 2 kHz to lack reliability. The results suggest that the cross-check principle is effective when employing VRA, OAE, and tympanometry to rule out or determine the degree, type, and configuration of hearing loss in infants. American Academy of Audiology.
Kunst, Letícia Regina; Garcia, Michele Vargas; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Barbisan, Fernanda; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da
To verify the association between the amplitude of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in resident students of the tobacco-producing region. Participated in the study group (SG) 21 normal-hearing students from the tobacco-producing region, and in the control group (CG) 25 normal-hearing students who did not live in the countryside. The auditory system was assessed by DPOAE and the following biomarkers: dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and micronucleus test (MN). Both groups showed DPOAE present in both ears. Significant difference was detected between groups--in the right ear in the frequency of 4.000 Hz and in the left ear in the frequency of 2.000 Hz--with the mean amplitude of the DPOAE of the SG lower than the one found in the CG. Considering both ears, the SG presented lower mean across all frequencies and it was found a significant difference in the frequencies of 2.000 and 4.000 Hz. The overall mean of DPOAE, by ear, no significant differences were observed. In relation to the rate of production of free radicals, the mean of the SG was significantly higher than that of the mean of the CG. For the frequency of abnormal cells in the MN test, the mean of the SG was also considerate significantly higher than the mean of the CG. The SG showed a lower response level of DPOAE at all frequencies and high levels of biomarkers of EO, however there was no association between assessments.
Berezina-Greene, Maria A; Guinan, John J
According to coherent reflection theory (CRT), stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) arise from cochlear irregularities coherently reflecting energy from basilar membrane motion within the traveling-wave peak. This reflected energy arrives in the ear canal predominantly with a single delay at each frequency. However, data from humans and animals indicate that (1) SFOAEs can have multiple delay components, (2) low-frequency SFOAE delays are too short to be accounted for by CRT, and (3) "SFOAEs" obtained with a 2nd ("suppressor") tone ≥2 octaves above the probe tone have been interpreted as arising from the area basal to the region of cochlear amplification. To explore these issues, we collected SFOAEs by the suppression method in guinea pigs and time-frequency analyzed these data, simulated SFOAEs, and published chinchilla SFOAEs. Time-frequency analysis revealed that most frequencies showed only one SFOAE delay component while other frequencies had multiple components including some with short delays. We found no systematic patterns in the occurrence of multiple delay components. Using a cochlear model that had significant basilar membrane motion only in the peak region of the traveling wave, simulated SFOAEs had single and multiple delay components similar to the animal SFOAEs. This result indicates that multiple components (including ones with short delays) can originate from cochlear mechanical irregularities in the SFOAE peak region and are not necessarily indicative of SFOAE sources in regions ≥2 octaves basal of the SFOAE peak region. We conclude that SFOAEs obtained with suppressors close to the probe frequency provide information primarily about the mechanical response in the region that receives amplification, and we attribute the too-short SFOAE delays at low frequencies to distortion-source SFOAEs and coherent reflection from multiple cochlear motions. Our findings suggest that CRT needs revision to include reflections from multiple
Simmons, Dwayne D.; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D.; Hooper, Rebecca A.; Baird, Richard A.
The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of noise on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the noise levels that diminished DPOAE at 2f1–f2 using an f2 stimulus level at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1–f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after noise exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-level (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to noise differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to noise and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to noise. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following noise exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure levels within 3–4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After noise-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent noise damage. PMID:24501139
Morini, Renata Graziele
Full Text Available Introduction: The noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been studied for many years and today the specialized literature also studies the synergic action of chemicals. Objective: To research the audiologic findings and DPOAE in workers exposed to occupational noise and plaguecides and to compare them with data obtained in individuals without exposure to these harmful elements. Method: 51 individuals were evaluated (102 ears, divided into three groups. Group I was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides, all with neurosensorial auditory loss; group II was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides with audiometric thresholds within normality standards (up to 25 dBNA and group III by 17 healthy individuals without auditory alterations and without exposure to noise and plaguecides, control group. Results: In the audiologic anamnesis, as for groups I and II, we observed that the main auditory complaints presented by the workers were those of recruitment (29.5%, tinnitus (26.5%, allergy (23.5% and arterial hypertension (12%. The findings of the audiometry appointed that the research's individuals did not present with auditory losses in the frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz, the losses occurred in the frequencies of 3 and 8 kHz. As for the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, we observed that the individuals in group III had a major incidence of responses when compared to those of groups I and II. Conclusion: The results analysis allowed us to conclude that the DPOAE test represents an important tool for follow up and prevention of NIHL.
Guimaraes, Patricia; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Cannon, Trinitia; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, Robert D
Age-related hearing loss--presbycusis--is the number one communication problem of the aged. A major contributor to presbycusis is the progressive degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are effective in vivo, physiological measures of hearing, assessing the health and functioning of the OHCs in mammals. We and others have previously demonstrated that DPOAE amplitudes decline with age in humans and mice. The present study's objective was to measure age-related declines in the OHCs in CBA mice (slow, progressive age-related hearing loss) by comparing DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) generated from females and males. Young adult (2.1-2.9 months) and middle-aged CBA (14.0-16.4 months) mice were tested, as well as old CBAs (24.3-29.0 months). DPOAE-grams were obtained with L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, f1/f2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6 to 44.8 kHz (geometric mean frequency). ABRs ranged from 3 to 48 kHz. Analyses revealed that DPOAE levels decreased with age for middle-aged and old male CBAs, but for female CBAs, declines did not occur until old age - after menopause. In contrast, ABR amplitudes for female and male young adult and middle-aged CBAs were the same. Female ABR thresholds were lower than males for old CBAs. In conclusion, we discovered that pre-menopausal CBA female mice have healthier OHCs relative to middle-aged males, but much of this relative advantage is lost post-menopause. Understanding sex differences in age-related sensory disorders will be quite helpful for the goals of preventing, slowing or curing sensory problems in old age for both women and men.
Rebecca L. Warner Henning
Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.
Kujawa, S G; Liberman, M C
Activation of ipsilaterally responsive olivocochlear (OC) neurons by sound produces rapid, post-onset alterations in the 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). The present study investigates the frequency and level dependence of this ipsilateral OC effect in the anesthetized guinea pig, compares its magnitude and sign to OC effects elicited by contralateral sound ("contralateral" OC effect), and characterizes the influence of such activity on steady-state DPOAE amplitude. DPOAEs were measured with fine time resolution in response to primary stimuli varied systematically in frequency and level. DPOAEs showed rapid and remarkably stereotyped post-onset amplitude alterations. These ipsilateral OC effects were greater for high (8-12 kHz) than for low (2-4 kHz) f2 primary frequencies and for higher primary levels (70-80 dB SPL). For any f2/f1 pair, the sign as well as the magnitude of the ipsilateral effects varied with. primary level ratio. For example, with L1 fixed at 75 and L2 varied in 1-dB steps from 60 to 75 dB SPL, DPOAE amplitude underwent a stereotyped progression from post-onset increases at the lowest levels of the f2 primary to post-onset decreases at the highest levels. At intermediate levels, near the region of sign change (L2 = 5-10 dB below L1), post-onset effects were often particularly large (as great as 20 dB). These large ipsilateral OC effects were always associated with "dips" in the DPOAE amplitude vs. level functions, and both disappeared after OC section. Although smaller in magnitude, contralateral OC effects were identical to ipsilateral effects in frequency and level dependence and in form.
Hunter, M F; Kimm, L; Cafarlli Dees, D; Kennedy, C R; Thornton, A R
The feasibility of attempting a two-stage universal screening test for auditory impairment was assessed at a large district maternity hospital. The first stage was measurement of otoacoustic emissions using the Programmable Otoacoustic Emission Measurement System. Those failing the first stage proceeded to automated analysis of auditory brainsteam responses. A single tester working for 6 h on 6 days per week attempted to test all babies born between the hours of midday and midnight for 2 weeks and then all babies born between midnight and midday for a further 2 weeks. Of 217 babies born during the study periods, one infant died and three were still receiving intensive care at the end of the study. Of the remaining 213 infants, auditory testing was undertaken in 201 infants (94%). Eight infants (4%) who failed the first stage of the screening test did not undergo the second stage. Of those 193 infants completing the screen, one (0.5%) failed the screen unilaterally. There were no bilateral failures. Three testers, working two and a half whole-time equivalents, should be adequate to achieve a coverage of 90% and a specificity of 99% for this screen in this clinical setting.
Rosanna Mariangela Giaffredo Angrisani
Full Text Available Vitiligo é uma doença cutânea, caracterizada pela ausência da melanina, por destruição de melanócitos. OBJETIVO: Verificar a ocorrência de alteração auditiva em indivíduos com vitiligo. MÉTODO: Avaliação audiológica, pesquisa das emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes e do efeito de supressão em estudo prospectivo de 24 pacientes com vitiligo. A faixa etária variou de 15 a 45 anos. RESULTADOS: 21 pacientes (87.5% apresentaram audiometria normal; dois apresentaram perda auditiva unilateral em freqüências altas e um apresentou perda coclear de grau moderado à esquerda. Destes 21 sujeitos, 66,7% tiveram ausência de emissões, sugerindo disfunção coclear. As emissões estiveram presentes em todas as bandas de freqüência em apenas 7 pacientes (29,2% e ausentes em 17 (70,8%, com maior ocorrência de falha no sexo masculino, na orelha direita. Na pesquisa da supressão, seis indivíduos falharam, todos do sexo feminino, sendo a orelha esquerda a mais afetada. CONCLUSÃO: Pela análise das emissões otoacústicas verificou-se que os portadores de vitiligo possuem maior predisposição à disfunção coclear, com maior ocorrência no sexo masculino na orelha direita. Quanto ao efeito de supressão, houve maior alteração no sistema eferente em mulheres, com maior ausência à esquerda. As alterações auditivas não diferiram quanto à idade, tipo de vitiligo e tempo de evolução da doença.Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by absence of melanin due to melanocytes destruction. AIM: to study the incidence of hearing alterations in patients with vitiligo. METHOD: prospective audiological evaluation, transient-evoked otoacoustic emission recordings and study the effects of suppression in 24 patients with vitiligo. Their ages ranged from 15 to 45 years. RESULTS: 21 patients (87.5% had normal audiometry; 2 had unilateral hearing loss in the high frequencies and 1 had cochlear moderate hearing loss in the left ear. Of
Neely, Stephen T; Gorga, Michael P; Dorn, Patricia A
Evidence of the compressive growth of basilar-membrane displacement can be seen in distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels measured as a function of stimulus level. When the levels of the two stimulus tones (f1 and f2) are related by the formula L1 = 39 dB + 0.4 x L2 [Kummer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3431-3444 (1998)] the shape of the function relating DPOAE level to L2 is similar (up to an L2 of 70 dB SPL) to the classic Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 9, 1-10 (1933)] loudness function when plotted on a logarithmic scale. Explicit estimates of compression have been derived based on recent DPOAE measurements from the laboratory. If DPOAE growth rate is defined as the slope of the DPOAE I/O function (in dB/dB), then a cogent definition of compression is the reciprocal of the growth rate. In humans with normal hearing, compression varies from about 1 at threshold to about 4 at 70 dB SPL. With hearing loss, compression is still about 1 at threshold, but grows more slowly above threshold. Median DPOAE I/O data from ears with normal hearing, mild loss, and moderate loss are each well fit by log functions. When the I/O function is logarithmic, then the corresponding compression is a linear function of stimulus level. Evidence of cochlear compression also exists in DPOAE suppression tuning curves, which indicate the level of a third stimulus tone (f3) that reduces DPOAE level by 3 dB. All three stimulus tones generate compressive growth within the cochlea; however, only the relative compression (RC) of the primary and suppressor responses is observable in DPOAE suppression data. An RC value of 1 indicates that the cochlear responses to the primary and suppressor components grow at the same rate. In normal ears, RC rises to 4, when f3 is an octave below f2. The similarities between DPOAE and loudness compression estimates suggest the possibility of predicting loudness growth from DPOAEs; however, intersubject variability makes such
Prasanth G Narahari
Full Text Available Background: Intact hearing is essential for medical students and physicians for communicating with patients and appreciating internal sounds with a stethoscope. With the increased use of (PMSs, they are exposed to high sound levels and are at a risk of developing hearing loss. The effect of long term personal music system (PMS usage on auditory sensitivity has been well established. Our study has reported the immediate and short term effect of PMS usage on hearing especially among medical professionals. Objective: To assess the effect of short term PMS usage on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE among medical professionals. Materials and Method: 34 medical students within the age range of 17–22 years who were regular users of PMS participated in the study. All participants had hearing thresholds <15 dBHL at audiometric octave frequencies. Baseline DPOAEs were measured in all participants after 18 h of non-usage of PMS. One week later DPOAEs were again measured after two hours of continuous listening to PMS. DPOAEs were measured within the frequency range of 2 to 12 kHz with a resolution of 12 points per octave. Output sound pressure level of the PMS of each participant was measured in HA-1 coupler and it was converted to free field SPL using the transformations of RECD and REUG. Results: Paired sample t test was used to investigate the main effect of short term music listening on DPOAE amplitudes. Analysis revealed no significant main effect of music listening on DPOAE amplitudes at the octave frequencies between 2 to 4 KHz (t67 = −1.02, P = 0.31 and 4 to 8 KHz (t67 = 0.24, P = 0.81. However, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in DPOAE amplitude (t67 = 2.10, P = 0.04 in the frequency range of 9 to 12 kHz following short term usage of PMS. The mean output sound pressure level of the PMS was 98.29. Conclusion: Short term exposure to music affects the DPOAE amplitude at
Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Budak, Bilgehan; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin; Sanli, Cihat
To determine the effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like Radiofrequency (RFR) on the cochlear functions of pregnant adult rabbits by Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs). Eighteen 13-month-old pregnant and eighteen 13-month-old non-pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were studied. They were randomly divided into four groups. Nine pregnant rabbits (Group 2) and nine non-pregnant rabbits (Group 4) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR 15 min daily for 7 days. Nine pregnant (Group 1) and nine non-pregnant rabbits (Group 3) were not exposed to GSM like RFR. Cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. In all pregnant groups except 2.0 kHz, DPOAE amplitudes were not different in Group 2 and Group1. In Group 4, DPOAE amplitudes at 1.0-4.0 kHz (-1.68 dB SPL at 1.0 kHz, 3.05 dB SPL at 1.5 kHz, 2.96 dB SPL at 2.0 kHz, 1.30 dB SPL at 3.0 kHz and 12.22 dB SPL at 4.0 kHz) were lower than Group 3 (8.67 dB SPL at 1.0 kHz, 17.67 dB SPL at 1.5 kHz, 26.10 dB SPL at 2.0 kHz, 18.10 dB SPL at 3.0 kHz and 35.13 dB SPL at 4.0 kHz) (P GSM-like RFR were less than in the non-pregnant group. GSM-like RFR caused decreases in DPOAE amplitudes mainly in non-pregnant adult rabbits. Prolonged exposure may affect the DPOAE amplitude. Recommendations are given to prevent the potential hazardous effects of RF in humans.
Narahari, Prasanth G; Bhat, Jayashree; Nambi, Arivudai; Arora, Anshul
Intact hearing is essential for medical students and physicians for communicating with patients and appreciating internal sounds with a stethoscope. With the increased use of (PMSs), they are exposed to high sound levels and are at a risk of developing hearing loss. The effect of long term personal music system (PMS) usage on auditory sensitivity has been well established. Our study has reported the immediate and short term effect of PMS usage on hearing especially among medical professionals. To assess the effect of short term PMS usage on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) among medical professionals. 34 medical students within the age range of 17-22 years who were regular users of PMS participated in the study. All participants had hearing thresholds <15 dBHL at audiometric octave frequencies. Baseline DPOAEs were measured in all participants after 18 h of non-usage of PMS. One week later DPOAEs were again measured after two hours of continuous listening to PMS. DPOAEs were measured within the frequency range of 2 to 12 kHz with a resolution of 12 points per octave. Output sound pressure level of the PMS of each participant was measured in HA-1 coupler and it was converted to free field SPL using the transformations of RECD and REUG. Paired sample t test was used to investigate the main effect of short term music listening on DPOAE amplitudes. Analysis revealed no significant main effect of music listening on DPOAE amplitudes at the octave frequencies between 2 to 4 KHz (t67 = -1.02, P = 0.31) and 4 to 8 KHz (t67 = 0.24, P = 0.81). However, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in DPOAE amplitude (t67 = 2.10, P = 0.04) in the frequency range of 9 to 12 kHz following short term usage of PMS. The mean output sound pressure level of the PMS was 98.29. Short term exposure to music affects the DPOAE amplitude at high frequencies and this serves as an early indicator for noise induced hearing loss
Gorga, M P; Neely, S T; Dorn, P A
1) To describe distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) test performance when a priori response criteria are applied to a large set of DPOAE data. 2) To describe DPOAE test performance when multifrequency definitions of auditory function are used. 3) To determine DPOAE test performance when a single decision regarding auditory status is made for an ear, based on DPOAE data from several frequencies. 4) To compare univariate and multivariate test performance when multifrequency gold standard definitions and response criteria are applied to DPOAE data. DPOAE and audiometric data were analyzed from 1267 ears of 806 subjects. These data were evaluated for three different frequency combinations (2, 3, 4 kHz; 2, 3, 4, 6 kHz; 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 kHz). DPOAE data were collected for each of the f2 frequencies listed above, using primary levels (L1/L2) of 65/55 dB SPL and a primary ratio (f2/f1) of 1.22. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of 3, 6, and 9 dB, which are in common clinical use. In addition, test performance was evaluated using clinical decision theory, following the convention we have used in previous reports on otoacoustic emission test performance. Both univariate and multivariate analyses techniques were applied to the data. In addition to evaluating DPOAE test performance for the case when audiometric and f2 frequency were equal, multifrequency gold standards and multifrequency criterion responses were evaluated. Three new gold standards were used to assess test performance: average pure-tone thresholds, extrema thresholds that took into account both the magnitude of the loss and the number of frequencies at which hearing loss existed, and a combination of the two. These new gold standards were applied to each of the three frequency groups described above. As expected, SNR criteria of 3, 6, and 9 dB never resulted in perfect DPOAE test performance. Even the most stringent of these criteria (9 dB SNR) did not result
Burke, Sienna R; Rogers, Abigail R; Neely, Stephen T; Kopun, Judy G; Tan, Hongyang; Gorga, Michael P
Calibration errors in distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements because of standing waves cause unpredictable changes in stimulus and DPOAE response level. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these errors affect DPOAE test performance. Standard calibration procedures use sound pressure level (SPL) to determine specified levels. Forward pressure level (FPL) is an alternate calibration method that is less susceptible to standing waves. However, FPL derivation requires prior cavity measurements, which have associated variability. In an attempt to address this variability, four FPL methods were compared with SPL: a reference calibration derived from 25 measurements before all data collection and a daily calibration measurement, both of which were made at body and room temperature. Data were collected from 52 normal-hearing and 103 hearing-impaired subjects. DPOAEs were measured for f2 frequencies ranging from 2 to 8 kHz in half-octave steps, with L2 ranging from -20 to 70 dB SPL (5-dB steps). At each f2, DPOAEs were measured in five calibration conditions: SPL, daily FPL at body temperature (daily body), daily FPL at room temperature (daily room), reference FPL at body temperature (ref body), and reference FPL at room temperature (ref room). Data were used to construct receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each f2, calibration method, and L2. From these curves, areas under the ROC curve (AROC) were estimated. The results of this study are summarized by the following observations: (1) DPOAE test performance was sensitive to stimulus level, regardless of calibration method, with the best test performance observed for moderate stimulus level conditions. (2) An effect of frequency was observed for all calibration methods, with the best test performance at 6 kHz and the worst performance at 8 kHz. (3) At clinically applicable stimulus levels, little difference in test performance among calibration methods was noted
James, Adrian L
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) can be suppressed with activation of the medial olivocochlear neural pathway by stimulation of the contralateral ear. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using olivocochlear mediated OAE suppression to test neonatal hearing with a novel device that detects changes in distortion product (DP)OAE level with high temporal resolution. The secondary objective was to investigate whether temporal parameters of the response can be determined with this technique and used in the assessment of neonates at risk of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). Prospective translational study of novel hearing assessment technique. There were 46 neonates tested in a clinic or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). DPOAE were recorded in real time with narrow band pass digital filtering (1 ms temporal resolution) during presentation of an intermittent contralateral broadband noise stimulus. Magnitude and latency of the contralateral suppression response were compared with hearing outcome (auditory brainstem response screen and clinical follow-up) and risk factors for hearing loss, particularly hyperbilirubinemia as a risk factor for ANSD. : Contralateral suppression was identified in all of 38 neonates with detectable DPOAE and normal hearing, most reliably at f(2) = 4.4 kHz (average values = 1 dB suppression from DP level of 14 dB SPL using 0.55 s contralateral stimulus at 50 dB SPL). Sensorineural hearing loss was identified in three cases (6.5%) and ANSD in five cases (11% of all neonates tested). Contralateral suppression was absent in two of the ANSD cases (one associated with cochlear nerve aplasia, the other with hyperbilirubinemia) and present in three. The median latency for onset of contralateral suppression was 60 ms and offset latency 83 ms. The latency for offset of suppression was longer in neonates who required treatment for hyperbilirubinemia at 123 ms (P = .02, Mann-Whitney rank sum test). Latency
Johnson, Tiffany A; Neely, Stephen T; Kopun, Judy G; Dierking, Darcia M; Tan, Hongyang; Gorga, Michael P
To determine whether new stimulus parameters, which have been shown to produce large distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in a group of normal-hearing listeners (Neely et al. 2005; Johnson et al. 2006), result in more accurate identification of auditory status and more accurate predictions of behavioral threshold than traditional stimulus conditions. DPOAE input/output (I/O) functions for eight f2 frequencies ranging from 0.7 to 8 kHz were recorded from 96 ears with normal hearing and 226 ears with sensorineural hearing losses ranging from mild to profound. The primary-level differences and primary-frequency ratios were set according to the stimulus relations developed by Johnson et al. (2006). The accuracy of the dichotomous decision task (area under the relative operating characteristic curve [AROC]) for these new stimulus conditions was evaluated as a function of L2 and was compared with previous reports in the literature where traditional stimuli were used (Stover et al. 1996). Here, traditional stimuli are defined as L1 = L2 + 10 and f2/f1 = 1.22 for all L2 and f2 values. In addition to I/O functions, DPgrams with L2 = 55-dB sound pressure level (SPL) and f2 ranging from 0.7 to 8 kHz were recorded for each subject using the traditional stimuli. This provided a direct within-subject comparison of AROC for moderate-level stimuli when the new and traditional stimuli were used. Finally, the accuracy with which DPOAE thresholds predicted behavioral thresholds was evaluated in relation to previous reports in the literature for two definitions of DPOAE threshold, one where the entire I/O function was used to make the prediction and a second where the lowest L2 producing a signal to noise ratio > or =3 dB was used. There was no evidence that the new stimuli improved the accuracy with which auditory status was identified from DPOAE responses. With both the new and traditional stimuli, moderate stimulus levels (L2 = 40- to 55-dB SPL) resulted in the
Larsen, Michael; Friis, Morten; Karlsen, Charlotte Vestrup
CONCLUSION: Twenty-five rats were challenged by an immunologic attack of the endolymphatic sac. After 6 months, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE) revealed a dysfunction of the outer hair cells and immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac. This information...... could contribute to the understanding of Ménière's disease. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated if an autoimmune challenge of the endolymphatic sac could affect DPOAE output measurements in rats. Also, a potential autoimmune cell infiltration of the endolymphatic sac was investigated. METHODS: Eighteen...... Lewis rats were immunized with a crude endolymphatic sac extract in complete Freund's adjuvant. Seven control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline. Cochlear damage was estimated by DPOAE dynamics 3 weeks and 6 months after the immunization. Infiltrative cells in the endolymphatic sac...
relation between frequency and travel time in the cochlea defines the cochlear delay. This delay is directly associated with the signal analysis occurring in the inner ear and is therefore of primary interest to get a better knowledge of this organ. It is possible to estimate the cochlear delay by direct...... towards the apex, resulting in locally resonant behaviour. This means high frequencies have maximal response at the base and low frequencies at the apex. The wave travelling along the basilar membrane has a longer travel time for low-frequency stimulus than for high-frequency stimulus. The intrinsic...... the cochlear delay, as if the travelling wave went back and forth in the cochlea, as predicted in current theories of OAE generation. This relation, however, does not hold for higher frequencies, calling into question the physical relation between OAE and ABR delay estimates. The comparison between ABR...
In order to identify persons with early noise-induced cochlear damage and to predict susceptibility to future damage it is desirable to develop a test that is sensitive to effects of noise exposure...
Renata Frasson de Azevedo
Full Text Available O tratamento do zumbido continua a ser um desafio da atualidade. Na medicina tradicional chinesa, a acupuntura é recomendada para o alívio do zumbido, apesar de faltarem provas cientificas nesta área. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da acupuntura sobre a função coclear de indivíduos com zumbido através do uso das emissões otoacústicas. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo clínico-prospectivo, no qual foram avaliados 38 pacientes do ambulatório de zumbido. Os pacientes foram avaliados por meio de emissões otoacústicas transitórias e pela medida da supressão das emissões otoacústicas transitórias. Essa avaliação foi realizada antes e após a aplicação de acupuntura em um ponto na região têmporo-parietal, correspondente à área cócleo-vestibular (no grupo intervenção 1 n=19 e em um ponto 3cm acima dessa região (para o grupo intervenção 2 n=19. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram uma diferença estatisticamente significante na amplitude das emissões otoacústicas antes e após a aplicação da acupuntura para o grupo intervenção 1. Não foram observadas diferenças para o grupo intervenção 2. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que houve um efeito da acupuntura sobre as emissões otoacústicas dos pacientes com zumbido.The treatment of tinnitus is still a challenge. Acupuncture is recommended for the relief of tinnitus in traditional Chinese Medicine, although scientific evidence is lacking. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acupuncture on the cochlear function in patients with tinnitus by analyzing otoacoustic emissions. METHODS: Thirty eight patients with tinnitus were included in the prospective clinical study. Measures of transitory otoacoustic emissions and suppression of otoacoustic emissions were obtained from all subjects before and after acupuncture. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: intervention group 1 (n=19, in which needle acupuncture was applied at the
Emadi, Maryam; Rezaei, Mohammad; Najafi, Sirvan; Faramarzi, Ali; Farahani, Farhad
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of cochlear outer hair cell function with TEOAE and DPOAE tests in patients with normal hearing and tinnitus. 25 tinnitus patients with normal hearing sensitivity selected as study group. Control group consist of 50 normal hearing subjects without tinnitus. All subjects had thresholds below 25 dBHL at frequencies 250-8,000 Hz, tympanogram type A and normal acoustic reflex thresholds. TEOAE were recorded with click stimulus at 80 dB SPL at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4000 Hz. DPOAE were measured at frequencies 1,000-8,000 Hz and intensity of L1 55 dB SPL and L2 65 dB SPL. Amplitude of DPOAE and TEOAE were decreased in all frequencies in study group. There was significant difference regarding prevalence abnormal TEOAE and DPOAE between study group and control group. There was relationship between dysfunction of outer hair cells and tinnitus in subjects with normal hearing.
Berezina-Greene, Maria A.; Guinan, John J.
To aid in understanding their origin, stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) were measured at a series of tone frequencies using the suppression method, both with and without stimulation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, in anesthetized guinea pigs. Time-frequency analysis showed SFOAE energy peaks in 1-3 delay components throughout the measured frequency range (0.5-12 kHz). One component's delay usually coincided with the phase-gradient delay. When multiple delay components were present, they were usually near SFOAE dips. Below 2 kHz, SFOAE delays were shorter than predicted from mechanical measurements. With MOC stimulation, SFOAE amplitude was decreased at most frequencies, but was sometimes enhanced, and all SFOAE delay components were affected. The MOC effects and an analysis of model data suggest that the multiple SFOAE delay components arise at the edges of the traveling-wave peak, not far basal of the peak. Comparisons with published guinea-pig neural data suggest that the short latencies of low-frequency SFOAEs may arise from coherent reflection from an organ-of-Corti motion that has a shorter group delay than the traveling wave.
Schneider, Sandra; Prijs, Vera F.; Schoonhoven, Ruurd
Lower sideband distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), measured in the ear canal upon stimulation with two continuous pure tones, are the result of interfering contributions from two different mechanisms, the nonlinear distortion component and the linear reflection component. The two contributors have been shown to have a different amplitude and, in particular, a different phase behavior as a function of the stimulus frequencies. The dominance of either component was investigated in an extensive (f1,f2) area study of DPOAE amplitude and phase in the guinea pig, which allows for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of isophase contours. Making a minimum of additional assumptions, simple relations between the direction of constant phase in the (f1,f2) plane and the group delays in f1-sweep, f2-sweep, and fixed f2/f1 paradigms can be derived, both for distortion (wave-fixed) and reflection (place-fixed) components. The experimental data indicate the presence of both components in the lower sideband DPOAEs, with the reflection component as the dominant contributor for low f2/f1 ratios and the distortion component for intermediate ratios. At high ratios the behavior cannot be explained by dominance of either component.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pressure compensation in the middle ear on the size of the response of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs at frequencies from 1 to 6 kHz. The testing was performed on 150 patients, within three age groups (215; 16-40; 41-71 years of age. The pressure in the middle ear varied from negative to positive (-329 to 195 daPa. Increasing the pressure in the compensation for 1 daPa led to an increase in amplitude at frequencies of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.6 kHz to 0.02, 0.03 and 0.02 dB SPL (decibel of sound pressure level, and the noise level at frequencies from 1.0 to 2.0 kHz, causing an increase of 0.02 to 0.03 dB SPL. Compensatory treatment led to an increase in DPOAE response (amplitude and noise level. The largest amplitude was determined at frequencies lower than 2 kHz within the levels of both examined influences. Pressure compensation had a stimulating influence on the detectability of DPOAE, which increases the reliability of this method when testing the functionality of the middle ear.
Wibowo, J. K.; Zizlavsky, S.; Suwento, R.; Sjakti, H. A.; Prihartono, J.
Malignancy is a significant public health problem, both globally and in Indonesia. Chemotherapy is one of the modality in malignancy cases. Carboplatin (cis-diammine-cyclobutanedi-carboxylato platinum) is a second-generation platinum compound that has often been used in the management of cases of malignancies. On the other hand, side effects of cytotoxic drugs need to be considered, especially ototoxic effects. Ototoxicity is dysfunction and damage to the structure of the inner ear that has been caused by drugs or other certain chemicals. The aim of this study is to assess ototoxic effects due to the influence of carboplatin in the cases of children with malignancy. This study uses a serial cross-sectional design to evaluate otoacoustic emission (OAE) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) change as a result of ototoxic effects and risk factors due to the use of ototoxic carboplatin in the Division of Hematology-Oncology of the Department of Pediatrics at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital in Jakarta, where two of 52 studies’ subjects experienced ototoxicity. In the group were receiving chemotherapy, two (5%) of the 40 subjects has experienced ototoxic events characterized by SNR values less than six, whereas SNR values were not less than six in the group that had not received chemotherapy. Risk factors such as gender, age, carboplatin dose, and cycles of chemotherapy did not have a statistically significant relationship to ototoxity.
Priscila Oliveira Arruda
Full Text Available As alterações hormonais ocorridas em pouco espaço de tempo promovem modificações em todo o organismo da mulher, com manifestações físicas e emocionais muitas vezes evidentes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade das células ciliadas externas em mulheres durante o ciclo menstrual, observando os efeitos das alterações hormonais impostas pelo ciclo em suas três fases. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal prospectivo que avaliou 21 mulheres entre 20 e 35 anos que não faziam uso de medicamento contraceptivo (dados obtidos em anamnese. Foi realizada avaliação das emissões otoacústicas transientes e por produto de distorção durante as três fases do ciclo hormonal (lútea, folicular e ovulatória. Para análise geral dos dados foi utilizado o programa SPSS 13.0, RESULTADOS: As três fases do ciclo hormonal não alteram os valores de amplitude e reprodutibilidade das emissões otoacústicas transientes e por produto de distorção. Foi verificada diferença entre as orelhas na freqüência de 1,5 kHz na amplitude das emissões por produto de distorção, tendo a orelha direita os maiores valores. CONCLUSÃO: Com a realização deste estudo pôde-se concluir que não há diferenças significantes das emissões otoacústicas transientes e por produto de distorção entre as fases do ciclo hormonal.The hormonal changes that occur in a short time span promote modifications all over the woman’s body, with physical and emotional manifestations which are frequently observed. AIM: to evaluate the activity of the external ciliated cells in women during their menstrual cycle, observing the effect of hormonal changes caused by the cycle in their 3 phases. METODS: this is a longitudinal prospective study where 21 women between 20 and 35 years old who did not take any contraceptive medicine were assessed. Transient otoacoustic emissions were evaluated by distortion product during the 3 phases of the
Whitehead, M L; McCoy, M J; Lonsbury-Martin, B L; Martin, G K
The 2f1-f2 distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) is evoked by two primary tones of frequencies f1 L1 and L2. Previous reports indicate that decreasing L2 below L1 = L2 can; (1) increase DPOAE amplitude in normal ears, and (2) increase the degree to which DPOAE amplitudes are reduced by cochlear trauma. Although both of these factors could be advantageous for clinical applications of DPOAEs, neither has been explored in detail. In the present study, 2f1-f2 DPOAE-amplitude frequency functions were collected from normal and impaired ears of rabbits and humans, with L1 = L2, and with L2 L1, at each of three values of L1. In rabbits, controlled tonal or noise overexposures were used to produce permanent reductions of DPOAE amplitudes. Comparison of pre- and postexposure DPOAE-amplitude frequency functions demonstrated that the frequency-specific reductions of DPOAEs were enhanced by decreasing L2 below L1. In humans, DPOAE-amplitude frequency functions obtained with the various L1 and L2 combinations were collected from 16 normal ears to provide preliminary normative data for each stimulus-level condition. The L1-L2 that produced the maximum DPOAE amplitude in normal ears was systematically dependent on L1. Thus at most frequencies, decreasing L2 below L1 = L2 substantially reduced mean DPOAE amplitude when L1 > or = 75 dB SPL, but increased mean DPOAE amplitudes at L1 = 65 dB SPL. However, the increase of mean DPOAE amplitude obtained by decreasing L2 below L1 = 65 dB SPL was small, being less than 3.5 dB at most frequencies. More importantly, at L1 = 65 dB SPL, L2 could be decreased considerably below L1 = L2 without reducing mean DPOAE amplitude relative to that at L1 = L2. Inspection of DPOAE-amplitude frequency functions obtained from subjects with mild or moderate sensorineural hearing losses indicated that, in frequency regions of hearing impairment, decreasing L2 below L1 can enhance the degree of reduction of DPOAEs below the corresponding normative
Moussavi-Najarkola, S A; Khavanin, A; Mirzaei, R; Salehnia, M; Muhammadnejad, A; Akbari, M
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most common occupational illnesses. Most of the studies on NIHL were conducted at high noise levels that people are rarely exposed to but in industries. The function of the outer hair cells (OHCs) is impaired after exposure to industrial noise. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are useful in examination of noise-induced level shifts. To assess the function of OHCs by DPOAE temporary and permanent level shifts (TLSdp and PLSdp) in rabbits exposed to white noise at realistic levels typically found in industrial settings over a broad range of frequencies. 12 albino rabbits were divided into two groups: the experimental group rabbits which were exposed to 95 dB SPL white noise at 500-8000 Hz for 8 hrs/day for 5 consecutive days, and the control group rabbits with no exposure to noise. The function of OHCs was examined by DPOAE level (Ldp) in different occasions. The study groups were compared for DPOAE temporary and permanent level shifts (TLSdp and PLSdp) to assess the effect of noise on OHCs function. Noise-induced DPOAE levels (Ldp) were decreased up to 20.65 dB (on day 8) and 18.93 dB (on day 11) at 5888.50 Hz (p = 0.081). TLSdp and PLSdp were significantly decreased up to 17.99 dB and 16.27 dB, respectively in the experimental group. The most and least Ldp were significantly different (pnormal.
Hao, Jin; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhao, Shouqin; Li, Yongxin
The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes in diabetics were significantly lower than those in controls when pure tone audiometry (PTA) was within normal limits, implying cochlear function impairment in the early stage of diabetes mellitus. Retrocochlear damage was suggested by elongated wave latencies and the wave interval of auditory brainstem response (ABR) in diabetics. This study aimed to systematically analyze the application of DPOAE in evaluation of the hearing function of diabetics. Eligible articles were identified through searches of nine different electronic databases. Two investigators reviewed the original articles independently, with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were conducted by using Metan module. There were seven articles eligible for the analysis. PTA thresholds were within normal limits in all diabetics at low-middle frequencies. The mean DPOAE amplitudes of diabetics were significantly lower than those of controls. The standardized mean difference (SMD) (95% CI) was -0.49 (-0.70, -0.27), -0.46 (-0.63, -0.30), and -0.60 (-0.77, -0.43) at 1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively. The latencies of waves I, III, and V in diabetes were significantly longer than those of controls (0.43 (0.23, 0.64), 0.54 (0.33, 0.75), and 0.56 (0.35, 0.77), respectively). The wave interval I-V was significantly longer in diabetics (p < .001, 0.47 [0.24, 0.70]).
Shera, Christopher A.; Melcher, Jennifer R.
Atypical medial olivocochlear (MOC) feedback from brain stem to cochlea has been proposed to play a role in tinnitus, but even well-constructed tests of this idea have yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, it was hypothesized that low sound tolerance (mild to moderate hyperacusis), which can accompany tinnitus or occur on its own, might contribute to the inconsistency. Sound-level tolerance (SLT) was assessed in subjects (all men) with clinically normal or near-normal thresholds to form threshold-, age-, and sex-matched groups: 1) no tinnitus/high SLT, 2) no tinnitus/low SLT, 3) tinnitus/high SLT, and 4) tinnitus/low SLT. MOC function was measured from the ear canal as the change in magnitude of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) elicited by broadband noise presented to the contralateral ear. The noise reduced DPOAE magnitude in all groups (“contralateral suppression”), but significantly more reduction occurred in groups with tinnitus and/or low SLT, indicating hyperresponsiveness of the MOC system compared with the group with no tinnitus/high SLT. The results suggest hyperresponsiveness of the interneurons of the MOC system residing in the cochlear nucleus and/or MOC neurons themselves. The present data, combined with previous human and animal data, indicate that neural pathways involving every major division of the cochlear nucleus manifest hyperactivity and/or hyperresponsiveness in tinnitus and/or low SLT. The overactivation may develop in each pathway separately. However, a more parsimonious hypothesis is that top-down neuromodulation is the driving force behind ubiquitous overactivation of the auditory brain stem and may correspond to attentional spotlighting on the auditory domain in tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:25231612
Ribeiro, Georgea Espindola; da Silva, Daniela Polo Camargo; Montovani, Jair Cortez
Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da asfixia perinatal sobre os níveis de resposta das emissões otoacústicas por estímulo transiente em lactentes. Métodos: Foi realizado, para comparação, o registro das emissões otoacústicas transientes em 154 neonatos: 54 bebês que sofreram asfixia perinatal, medida pela escala de Apgar e diagnóstico médico ao nascimento, e 100 bebês sem risco. Escores abaixo de 4 no primeiro minuto e/ou menores que 6 no quinto minuto foram considerados "Apgar baixo". A anális...
Hansen, Rói; Santurette, Sébastien; Verhulst, Sarah
of nerve cells tuned to the SOAE frequency could lead to a central oversensitivity to that frequency, hence a better frequency-discrimination ability. However, it is also known that tones close in frequency to an SOAE can “entrain” the emission to oscillate at their own frequency. This may instead explain...
Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational illnesses. Most of the studies on NIHL were conducted at high noise levels that people are rarely exposed to but in industries. The function of the outer hair cells (OHCs is impaired after exposure to industrial noise. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs are useful in examination of noise-induced level shifts. Objectives: To assess the function of OHCs by DPOAE temporary and permanent level shifts (TLSdp and PLSdp in rabbits exposed to white noise at realistic levels typically found in industrial settings over a broad range of frequencies. Methods: 12 albino rabbits were divided into two groups: the experimental group rabbits which were exposed to 95 dB SPL white noise at 500–8000 Hz for 8 hrs/day for 5 consecutive days, and the control group rabbits with no exposure to noise. The function of OHCs was examined by DPOAE level (Ldp in different occasions. The study groups were compared for DPOAE temporary and permanent level shifts (TLSdp and PLSdp to assess the effect of noise on OHCs function. Results: Noise-induced DPOAE levels (Ldp were decreased up to 20.65 dB (on day 8 and 18.93 dB (on day 11 at 5888.50 Hz (p=0.081. TLSdp and PLSdp were significantly decreased up to 17.99 dB and 16.27 dB, respectively in the experimental group. The most and least Ldp were significantly different (p<0.05; they occurred at 5888.50 and 588.00 Hz, respectively. There were significant differences between temporary and permanent threshold shift at various frequencies (p<0.05. These differences were mainly related to 5888.50 Hz compared to other frequencies in each ear (p<0.05. Conclusion: DPOAEs are an attractive tool for obtaining information about small temporary or permanent threshold shifts, even when the pure tone audiogram is normal.
Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Budak, Bilgehan; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential hazardous effects of 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) Radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the cochlear functions of female infant and adult rabbits by measuring Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. Eighteen each one-month-old New Zealand White female rabbits and eighteen each 13-month-old adult rabbits were included into the study. They were randomly divided into four groups. Nine infant rabbits (Group 1) were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF (Infant Control, C-In). Nine infant rabbits (Group 2) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days after they reached one-month of age (Infant RF, RF-In). Nine adult rabbits were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 (Adult Control, C-Ad). Nine adult rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days (Adult RF, RF-Ad). Cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. At 1.0-2.0 and 6.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 1. At 3.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 1. At 6.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 3. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 2. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 3. Harmful effects of GSM-like 1800 MHz RF exposure was detected more in the adult female rabbits than infant female rabbits by DPOAE measurement. Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RFR, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may decrease the DPOAE amplitudes. Water containing medium in the middle ear of infant rabbits may play the protective role **from the RF damage.
Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Budak, Bilgehan; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hazardous effects of intrauterine (IU) and/or extrauterine (EU) exposure to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) radiofrequency (RF) on the cochlear functions of infant rabbits by measuring distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. Thirty-six white infant male New Zealand rabbits each 1-month-old were included in the study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Nine infant rabbits (Group 1) were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF (Control-C). Nine infant rabbits (Group 2) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 14 days after they reached 1-month of age (extrauterine-EU). Nine infant rabbits (Group 3) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days in the intrauterine period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (intrauterine-IU). Nine infant rabbits (Group 4) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days in the intrauterine period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min daily for 14 days after they reached to 1-month of age (IU+EU). The cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. At 1.5 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 3 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2; and the mean DPOAE value of Group 4 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2. At 2.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 4 was higher than that of Group 2. At 3.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 4 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2. At 4.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 2 was lower than that of the controls, while the mean value of Group 4 was higher than the mean value of the controls and Group 2. At 6.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 2 was lower than that of the control group; however, the mean value of Group 4 was higher than that of Group 2. At 1.0 and 8.0 kHz, no significant differences were found among the four
Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine
Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.
Traboulsi, Raghida; Avan, Paul
The cochlear aqueduct connecting intralabyrinthine and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) acts as a low-pass filter that should be able to transmit infrasonic pressure waves from CSF to cochlea. Recent experiments have shown that otoacoustic emissions generated at 1kHz respond to pressure-related stapes impedance changes with a change in phase relative to the generator tones, and provide a non-invasive means of assessing intracochlear pressure changes. In order to characterize the transmission to the cochlea of CSF pressure waves due to respiration, the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) of 12 subjects were continuously monitored around 1kHz at a rate of 6.25epochs/s, and their phase relative to the stimulus tones was extracted. The subjects breathed normally, in different postures, while thoracic movements were recorded so as to monitor respiration. A correlate of respiration was found in the time variation of DPOAE phase, with an estimated mean amplitude of 10 degrees , i.e. 60mm water, suggesting little attenuation across the aqueduct. Its phase lag relative to thoracic movements varied between 0 degrees and -270 degrees . When fed into a two-compartment model of CSF and labyrinthine spaces, these results suggest that respiration rate at rest is just above the resonance frequency of the CSF compartment, and just below the corner frequency of the cochlear-aqueduct low-pass filter, in line with previous estimates from temporal bone and intracranial measurements. The fact that infrasonic CSF waves can be monitored through the cochlea opens diagnostic possibilities in neurology.
Triagem auditiva neonatal com emissões otoacusticas e reflexo cocleo-palpebral: estudo da sensibilidade e especificidade Newborn Hearing Screening with otoacoustic emissions and cochlear-palpebral reflex: sensitivity and specificity study
Rosanna Mariangela Giaffredo Angrisani
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a especificidade e sensibilidade da TAN com emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estimulo transiente (EOAT associadas à pesquisa do reflexo cócleo-palpebral (RCP, comparando-os aos resultados do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefalico (PEATE. MÉTODO: a casuística do presente estudo foi composta por 369 RN de risco para deficiência auditiva que foram submetidos à triagem com a captação das emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo transiente e pesquisa do reflexo cócleo- palpebral. Os resultados foram comparados aos resultados do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefalico (PEATE. RESULTADOS: a incidência do tipo da perda auditiva na população geral foi de 4RN (1,1% com perda coclear, 22 (5,9% com perda condutiva, 2 (0,5% com espectro da neuropatia auditiva (ENA, 14 (3,8% com alteração central e 15 (4,1% com atraso de maturação da via auditiva. A TAN mostrou 100% de sensibilidade e 94,6% de especificidade na detecção de alterações cocleares e espectro da neuropatia auditiva; 77,3% de sensibilidade e 94,6% de especificidade na detecção de alterações condutivas e 42,9% de sensibilidade e 94,6% de especificidade na detecção de alterações centrais. Todos os achados evidenciaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação aos neonatos auditivamente normais. CONCLUSÃO: este protocolo de TAN mostrou-se eficaz na detecção de RN com alterações de cocleares e espectro da neuropatia auditiva com sensibilidade e especificidade elevadas.PURPOSE: to study the specificity and sensitivity of NHS with otoacoustic emissions transient stimulus (TEOAE associated with cochlear-palpebral reflex (CPR, and comparing the results of Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP. METHOD: three hundred and sixty-nine neonates under risk of hearing loss were evaluated. Evaluation procedures consisted of transient otocoustic emissions(TOAEs, cochlear-palpebral reflex (CPR, and ABR diagnostic carried out in the
Elizângela Dias Camboim
newborn to six months. We excluded those with cleft palate, external and/or middle ear malformation, syndromes, and family history of hearing loss. The following procedures were conducted: anamnesis in order to identify hearing impairment and to select the sample according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion; otorrinolaringological assessment using otoscopy and hearing evaluation that consisted of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE and tympanometry with 226 and 1000Hz probe tones. In order to analyze the qualitative variables, we used the test for Equality of Two Proportions, and the Chi-Square for Independence and the confidence interval for the average used for the analysis of the results of quantitative variables. RESULTS: comparing the results of TEOAE with the tympanometry results that were obtained with 226Hz and 1000Hz probe tones, we observed an association of TEOAE with the 1000Hz probe for both ears, the infants with TEOAEs absence had altered tympanogram results and the ones where the TEOAEs were present had normal tympanograms. CONCLUSION: There was a higher correlation between the results of the 1000 Hz probe tympanometry and the TEOAE in order to identify normal ear responses and middle ear disorders.
Kössl, Manfred; Coro, Frank
The tympanal organ of the moth Empyreuma affinis emits physiologically vulnerable distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. To assess the nature of underlying mechanical nonlinearities, we measured L1,L2 maps by varying both stimulus levels. Two types of maps were found: (1) Maps containing dominant islands centered at the L1=L2 diagonal as it is typical for saturating nonlinearities that can be described by Boltzmann functions. In contrast to maps published for mammals and frogs, the shape of such islands includes sharp ridges at L1 or L2 levels close to 70 dB sound pressure level. This could be produced by a strongly asymmetric operating point of the respective transfer functions, consistent with the fact that the auditory sensory cells are not hair cells but primary mechanoreceptors with a single cilium. The saturating map components could be selectively reduced by acoustic suppression. (2) Maps where separated islands were less conspicuous but in which the dominant feature consisted of contour lines which were orthogonal to the L1=2L2 diagonal and could be generated by an expansive nonlinearity. Maps showing strong islands were found for f2 frequencies between 26.7 and 45 kHz, maps without strong islands for f2 between 42 and 57.5 kHz. This suggests a frequency-dependent change regarding the involved mechanical nonlinearities.
Yu, Kwang Kyu; Choi, Chi Ho; An, Yong-Hwi; Kwak, Min Young; Gong, Soo Jung; Yoon, Sang Won
Background and Objectives To compare the effectiveness of monitoring cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in adult patients using extended high-frequency pure-tone audiometry (EHF-PTA) or distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DP-OAE) and to evaluate the concurrence of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in cisplatin-treated patients. Subjects and Methods EHF-PTA was measured at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11.2, 12.5, 14, 16, 18, and 20 kHz and DP-OAE at frequencies of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz in cisplatin-treated patients (n=10). Baseline evaluations were made immediately before chemotherapy and additional tests were performed before each of six cycles of cisplatin treatment. Laboratory tests to monitor nephrotoxicity were included before every cycle of chemotherapy. Results Four of 10 patients showed threshold changes on EHF-PTA. Five of 10 patients showed reductions in DP-OAE, but one was a false-positive result. The results of EHF-PTA and DP-OAE were consistent in two patients. Only one patient displayed nephrotoxicity on laboratory tests after the third cycle. Conclusions In our study, the incidence rate of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity was 40% with EHF-PTA or DP-OAE. Although both EHF-PTA and DP-OAE showed the same sensitivity in detecting ototoxicity, they did not produce the same results in all patients. These two hearing tests could be used to complement one another. Clinicians should use both tests simultaneously in every cycle of chemotherapy to ensure the detection of ototoxicity. PMID:25279227
Katia de Freitas Alvarenga
Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.
Alvarenga, Katia de Freitas; Morata, Thais Catalani; Lopes, Andrea Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob
Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 μg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range: 2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Estudos mostram que existem numerosas substâncias reconhecidas como potencialmente ototóxicas e entre as principais, na classe dos medicamentos, destacam-se os quimioterápicos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo da ototoxicidade através das emissões otoacústicas evocadas - produto de distorção (EOA-PD, pré e pós-aplicação do quimioterápico Cisplatina, em indivíduos adultos, moradores da cidade de Blumenau/SC. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Prospectivo clínico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 11 indivíduos com patologia oncológica, idade variando entre 29 e 73 anos, através das emissões otoacústicas evocadas - produto de distorção, prévia e posteriormente à aplicação da Cisplatina, utilizando-se o equipamento Madsen Cappela acoplado ao Notebook Toshiba Satélite. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram mudanças significativas nas respostas das EOA-PD nas freqüências de 2, 3 e 4 kHz, porém, em 1 e 6 kHz, ocorreram alterações na sensibilidade auditiva, após a aplicação da Cisplatina.Studies show that there are numerous substances known as potentially ototoxic and among the main ones in the medicine classes, stands out the chemotherapeutics. AIM: The objective of this work was to achieve a study of the ototoxicity through otoacoustic emissions - product of distortion (EOA - PD, pre and post-application of the chemotherapeutic Cisplatin, in adults individuals, residents of the city of Blumenau/SC. STUDY FORM: Clinic prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: There were 11 individuals studied with oncologic pathology, age between 29 and 73 years old, through the otoacoustic emissions - product of distortion, previous and subsequently to the Cisplatin application, using the Madsen Cappela equipment coupled to the notebook Toshiba satellite computer. RESULTS: The results didn't show significant changes on the answers of the EOA - PD on the frequencies of 2, 3 and 4 kHz, however, in 1 and 6 kHz, alterations
Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Knight, Kristin; McMillan, Garnett P; Dreisbach, Laura E; Nelson, Elsa; Dille, Marilyn
Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) provide a rapid, noninvasive measure of outer hair cell damage associated with chemotherapy and are a key component of pediatric ototoxicity monitoring. Serial monitoring of DPOAE levels in reference to baseline measures is one method for detecting ototoxic damage. Interpreting DPOAE findings in this context requires that test-retest differences be considered in relation to normal variability, data which are lacking in children. This study sought to (1) characterize normal test-retest variability in DPOAE level over the long time periods reflective of pediatric chemotherapy regimens for a variety of childhood ages and f2 primary frequencies using common clinical instrumentation and stimulus parameters; (2) develop level-shift reference intervals; and (3) account for any age-related change in DPOAE level or measurement error that may occur as the auditory system undergoes maturational change early in life. Serial DPOAE measurements were obtained in 38 healthy children (25 females and 13 males) with normal hearing and ranging in age from one month to 10 years at the initial (baseline) visit. On average, children were tested 5.2 times over an observation period of 6.5 months. Data were collected in the form of DP grams, in which DPOAE level was measured for f2 ranging from 1.4 to 10 kHz, using a fixed f2/f1 ratio of 1.22 and stimulus level of 65/55 dB SPL for L1/L2. Age effects on DPOAE level and measurement error were estimated using Bayesian regression of the longitudinal data. The raw and model-based distribution of DPOAE test-retest differences were characterized using means and standard error of the measurement for several ages and f2's. DPOAE test-retest differences for the children in this study are at the high end of those previously observed in adults, as reflected in the associated shift reference intervals. Further, although we observe substantial child-specific variation in DPOAE level, the pattern of age
Fabijańska, Anna; Smurzyński, Jacek; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Bartnik, Grażyna; Raj-Koziak, Danuta; Mazzoli, Manuela; Skarżynski, Piotr H.; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W.; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk
Summary Background The aim of this study was to evaluate distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and extended high-frequency (EHF) thresholds in a control group and in patients with normal hearing sensitivity in the conventional frequency range and reporting unilateral tinnitus. Material/Methods Seventy patients were enrolled in the study: 47 patients with tinnitus in the left ear (Group 1) and 23 patients with tinnitus in the right ear (Group 2). The control group included 60 otologically normal subjects with no history of pathological tinnitus. Pure-tone thresholds were measured at all standard frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz, and at 10, 12.5, 14, and 16 kHz. The DPOAEs were measured in the frequency range from approximately 0.5 to 9 kHz using the primary tones presented at 65/55 dB SPL. Results The left ears of patients in Group 1 had higher median hearing thresholds than those in the control subjects at all 4 EHFs, and lower mean DPOAE levels than those in the controls for almost all primary frequencies, but significantly lower only in the 2-kHz region. Median hearing thresholds in the right ears of patients in Group 2 were higher than those in the right ears of the control subjects in the EHF range at 12.5, 14, and 16 kHz. The mean DPOAE levels in the right ears were lower in patients from Group 2 than those in the controls for the majority of primary frequencies, but only reached statistical significance in the 8-kHz region. Conclusions Hearing thresholds in tinnitus ears with normal hearing sensitivity in the conventional range were higher in the EHF region than those in non-tinnitus control subjects, implying that cochlear damage in the basal region may result in the perception of tinnitus. In general, DPOAE levels in tinnitus ears were lower than those in ears of non-tinnitus subjects, suggesting that subclinical cochlear impairment in limited areas, which can be revealed by DPOAEs but not by conventional audiometry, may exist in tinnitus ears
Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher; Kalluri, Radha; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Michelet, Pascal; van der Heijden, Marcel; Joris, Philip X.
Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear frequency selectivity suggest substantially sharper tuning in humans. However, the logic and methodology underlying these estimates remain untested by direct measurements in primates. We report measurements of frequency tuning in macaque monkeys, Old-World primates phylogenetically closer to humans than the small laboratory animals often taken as models of human hearing (e.g., cats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas). We find that measurements of tuning obtained directly from individual nerve fibers and indirectly using otoacoustic emissions both indicate that peripheral frequency selectivity in macaques is significantly sharper than in small laboratory animals, matching that inferred for humans at high frequencies. Our results validate the use of otoacoustic emissions for noninvasive measurement of cochlear tuning and corroborate the finding of sharper tuning in humans.
Drexl, Markus; Krause, Eike; Gürkov, Robert
Postmortem examination of temporal bones of Ménière's disease patients consistently show dilated endolymphatic spaces of the inner ear, for which the term endolymphatic hydrops has been coined. During the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging techniques for the inner ear appeared, advancing the diagnosis of Ménière's disease. They require, however, a field-strength of at least 3 T, are costly and not universally available. Alternative, noninvasive, cost-effective tests with high sensitivity and specifity for endolymphatic hydrops are desirable. In this study, we test the suitability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for endolymphatic hydrops detection. Previous measurements of the commonly recorded cubic DPOAEs mainly register cochlear hearing loss and are not specific for Ménière's disease. Simultaneous recordings of cubic and quadratic DPOAEs might be more suitable to detect endolymphatic hydrops, because both DPOAE orders react differently to changes of the cochlear operating point as they might occur in Ménière's disease patients. Cubic and quadratic DPOAEs were recorded in normal-hearing participants (N = 45) and in the affected and unaffected ears of patients with a diagnosis of definite Ménière's disease (N = 32). First, to assess the integrity of DPOAE-generating mechanisms, cubic DPOAE-grams were obtained with primary tone frequencies f2 between 1 and 8 kHz with primary tone levels l1 = 60 dB SPL and l2 = 50 dB SPL, and a fixed primary tone frequency ratio of 1.22. Then, cubic and quadratic DPOAEs were simultaneously recorded with primary tone levels l1 = l2 = 65 dB SPL and at primary tone frequencies f2 = 4 and 5 kHz, where f1 was successively varied such that the ratio f2/f1 ranged between 1.1 and 1.6 in 0.04 steps while quadratic and cubic DPOAE levels were extracted from the same recording. Cubic DPOAEs were significantly reduced in the affected ears of Ménière's disease patients, and slightly reduced in the
Full Text Available Auditory perceptual and visual-spatial characteristics of subjective tinnitus evoked by eye gaze were studied in two adult human subjects. This uncommon form of tinnitus occurred approximately 4-6 weeks following neurosurgery for gross total excision of space Occupying lesions of the cerebellopontine angle and hearing was lost in the operated ear. In both cases, the gaze evoked tinnitus was characterized as being tonal in nature, with pitch and loudness percepts remaining constant as long as the same horizontal or vertical eye directions were maintained. Tinnitus was absent when the eyes were in a neutral head referenced position with subjects looking straight ahead. The results and implications of ophthalmological, standard and modified visual field assessment, pure tone audio metric assessment, spontaneous otoacoustic emission testing and detailed psychophysical assessment of pitch and loudness are discussed
Rosângela Melo Vasconcelos
Full Text Available Após os cinco anos de idade, a principal queixa em crianças que não ouvem normalmente é a dificuldade de aprendizagem. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os resultados suspeitos de perda auditiva pela triagem com os exames de emissões otoacústicas evocadas (EOAE transientes (EOAT e por produto de distorção (EOAPD, com dados dos exames audiométricos; observar qual dos dois procedimentos de EOAE responde melhor para triagem em escolares. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Avaliar 451 escolares da 1ª série do ensino fundamental, em escolas públicas de São Luís. Foram feitos, na própria escola, os exames otoscópicos com remoção de cerume quando necessário e os exames de EOAT e EOAPD em todos os escolares. Nas crianças que apresentaram alteração em algum dos exames de EOAT e/ou EOAPD foram realizadas a audiometria e imitanciometria. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Prospectivo Transversal. RESULTADOS: Freqüência de 18,6% de rolhas de cerume. Após triagem com EOAT e EOAPD não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparamos os resultados dos exames que falharam somente nas EOAT e EOAPD com dados dos exames audiométricos, no entanto quando comparado esses dados com falha nos dois exames houve diferença significante (pPast five years of age, the main complaint of children who are hard of hearing is that they have difficulty in learning. AIM: Compare these results to suspected hearing loss, through triage with the exams of evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAE transients (TEOAE and by distortion product (DPEOAE, using data from audiometric exams; observe which of the procedures of EOAE better respond to school children triage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate 451 school children, grade one students, from the public schools in São Luís. At school, otoscopic exams with the removal of wax and the TEOAE and DPEOAE exams were also carried on all school children. Audiometry and acoustic impedance were performed on the children who presented
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Dewey, James; Dhar, Sumitrajit
Temporal properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are of interest as they help understand the dynamic behavior and spatial distribution of the generating mechanisms. In particular, the ringing behavior of responses to clicks and tone bursts have been investigated, and times of arrival and round......Temporal properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are of interest as they help understand the dynamic behavior and spatial distribution of the generating mechanisms. In particular, the ringing behavior of responses to clicks and tone bursts have been investigated, and times of arrival...... and roundtrip delays have been related to properties of the dispersive cochlea and internal reflections. Temporal suppression experiments (e.g. Kemp and Chum, 1980; Verhulst et al., 2008), where a suppressor click is presented just before the stimulus click, have shown how a click response depends on preceding...... within one, three and five periods of the stimulus-frequency every 64 ms (54 conditions). Using a combination of level and phase variation, emissions linked to any time-invariant nonlinearity could be extracted. Phase-evoked residual responses (PERRs) look like tone bursts with a phase...
Recém-nascidos gerados por mães com alto risco gestacional: estudo das emissões otoacústicas produtos de distorção e do comportamento auditivo Neonates born to mothers with high-risk pregnancy: study in distortion product otoacoustic emission and auditory behavioral
auditory method. The staff must be finding the best detection and intervention way for the early diagnostic in children born in small cities. The high-risk pregnancy may have some hearing loss risk indicator. Study design: Clinical prospective randomized. Casuistic and method: This prospective work has been to study the results of distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the auditory behavior in 174 neonates. The neonates have been examined on the same day, as the neonates were to be discharged from the hospital and at the adjusted age of 37 weeks or older. Results: There was 23% Refer in the first step. This, 66,8% obtained Pass result and 4,6% was find middle and/or external ear alteration, 30 days before discharged from the hospital. There was no difference of otoacoustic emission amplitude, signal/noise ration and auditory behavior. Conclusion: The otoacoustic emissions should have been done after examining and cleaning the ear canal and that the behavioral assessment had not detected alterations of the middle ear. The concomitant use of otoacoustic emissions and assessment of auditory behavior during neonatal period has provided important information about peripheral auditory system and central auditory pathways. The high-risk pregnancy has not affected otoacoustic emission measurements or auditory behavior after instrumental sound stimulation.
Full Text Available HEALTH SOUTHERN AFRICA WWW.OCCHEALTH.CO.ZA MAY/JUNE 2010 7 Table 2. Comparison of signal-to-noise ratio between emission levels and noise fl oor at the two testing venues f2 Frequency 633 Hz 797 Hz 996 Hz 1266 Hz 1605 Hz 2027 Hz 2555 Hz 3234 Hz... 4055 Hz 5133 Hz 6434 Hz Clinic 8.9 11.3 13.3 14.6 15.6 14.6 12.6 13.7 19.9 15.2 7.9 Mine 10.0 12.8 13.4 15.9 15.2 14.9 12.5 14.2 20.3 17.1 6.4 S/N ratio is expressed as decibel sound pressure level (dBSPL) Table 3. Correlations between screening...
Johnsen, N J; Bagi, P; Elberling, C
Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in a consecutive series of 20 full-term and otherwise normal neonates with the equipment and method previously used in adults. One ear randomly chosen was tested in each baby, and otoscopy and tympanometry were normal in all ears. A 2 kHz click stimulus...... input-output curves exhibited a clear non-linearity. The relationship between latency and frequency was just as ambiguous as in the adults. Also, in the neonates, the cross correlation analysis proved to be an efficient method to indicate whether or not a true response was present. The results from...
Shera, Christopher A.; Guinan, John J., Jr.; Oxenham, Andrew J.
We develop an objective, noninvasive method for determining the frequency selectivity of cochlear tuning at low and moderate sound levels. Applicable in humans at frequencies of 1 kHz and above, the method is based on the measurement of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions and, unlike previous noninvasive physiological methods, does not depend on the frequency selectivity of masking or suppression. The otoacoustic measurements indicate that at low sound levels human cochlear tuning is more than twice as sharp as implied by standard behavioral studies and has a different dependence on frequency. New behavioral measurements designed to minimize the influence of nonlinear effects such as suppression agree with the emission-based values. A comparison of cochlear tuning in cat, guinea pig, and human indicates that, contrary to common belief, tuning in the human cochlea is considerably sharper than that found in the other mammals. The sharper tuning may facilitate human speech communication.
Alfredo R. Dell'Aringa
Full Text Available Com a descoberta das Emissões Otoacústicas (EOA, tornou-se possível analisar e investigar as funções auditivas das células ciliadas externas do órgão da audição. Podem ser espontâneas, evocadas transientes ou por produto de distorção. O teste das EOAEs-DP caracteriza-se por ser um exame objetivo, rápido, indolor, não-invasivo e de fácil aplicação tanto para clínica como para programas de triagem auditiva. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 105 crianças entre 2 e 7 anos de idade da creche "Lar da Criança", de Marília, SP. A avaliação constou de exame otorrinolaringológico completo e EOAEs-DP. Todas estas crianças, após prévia autorização dos responsáveis, foram submetidas a exame otorrinolaringológico completo e EOAEs-DP. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que das 105 crianças avaliadas, 44,76% apresentavam cerume. 12 crianças permaneceram com cerume mesmo após uso de ceruminolítico e lavagem auricular ou não apresentaram consentimento informado de seus responsáveis. Portanto, estas foram excluídas do trabalho sendo o restante, 93 crianças, submetidas a avaliação das EOAEs-DP Após a realização das EOAEs-DP, verificou-se que 5,37% das crianças apresentaram exames alterados, sendo que 60% destas eram do sexo masculino e 60% com acometimento bilateral. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados encontrados foram inferiores aos citados na literatura, assim como o predomínio do sexo masculino. Além disso, notou-se alta prevalência de cerume nos pacientes testados. CONCLUSÃO: É essencial uma avaliação otorrinolaringológica completa prévia. O exame de EOAEs-DP pode ser realizado em crianças para detecção precoce e prevenção de falhas no desenvolvimento cognitivo e psicoemocional.With the discovery of otoacustic emissions it has begun possible to analyze the auditive functions of external hair cells in the auditive cortex. The OAE can be spontaneous transients by
Yuvaraj, Pradeep; Mannarukrishnaiah, Jayaram
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between cortical processing of speech and benefit from hearing aids in individuals with auditory dys-synchrony. Data were collected from 38 individuals with auditory dys-synchrony. Participants were selected based on hearing thresholds, middle ear reflexes, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brain stem responses. Cortical-evoked potentials were recorded for click and speech. Participants with auditory dys-synchrony were fitted with bilateral multichannel wide dynamic range compression hearing aids. Aided and unaided speech identification scores for 40 words were obtained for each participant. Hierarchical cluster analysis using Ward's method clearly showed four subgroups of participants with auditory dys-synchrony based on the hearing aid benefit score (aided minus unaided speech identification score). The difference in the mean aided and unaided speech identification scores was significantly different in participants with auditory dys-synchrony. However, the mean unaided speech identification scores were not significantly different between the four subgroups. The N2 amplitude and P1 latency of the speech-evoked cortical potentials were significantly different between the four subgroups formed based on hearing aid benefit scores. The results indicated that subgroups of individuals with auditory dys-synchrony who benefit from hearing aids exist. Individuals who benefitted from hearing aids showed decreased N2 amplitudes compared with those who did not. N2 amplitude is associated with greater suppression of background noise while processing speech.
Hidropsia endolinfática experimental sob ação de inibidor da óxido nítrico sintase tipo II: avaliação com emissões otoacústicas e eletrococleografia Experimental endolymphatic hydrops under action of a type II nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: otoacoustic emissions evaluation and electrocochleography
Claudio Marcio Yudi Ikino
Full Text Available No modelo experimental de hidropsia endolinfática há redução na amplitude das emissões otoacústicas produtos de distorção (EOAPD e elevação nos limiares eletrofisiológicos na eletrococleografia. Estudos mostraram que há expressão da óxido nítrico sintase tipo II (ONS II na cóclea com hidropsia, sugerindo a participação do óxido nítrico (ON na patogênese desta doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação de um inibidor da ONS II nas EOAPD e eletrococleografia em cobaias com hidropisia endolinfática experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 16 cobaias nas quais se induziu hidropsia endolinfática experimental por obliteração do ducto e saco endolinfático na orelha direita durante 16 semanas, divididas em dois grupos: oito cobaias recebendo um inibidor da ONS II, a aminoguanidina, por via oral e um grupo de oito cobaias como controle. Comparamos as amplitudes das EOAPD nas médias geométricas de freqüências de 1062, 2187, 4375 e 7000Hz, os limiares eletrofisiológicos nas freqüências de 1000, 2000, 4000 e 6000Hz e a relação entre os potenciais de somação e de ação (PS/PA entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante nas EOAPD e na relação PS/PA entre os grupos. O grupo que recebeu a aminoguanidina apresentou menor elevação nos limiares eletrofisiológicos nas freqüências de 2000 (pIn experimental endolymphatic hydrops distortion-products otoacoustic emission (dpoae amplitudes decrease and there is elevation on electrocochleographic thresholds. Some authors found type ii nitric oxide synthase (nos ii expression in hydropic cochleas and they suggest nitric oxide (no may be involved in endolymphatic hydrops pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of a nos ii inhibitor on dpoae and electrocochleography in experimental endolymphatic hydrops. MATERIAL E METHODS: endolymphatic hydrops was induced in 16 guinea pigs by obliterating the endolymphatic duct
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nowadays development of techniques enables detection of hearing impairment in a very short time, immediately after birth by using otoacoustic emissions. They are low-pitched sounds produced in physiologically clear cochlea and can be recorded in cochlear outer meatus. By this method, complete data are found on a whole presynaptic auditory nervous system functioning that has mostly been affected by pathological changes making it a perfect screening test. Reliability and sensibility of this method is up to 98%. The aim of this study was to present the first results of systematic neonatal screening of hearing function by otoacoustic emissions in the Clinical Center Kragujevac (Kragujevac, Serbia. Methods. This prospective study of neonatal hearing screening function, initiated systematically by the 2008 at the Clinical Center Kragujevac, included full-term newborns and premature born ones, within the first 24 h after birth, using a DPOAEs interacoustics otoread-screener. Retesting was done after a month. Results. From January 1st, 2009 to December 1st, 2010, a total number of examined infants by this method was 1,994 out of which 1,778 were full-term and 216 were premature born. The test passing was higher in the group of full-term babies (92.5% than in the preterm ones (55.1%. No bilateral answers were recorded in premature born children compared to the full-term ones, of whom a larger number was with missing lateral responses. The results of re-examination test in the group of full-term born and premature newborns were 83.7%, and 61%, respectively. Conclusion. Deliberately provoked transient otoacoustic emission is an efficient method in testing hearing function in newborns, since it is non-invasive, rapid and objective. Its correlation with audibly evoked potentials is very high, which confirms its reliability.
Zivić, Ljubica; Obradović, Slobodan; Stojanović, Stevan; Zbiljić, Ivana; Jakovljević, Vladimir L; Zivić, Danijela; Stojanović, Jasmina; Laban, Olivera
Nowadays development of techniques enables detection of hearing impairment in a very short time, immediately after birth by using otoacoustic emissions. They are low-pitched sounds produced in physiologically clear cochlea and can be recorded in cochlear outer meatus. By this method, complete data are found on a whole presynaptic auditory nervous system functioning that has mostly been affected by pathological changes making it a perfect screening test. Reliability and sensibility of this method is up to 98%. The aim of this study was to present the first results of systematic neonatal screening of hearing function by otoacoustic emissions in the Clinical Center Kragujevac (Kragujevac, Serbia). This prospective study of neonatal hearing screening function, initiated systematically by the 2008 at the Clinical Center Kragujevac, included full-term newborns and premature born ones, within the first 24 h after birth, using a DPOAEs interacoustics otoread-screener. Retesting was done after a month. From January 1st, 2009 to December 1st, 2010, a total number of examined infants by this method was 1,994 out of which 1,778 were full-term and 216 were premature born. The test passing was higher in the group of full-term babies (92.5%) than in the preterm ones (55.1%). No bilateral answers were recorded in premature born children compared to the full-term ones, of whom a larger number was with missing lateral responses. The results of re-examination test in the group of full-term born and premature newborns were 83.7%, and 61%, respectively. Deliberately provoked transient otoacoustic emission is an efficient method in testing hearing function in newborns, since it is non-invasive, rapid and objective. Its correlation with audibly evoked potentials is very high, which confirms its reliability.
with hearing-loss. Reported measurements of OAEs before and after noise exposure suggest that OAE is a more sensitive measure for the hearing function than pure-tone audiometry and therefore might be a measure for the early identification of hearing loss. No individual diagnosis of OAEs is possible today...
Rukjær, Andreas Harbo; Hauen, Sigurd van; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo
The basic frequency selectivity in the listener’s hearing is often characterized by auditory filters. These filters are determined through listening tests, which estimate the masking threshold as a function of frequency of the tone and the bandwidth of the masking sound. The auditory filters have...... at 1, 2, and 4 kHz for 10 young normal-hearing subjects....
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda
are assumed to be equally hazardous for our hearing. Nevertheless, the standard allows adding a +5dB penalty to impulsive and tonal noises based on the presumption that they might pose a higher risk of hearing loss. This PhD thesis investigates the effect of different occupational noise exposures...
AlMakadma, Hammam A; Henin, Simon; Prieve, Beth A; Dyab, Walid M; Long, Glenis R
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in newborns and adults were evoked by sweeping primaries up and down in frequency at 1 s/octave. Sweeping up and down in frequency resulted in changes in the amplitude vs. frequency functions of the composite DPOAE and its two major components. In addition, DPOAE component phases differed slightly between the up- and down-swept conditions. The changes in amplitude vs. frequency functions were quantified using a covariate correlation technique, yielding single-valued estimates of the magnitude of the frequency changes. Separate analyses were performed for the entire DPOAE frequency range and split into low and high frequency ranges. There were consistent changes in newborn and adult composite DPOAEs and reflection components, but not generator components. Adults had significant frequency changes in the composite DPOAE for all frequency ranges and in the reflection component for the entire frequency range. Newborns had significant frequency change in the reflection component for all frequency ranges. Differences in frequency change between adults and newborns may stem from developmental changes in cochlear processing. Alignment of the component phase differences between the up- and down-swept conditions resulted in elimination of frequency-change in reconstructed composite DPOAEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparação das respostas em neonatos normais para emissões otoacústicas evocadas nos equipamentos: ILO 292 e ILO Ecocheck Comparison of otoacustic evoked responses in normal neonates for ILO 292 and ILO Ecocheck
Fernanda C. Scamatti
Full Text Available O equipamento portátil (ILO ECOCHECK, AUDX, entre outros é uma outra alternativa, além dos aparelhos tradicionais (ILO 292, Byologic, Celesta, etc. para a triagem auditiva em neonatos. OBJETIVO: Realizamos Emissões Otoacústicas Evocadas Transitórias com os dois equipamentos, em 88 recém-nascidos normais sem risco auditivo para observar as respostas obtidas, procurando determinar, assim, a concordância entre os dois equipamentos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. RESULTADO: Observamos que os neonatos que falharam no ILO 292 também falharam no ILO ECOCHECK, no entanto, nem todos que falharam no ILO ECOCHECK falharam no ILO 292. Também notamos que os que falharam no ILO ECOCHECK apresentaram ausência de resposta na primeira banda de freqüência analisável do ILO 292. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o equipamento portátil mostrou-se mais rigoroso na caracterização do exame normal do que o critério de normalidade utilizado na avaliação do exame convencional.The portable equipment (ILO ECOCHECK - AUDX, among others is another alternative besides the traditional devices (ILO 292 - BYOLOGIC, CELESTA, etc. for the auditive selection in newborn children. AIM: We have realized transiently otoacoustics emissions with both devices, in 88 normal newborn children without risk of auditive danger to observe the responses gotten with both, determining, this way, the agreement between both devices. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. RESULTS: We have noticed that the newborn children who failed in ILO 292 also failed in ILO ECOCHECK; however, not all of them who failed in ILO ECOCHECK failed in ILO 292. We have also noticed that the ones who had failed in ILO ECOCHEK had showed us no response in the first analyzable band of frequency of ILO 292. CONCLUSION: We have concluded that the portable equipament revealed itself more rigorous in the characterization of the normal exam than the criterion of normaity used in the evalution of the
Yilmaz, Uğur; Soylu, Ahmet; Ozcan, Cemal; Kutlu, Ramazan; Güneş, Ali
Corpus cavernosum electromyography has been widely done to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in patients with erectile dysfunction. We assessed the value of corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin responses for their accuracy in determining autonomic involvement in cases of erectile dysfunction. We evaluated 75 men with erectile dysfunction by corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin response tests at our neurourology laboratory. The etiology of dysfunction was vascular, neurogenic, psychogenic or mixed based on a detailed medical and sexual history, physical examination, electrophysiological and laboratory studies, penile color Doppler ultrasonography, and cavernosography and/or cavernosometry. Autonomic involvement was clinically assessed by systemic findings, such as orthostatic hypotension, impaired gastrointestinal motility, sinus dysrhythmia and secretomotor changes. A concentric electromyography needle placed in the right cavernous body was used to record corpus cavernosum electromyography and evoked cavernous activity. The right median nerve was stimulated electrically with 13 to 16 mA. to determine evoked cavernous activity and the penile sympathetic skin response. The latter response was recorded with silver disc electrodes placed on the left cavernous body. All tests were performed using an electromyography/evoked potential machine. We determined the relationships among corpus cavernosum electromyography, evoked cavernous activity and penile sympathetic skin response tests in respect to etiological factors. The 56 patients with normal corpus cavernosum electromyography activity had also evoked cavernous activity and a penile sympathetic skin response except for 1 with no penile sympathetic skin response but evoked cavernous activity. None of these patients had autonomic neuropathy. Of the 19 patients without corpus cavernosum electromyography activity 11 had
Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Lawrence, Andrew D; Warsi, Sarah; Bose, Subrata; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) in association with dopaminergic treatment. Approximately 25 % of patients with ICDs have multiple co-occurring ICDs (i.e. more than one diagnosed ICD). The extent to which dopaminergic neurotransmission in PD patients with multiple ICDs differs from those with only one diagnosed ICD is unknown. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate dopamine neurotransmission in PD patients diagnosed with multiple ICDs, single ICDs and non-ICD controls in response to reward-related visual cues using positron emission tomography with (11)C-raclopride. (2) to compare clinical features of the above three groups. PD individuals with mulitple ICDs (n = 10), single ICD (n = 7) and no ICDs (n = 9) were recruited and underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans with (11)C-raclopride: one where they viewed neutral visual cues and the other where they viewed a range of visual cues related to different rewards. Individuals with both multiple ICDs and single ICDs showed significantly greater ventral striatal dopamine release compared to non-ICD PD individuals in response to reward cues, but the two ICD groups did not differ from each other in the extent of dopamine release. Subjects with multiple ICDs were, however, significantly more depressed, and had higher levels of impulsive sensation-seeking compared to subjects with single ICDs and without ICDs. This is the first study to compare dopamine neurotransmission using PET neuroimaging in PD subjects with multiple vs. single ICDs. Our results suggest that striatal dopamine neurotransmission is not directly related to the co-occurrence of ICDs in PD, potentially implicating non-dopaminergic mechanisms linked to depression; and suggest that physicians should be vigilant in managing depression in PD patients with ICDs.
Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.
A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...
Plyler, Erin; Harkrider, Ashley W
A boy, aged 2 1/2 yr, experienced sudden deterioration of speech and language abilities. He saw multiple medical professionals across 2 yr. By almost 5 yr, his vocabulary diminished from 50 words to 4, and he was referred to our speech and hearing center. The purpose of this study was to heighten awareness of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and emphasize the importance of an objective test battery that includes serial auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to audiologists who often are on the front lines of diagnosis and treatment delivery when faced with a child experiencing unexplained loss of the use of speech and language. Clinical report. Interview revealed a family history of seizure disorder. Normal social behaviors were observed. Acoustic reflexes and otoacoustic emissions were consistent with normal peripheral auditory function. The child could not complete behavioral audiometric testing or auditory processing tests, so serial AEPs were used to examine central nervous system function. Normal auditory brainstem responses, a replicable Na and absent Pa of the middle latency responses, and abnormal slow cortical potentials suggested dysfunction of auditory processing at the cortical level. The child was referred to a neurologist, who confirmed LKS. At age 7 1/2 yr, after 2 1/2 yr of antiepileptic medications, electroencephalographic (EEG) and audiometric measures normalized. Presently, the child communicates manually with limited use of oral information. Audiologists often are one of the first professionals to assess children with loss of speech and language of unknown origin. Objective, noninvasive, serial AEPs are a simple and valuable addition to the central audiometric test battery when evaluating a child with speech and language regression. The inclusion of these tests will markedly increase the chance for early and accurate referral, diagnosis, and monitoring of a child with LKS which is imperative for a positive prognosis. American Academy of Audiology.
Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef
to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...
... auditory potentials; Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; Evoked response audiometry; Auditory brainstem response; ABR; BAEP ... Normal results vary. Results will depend on the person and the instruments used to perform the test.
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen
prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...... to theories of learning we try to explain how our way of working with selection and evoking of innovators has contributed to this positive result and how our approach to user-driven innovation can be regarded as a way to combine democracy and creativity in design....
The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...
Full Text Available Introduction: The Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP is a promising test for the evaluation of the cholic descending vestibular system. This reflex depends of the integrity from the saccular macula, from the inferior vestibular nerve, the vestibular nuclei, the vestibule-spinal tract and effectors muscles. Objective: Perform a systematic review of the pertinent literature by means of database (COCHRANE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. Conclusion: The clinical application of the VEMP has expanded in the last years, as goal that this exam is used as complementary in the otoneurological evaluation currently used. But, methodological issues must be clarified. This way, this method when combined with the standard protocol, can provide a more widely evaluation from the vestibular system. The standardization of the methodology is fundamental criterion for the replicability and sensibility of the exam.
Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel
Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.
Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira
Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.
Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.
The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields.
Jelle R Dalenberg
Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.
Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.
Full Text Available The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG, event-related brain potentials (ERP, magnetoencephalography (MEG, skin conductance response (SCR, finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields.
The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563
Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.
Harte, James; Pigasse, Gilles; Dau, Torsten
delay non-invasively in normal-hearing humans. Tone bursts at nine frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz served as stimuli, with care taken to quantify possible bias due to the use of tone bursts with different rise times. BM delays are estimated from the ABR latency estimates by subtracting the neural...... and synaptic delays. This allows a comparison between individual OAE and BM delays over a large frequency range in the same subjects, and offers support to the theory that OAEs are reflected from a tonotopic place and carried back to the cochlear base via a reverse traveling wave....
, or time-dependent, properties of cochlear gain. A time scale from 0 to 10 ms is considered to ensure that cochlear processing is investigated without including influences from higher stages in the brain. The results are expected to provide insight into how e.g. onsets of sounds are processed by the intact......An important characteristic of human hearing is that it amplifies weak sounds while attenuating louder ones. This gain transformation takes place in the inner ear (i.e., cochlea), and is responsible for a compressive relation between the level of the presented and perceived sound. The cochlear gain...
Epp, Bastian; Wit, Hero; van Dijk, Pim
It is commonly assumed that the active process linked to hair-cell motility is an important factor contributing to SOAEs. A chain of coupled, active and nonlinear oscillators with tonotopic organization can be used to account for key aspects of cochlear processing, including SOAEs and related phe...
Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Hammershøi, Dorte
of commercial probe systems allow for detailed studies of OAEs emitted between 0.5 and 6-8 kHz. Few studies report OAE measurements below 0.5 kHz. This paper is a preliminary report of an OAE probe aimed at making OAE measurements from 0.03 to 3 kHz. The range 0.5-3 kHz was included to study lower...
Hansen, Rói; Santurette, Sébastien; Verhulst, Sarah
- and contralateral FDLs were measured at frequencies covering the individual entrainment and beating regions. Ipsilateral FDLs were lowest in the entrainment region and worsened significantly when beating occurred. However, no changes in contralateral FDLs were found. Contralateral FDLs also remained unaffected...... by continuous ipsilateral presentation of a pure tone aimed at emulating an SOAE. These findings suggest a peripheral rather than central plasticity origin for perceptual consequences of SOAEs....
Full Text Available -induced hearing loss (NIHL). Furthermore, exposure to heat is believed to influence the biochemical properties of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) and heat stress structurally modifies the OHCs, making them stiffer through an increase in F-actin5. This experiment...
Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; Gert J Ter Horst; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...
Yilmaz, Ugur; Vicars, Brenda; Yang, Claire C.
We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited 7 males with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction and 6 males who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS subjects, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into t...
Ge, Ping Jiang; French, Lesley C; Ohno, Tsunehisa; Zealear, David L; Rousseau, Bernard
We describe a method for eliciting phonation in an in vivo rabbit preparation using low-frequency, bipolar pulsed stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. Ten New Zealand White breeder rabbits weighing 3 to 5 kg were used in this study. The cricothyroid muscles were isolated bilaterally, and separate pairs of anode-cathode hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into each muscle. A Grass S-88 stimulator and 2 constant-current PSIU6 isolation units were used to deliver bipolar square wave pulses to each cricothyroid muscle, with airflow delivered to the glottis through a cuffed endotracheal tube. Phonation was evoked with a 50-Hz, 4-mA stimulus train of 1-ms pulses delivered to each cricothyroid muscle. The pulse trains were on for 2 seconds and were repeated every 5 seconds over a period of 180 minutes. Airflow was delivered at 143 cm3/s, producing phonation measuring 71 to 85 dB sound pressure level. Evoked phonation is feasible in rabbits by use of bipolar stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. The in vivo rabbit preparation described may provide a useful small animal option for studies of evoked phonation. From the level and consistency of the adduction observed, we hypothesize that current spreading to the underlying adductor muscles and nerves resulted in neural pathway involvement beyond discrete activation of the cricothyroid muscle, providing sufficient approximation of the vocal folds for phonation.
Pillai, Jayesh S.; Schmidt, Colin; Richir, Simon
The sense of “Presence” (evolving from “telepresence”) has always been associated with virtual reality research and is still an exceptionally mystifying constituent. Now the study of presence clearly spans over various disciplines associated with cognition. This paper attempts to put forth a concept that argues that it’s an experience of an “Evoked Reality (ER)” (illusion of reality) that triggers an “Evoked Presence (EP)” (sense of presence) in our minds. A Three Pole Reality Model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The poles range from Dream Reality to Simulated Reality with Primary (Physical) Reality at the center. To demonstrate the relationship between ER and EP, a Reality-Presence Map is developed. We believe that this concept of ER and the proposed model may have significant applications in the study of presence, and in exploring the possibilities of not just virtual reality but also what we call “reality.” PMID:23550234
Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.
Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.
Yilmaz, U; Vicars, B; Yang, C C
We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited seven men with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction, and six men who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS patients, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. In the SCI group, all but one patient had reproducible hand SSRs. None of these patients had ECA or foot SSRs. All the PS patients had reproducible ECA and SSRs, both preoperatively and postoperatively. There was no difference in the latency and amplitude measurements of ECA and SSRs in the postoperative compared with that of the pre-operative period (P>0.05). In conclusion, ECA is absent in men with SCI above the sympathetic outflow to the genitalia. In men, after radical pelvic surgery, ECA is preserved, indicating the preservation of sympathetic fibers.
V. N. Komantsev
Full Text Available We present the results of the neurophysiological study in which 95 children with viral encephalitis and 30 children with meningitis (age from 2 up to 17 years undergo evoked potentials investigation. Some specific features of evoked potentials in neuroinfections have been shown to correlate with the course of disease and the age of the patients. We give a description of a logistic model of predicting outcomes in such patients by complex diagnostic method. We have found that evoked potentials may be successfully implemented in correcting the therapeutic strategies. Study of evoked potentials in neuroinfections in children can define the severity and extent of lesions and help to identify subclinical dysfunction and monitor the recovery processes under the therapy.
J. Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital recorded pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs in Mecp2 heterozygous female mice and in 34 girls with Rett syndrome (RTT.
Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K
Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.
Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin
Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.
Andoh, J; Diers, M; Milde, C; Frobel, C; Kleinböhl, D; Flor, H
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee. Selected body sites that could systematically evoke phantom sensations were stimulated using electrical pulses in order to induce phasic phantom sensations. Homologous body parts were also stimulated in a group of matched controls. Activations related to evoked phantom sensations were found bilaterally in SI and the intraparietal sulci (IPS), which significantly correlated with the intensity of evoked phantom sensations. In addition, we found differences in intra- and interhemispheric interaction between amputees and controls during evoked phantom sensations. We assume that phantom sensations might be associated with a functional decoupling between bilateral SI and IPS, possibly resulting from transcallosal reorganization mechanisms following amputation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin
attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...
representation, after converting the magnitude from decibels into Pascals using the transform, 10��/20. For each QN pair, the MEMR magnitude was...page 23. 7 Figure 2. Example MEMR measurement. (left) stimulus level in Pascals showing clear separation between Q trials in blue and N...SFOAE_Noise, brick red circles that are solid if quality criteria are met. o MOCR, lavender triangles that are solid if quality criteria are met. o MEMR
Encina Llamas, Gerard; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten
The healthy auditory system shows a compressive input/output (I/O) function as a result of healthy outer-hair cell function. Hearing impairment often leads to a decrease in sensitivity and a reduction of compression, mainly caused by loss of inner and/or outer hair cells. Compression is commonly...... (DPOAEs) recordings. Results show compressive ASSR I/O functions for NH subjects. For HI subjects, ASSR reveal the loss of sensitivity at low stimulus levels. Growth slopes are smaller (more compressive) in ASSR than in DPOAE I/O functions....
In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology. The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...
Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass
Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.
Carlos A. M. Guerreiro
Full Text Available One technique used for short-latency somatosensory evoked response (SER is described. SER following nerve stimulation is a unique non-invasive, clinical test used to evaluate the somatosensory pathways. It tests the physiological function of the median nerve, the brachial plexus, the C6-7 cervical roots, cervical spinal cord, the cuneate nuclei, the medial lemniscus, the thalamus, and the contralateral sensory cortex. It has been shown to be a reliable and useful clinical test partiicularly in multiple sclerosis and comatose patients. The promising technique of SER following peroneal nerve stimulation is mentioned.
Full Text Available Cortical evoked potentials (EP provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM. Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0% had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM.
Camposano, S; Alvarez, C; Lolas, F
Eysenck's personality theory postulates 3 orthogonal dimensions of personality: extraversion (E), neuroticism (N) and psychoticism (P), predicting conductual and physiological predispositions to suffer mental illness. Biological bases of Eysenck's personality traits have been documented electrophysiologically. Psychoticism, the latest described dimension, is controverted, since there is some evidence of common factors with the other two. In order to assess the relation between Eysenck's dimensions and sensorial reactivity and information encoding processes we studied 20 healthy young subjects (mean age 28.5 years) with flash visual cortical evoked potentials (VEP, 3 intensities, peak to peak amplitude of III, IV-V-VI, VII components), and auditory cognitive evoked potentials (odd ball paradigm, P300 latency). There was a positive correlation between N and P dimensions (Spearman, r = 0.52), between N and VEP amplitude at high intensity (r = 0.58) and a negative correlation between E and P300 latency (r = 0.58). In short we found that P is not an independent dimension, but is related to sensorial reactivity. E dimension was related to encoding processes supporting Eysenck's observations about memory and learning differences.
Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya
The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (Pmeditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.
Rosengren, Sally M; Kingma, Herman
Although the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measured from the cervical muscles (cVEMP, cervical VEMP) is well described and has documented clinical utility, its analogue recorded from the extraocular muscles (oVEMP, ocular VEMP) has been described only recently and is currently emerging as an additional test of otolith function. This review will, therefore, summarize recent developments in VEMP research with a focus on the oVEMP. Recent studies suggest that the oVEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior vestibular nerve division, whereas the cVEMP evoked by sound is thought to be an inferior vestibular nerve reflex. Correspondingly, the oVEMP correlates better with caloric and subjective visual vertical tests than sound-cVEMPs. cVEMPs are more complicated than often thought, as shown by the presence of crossed responses and conflicting results of recent vibration studies. Altered inner ear mechanics produced by the vestibular diseases superior semicircular canal dehiscence and Ménière's disease lead to changes in the preferred frequency of the oVEMP and cVEMP. The oVEMP provides complementary diagnostic information to the cVEMP and is likely to be a useful addition to the diagnostic test battery in neuro-otology.
Ali Akbar Tahaei
Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.
Woock, John P; Yoo, Paul B; Grill, Warren M
Recent animal studies have shown that selective activation of pudendal nerve branches can evoke bladder responses through 2 distinct reflex pathways. We examined intraurethral electrical stimulation as a minimally invasive means of selectively activating these pathways in the cat. Bladder responses evoked by intraurethral electrical stimulation were measured in alpha-chloralose anesthetized male cats at different stimulation frequencies, stimulation intensities and intraurethral locations. Intraurethral electrical stimulation evoked inhibitory and excitatory bladder reflexes depending on stimulation frequency and location. Stimulation in the penile urethra 0 to 3 cm from the urethral meatus at 33 Hz evoked bladder contraction and at 10 Hz it evoked bladder relaxation. These responses were abolished after bilateral transection of the dorsal penile nerves. Stimulation in the membranous urethra 5 to 7 cm from the urethral meatus at 2, 10 and 33 Hz evoked bladder contractions. These responses were abolished after bilateral transection of the cranial sensory nerves. Following acute spinal cord transection bladder contractions were still evoked by 33 Hz stimulation in the penile urethra but not by stimulation at any frequency in the membranous urethra. Intraurethral electrical stimulation selectively evoked bladder responses by activating 2 distinct pudendal afferent pathways. Responses depended on stimulation frequency and location. Intraurethral electrical stimulation is a valid means of determining the pathways involved in bladder responses evoked by pudendal nerve stimulation.
Simone Fiuza Regaçone
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.
Tandon, O P; Kumar, V
Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.
Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Wood, C.C.
The authors developed a method for analyzing neural electromagnetic data that allows probabilistic inferences to be drawn about regions of activation. The method involves the generation of a large number of possible solutions which both fir the data and prior expectations about the nature of probable solutions made explicit by a Bayesian formalism. In addition, they have introduced a model for the current distributions that produce MEG and (EEG) data that allows extended regions of activity, and can easily incorporate prior information such as anatomical constraints from MRI. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of the Bayesian approach with actual data, they analyzed MEG data from a visual evoked response experiment. They compared Bayesian analyses of MEG responses to visual stimuli in the left and right visual fields, in order to examine the sensitivity of the method to detect known features of human visual cortex organization. They also examined the changing pattern of cortical activation as a function of time.
Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo
Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621
A. A. Sazgar
Full Text Available It has been shown recently that loud clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting sternocleidomastoid muscles. Studies have suggested that these potentials are of vestibular origin, especially of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. A pilot study was undertaken in our hospital to record vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP for the first time in Iran. Eighteen healthy volunteers (32 ears without history of otologic or vestibular disorders were subjected to the VEMP test. Twenty-one patients (26 ears with unilateral (6 patients and bilateral (5 patients high frequency sensorineural hearing loss with unknown etiology, acoustic neuroma (1 patient, Meniere’s disease (4 patients and unilateral low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint (5 patients were also enrolled in this study. VEMP response to clicks was obtained from 84.4% of ears of healthy subjects. These subjects demonstrated short latency waves to click stimuli during tonic neck flexor activation. Mean latencies of first positive (p13 and first negative (n23 potentials in healthy subjects were 12.45 ± 1.9 ms and 20.8 ± 3.5 ms, respectively. Median latencies of these two potentials were 12.1 and 19.3 ms, respectively. We could record VEMP in 5 patients with unilateral and all patients with high and low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint. In the patient with acoustic neuroma VEMP was absent on the affected side. This technique may offer a new method to evaluate otolith and sacculocollic pathways in human.
Pelliccioni, G; Piloni, V; Sabbatini, D; Fioravanti, P; Scarpino, O
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) of the pudendal nerve are a well-established diagnostic tool for the evaluation of pelvic floor disorders. However, the possible influence of sex differences on response latencies has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to standardize the procedures and to evaluate possible effects of gender differences on anal and penile/clitoral SEPs. The anal and dorsal penile/clitoral SEPs were recorded in 84 healthy subjects (40 males and 44 females; mean age 47.9 ± 16.6 years, range 16-81 years; mean height 168.3 ± 20.3 cm, range 155-187 cm). Pudendal SEPs were evoked with a bipolar surface electrode stimulating the clitoris or the base of the penis and the anal orifice and recorded using scalp electrodes. The latency of the first positive component (P1) was measured. The effect and possible interaction of (a) stimulation site and (b) gender on the two variables was explored by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The examination was well tolerated and a reproducible waveform of sufficient quality was obtained in all the subjects examined. In the female subjects, a mean cortical P1 latency of 37.0 ± 2.6 and 36.4 ± 3.2 ms for anal and clitoral stimulation, respectively, was found. In the male subjects, the cortical latencies were 38.0 ± 3.5 ms for the anal stimulation and 40.2 ± 3.7 ms for the penile stimulation. At MANOVA, a statistically significant main effect of stimulation site and gender as well as a significant interaction between the two variables was found. Anal and dorsal penile/clitoral SEPs represent a well-tolerated and reproducible method to assess the functional integrity of the sensory pathways in male and female subjects. Obtaining sex-specific reference data, by individual electrophysiological testing, is highly recommended because of significant latency differences between males and females, at least as far as penile/clitoral responses are concerned.
Full Text Available Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix. The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2-3.
Khaliq, Farah; Anjana, Yumnam; Vaney, Neelam
Slow learners are individuals with low achievement and comparably low IQ scores. It may be a symptom reflecting a larger underlying problem in them. Sensory neural processing of visual information can be one of the contributory factors for their underachievement. The present study was undertaken to examine the integrity and function of visual pathway by means of Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Pattern reversal VEP was performed on seventeen slow learners. Fifteen age and sex matched children with good school performance and normal IQ were taken as controls. There was significant prolongation of N75 component of VEP in slow learners. The latencies of P100 and N145 were also increased but could not reach the level of significance. Our findings are suggestive of the presence of a weaker VEP response in slow learners indicative of a deficit early in the visual processing. There is some abnormality in the geniculate afferents to V1 which is consistent with a defect in the magnocellular pathway at the level of Visual Area 1 or earlier.
Hope, A J; Luxon, L M; Bamiou, D-E
To assess auditory processing in noise-exposed subjects with normal audiograms and compare the findings with those of non-noise-exposed normal controls. Ten noise-exposed Royal Air Force aircrew pilots were compared with 10 Royal Air Force administrators who had no history of noise exposure. Participants were matched in terms of age and sex. The subjects were assessed in terms of: pure tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in contralateral noise and auditory processing task performance (i.e. masking, frequency discrimination, auditory attention and speech-in-noise). All subjects had normal pure tone audiometry and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions amplitudes in both ears. The noise-exposed aircrew had similar pure tone audiometry thresholds to controls, but right ear transient evoked otoacoustic emissions were larger and speech-in-noise thresholds were elevated in the noise-exposed subjects compared to controls. The finding of poorer speech-in-noise perception may reflect noise-related impairment of auditory processing in retrocochlear pathways. Audiometry may not detect early, significant noise-induced hearing impairment.
Uilenburg, N.; Kauffman-Boer, M. de; Ploeg, K. van der; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether universal neonatal hearing screening could be integrated in the youth health care program. The screening was performed by nurses of the well baby clinics. A three stage transient evoked otoacoustic emission screening was performed in three
Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, H K; Belleza, T
This paper describes a method for rating the degree of abnormality of auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potential patterns in head injury (HI) patients. Criteria for judging degree of EP abnormality are presented that allow assessment of the extent and severity of subcortical and cortical dysfunction associated with traumatic brain damage. Interrater reliability data based upon blind ratings of normal and HI patients are presented and shown to be highly significant. Tables of normative values of peak latencies and amplitudes are given and illustrations of EP patterns of different degrees of abnormality are presented.
Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blom, J.H.G.; Wiering, Caro H.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes
Previous electroencephalography studies revealed mixed effects of sustained distraction on early negative and later positive event-related potential components evoked by electrocutaneous stimuli. In our study we further examined the influence of sustained distraction to clarify these discrepancies.
Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xuehui; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Xu, Youguo; Zhou, Wu
Sound activates not only the cochlea but also the vestibular end organs. Research on this phenomenon led to the discovery of the sound-evoked vestibular myogenic potentials recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles...
Feng, Jing-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Guo, Shu-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xiu
To describe the development of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) in preterm infants from 1 to 18 months and to determine if the maturation of FVEPs is similar to that of term infants. Longitudinal follow-up study. Twenty very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants, 42 low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants, and 41 term infants underwent FVEP recordings and neurodevelopmental examinations at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of corrected and chronological ages. The FVEP recordings were carried out with the VikingQuest-IV neuroelectrophysiological device (VikingQuest, Nicolet, WI), and neurodevelopmental assessments were made by the Development Screen Test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of age, neurodevelopment was measured with the Mental Index and Developmental Quotient. At 12 and 18 months, neurodevelopment was assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Two FVEP values were analyzed: the P2 amplitude (peak to peak from the preceding N2 wave) and the latency of the P2 wave. There was no significant difference for age-dependent decreased pattern of FVEP P2 latency between preterm infants and the control group. This pattern consisted of a rapid decrease in the first 6 months of life, a gradual decline from 6 to 12 months of age, and a steady reduction from 12 to 18 months of age. The P2 latencies were prolonged significantly at all 6 recorded times in the VLBW group compared with the controls and showed a delay in the LBW group at 1 and 3 months of corrected age. The maturation of P2 latency in LBW infants is similar to that of the controls at 3 months of corrected age, but the maturation of P2 latency in VLBW children remained delayed when compared with the controls until 18 months of corrected age. Although the FVEP development pattern of preterm infants was similar to that of healthy full-term infants, the former had deficits in visual electrophysiologic maturation
Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan
This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.
Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.
Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan
This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315
Chia Yu Chang
Full Text Available Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca2+-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na+ channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability. The inhibitory effect of amiodarone on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release was markedly decreased in synaptosomes pretreated with the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, the calmodulin antagonists W7 and calmidazolium, or the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 and KT5720. However, the intracellular Ca2+-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157 had no effect on the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, amiodarone reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that amiodarone reduces Ca2+ influx through N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, subsequently reducing the Ca2+-calmodulin/protein kinase A cascade to inhibit the evoked glutamate release from rat hippocampal nerve terminals.
Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.
Attention directed toward auditory stimuli, in order to detect an occasional fainter 'signal' stimulus, caused a substantial increase in the N1 (83 msec) and P2 (161 msec) components of the auditory evoked potential without any change in preceding components. This evidence shows that human auditory attention is not mediated by a peripheral gating mechanism. The evoked response to the detected signal stimulus also contained a large P3 (450 msec) wave that was topographically distinct from the preceding components. This late positive wave could also be recorded in response to a detected omitted stimulus in a regular train and therefore seemed to index a stimulus-independent perceptual decision process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS utilises rapidly delivered heat pulses with adjustable peak temperatures to stimulate the differential warm/heat thresholds of receptors expressed by Aδ and C fibres. The resulting evoked potentials can be recorded and measured, providing a useful clinical tool for the study of thermal and nociceptive pathways. Concurrent recording of contact heat evoked potentials using electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has not previously been reported with CHEPS. Developing simultaneous EEG and fMRI with CHEPS is highly desirable, as it provides an opportunity to exploit the high temporal resolution of EEG and the high spatial resolution of fMRI to study the reaction of the human brain to thermal and nociceptive stimuli. Methods In this study we have recorded evoked potentials stimulated by 51°C contact heat pulses from CHEPS using EEG, under normal conditions (baseline, and during continuous and simultaneous acquisition of fMRI images in ten healthy volunteers, during two sessions. The pain evoked by CHEPS was recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results Analysis of EEG data revealed that the latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials recorded during continuous fMRI did not differ significantly from baseline recordings. fMRI results were consistent with previous thermal pain studies, and showed Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD changes in the insula, post-central gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA, middle cingulate cortex and pre-central gyrus. There was a significant positive correlation between the evoked potential amplitude (EEG and the psychophysical perception of pain on the VAS. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of recording contact heat evoked potentials with EEG during continuous and simultaneous fMRI. The combined use of the two methods can lead to identification of distinct patterns of brain
Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.
1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated
Livingstone, I R; Mastaglia, F L; Edis, R; Howe, J W
Pattern visual evoked responses were studied in 13 patients from nine families with dominant herditary spastic paraplegia and in seven sporadic cases. The responses were normal in all the dominantly inherited cases but abnormal in three of the seven sporadic cases. PMID:7217977
Introduction: To report our experience in management of patients with optic neuritis. The effects of brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential on management were investigated. Methods: This is a four years clinical trial that included patients presenting with first attack of optic neuritis older than 16 years ...
Berger (1932) also observed that these brain waves are slowed in states of depressed function such as sleep activity and that they can be blocked by...Ma4cay and Jefferys, 1973). Transient VER’s, polyphasic in form and 200-500 milliseconds in duration, are evoked by stepwise changes in one or more per
Verberk, Maarten M.; Brons, Joke T.; Sallé, Herman J. A.
Objectives. Two promising variations of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in solvent-exposed workers: the effect of a low-contrast stimulus in comparison with the usually applied high contrast, and the ability of pattern-onset VEP to reveal damage to specific visual cortical areas. In
Koers, G.; Mulder, L.J.M.; van der Veen, F.M.
For many years psychophysiologists have been interested in stimulus related changes in heart rate and blood pressure. To represent these evoked heart rate and blood pressure patterns, heart rate and blood pressure data have to be transformed into equidistant time series. This paper presents an
Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B
AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch...
Brodin, P; Fløystrand, F; Orstavik, J
The characteristics of the masseter reflex evoked by tapping a maxillary incisor were compared with the reflex pattern evoked by tapping a corresponding denture tooth after insertion of an immediate denture. Up to three inhibitory phases (I-1, I-2 and I-3), followed by excitation, were found on an averaged EMG. The tapping force threshold for the early inhibitory phase was lower than for the late phases. The pattern of the reflex was generally the same before and after insertion of the denture, but the threshold values increased. After insertion of the denture, the threshold for I-1 increased from 1 +/- 0.3N to 2.2 +/- 0.4N, the threshold for I-2 increased from 2.4 +/- 0.8N to 3.8 +/- 0.9N, and the threshold for I-3 increased from 5.1 +/- 0.6N to 8.3 +/- 0.9N. The latency period for I-1 also increased from 12.3 +/- 0.5 ms to 13.1 +/- 0.3 ms after insertion of the denture. After relining, the threshold for evoking I-1 decreased from 2.7 +/- 1.2N to 1.2 +/- 0.6N. It was assumed that the mechanoreceptors situated in the mucosa under the denture base could take over the functional role of the periodontal mechanoreceptors for evoking the masseter reflex during tapping, and that these afferents probably had connections to the same interneurones.
Harris, Richard E; Gracely, Richard H; McLean, Samuel A; Williams, David A; Giesecke, Thorsten; Petzke, Frank; Sen, Ananda; Clauw, Daniel J
Evoked pain measures such as tender point count and dolorimetry are often used to determine tenderness in studies of fibromyalgia (FM). However, these measures frequently do not improve in clinical trials and are known to be influenced by factors other than pain such as distress and expectancy. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether evoked pain paradigms that present pressure stimuli in a random fashion (eg, Multiple Random Staircase [MRS]) would track with clinical pain improvement in patients with FM better than traditional measures. Sixty-five subjects enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of acupuncture were observed longitudinally. Clinical pain was measured on a 101-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), whereas evoked pressure sensitivity was assessed via manual tender point count, dolorimetry, and MRS methods. Improvements in clinical pain and evoked pain were assessed irrespective of group assignment. Improvement was seen in clinical pain during the course of the trial as measured by both NRS (P = .032) and SF-MPQ (P = .001). The MRS was the only evoked pain measure to improve correspondingly with treatment (MRS, P = .001; tender point count and dolorimeter, P > .05). MRS change scores were correlated with changes in NRS pain ratings (P = .003); however, this association was not stronger than tender point or dolorimetry correlations with clinical pain improvement (P > .05). Pain sensitivity as assessed by random paradigms was associated with improvements in clinical FM pain. Sophisticated pain testing paradigms might be responsive to change in clinical trials. Trials in fibromyalgia often use both clinical and experimental methods of pain assessment; however, these two outcomes are often poorly correlated. We explore the relationship between changes in clinical and experimental pain within FM patients. Pressure pain testing that applies stimuli in a random order is associated with
Chang, Chia Yu; Hung, Chi Feng; Huang, Shu Kuei; Kuo, Jinn Rung; Wang, Su Jane
Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca2+-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na+ channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability. The inhibitory effect of amiodarone on 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release was markedly decreased in synaptosomes pretreated with the Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, the calmodulin antagonists W7 and calmidazolium, or the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 and KT5720. However, the intracellular Ca2+-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157 had no effect on the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, amiodarone reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that amiodarone reduces Ca2+ influx through N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, subsequently reducing the Ca2+-calmodulin/protein kinase A cascade to inhibit the evoked glutamate release from rat hippocampal nerve terminals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr
We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen
measurements with high time and frequency resolution in a 1/3-octave band centered at 3 kHz. On average, DPOAE levels were reduced approximately 5 dB in the entire measured frequency-range. Statistically significant differences in pre- and post-exposure DPOAE levels were observed up to 70 min after the end...
Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30-8:00 A.M. and 13:30-14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.
The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's
Opsomer, R J; Van Cangh, P J; Humblet, Y; Abi Aad, A; Rossini, P M
Neuromotor pathways from the brain to the pelvic floor have been poorly documented. The recent development of Motor Evoked Potentials may well fill this gap in our basic knowledge. Our technique consists of transcutaneous stimulation of the motor cortex and sacral roots with a magnetic device while recording the evoked response from the bulbocavernosus muscle and anal sphincter. Cortical stimulation is performed first at rest and then during voluntary contraction of the examined muscles ("facilitation" procedure). Sacral root stimulation is performed at rest. Stimulation at 2 different levels allows measurement of the total transit time (brain to muscle transit time) and the peripheral transit time (sacral roots to muscle). By subtracting the latter from the former, the central transit time (brain to sacral roots) is obtained. The technique is painless, and to our knowledge no side effects have been reported. The authors present the preliminary results of this new technique.
Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T
The method of rating abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns and assessing the extent and severity of cortical and subcortical brain dysfunction in head injury patients described in Part I is applied in a clinical context. Evoked potential abnormality (EPA) scores are found to be significantly correlated both with admission and outcome disability approximately one year after head injury. Correlations increase with the increase in the number of sensory modalities tested. Correlations between EPA scores and clinical disability (measured by the Disability Rating Scale) decrease with time after injury. Significant correlations, however, persist for about 60 days after onset of injury. It was found that EP pattern abnormalities can reflect specific sensory (and at times motor) deficits in noncommunicative patients and thereby contribute significantly to early treatment and rehabilitation planning.
Ates, Kahraman; Demirtas, Serdar; Goksoy, Cuneyt
In this study, binocular interaction in guinea pigs is evaluated using bioelectrical activities. A difference potential, as evidence of an interaction, is calculated by subtracting the sum of visual-evoked potentials recorded by left and right monocular visual stimulations from the potential recorded by binocular stimulation. A negative monophasic wave with an average amplitude of 15.1 microV and an average latency of 106 ms is observed in the difference potential. This finding implies that the P100 is the main guinea pig visual-evoked potential wave that is affected by binocular interaction. Binocular interaction is also observed in the waves N75 and N140, although with a smaller amplitude. No interaction is observed in the segments of P55 and P200 waves.
Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Kazibutowska, Z
Central nervous system dysfunction among workers exposed to metallic mercury was studied by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The examinations were conducted in 28 workers suspected of chronic mercury intoxication. They were exposed to Hg for a period ranging from 4-34 years (mean 22.1) in an acetic aldehyde and chlorine manufacturing plant. The increase of amplitude of N20 SSEP (13 cases) and elongation of its latency were frequent abnormalities in the examined group. The latency of N20 was significantly longer in the exposed group in comparison with the control one, the amplitude of N20 was also significantly higher. Significantly prolonged latency of P100 VEP was found in the group exposed to Hg. These findings suggest the possibility of an adverse effect due to Hg on the central part of the somatosensory and visual pathway.
Stasiakiewicz, Paweł; Dobrowolski, Andrzej P.; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz
Diagnosis of part of the visual system, that is responsible for conducting compound action potential, is generally based on visual evoked potentials generated as a result of stimulation of the eye by external light source. The condition of patient's visual path is assessed by set of parameters that describe the time domain characteristic extremes called waves. The decision process is compound therefore diagnosis significantly depends on experience of a doctor. The authors developed a procedure - based on wavelet decomposition and linear discriminant analysis - that ensures automatic classification of visual evoked potentials. The algorithm enables to assign individual case to normal or pathological class. The proposed classifier has a 96,4% sensitivity at 10,4% probability of false alarm in a group of 220 cases and area under curve ROC equals to 0,96 which, from the medical point of view, is a very good result.
Malinowski, T.; Klepacki, J.; Wagstyl, R.
The evoked response audiometry method of testing hearing loss is presented and the results of comparative studies using subjective tonal audiometry and evoked response audiometry in tests of 56 healthy men with good hearing are discussed. The men were divided into three groups according to age and place of work: work place without increased noise; work place with noise and vibrations (at drilling machines); work place with noise and shocks (work at excavators in surface coal mines). The ERA-MKII audiometer produced by the Medelec-Amplaid firm was used. Audiometric threshhold curves for the three groups of tested men are given. At frequencies of 500, 1000 and 4000 Hz mean objective auditory threshhold was shifted by 4-9.5 dB in comparison to the subjective auditory threshold. (21 refs.) (In Polish)
Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.
Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...
Klineburger, Philip C
The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, The Dynamic Functional Capacity Theory (DFCT), is proposed that provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intense intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims th...
Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K
Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in ...
Skidmore, Trent A.
This paper presents experimental evidence to support the feasibility of an evoked-potential vision-tracking system. The topics discussed are stimulator construction, verification of the photic driving response in the electroencephalogram, a method for performing frequency separation, and a transient-analysis example. The final issue considered is that of object multiplicity (concurrent visual stimuli with different flashing rates). The paper concludes by discussing several applications currently under investigation.
Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel
Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning , which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure . Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) , triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices , suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev
Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.
Gregory, Letícia; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G; Sleifer, Pricila
Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is the most common genetic alteration in humans. The syndrome presents with several features, including hearing loss and changes in the central nervous system, which may affect language development in children and lead to school difficulties. The present study aimed to investigate group differences in the central auditory system by long-latency auditory evoked potentials and cognitive potential. An assessment of 23 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was performed, and a control group composed of 43 children and adolescents without genetic and/or neurological changes was used for comparison. All children underwent evaluation with pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immitance measures, long-latency auditory evoked potentials, and cognitive potential. Longer latencies of the waves were found in the Down syndrome group than the control group, without significant differences in amplitude, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have difficulty in discrimination and auditory memory. It is, therefore, important to stimulate and monitor these children in order to enable adequate development and improve their life quality. We also emphasize the importance of the application of auditory evoked potentials in clinical practice, in order to contribute to the early diagnosis of hearing alterations and the development of more research in this area. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McPherson, DL; Starr, A
Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...
Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen
Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this
E. V. Shishkinskaya
Full Text Available The results of two-stage audiologic examination (otoacoustic emissions method and assessment of auditory evoked potentials of 74 term and premature newborns are shown in this article. All patients received treatment for perinatal injuries of central nervous system (cerebral ischemia of various stages of severity. The assessment of brainstem auditory evoked potentials was established to be the most informative diagnostic method both in term and premature infants, moreover the majority of newborns with perinatal brain injuries had increased latencies of brainstem auditory evoked potentials parameters and signs of acoustic analyzer dysfunction, which character depended on the severity of cerebral ischemia.
Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Maes, Leen; D'haenens, Wendy; Bockstael, Annelies; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart
To determine the output levels of a commercially available MPEG layer-3 (MP3) player and to evaluate changes in hearing after 1 hour of listening to the MP3 player. First, A-weighted sound pressure levels (measured in decibels [dBA]) for 1 hour of pop-rock music on an MP3 player were measured on a head and torso simulator. Second, after participants listened to 1 hour of pop-rock music using an MP3 player, changes in hearing were evaluated with pure-tone audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Twenty-one participants were exposed to pop-rock music in 6 different sessions using 2 types of headphones at multiple preset gain settings of the MP3 player. Output levels of an MP3 player and temporary threshold and emission shifts after 1 hour of listening. The output levels at the full gain setting were 97.36 dBA and 102.56 dBA for the supra-aural headphones and stock earbuds, respectively. In the noise exposure group, significant changes in hearing thresholds and transient-evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes were found between preexposure and postexposure measurements. However, this pattern was not seen for distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes. Significant differences in the incidence of significant threshold or emission shifts were observed between almost every session of the noise exposure group compared with the control group. Temporary changes in hearing sensitivity measured by audiometry and otoacoustic emissions indicate the potential harmful effects of listening to an MP3 player. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term risk of cumulative noise exposure on the auditory system of adolescents and adults.
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....
Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)
Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives
Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.
Kraemer, M; Abrahamsson, M; Sjöström, A
To follow visual development longitudinally in the normal neonate using the flash visual evoked potential (VEP) and to find indications for a relationship between potential development and visual development. Twenty healthy infants, born at term, were included in the study. Flash and patterned flash VEPs were used. The first VEP was recorded the day of birth or just postnatally, and succeeding recordings were performed the following weeks and months. The data revealed different types of VEP in the neonatal period suggesting great variability in visual function on the day of birth. In the early development a potential of long latency and duration preceded the development of a more compound potential of shorter latency. The two types of responses seemed to coalesce during early development; the first late response was attenuated and was eventually integrated in the more mature VEP. At approximately five weeks of age changes in the VEP were simultaneous with the development of responsive smiling and another visual behaviour of the infants. The results showed many similarities between the VEP development in infants and in immature animals. In developing animals geniculo-cortical and extra-geniculate visual afferent pathways evoke two types of VEPs similar to those recorded in the present study. The early responses were also similar to previous recordings from children with lesions in the geniculo-striatal pathway or primary cortex. Our interpretation of the results was that the human VEP also consists of responses evoked by afferents running both in geniculo-cortical and extra-geniculate pathways and that the two types of responses could be separated in the VEP in the neonatal period. These findings are important for our understanding of conditions with a delay in visual maturation, for example intracranial haemorrhages, hydrocephalus, pre/dys-maturity and 'idiopathic' delayed visual maturation.
Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.
Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.
Hink, R. F.; Van Voorhis, S. T.; Hillyard, S. A.; Smith, T. S.
The sensitivity of the scalp-recorded, auditory evoked potential to selective attention was examined while subjects responded to stimuli presented to one ear (focused attention) and to both ears (divided attention). The amplitude of the N1 component was found to be largest to stimuli in the ear upon which attention was to be focused, smallest to stimuli in the ear to be ignored, and intermediate to stimuli in both ears when attention was divided. The results are interpreted as supporting a capacity model of attention.
Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.
Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.
He, Shuman; Teagle, Holly F B; Buchman, Craig A
The electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) represents the synchronous firing of a population of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. It can be directly recorded on a surgically exposed nerve trunk in animals or from an intra-cochlear electrode of a cochlear implant. In the past two decades, the eCAP has been widely recorded in both animals and clinical patient populations using different testing paradigms. This paper provides an overview of recording methodologies and response characteristics of the eCAP, as well as its potential applications in research and clinical situations. Relevant studies are reviewed and implications for clinicians are discussed.
Akkin, T; Saliu, S
The authors investigate the applicability of Prony modelling to the estimation of evoked potentials. Four types of total least squares (TLS) model are considered and their optimal parameters are defined based on ten visual averaged EPs. Simulations with various signal and noise characteristics show that the TLS-Prony estimation is superior to averaging for two of the models, namely the unconstrained and the stable models. Application of the TLS-Prony estimator as a post-processor to moderate averaging allows a reduction in the number of responses averaged, or equivalently of recording time, by a factor of two.
Haditsch, Ursula; Anderson, Matthew P; Freewoman, Julia
Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection...... neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus...
Shenoy, Ravikiran; Roberts, Katherine; Papadaki, Anastasia; McRobbie, Donald; Timmers, Maarten; Meert, Theo; Anand, Praveen
Acute application of topical capsaicin produces spontaneous burning and stinging pain similar to that seen in some neuropathic states, with local hyperalgesia. Use of capsaicin applied topically or injected intradermally has been described as a model for neuropathic pain, with patterns of activation in brain regions assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography. The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS) is a noninvasive clinically practical method of stimulating cutaneous A-delta nociceptors. In this study, topical capsaicin (1%) was applied to the left volar forearm for 15 minutes of twelve adult healthy human volunteers. fMRI scans and a visual analog pain score were recorded during CHEPS stimulation precapsaicin and postcapsaicin application. Following capsaicin application there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 26.4 ± 5.3; postcapsaicin 48.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.0001). fMRI demonstrated an overall increase in areas of activation, with a significant increase in the contralateral insular signal (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 0.434 ± 0.03; postcapsaicin 0.561 ± 0.07; P = 0.047). The authors of this paper recently published a study in which CHEPS-evoked A-delta cerebral potential amplitudes were found to be decreased postcapsaicin application. In patients with neuropathic pain, evoked pain and fMRI brain responses are typically increased, while A-delta evoked potential amplitudes are decreased. The protocol of recording fMRI following CHEPS stimulation after topical application of capsaicin could be combined with recording of evoked potentials to provide a simple, rapid, and robust volunteer model to develop novel drugs for neuropathic pain. PMID:22090805
Full Text Available AIM: To explore the visual evoked potential in infantile orbital cellulitis' clinical applications by monitoring the visual evoked potential changes in infantile orbital cellulitis before, during and after treatment.METHODS: Twenty-three cases of CT diagnosed single orbital cellulitis were examined by the visual evoked potentials. The affected eyes as observation group, and healthy eyes as control group. Comparative observation of visual evoked potential changes in amplitude and incubation period before, during and after the treatment. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the observation group's visual evoked potential changes included reduced amplitude, extended incubation period. With the treatment progress, the observation group had gradual increase in amplitude, gradual reduction in incubation period. CONCLUSION: In infantile orbital cellulitis, the use of visual evoked potentials is a simple, feasible and effective method to monitoring the visual function during the treatment.
Pihko, Elina; Kujala, Teija; Mickos, Annika; Antell, Henrik; Alku, Paavo; Byring, Roger; Korkman, Marit
Our objective was to study how well the auditory evoked magnetic fields (EF) reflect the behavioral discrimination of speech sounds in preschool children, and if they reveal the same information as simultaneously recorded evoked potentials (EP). EFs and EPs were recorded in 11 preschool children (mean age 6 years 9 months) using an oddball paradigm with two sets of speech stimuli consisting both of one standard and two deviants. After the brain activity recording, children were tested on behavioural discrimination of the same stimuli presented in pairs. There was a mismatch negativity (MMN) calculated from difference curves and its magnetic counterpart MMNm measured from the original responses only to those deviants, which were behaviourally easiest to discriminate from the standards. In addition, EF revealed significant differences between the locations of the activation depending on the hemisphere and stimulus properties. EF, in addition to reflecting the sound-discrimination accuracy in a similar manner as EP, also reflected the spatial differences in activation of the temporal lobes. These results suggest that both EPs and EFs are feasible for investigating the neural basis of sound discrimination in young children. The recording of EFs with its high spatial resolution reveals information on the location of the activated neural sources.
Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Choi, Young Doo
Objective To propose a new measure for effective monitoring of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and to validate the feasibility of this measure for evoked potentials (EP) and single trials with a retrospective data analysis study. Methods The proposed new measure (hereafter, a slope-measure) was defined as the relative slope of the amplitude and latency at each EP peak compared to the baseline value, which is sensitive to the change in the amplitude and latency simultaneously. We used the slope-measure for EP and single trials and compared the significant change detection time with that of the conventional peak-to-peak method. When applied to single trials, each single trial signal was processed with optimal filters before using the slope-measure. In this retrospective data analysis, 7 patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation were included. Results We found that this simple slope-measure has a detection time that is as early or earlier than that of the conventional method; furthermore, using the slope-measure in optimally filtered single trials provides warning signs earlier than that of the conventional method during MCA clipping surgery. Conclusion Our results have confirmed the feasibility of the slope-measure for intraoperative SEP monitoring. This is a novel study that provides a useful measure for either EP or single trials in intraoperative SEP monitoring. PMID:25628803
Farajidavar, Aydin; Seifert, Jennifer L; Bell, Jennifer E S; Seo, Young-Sik; Delgado, Mauricio R; Sparagana, Steven; Romero, Mario I; Chiao, J-C
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is commonly used as an attempt to minimize neurological morbidity from operative manipulations. The goal of IONM is to identify changes in the central and peripheral nervous system function prior to irreversible damage. Intraoperative monitoring also has been effective in localizing anatomical structures, including peripheral nerves and sensorimotor cortex, which helps guide the surgeon during dissection. As part of IONM, transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are routinely monitored. However, current wired systems are cumbersome as the wires contribute to the crowded conditions in the operating room and in doing so not only it limits the maneuverability of the surgeon and assistants, but also places certain demand in the total anesthesia required during surgery, due to setup preoperative time needed for proper electrode placement, due to the number and length of the wires, and critical identification of the lead wires needed for stimulation and recording. To address these limitations, we have developed a wireless TcMEP IONM system as a first step toward a multimodality IONM system. Bench-top and animal experiments in rodents demonstrated that the wireless method reproduced with high fidelity, and even increased the frequency bandwidth of the TcMEP signals, compared to wired systems. This wireless system will reduce the preoperative time required for IONM setup, add convenience for surgical staff, and reduce wire-related risks for patients during the operation.
Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Berrol, S; Reynolds, G
Various measures of evoked brain potential abnormality (EPA) were correlated with disability ratings (DR) for 35 brain-damaged patients. EPA data consisted of judgements of abnormality of ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral responses to auditory and visual stimuli reflecting activity in the brain stem, subcortex and cortex. DR data were obtained from a scale developed for this study to quantize and categorize patients with a wide range of disabilities from coma to normal functioning. EPA scores based on visual and auditory cortical responses showed significantly positive correlations with degree of disability. Visual response correlation was .49, auditory .38 and combined visual and auditory .51. It was concluded that EPA measures can reflect disability independently of clinical information. They are useful in assessing brain function in general and, specifically, in assessing impairment of sensory function. The evoked potential technique was particularly useful in patients who were not able to participate fully in their own examination. There were indications that the technique may also be valuable in monitoring progress and in predicting clinical outcome in brain-damaged patients.
Kantner, C; Gürkov, R
Recently, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have been described and added to the neuro-otologic test battery as a new measure for the vestibulo-ocular reflex. oVEMPs represent extraocular muscle activity in response to otolith stimulation e.g. by air-conducted sound or bone-conducted vibration. In response to vestibular stimulation, electromyographic activity of the extraocular muscles can be recorded by means of surface electrodes placed beneath the contralateral eye. oVEMPs are likely to reflect predominantly utricular function, while the widely established cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) assess saccular function. Thus, measuring oVEMPs and cVEMPs in addition to caloric and head impulse testing provides further evaluation of the vestibular system and enables quick and cost-effective assessment of otolith function. This review summarizes the neurophysiological properties of oVEMPs, gives recommendations for recording conditions and discusses oVEMP alterations in various disorders of the vestibular system. With increasing insight into oVEMP characteristics in vestibular disorders, e.g. Menière's disease and superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, oVEMPs are becoming a promising new diagnostic tool for evaluating utricular function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Kurschel, Senta; Höllwarth, Michael E
We evaluated the predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in a series of children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The prospective clinical investigation was performed in a Level I paediatric trauma centre. We included 26 consecutive comatose paediatric patients aged from 1 month to 17 years (median age 11 years) following severe TBI (initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 8 or below). Besides SEP recordings, the intracranial pressure and the results of an initial cranial CT scan were filed. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to assess outcome at discharge. Thirteen children had normal SEP measurements, three patients had abnormal SEP recordings and a cortical response was bilaterally absent in ten children. Out of 26 children, 10 died whereas two remained in a persistent vegetative state. Only one child suffered from significant neurological deficits (GOS 3) at discharge. Seven patients survived with a GOS of 4 and six children survived without neurological impairment (GOS 5). Normal SEP indicated a favourable outcome in most children but did not rule out the occurrence of death, while absence of SEP was related to unfavourable outcome in all cases. Measurement of somatosensory evoked potentials provides valuable data for determining the prognosis at early coma stages. Our data show that an unfavourable outcome can be predicted with higher precision than a favourable outcome.
Ishikawa, Ryotaro; Kobori, Osamu; Shimizu, Eiji
Mental contamination is a psychological sense of contamination that involves an internal, emotional feeling of dirtiness that may be evoked by unwanted thoughts and images, such as sexual assaults. This study aimed to investigate which types of unwanted sexual experiences evoke the strongest mental contamination, and to test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisals of an unwanted sexual experience predict indices of mental contamination (i.e. feeling of dirtiness, urge to wash, internal negative emotions, and external negative emotions). 148 female participants were asked to recall their most distressing unwanted sexual experiences. Indices of mental contamination and cognitive appraisals of the experience were then assessed. Our findings indicated that individuals recalling experiences related to rape felt more intense feelings of dirtiness than individuals recalling other types of unwanted sexual experience, such as verbal sexual assault, visual sexual assault, and forcible touching/frottage. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that a cognitive appraisal of perceived violation predicted all of the indices of mental contamination after controlling anxiety, depression, and fear of contact contamination. The present study demonstrated that an individual is at greatest risk of mental contamination if she has experienced rape/attempted rape, and if she makes a cognitive appraisal of violation regarding the incident.
Dougherty Patrick M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.
Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie
Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Thomas, N G; Harden, L M; Rogers, G G
Few studies have examined the physiology of cricket, including the difference in ability between batsmen to make controlled contact with a ball bowled at high speed. We therefore measured visual evoked potentials and choice reaction times with dominant eyes, non-dominant eyes, and both eyes together, in 15 elite batsmen and 10 elite bowlers (aged 20.9 SD 1.9 years) and 9 control subjects (aged 20.2 SD 1.5 years). The latency and amplitude of waves N70, P100 and N145 were determined for each visual evoked potential (VEP). In addition interpeak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes were measured. The subjects also completed a choice reaction test to a visual stimulus. We found that cricketers were not more likely to have crossed dominance (dominant eye contralateral to dominant hand) than controls. Cricketers had a faster latency for VEP wave N70 than controls (p=0.03). However reaction time was not different between cricketers and the control group. Across all subjects, in comparison to monocular testing, binocular testing led to a faster choice reaction time (p=0.02) and larger amplitudes of VEP wave N70 (p=0.01). Visual processing during the first 100(-1)50 ms of the balls flight together with binocular vision facilitates retinal activation in talented cricketers.
José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Clinical question: The otoacoustic emissions (OAE and automated auditory evoked potentials brainstem response (ABR-A are acceptable and used in neonatal hearing screening. PICO question: In a newborn [patient], does technique ABR-A against AEE [compared], provide superior detection [result], for neonatal screening hearing loss [intervention]?. Material and Methods: Literature search in PubMed and Cochrane data meta-analysis, clinical trials and general articles, including descriptors "hearing loss", "neonatal screening", "infant, newborn," "evoked potentials, auditory", "otoacoustic emissions". Selected studies in Spanish or English directly comparing one technique over another. Results: The evidence is high for ABR-A because they are more effective (with higher levels of sensitivity and specificity than the OAE, especially in neonatal intensive care unit and in children at risk of auditory neuropathy. Conclusions: Recommendation: The recommendation is strongly in favor of using ABR-A versus OAS as an initial test in neonatal screening for hearing loss.
Jeon, Jihoon; Oh, Seiyul; Kyung, Sungeun
The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP) to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9-42 years), 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19-36 years), 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9-71 years), and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR) were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR) of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR) of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR) of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes) and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes) subjects were significant [y = -0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR)]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = -0.072x + 1.22 (-0.072). This resulted in a prediction reference of visual acuity associated with malingering vs. real
Higgs, Maureen; Hackworth, Robert J; John, King; Riffenburgh, Robert; Tomlin, Jeffrey; Wamsley, Brian
Evoked potentials (EP), both somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), are often used during complex spine surgery to monitor the integrity of spinal pathways during operations in or around the spine. Changes in these monitored EP signals (increased latency and decreased amplitude) may result from ischemia, direct surgical injury, changes in blood pressure, hypoxia, changes in CO2 tension, and anesthetic agents. Typically, a clinically significant change for SSEPs is defined as an increase in latency >10% or a decrease of amplitude >50%. A clinically significant change for TcMEPs is much more complex but is also described in terms of large signal loss or decrease. Opioids have been shown to both increase latency and decrease the amplitude of SSEPs, although this change is usually not clinically significant. There has been a renewed interest in methadone for use in spine and other complex surgeries. However, the effect of methadone on intraoperative monitoring of SSEPs and TcMEPs is unknown. We present the first study to directly look at the effects of methadone on SSEP and TcMEP monitoring during complex spine surgery. The goal of this study was to observe the effect of methadone on an unrandomized set of patients. The primary endpoint was methadone's effect on SSEPs, and the secondary endpoint was methadone's effect on TcMEPs. Adult patients undergoing spine surgery requiring intraoperative neuromonitoring were induced with general anesthesia and had a baseline set of SSEPs and TcMEPs recorded. Next, methadone dosed 0.2 mg/kg/lean body weight was given. Repeat SSEPs and TcMEPs were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, with the timing based on distribution half-life of methadone between 6 and 8 minutes. Postoperatively, adverse events from methadone administration were collected. There was a statistically significant difference found in SSEPs for N20 latency (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.53; P=0.028), P37 latency
Eric Beckett Weaver
Full Text Available The Princip cult and what it evokes in Hungary On the 28th of June, 1914, a consumptive student, Gavrilo Princip, shot and killed prince Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The prince’s wife Sofia was also killed by a stray bullet. In the century that has passed since the assassination, the memory of Princip and the cult constructed around him has been distorted beyond recognition. As local and international politics were altered, so changed Princip’s image. The memory of Princip now evokes strong reactions not only in the South Slav lands, but in Hungary as well. In what follows, we will examine possible sources for the strong reactions evoked by Princip’s memory among Hungarians a century after his act. Kult Principa i co on ewokuje na Węgrzech W dniu 28 czerwca 1914 roku chory na gruźlicę student Gavrilo Princip zastrzelił księcia Franciszka Ferdynanda, następcę tronu monarchii austro-węgierskiej. Od zbłąkanej kuli zginęła także żona księcia, Zofia. W okresie stulecia, które minęło od tego zabójstwa, pamięć o Principie i kult zbudowany wokół niego przeobraziły się diametralnie. Wraz z przemianami polityki lokalnej i międzynarodowej zmieniało się także postrzeganie Principa. Obecnie pamięć o Principie wywołuje silne reakcje nie tylko na ziemiach południowosłowiańskich, ale również na Węgrzech. Autor artykułu docieka, skąd mogą wypływać silne reakcje, jakie pamięć Principa wywołuje u Węgrów sto lat po jego czynie.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder affecting majority of population. It is estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes. It has progressed to be a pandemic from an epidemic causing morbidity and mortality in the population. Among the many complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathies contribute majorly to the morbidity associated with the disease. Axonal conduction is affected by elevated levels of protein kinase c causing neuronal ischemia; decreased ce llular myoinositol affecting sodium potassium ATPase pump leads to decreased nerve conduction; Somatosensory E voked P otentials (SSEPs reflect the activity of somatosensory pathways mediated through the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the specific so matosensory cortex. Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in diabetics is done to assess the sensory involvement of spinal cord. Presence of SEPs provides clear evidence for axonal continuity and by using different stimulation sites, the rate of reg eneration can be determined. Both onset and peak latencies of all SEP components are prolonged in patients with diabetes. Present study is done to compare somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetics and normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was undertaken at the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad. The study was conducted on subjects, both male and female in the age group of 45 to 55 years, suffering from type II diabetes excluding other neurologi cal disorders. Non - invasive method of estimation of nerve conduction studies using SFEMG/EP — Electromyography or evoked potential system (Nicolet systems — USA using surface electrodes with automated computerized monitor attached with printer is used. RESUL TS : ANOVA showed statistically significant N9 latency (right & left sides. Latencies of all the components of SSEPs were more significant than amplitudes in Diabetic
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9–42 years, 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19–36 years, 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9–71 years, and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Results Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes subjects were significant [y = −0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = −0.072x + 1.22 (−0.072. This resulted in a prediction
Thompson, Garth J; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Baker, Keeley L; Herman, Peter; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V; Hyder, Fahmeed
Fluctuations in spontaneous activity have been observed by many neuroimaging techniques, but because these resting-state changes are not evoked by stimuli, it is difficult to determine how they relate to task-evoked activations. We conducted multi-modal neuroimaging scans of the rat olfactory bulb, both with and without odor, to examine interaction between spontaneous and evoked activities. Independent component analysis of spontaneous fluctuations revealed resting-state networks, and odor-evoked changes revealed activation maps. We constructed simulated activation maps using resting-state networks that were highly correlated to evoked activation maps. Simulated activation maps derived by intrinsic optical signal (IOS), which covers the dorsal portion of the glomerular sheet, significantly differentiated one odor's evoked activation map from the other two. To test the hypothesis that spontaneous activity of the entire glomerular sheet is relevant for representing odor-evoked activations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the entire glomerular sheet. In contrast to the IOS results, the fMRI-derived simulated activation maps significantly differentiated all three odors' evoked activation maps. Importantly, no evoked activation maps could be significantly differentiated using simulated activation maps produced using phase-randomized resting-state networks. Given that some highly organized resting-state networks did not correlate with any odors' evoked activation maps, we posit that these resting-state networks may characterize evoked activation maps associated with odors not studied. These results emphasize that fluctuations in spontaneous activity are relevant for active processing, signifying the relevance of resting-state mapping to functional neuroimaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K
Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in every case whose hearing was intact, but VEPs were abnormal in two cases whose visual acuities were normal. The present results in HAM indicate predominant lesion in the thoracic cord, and might also suggest some subclinical lesion in the visual pathway.
Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L; Ferlazzo, F; Curcio, G; Barattucci, M; Bertini, M
The hypothesis that a state of hypoarousal upon awakening should lead to a decrease in amplitude and an increase in latency of the N1-P2 components of the Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, was evaluated after two nocturnal awakenings and after the final morning awakening from a 7.5-h night of sleep. The amplitude of the N1-P2 complex was reduced upon awakening as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, but only following the first nocturnal awakening, scheduled after the first 2 h of sleep. This result is interpreted as indicating a link between slow wave sleep amount, mainly present during the first part of the night, and lowered levels of brain activation upon awakening. The reaction times, recorded concomitantly to AEPs, were more sensitive to the negative effects of sleep inertia.
Wang, K., E-mail: email@example.com; Tajima, S.; Song, D.; Uchiyama, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hamada, N.; Cai, C. [Aichi Steel Corporation, Tokai (Japan)
The magnetic field of the human brain is extremely weak, and it is mostly measured and monitored in the magnetoencephalography method using superconducting quantum interference devices. In this study, in order to measure the weak magnetic field of the brain, we constructed a Magneto-Impedance sensor (MI sensor) system that can cancel out the background noise without any magnetic shield. Based on our previous studies of brain wave measurements, we used two MI sensors in this system for monitoring both cerebral hemispheres. In this study, we recorded and compared the auditory evoked field signals of the subject, including the N100 (or N1) and the P300 (or P3) brain waves. The results suggest that the MI sensor can be applied to brain activity measurement.
Interpretation of the causes of instability of flash visual evoked potentials in intraoperative monitoring and proposal of a recording method for reliable functional monitoring of visual evoked potentials using a light-emitting device.
OBJECTIVE Effective monitoring and application of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during neurosurgery is a major challenge. While many monitoring methods have been effectively used, the use of VEPs as an objective determination method has not been established. The purpose of this report was to present a method for overcoming this limitation according to the use of a specific stimulus. METHODS Data analysis was performed in 26 cases of brain surgery. Observation was carried out for 2 groups of responses: the response derived from the start of light emission, described as the on response, and the response derived from the end of light emission, described as the off response. These reactions were separated by extending the light emission time. The waves from the visual cortex were selected from each reaction following the start and the end of light emission with consideration for the characteristics of the potential distribution. The waves were observed to characterize changes resulting from variations in duration and quantity of light emission. The results of the analysis were used to determine the optimal emission time and amount of light for effective use of wave components during VEP monitoring. RESULTS Stable and recordable waves were observed by monitoring the off response, consisting of the P1-N1-P2 component, with a wave latency of approximately 100 msec. Since the off response was correlated with the input, the stable wave derived from the off response could be adjusted by changing the light emission time and intensity. Individual differences in the latency of the off response were decreased by extending the light emission time and reducing the quantity of light. However, it was difficult to achieve stability by adjusting the light intensity and emission time using the on response. The off response was confirmed to be sufficiently stable for intraoperative monitoring. Moreover, during 1 case in which manipulation of the optic nerve was necessary, reduction in
Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hessel, Horst; Killian, Matthijs
In this study we aim to resolve the contributions of facilitation and refractoriness at very short pulse intervals. Measurements of the refractory properties of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users at inter pulse intervals below 300 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery effects. ECAPs were recorded using masker pulses with a wide range of current levels relative to the probe pulse levels, for three suprathreshold probe levels and pulse intervals from 13 to 200 μs. Evoked potentials were measured for 21 CI patients by using the masked response extraction artifact cancellation procedure. During analysis of the measurements the stimulation current was not used as absolute value, but in relation to the patient's individual ECAP threshold. This enabled a more general approach to describe facilitation as a probe level independent effect. Maximum facilitation was found for all tested inter pulse intervals at masker levels near patient's individual ECAP threshold, independent from probe level. For short inter pulse intervals an increased N1P1 amplitude was measured for subthreshold masker levels down to 120 CL below patient's individual ECAP threshold in contrast to the recreated state. ECAPs recorded with inter pulse intervals up to 200 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery. Facilitation effects are most pronounced for masker levels at or below ECAP threshold, while recovery effects increase with higher masker levels above ECAP threshold. The local maximum of the ECAP amplitude for masker levels around ECAP threshold can be explained by the mutual influence of maximum facilitation and minimal refractoriness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are characterized by the amplitude of the N1P1 complex. The measurement of evoked potentials yields a combination of the measured signal with various noise components but for ECAP procedures performed in the clinical routine, only the averaged curve is accessible. To date no detailed analysis of error dimension has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the error of the N1P1 amplitude and to determine the factors that impact the outcome. Measurements were performed on 32 CI patients with either CI24RE (CA) or CI512 implants using the Software Custom Sound EP (Cochlear). N1P1 error approximation of non-averaged raw data consisting of recorded single-sweeps was compared to methods of error approximation based on mean curves. The error approximation of the N1P1 amplitude using averaged data showed comparable results to single-point error estimation. The error of the N1P1 amplitude depends on the number of averaging steps and amplification; in contrast, the error of the N1P1 amplitude is not dependent on the stimulus intensity. Single-point error showed smaller N1P1 error and better coincidence with 1/√(N) function (N is the number of measured sweeps) compared to the known maximum-minimum criterion. Evaluation of N1P1 amplitude should be accompanied by indication of its error. The retrospective approximation of this measurement error from the averaged data available in clinically used software is possible and best done utilizing the D-trace in forward masking artefact reduction mode (no stimulation applied and recording contains only the switch-on-artefact). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lizeth H Sloot
Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally
Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pre-treatment with NEM, which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with TRIM, an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina, light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant post-translational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:25823749
Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with 1-(2-trifluromethylphenyl)imidazole (TRIM), an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant posttranslational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Ying C; Kavalali, Ege T
Coupling between voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx and synaptic vesicle exocytosis is essential for rapid evoked neurotransmission. Acuna et al. show that the knockout of RIM-BPs, which are key structural components of this coupling, decreases the reliability of evoked neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Izawa, Shuji; Mizutani, Tohru
This paper examines the development of visually evoked EEG patterns in retarded and normal subjects. The paper focuses on the averaged visually evoked potentials (AVEP) in the central and occipital regions of the brain in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. Wave pattern, amplitude, and latency are examined. The first section of the paper reviews…
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J.
Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields…
Christoffersen, Gert R.J.; Laugesen, Jakob L.; Møller, Per
and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...
Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.
To investigate the effect on the functioning of the vestibular system of a rupture of Reissner's membrane, artificial endolymph was injected in scala media of ten guinea pigs and vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs), evoked by vertical acceleration pulses, were measured. Directly after injection of
Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel
Previous research has shown that in men jealousy is evoked more by a rival's status-related characteristics than in women, whereas in women jealousy is evoked more by a rival's physical attractiveness than in men. The present study examined whether the occurrence of this gender difference depends
Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul; Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Møller, Per
and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...
El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe
The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tovar, Anibal; Lara-Garcia, Miguel; Cruz, Yolanda; Pacheco, Pablo
In the present study, we characterized the evoked electrical activity from T(13) to S(2) dorsal roots (DRs) during glass probe-stimulation of the vagina-cervix-uterus junction (VCUJ) of female Wistar rats. The results showed that gentle stimulation of VCUJ evoked high-amplitude electrical activity in L(3) and L(6) DRs. Hypogastric or pelvic nerve transection failed to abolish this activity. L(6)-S(1) spinal trunk transection abolished the high-amplitude electrical activity evoked in L(6) DR, while transection of the lumbosacral trunk blocked the high-amplitude electrical activity evoked in L(3) DR. These data suggest that during copulation, penile intromission likely activates the low-threshold sensory receptors of the VCUJ, thereby evoking sensory neural activity that enters the spinal cord via L(3) and L(6) dorsal roots, whose axons travel through the lumbosacral trunk and pudendal nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kumar, U A; Deepashree, S R
To measure the output sound pressure levels of personal music systems and evaluate their effect on hearing. Output sound pressure levels at preferred volume settings and listening environment were measured using a manikin. Effects of personal music system use on hearing were evaluated using pure tone audiometry (in conventional and extended high frequency ranges), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, syllable identification in noise, intensity discrimination, frequency discrimination and temporal modulation transfer function. Results showed, alarmingly, that large proportions of young adults are using personal music systems at levels higher than the safety limits set by regulatory bodies. Individuals who listened to personal music systems at levels higher than 80 dB LAeq exhibited poorer extended high frequency thresholds, reduced transient evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes, poorer frequency discrimination, reduced modulation detection thresholds at 32 Hz modulation frequency, and reduced syllable identification in noise at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Listening levels were significantly correlated with extended high frequency thresholds and transient evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes. These results suggest that listening to music through personal music systems at higher volume levels may be hazardous to hearing.
Bolozdynya, Alexander I
After decades of research and development, emission detectors have recently become the most successful instrumentation used in modern fundamental experiments searching for cold dark matter, and are also considered for neutrino coherent scattering and magnetic momentum neutrino measurement. This book is the first monograph exclusively dedicated to emission detectors. Properties of two-phase working media based on noble gases, saturated hydrocarbon, ion crystals and semiconductors are reviewed.
Full Text Available Ravikiran Shenoy1, Katherine Roberts1, Anastasia Papadaki2, Donald McRobbie2, Maarten Timmers3, Theo Meert3, Praveen Anand11Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London; 2Imaging Sciences Department, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 3Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Beerse, BelgiumAbstract: Acute application of topical capsaicin produces spontaneous burning and stinging pain similar to that seen in some neuropathic states, with local hyperalgesia. Use of capsaicin applied topically or injected intradermally has been described as a model for neuropathic pain, with patterns of activation in brain regions assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography. The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS is a noninvasive clinically practical method of stimulating cutaneous A-delta nociceptors. In this study, topical capsaicin (1% was applied to the left volar forearm for 15 minutes of twelve adult healthy human volunteers. fMRI scans and a visual analog pain score were recorded during CHEPS stimulation precapsaicin and postcapsaicin application. Following capsaicin application there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 26.4 ± 5.3; postcapsaicin 48.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.0001. fMRI demonstrated an overall increase in areas of activation, with a significant increase in the contralateral insular signal (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 0.434 ± 0.03; postcapsaicin 0.561 ± 0.07; P = 0.047. The authors of this paper recently published a study in which CHEPS-evoked A-delta cerebral potential amplitudes were found to be decreased postcapsaicin application. In patients with neuropathic pain, evoked pain and fMRI brain responses are typically increased, while A-delta evoked potential amplitudes are decreased. The protocol of recording fMRI following CHEPS stimulation
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to find whether the visual evoked potential (VEP latencies and amplitude are altered with different visual angles in healthy adult volunteers or not and to determine the visual angle which is the optimum and most appropriate among a wide range of check sizes for the reliable interpretation of pattern reversal VEPs (PRVEPs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 healthy volunteers. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 20 individuals (nine males and 11 females in the age range of 25-57 years and they were exposed to checks subtending a visual angle of 90, 120, and 180 minutes of arc. Another group comprised of 20 individuals (10 males and 10 females in the age range of 36-60 years and they were subjected to checks subtending a visual angle of 15, 30, and 120 minutes of arc. The stimulus configuration comprised of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board is generated (full field on a VEP Monitor by an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG. EPMARK II. The statistical analysis was done by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA using EPI INFO 6. Results: In Group I, the maximum (max. P100 latency of 98.8 ± 4.7 and the max. P100 amplitude of 10.05 ± 3.1 μV was obtained with checks of 90 minutes. In Group II, the max. P100 latency of 105.19 ± 4.75 msec as well as the max. P100 amplitude of 8.23 ± 3.30 μV was obtained with 15 minutes. The min. P100 latency in both the groups was obtained with checks of 120 minutes while the min. P100 amplitude was obtained with 180 minutes. A statistically significant difference was derived between means of P100 latency for 15 and 30 minutes with reference to its value for 120 minutes and between the mean value of P100 amplitude for 120 minutes and that of 90 and 180 minutes. Conclusion: Altering the size of stimulus (visual angle has an effect on the PRVEP parameters. Our study found that the 120
Thornton, P D J; Bornstein, J C
The functional significance of the slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in myenteric neurones is unknown. We investigated this using intracellular recording from myenteric neurones in guinea-pig ileum, in vitro. In all, 121 neurones responded with fast EPSPs to distension of the intestine oral to the recording site. In 28 of these neurones, distension also evoked depolarizations similar to the slow EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation in the same neurones. Intracellular injection of biocytin and immunohistochemistry revealed that neurones responding to distension with slow EPSPs were descending interneurones, which were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Other neurones, including inhibitory motor neurones and interneurones lacking NOS, did not respond to distension with slow EPSPs, but many had slow EPSPs evoked electrically. Slow EPSPs evoked electrically or by distension in NOS-immunoreactive descending interneurones were resistant to blockade of NK1 or NK3 tachykinin receptors (SR 140333, 100 nm; SR 142801, 100 nm, respectively) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (PHCCC, 10–30 μm), when the antagonists were applied in the recording chamber of a two-chambered organ bath. However, slow EPSPs evoked electrically in inhibitory motor neurones were substantially depressed by SR 140333 (100 nm). Blockade of synaptic transmission in the stimulation chamber of the organ bath abolished slow EPSPs evoked by distension, indicating that they arose from activity in interneurones, and not from anally directed, intrinsic sensory neurones. Thus, distension evokes slow EPSPs in a subset of myenteric neurones, which may be important for intestinal motility. PMID:11882690
Pihko, Elina; Kujala, Teija; Mickos, Annika; Alku, Paavo; Byring, Roger; Korkman, Marit
Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child has problems in producing or understanding language despite having a normal IQ and there being no other obvious explanation. There can be several associated problems, and no single underlying cause has yet been identified. Some theories propose problems in auditory processing, specifically in the discrimination of sound frequency or rapid temporal frequency changes. We compared automatic cortical speech-sound processing and discrimination between a group of children with SLI and control children with normal language development (mean age: 6.6 years; range: 5-7 years). We measured auditory evoked magnetic fields using two sets of CV syllables, one with a changing consonant /da/ba/ga/ and another one with a changing vowel /su/so/sy/ in an oddball paradigm. The P1m responses for onsets of repetitive stimuli were weaker in the SLI group whereas no significant group differences were found in the mismatch responses. The results indicate that the SLI group, having weaker responses to the onsets of sounds, might have slightly depressed sensory encoding.
Rashida K. Braggs
Full Text Available “It is only in his music [. . .] that the Negro in America has been able to tell his story. It is a story which otherwise has yet to be told and which no American is prepared to hear,” so wrote James Baldwin in “Many Thousands Gone.” Throughout his career, James Baldwin returned to this incomprehension of African-American experience. He continually privileged music in his literature, crafting his own literary blues to address it. Baldwin’s blues resonated even more powerfully and painfully for its emotional and geographical dislocation. In this article, Rashida K. Braggs argues that it was the combination of music, word, and migration that prompted Baldwin’s own deeper understanding. Exploring her term dislocated listening, Braggs investigates how listening to music while willfully dislocated from one’s cultural home prompts a deeper understanding of African-American experience. The distance disconcerts, leaving one more vulnerable, while music impels the reader, audience, and even Baldwin to identify with some harsh realities of African-American experience. Baldwin evokes the experience of dislocated listening in his life and in “Sonny’s Blues.” Braggs also creates an experience of dislocated listening through her video performance of Baldwin’s words, thus attempting to draw the reader as well into a more attuned understanding of African-American experience.
Weich, Tainara Milbradt; Tochetto, Tania Maria; Seligman, Lilian
Illicit drugs are known for their deleterious effects upon the central nervous system and more specifically for how they adversely affect hearing. This study aims to analyze and compare the hearing complaints and the results of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) of former drug user support group goers. This is a cross-sectional non-experimental descriptive quantitative study. The sample consisted of 17 subjects divided by their preferred drug of use. Ten individuals were placed in the marijuana group (G1) and seven in the crack/cocaine group (G2). The subjects were further divided based on how long they had been using drugs: 1 to 5 years, 6 to 10 years, and over 15 years. They were interviewed, and assessed by pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance tests, and BERA. No statistically significant differences were found between G1 and G2 or time of drug use in absolute latencies and interpeak intervals. However, only five of the 17 individuals had BERA results with adequate results for their ages. Marijuana and crack/cocaine may cause diffuse disorders in the brainstem and compromise the transmission of auditory stimuli regardless of how long these substances are used for.
Mallecourt, J; Chain, F; Leblanc, M; Lhermitte, F
In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) the modification of the latency of visual evoked responses (VER's) shows sequels of the involvement of anterior optic tracts manifested by a retro-bulbar optic neuritis (RBON). This study was made on 102 patients with MS. The stimulus used the pattern reversal of a checkboard. The influence of the size and squares 8' and 20' chosen as stimulus has been first studied in patients with antecedents of RBON. Using the 8' squares, all eyes with a history of RBON had pathological VER's. When there is no clinical antecedent of RBON, this means of stimulation enabled us to detect sequels of RBON. In "definitive" and "probable" MS, 100% of patients had pathological VER's either for both eyes of a single eyes. In "possible" MS a sequel of RBON was demonstrated in 57% of this population without clinical antecedent of RBON. A correlation between VER's result and the ophthalmological examination (visual acuity, fundoscopic examination and acquired dyschromatopsie) was made. Although VER's are an excellent method for detecting the sequels of RBON in MS. VER's abnormalities have no etiological significance, they are observed in other neurological involvements of anterior optic tracts. These different points are discussed and a physiological interpretation of VER's abnormalities is proposed.
Papathanasiou, E S; Zamba-Papanicolaou, E; Pantziaris, M; Kleopas, K; Kyriakides, T; Papacostas, S; Pattichis, C; Iliopoulos, I; Piperidou, C
To obtain neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials (NVESTEPs) with surface scalp recording using a tone pip auditory stimulus. Fourteen neurologically normal volunteers (Age range 26-45 years, 10 females and 4 males), and two patients with sensorineural hearing loss and possible multiple sclerosis respectively, were examined. Two channel recordings were obtained, the first channel being P3 referred to Fpz, and the second channel being P4 referred to Fpz. A 1 kHz tone pip stimulus with two cycles was delivered via headphones monoaurally with contralateral masking noise. A consistent negative wave with a mean absolute latency of 4.72 msec was obtained, which we have named N5. 25% of the ears tested had better responses at the ipsilateral parietal electrode. In the patient with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, NVESTEPs was present, suggesting that the NVESTEP is not a cochlear response. In the patient with possible multiple sclerosis, an abnormal NVESTEP response and a normal BAEP response were found. Use of a tone-pip rather than a click auditory stimulus allows a lower click intensity to be used in the production of NVESTEP responses, leads to a shorter testing time, and is therefore more comfortable for the patient. This study adds to our impression that the NVESTEP may be a physiological response that can be used to assess the vestibular system and is different from the BAEP response. Further testing in patients with symptoms of dizziness and with disorders specific for the vestibular nerve is required.
Stefanos D. Georgiadis
Full Text Available It is a challenge in evoked potential (EP analysis to incorporate prior physiological knowledge for estimation. In this paper, we address the problem of single-channel trial-to-trial EP characteristics estimation. Prior information about phase-locked properties of the EPs is assesed by means of estimated signal subspace and eigenvalue decomposition. Then for those situations that dynamic fluctuations from stimulus-to-stimulus could be expected, prior information can be exploited by means of state-space modeling and recursive Bayesian mean square estimation methods (Kalman filtering and smoothing. We demonstrate that a few dominant eigenvectors of the data correlation matrix are able to model trend-like changes of some component of the EPs, and that Kalman smoother algorithm is to be preferred in terms of better tracking capabilities and mean square error reduction. We also demonstrate the effect of strong artifacts, particularly eye blinks, on the quality of the signal subspace and EP estimates by means of independent component analysis applied as a prepossessing step on the multichannel measurements.
Dondi, Maurizio; Biaggi, Fabio; Di Ianni, Francesco; Dodi, Pier Luigi; Quintavalla, Fausto
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs) testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris's Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3) and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.
Martins, Alessandra; Balachandran, Chandra; Klistorner, Alexander I; Graham, Stuart L; Billson, Francis A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of pupil diameter on the amplitude and latency of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP). The multifocal objective perimeter (Accumap; Objectivision) was used to stimulate the visual field at 56 sites extending to 32 degrees using a pseudo-random pattern stimulus. The mfVEP were recorded using bipolar occipital electrodes, 7 min/eye. Ten normal subjects were recruited from the community and one eye was randomly selected for testing. The mfVEP were recorded at four different pupil diameters (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm), obtained by applying tropicamide (0.5%) or pilocarpine (2%) in different dilutions. Appropriate refractive correction was provided to overcome cycloplegia and achieve a visual acuity of 6/7.5 or better. Analysis revealed that at most pupil diameters the normalized full field amplitude did not show significant variation, except at the most miotic pupil diameter (2 mm), where the amplitude became reduced, based on 2-way anova and Tukey's T method. There was, however, significant correlation between latency and pupil area (correlation coefficient: upper field -0.63, lower field -0.76). The results suggest that even in the presence of mydriatics or miotics, the mfVEP test can be used to assess diseases that affect amplitude, provided near correction is used. The interpretation of latency, however, must be made with caution, as a borderline conduction defect with a dilated pupil may appear normal.
Thompson, Lara A; Haburcakova, Csilla; Gong, Wangsong; Lee, Daniel J; Wall, Conrad; Merfeld, Daniel M; Lewis, Richard F
Patients with bilateral vestibular loss experience dehabilitating visual, perceptual, and postural difficulties, and an implantable vestibular prosthesis that could improve these symptoms would be of great benefit to these patients. In previous work, we have shown that a one-dimensional, unilateral canal prosthesis can improve the vestibulooccular reflex (VOR) in canal-plugged squirrel monkeys. In addition to the VOR, the potential effects of a vestibular prosthesis on more complex, highly integrative behaviors, such as the perception of head orientation and posture have remained unclear. We tested a one-dimensional, unilateral prosthesis in a rhesus monkey with bilateral vestibular loss and found that chronic electrical stimulation partially restored the compensatory VOR and also that percepts of head orientation relative to gravity were improved. However, the one-dimensional prosthetic stimulation had no clear effect on postural stability during quiet stance, but sway evoked by head-turns was modestly reduced. These results suggest that not only can the implementation of a vestibular prosthesis provide partial restitution of VOR but may also improve perception and posture in the presence of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH). In this review, we provide an overview of our previous and current work directed towards the eventual clinical implementation of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.
Ventura, Luzia Maria Pozzobom; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Costa Filho, Orozimbo Alves
Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) represents a number of electrical changes occurring in the central nervous system, resulting from stimulation of the auditory sensorial pathways. Many studies approach the use of these potentials controlling the artifact created by eye movement with the use of equipment with a large number of channels. However, what happens is very different in Brazilian clinical practice, where the equipment used has a very limited number of channels. to compare the two methods used to control the artifacts created by eye movements during LLAEP capture using two recording channels. this is a prospective study with the application of two LLAEP capturing methods (eye artifact subtraction and rejection limit control) in 10 normal hearing individuals. we did not observe statistically significant differences concerning the latency values obtained with the use of both methods, only concerning amplitude values. both methods were efficient to capture the LLAEP and to control the eye movement artifact. The rejection limit control method produced greater amplitude values.
Full Text Available Noise affects one′s hearing as well as balance mechanism. The hearing mechanism of the noise-exposed individuals has been extensively studied. However, in view of the poor research focus on the sacculo-collic reflexes, especially in this study area, the present study was undertaken to examine the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. A total of 30 subjects (55 ears with NIHL participated in the present study within the age range of 30-40 years. VEMP recordings were done at 99 dBnHL using IHS instrument. The results indicated that as the average pure tone hearing threshold increased, the VEMP latencies were prolonged and peak to peak amplitude was reduced in NIHL subjects. Out of the 55 ears, VEMP was absent in 16 (29.0% ears. The latency was prolonged and the peak to peak amplitude was reduced in 19 (34.6% ears. VEMP results were normal in 20 (36.4% ears. Therefore, VEMP was abnormal or absent in 67% of NIHL subjects in the present study. Hence it can be concluded that the possibility of vestibular dysfunction, specially the saccular pathway, is high in individuals with NIHL. VEMP, a non-invasive and user friendly procedure, can be employed in these individuals to assess sacculo-collic reflex.
Yilmaz, U; Ellis, W; Lange, P; Yang, C
To assess cavernous nerve integrity, we measured evoked cavernous activity (ECA) in 16 men who underwent nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (NS group) and 11 men who underwent non-nerve-sparing surgery (non-NS group). The right median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. All subjects had recordable SSR, and all subjects following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy had reproducible ECA. Of the 11 non-NS subjects, eight had no response, indicating interrupted corporal innervation. Three subjects had reproducible ECA, one of whom had a very late latency, suggesting residual innervation was present. The mean latencies of ECA were similar to foot SSR mean latencies (P>0.05), but not to hand SSR latencies. The non-NS group was significantly different from the NS group for the presence of ECA (PECA is a viable method of evaluating the autonomic innervation of the penis.
Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Plow, Ela B; Floden, Darlene P; Machado, Andre G
Pain experience is not only a function of somatosensory inputs. Rather, it is strongly influenced by cognitive and affective pathways. Pain anticipatory phenomena, an important limitation to rehabilitative efforts in the chronic state, are processed by associative and limbic networks, along with primary sensory cortices. Characterization of neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation, particularly during very early stages of neural processing is critical for development of therapeutic interventions. Here, we utilized magnetoencephalography to study early event-related fields (ERFs) in healthy subjects exposed to a 3 s visual countdown task that preceded a painful stimulus, a non-painful stimulus or no stimulus. We found that the first countdown cue, but not the last cue, evoked critical ERFs signaling anticipation, attention and alertness to the noxious stimuli. Further, we found that P2 and N2 components were significantly different in response to first-cues that signaled incoming painful stimuli when compared to non-painful or no stimuli. The findings indicate that early ERFs are relevant neural substrates of pain anticipatory phenomena and could be potentially serve as biomarkers. These measures could assist in the development of neurostimulation approaches aimed at curbing the negative effects of pain anticipation during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Özgür, Abdulkadir; Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Terzi, Suat; Coşkun, Zerrin Özergin; Dursun, Engin
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although sacroiliac joint involvement is the classic sign along with the formed immune mediators, it may result in immune-mediated inner ear disease and may cause damage to the audiovestibular system. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) is a clinical reflex test used in the diagnosis of vestibular diseases and is performed by recording and evaluating the muscle potentials resulting from the stimulation of the vestibular system with different stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cervical VEMP test results in AS patients without vestibular symptoms. Thirty-three patients with AS and a control group of 30 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated in the study. VEMP wave latency, P13-N23 wave amplitude, and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR) values were compared between the groups. The relationship between clinical and laboratory findings of the AS patients and VEMP data were also investigated. Compared with healthy people, this study shows the response rate of patients with ankylosing spondylitis was reduced in the VEMP test, and P13-N23 wave amplitude showed a decrease in AS patients who had VEMP response (p ankylosing spondylitis. The data obtained from this study suggest that AS may lead to decreased sensitivity of the vestibular system.
Full Text Available In ten adult cats anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride the neocortex was exposed and rectangular pulses (1msec, 0.5 Hz and variable intensity were applied to discrete points of one side and transcallosal evoked potentials were recorded from the other. The stimulation and recording positions were determined on a cartesian map of most of the exposable neocortical areas and the potentials were analysed as to their components, voltage and latency. Passive spread and electrotonic potentials and the effects of increasing frequency were also analysed. The results showed large transcallosal potentials in some areas and an increase of potentials in the caudorostral direction, attaining the highest values in anteromedial areas of the suprasylvian gyrus. Confirming anatomical studies, a few silent spots were found in the motor and somesthetic cortex and in restricted posterior regions of the visual cortex, where small or zero voltages occurred. While causing weak contralateral potentials, stimulation of some posterior sites provoked high voltage potentials in anterior regions of the side being stimulated and in the corresponding area of the opposite site. These posterior sites are. poorly interconnected by the corpus callosum. The L-shaped indirect connection described in this work may be involved in some types of epilepsy and may explain the effectiveness of partial callosotomy in their treatment.
Over the last decade, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) have evolved as a new clinical test for dynamic otolith (predominantly utricular) function. The aim of this review is to give an update on the neurophysiological foundations of oVEMPs and their implications for recording and interpreting oVEMP responses in clinical practice. Different lines of anatomical, neurophysiological, and clinical evidence support the notion that oVEMPs measure predominantly contralateral utricular function, while cervical cVEMPs are an indicator of ipsilateral saccular function. Bone-conducted vibration (BCV) in the midline of the forehead at the hairline (Fz) or unilateral air-conducted sound (ACS) are commonly used as stimuli for oVEMPs. It is recommended to apply short stimuli with short rise times for obtaining optimal oVEMP responses. Finally, this review summarizes the clinical application and interpretation of oVEMPs, particularly for vestibular neuritis, Ménière's disease, superior canal dehiscence and "challenging" patients.
Celso Soiti Matsumoto
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.
Full Text Available To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs and hearing controls (HCs were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n. day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8 p.n. to mature responses around day 90 p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR.
Full Text Available The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris’s Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus, n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus, n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug. Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3 and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.
Escorihuela García, Vicente; Llópez Carratalá, Ignacio; Orts Alborch, Miguel; Marco Algarra, Jaime
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving the occurrence of demyelinating, chronic neurodegenerative lesions in the central nervous system. We studied vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in this pathology, to allow us to evaluate the saccule, inferior vestibular nerve and vestibular-spinal pathway non-invasively. There were 23 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who underwent VEMP recordings, comparing our results with a control group consisting of 35 healthy subjects. We registered p13 and n23 wave latencies, interaural amplitude difference and asymmetry ratio between both ears. Subjects also underwent an otoscopy and audiometric examination. The prolongation of p13 and n23 wave latencies was the most notable characteristic, with a mean p13 wave latency of 19.53 milliseconds and a mean latency of 30.06 milliseconds for n23. In contrast, the asymmetry index showed no significant differences with our control group. In case of multiple sclerosis, the prolongation of the p13 and n23 VEMP wave latencies is a feature that has been attributed to slowing of conduction by demyelination of the vestibular-spinal pathway. In this regard, alteration of the response or lack thereof in these potentials has a locator value of injury to the lower brainstem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen
Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573
This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hu, Juan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Qing
Myogenic potentials evoked by air conducted sound (ACS), bone conducted vibration (BCV) or galvanic pulses can be recorded with surface electrodes over contracted muscles. These myogenic potentials are of vestibular origin (utricle and saccule) and so these potentials are called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Since the vestibular system has projections to many muscle systems, there are many such VEMPs. In this review, we discuss the generated origin, response pathway, waveform characteristics and clinical application of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP).
Hu, Zhitao; Vashlishan-Murray, Amy B; Kaplan, Joshua M
A neuropeptide (NLP-12) and its receptor (CKR-2) potentiate tonic and evoked ACh release at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. Increased evoked release is mediated by a presynaptic pathway (egl-30 Gαq and egl-8 PLCβ) that produces DAG, and by DAG binding to short and long UNC-13 proteins. Potentiation of tonic ACh release persists in mutants deficient for egl-30 Gαq and egl-8 PLCβ and requires DAG binding to UNC-13L (but not UNC-13S). Thus, NLP-12 adjusts tonic and evoked release by distinct mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351038-05$15.00/0.
Di Stefano, Giulia; La Cesa, Silvia; Leone, Caterina; Pepe, Alessia; Galosi, Eleonora; Fiorelli, Marco; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Lacerenza, Marco; Pergolini, Mario; Biasiotta, Antonella; Cruccu, Giorgio; Truini, Andrea
Although the most widely agreed neurophysiological tool for investigating small fiber damage is laser-evoked potential (LEP) recording, no study has documented its diagnostic accuracy. In this clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study, we collected age-corrected LEP normative ranges, verified the association of LEPs with pinprick sensory disturbances in the typical diabetic mixed fiber polyneuropathy, and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of LEPs in diabetic small fiber neuropathy. From 288 LEP recordings from the face, hand, and foot in 73 healthy subjects, we collected age-corrected normative ranges for LEPs. We then selected 100 patients with mixed-fiber diabetic neuropathy and 25 patients with possible small-fiber diabetic neuropathy. In the 100 patients with mixed fiber neuropathy, we verified how LEP abnormalities were associated with clinically evident pinprick sensory disturbances. In the 25 patients with possible pure small fiber neuropathy, using the skin biopsy for assessing the intraepidermal nerve fiber density as a reference standard, we calculated LEP sensitivity and specificity. In healthy participants, age strongly influenced normative ranges for all LEP variables. By applying age-corrected normative ranges for LEPs, we found that LEPs were strongly associated with pinprick sensory disturbances. In relation to the skin biopsy findings, LEPs yielded 78% sensitivity and 81% specificity in the diagnosis of diabetic small fiber neuropathy. Our study, providing age-corrected normative ranges for the main LEP data and their diagnostic accuracy, helps to make LEPs more reliable as a clinical diagnostic tool, and proposes this technique as a less invasive alternative to skin biopsy for diagnosing diabetic small fiber neuropathy.
Sowmiya R, Vinodha R
Full Text Available Background: Migraine is worldwide common, chronic, Neurovascular disorder, characterized by attacks of severe headache and an Aura involving neurologic symptoms. Its pathogenesis was incompletely understood whether of cortical or brainstem origin. Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate brainstem auditory functions in Migraine patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were recruited based on International Headache Society classification for Migraine. Subjects with episodes of headache for at least 2yrs, 2 attacks per month in last quarter year were included in the study. Forty subjects (16 Migraine with Aura & 24 cases – Migraine without aura & forty age / sex matched controls were selected. Brainstem auditory evoked potential was recorded using 4-Channel polygraph (Neuro perfect plus. Electrodes were placed according to 10 – 20 electrode placement system. Auditory stimulus in the form of click sound is delivered through the headphones. Clicks were delivered at a rate of 8-10 /sec. The intensity of the stimulus is set at 30db. About 100 averages were recorded. BAEP waveforms – Wave I, III & V latencies and the interpeak latencies were measured. The results were analysed statistically using student‘t’ test. Results: BAEP recording shows significant prolongation in latencies of Wave I, III & V and the Interpeak latency (IPL I-III, III-V & I-V in Migraine with aura. In Migraine without aura, there was significant prolongation of Wave I, III & V and III-V & I-VIPL (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prolongation suggests that there is involvement of brainstem structures in Migraine, thus BAEP can be used as an effective tool in evaluation of Migraine.
Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
Full Text Available Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP has been widely used for different purposes in veterinary practice and is commonly used to identify inherited deafness and presbycusis. In this study, 43 Boxer dogs were evaluated using the BAEP. Deafness was diagnosed in 3 dogs (2 bilateral and 1 unilateral allowing the remaining 40 Boxers to be included for normative data analysis including an evaluation on the influence of age on the BAEP. The animals were divided into 2 groups of 20 Boxers each based on age. The mean age was 4.54 years (range, 1-8 in group I, and 9.83 years (range, 8.5-12 in group II. The mean latency for I, III, and V waves were 1.14 (±0.07, 2.64 (±0.11, and 3.48 (±0.10 ms in group I, and 1.20 (±0.12, 2.73 (±0.15, and 3.58 (±0.22 ms in group II, respectively. The mean inter-peak latencies for the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals were 1.50 (±0.15, 0.84 (±0.15, and 2.34 (±0.11 ms in group I, and 1.53 (±0.16, 0.85 (±0.15, and 2.38 (±0.19 ms in group II, respectively. Latencies of waves I and III were significant different between group I and II. For the I-III, III-V and I-V intervals, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. As far as we know, this is the first normative study of BAEP obtained from Boxer dogs.
Hari Kumar, K V S; Ahmad, F M H; Sood, Sandeep; Mansingh, Sudhir
We evaluated for early retinopathy using the visual evoked potential (VEP) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. All patients with GDM and type 2 diabetes seen between June and October of 2014 were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients with secondary diabetes, ocular or major illness were excluded from the study. VEP was recorded in both eyes to derive prominent positive peak latency (P100), amplitude and initial negative deflection (N75) latency. The data were compared with 10 gestational age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance. Appropriate statistical methods were used for comparison among the 3 groups. The study participants (40 with GDM, 10 with type 2 diabetes, 10 with normal glucose tolerance) had a median (25th to 75th interquartile range) age of 26 (24.3, 30) years, a gestational age of 24.5 (21, 27) weeks and weights of 66.8 (63.4, 71.5) kg. The P100 latencies were comparable among the 3 groups (p=0.0577). However, patients with any diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes) had prolonged P100 latencies (p=0.0139) and low P100 amplitudes (p=0.0391) in comparison to controls. P100 latency showed a direct correlation with hyperglycemia (p=0.0118). Our data showed that VEP abnormalities are detectable even in the short-term hyperglycemia of GDM and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van de Wassenberg, Wilma J. G.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.
Although large intersubject variability is reported for cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), variability between hemispheres within one subject is thought to be small. Therefore, interhemispheric comparison of SEP waveforms might be clinically useful to detect unilateral abnormalities in
Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss
Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.
Rachel S. Herz
Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.
Full Text Available Pupil size is collectively controlled by the sympathetic dilator and parasympathetic sphincter muscles. Locus coeruleus (LC activation has been shown to evoke pupil dilation, but how the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways contribute to this dilation remains unknown. We examined pupil dilation elicited by LC activation in lightly anesthetized rats. Unilateral LC activation evoked bilateral but lateralized pupil dilation; i.e., the ipsilateral dilation was significantly larger than the contralateral dilation. Surgically blocking the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, sympathetic pathway significantly reduced lateralization, suggesting that lateralization is mainly due to sympathetic contribution. Moreover, we found that sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, contribution is correlated with LC activation frequency. Together, our results unveil the frequency-dependent contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to LC activation-evoked pupil dilation and suggest that lateralization in task-evoked pupil dilations may be used as a biomarker for autonomic tone.
Bogle, Jamie M
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are currently the most clinically accessible method to evaluate the otolith reflex pathways. These responses provide unique information regarding the status of the utriculo-ocular and sacculo-collic reflex pathways, information that has previously been unavailable. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are recorded from tonically contracted target muscles known to be innervated by these respective otolith organs. Diagnosticians can use vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to better evaluate the overall integrity of the inner ear and neural pathways; however, there are specific considerations for each otolith reflex protocol. In addition, specific patient populations may require protocol variations to better evaluate atypical function of the inner ear organs, vestibular nerve transmission, or subsequent reflex pathways. This is a review of the clinical application and interpretation of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.
... to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music‐evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion...
Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.
Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded
Sunshine, Michael D.; Cho, Frances S.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Fechko, Amber S.; Kasten, Michael R.; Moritz, Chet T.
Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for reanimating paralyzed limbs following neurological injury. ISMS within the cervical and lumbar spinal cord is capable of evoking a variety of highly-functional movements prior to injury, but the ability of ISMS to evoke forelimb movements after cervical spinal cord injury is unknown. Here we examine the forelimb movements and muscles activated by cervical ISMS both before and after contusion injury. Approach. We documented the forelimb muscles activated and movements evoked via systematic stimulation of the rodent cervical spinal cord both before injury and three, six and nine weeks following a moderate C4/C5 lateralized contusion injury. Animals were anesthetized with isoflurane to permit construction of somatotopic maps of evoked movements and quantify evoked muscle synergies between cervical segments C3 and T1. Main results. When ISMS was delivered to the cervical spinal cord, a variety of responses were observed at 68% of locations tested, with a spatial distribution that generally corresponded to the location of motor neuron pools. Stimulus currents required to achieve movement and the number of sites where movements could be evoked were unchanged by spinal cord injury. A transient shift toward extension-dominated movements and restricted muscle synergies were observed at three and six weeks following injury, respectively. By nine weeks after injury, however, ISMS-evoked patterns were similar to spinally-intact animals. Significance. The results demonstrate the potential for cervical ISMS to reanimate hand and arm function following spinal cord injury. Robust forelimb movements can be evoked both before and during the chronic stages of recovery from a clinically relevant and sustained cervical contusion injury.
Castle, D; Kromberg, J; Kowalsky, R; Moosa, R; Gillman, N; Zwane, E; Fritz, V
Visual evoked potential testing was performed on 15 Negro carriers of the gene for tyrosinase positive oculocutaneous albinism in order to detect whether they have the same visual pathway decussation anomalies as do homozygotes. No subject showed 01-02 asymmetry on monocular testing, indicating that decussation follows the normal pattern. It is concluded that visual evoked potential testing is probably not useful in the detection of Negroes heterozygous for the gene for tyrosinase positive oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:3148727
Liila Taruffi; Stefan Koelsch
This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factor...
Flávia V. A. Medeiros
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. METHOD: First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01 while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01. A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017. A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012. No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies.
Pritish J Korula
Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this
Sayenko, Dimitry G; Angeli, Claudia; Harkema, Susan J; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P
Epidural stimulation (ES) of the lumbosacral spinal cord has been used to facilitate standing and voluntary movement after clinically motor-complete spinal-cord injury. It seems of importance to examine how the epidurally evoked potentials are modulated in the spinal circuitry and projected to various motor pools. We hypothesized that chronically implanted electrode arrays over the lumbosacral spinal cord can be used to assess functionally spinal circuitry linked to specific motor pools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional and topographic organization of compound evoked potentials induced by the stimulation. Three individuals with complete motor paralysis of the lower limbs participated in the study. The evoked potentials to epidural spinal stimulation were investigated after surgery in a supine position and in one participant, during both supine and standing, with body weight load of 60%. The stimulation was delivered with intensity from 0.5 to 10 V at a frequency of 2 Hz. Recruitment curves of evoked potentials in knee and ankle muscles were collected at three localized and two wide-field stimulation configurations. Epidural electrical stimulation of rostral and caudal areas of lumbar spinal cord resulted in a selective topographical recruitment of proximal and distal leg muscles, as revealed by both magnitude and thresholds of the evoked potentials. ES activated both afferent and efferent pathways. The components of neural pathways that can mediate motor-evoked potentials were highly dependent on the stimulation parameters and sensory conditions, suggesting a weight-bearing-induced reorganization of the spinal circuitries.
Benavides, Francisco D; Santamaria, Andrea J; Bodoukhin, Nikita; Guada, Luis G; Solano, Juan P; Guest, James D
Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.
Shen, Jian; Shui, Ren-de; Feng, Lei; Liu, Yu-Hong; He, Wei; Huang, Jing-Yi; Wang, Wei
To investigate the personality traits and intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in chronic primary insomnia. Thirty-seven patients with chronic primary insomnia (insomnia group) and 44 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled in the study. The AEPs were examined in insomnia and control groups; the personality traits were studied by Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) and Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ); and the mood states by Plutchik-van Praag's Depression Inventory (PVP). The scores of neuroticism-anxiety and depression in insomnia group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01); and the scores of impulsivity and aggression-hostility were also higher than those in control group (P<0.05); N1-P2 amplitude of AEP increased with stimulus intensity, which were significantly different in 70, 80, 90,100 dB (P<0.01). There were significant correlations between activity and N1 latency at 80 dB, activity and P2 latency at 100 dB (r=0.270, r=0.276, P<0.05); and between total scores of sensation seeking scale and N1-P2 amplitude (r=0.3746, r=0.35329, P<0.01) at 70 and 90 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group. There were significant correlations among experience seeking and N1-P2 amplitude, experience seeking and slope rate (P<0.01) at 70, 80, 90, 100 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group (r=0.539, r=0.3439, r=0.439, r=0.3278). There were significant correlations between sensation seeking of boredom susceptibility and slope rate (r=-0.282998, P<0.05) in insomnia group. There were significant correlations between thrill and adventure seeking and N1-P2 amplitude(r=0.2789, P<0.05) at 90 dB stimulus intensity in insomnia group; there were significant correlations between PVP and N1-P2 amplitude (r=-0.3434, r=-0.3158, P<0.05) at 70 dB and N1 latency at 80 dB in insomnia group. Chronic primary insomnia sufferers have higher levels of neuroticism-anxiety, depression, aggression-hostility and impulsivity
Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Mamede Carvallo, Renata Mota; Schochat, Eliane
Contralateral masking of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions is a phenomenon that suggests an inhibitory effect of the olivocochlear efferent auditory pathway. Many studies have been inconclusive in demonstrating a clear connection between this system and a behavioral speech-in-noise listening skill. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of a medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent in children with poor speech-in-noise (PSIN) performance and children with language impairment and PSIN (SLI + PSIN). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) with and without contralateral white noise were tested in 52 children (between 6 and 12 years). These children were arranged in three groups: typical development (TD) (n = 25), PSIN (n = 14) and SLI + PSI (n = 13). PSIN and SLI + PSI groups presented reduced otoacoustic emission suppression in comparison with the TD group. Our finding suggests differences in MOC function among children with typical development and children with poor SIN and language problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corrales, Alexandra; Xu, Fang; Garavito-Aguilar, Zayra V; Blanck, Thomas J J; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza
The authors previously reported that the isoflurane-caused reduction of the carbachol-evoked cytoplasmic Ca transient increase ([Ca]cyt) was eliminated by K or caffeine-pretreatment. In this study the authors investigated whether the isoflurane-sensitive component of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient involved Ca influx through the plasma membrane. Perfused attached human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to carbachol (1 mm, 2 min) in the absence and presence of isoflurane (1 mm) and in the absence and presence of extracellular Ca (1.5 mm). The authors studied the effect of the nonspecific cationic channel blocker La (100 microm), of the L-type Ca channel blocker nitrendipine (10 microm), and of the N-type Ca channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.1 microm) on isoflurane modulation of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient. [Ca]cyt was detected with fura-2 and experiments were carried out at 37 degrees C. Isoflurane reduced the peak and area of the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca. La had a similar effect as the removal of extracellular Ca. Omega-conotoxin GVIA and nitrendipine did not affect the isoflurane sensitivity of the carbachol response although nitrendipine reduced the magnitude of the carbachol response. The current data are consistent with previous observations in that the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient involves both Ca release from intracellular Ca stores and Ca entry through the plasma membrane. It was found that isoflurane attenuates the carbachol-evoked Ca entry. The isoflurane sensitive Ca entry involves a cationic channel different from the L- or N- type voltage-dependent Ca channels. These results indicate that isoflurane attenuates the carbachol-evoked [Ca]cyt transient at a site at the plasma membrane that is distal to the muscarinic receptor.
Sabeva, Nadezhda; Cho, Richard W.; Vasin, Alexander; Gonzalez, Agustin; Littleton, J. Troy
Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses. We examined synaptic vesicle recycling pathways at complexin null neuromuscular junctions, where spontaneous release is dramatically enhanced. We combined loading of the lipophilic dye FM1–43 with photoconversion, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology to monitor evoked and spontaneous recycling vesicle pools. We found that the total number of recycling vesicles was equal to those retrieved through spontaneous and evoked pools, suggesting that retrieval following fusion is partially segregated for spontaneous and evoked release. In addition, the kinetics of FM1–43 destaining and synaptic depression measured in the presence of the vesicle-refilling blocker bafilomycin indicated that spontaneous and evoked recycling pools partially intermix during the release process. Finally, FM1–43 photoconversion combined with electron microscopy analysis indicated that spontaneous recycling preferentially involves synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of AZs, whereas vesicles recycled following evoked release involve a larger intraterminal pool. Together, these results suggest that spontaneous and evoked vesicles use separable recycling pathways and then partially intermix during subsequent rounds of fusion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurotransmitter release involves fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane in response to an action potential, or spontaneously in the absence of stimulation. Upon
Gottrup, Hanne; Bach, Flemming Winther; Juhl, Gitte Irene
ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, on spontaneous pain, brush-evoked pain, and pinprick-evoked pain in patients with nerve injury pain. METHODS: Twenty patients participated in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover...... experiments in which they, on four different days, received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.24 mg/kg), lidocaine (5 mg/kg), or saline. Ongoing pain, pain evoked by brush and repetitive pinprick stimuli, and acetone was measured before, during, and after infusion. RESULTS: Ketamine...... significantly reduced ongoing pain and evoked pain to brush and pinprick, whereas lidocaine only reduced evoked pain to repetitive pinprick stimuli. In individual patients, there was no correlation between the pain-relieving effect of lidocaine and ketamine on ongoing or mechanically evoked pains. CONCLUSIONS...
Tarciana de Souza Soares
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the contributions of transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials in the diagnosis of ocular malingering at a Brazilian university hospital. Methods: Adult patients with suspected malingering in one or both eyes were referred for visual evoked potential testing. Data from patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Data analysis included the distance optotype visual acuity based on a ETDRS retro-illuminated chart and the transient pattern-reversal visual evoked potential parameters of latency (milliseconds and amplitude (microvolts for the P100 component, using checkerboards with visual subtenses of 15' and 60'. Motivations for malingering were noted. Results: The 20 subjects included 11 (55% women. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 61 years (mean= 45.05 ± 11.76 years; median= 49 years. In 8 patients (6 women, both eyes exhibited reduced visual acuity with normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters (pure malingerers. The remaining 12 patients (7 men exhibited reduced vision in only 1 eye, with simulated reduced vision in the contralateral eye (exaggerators. Financial motivation was noted in 18 patients (9 men. Conclusion: Normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters with suspected ocular malingering were observed in a 20 patient cohort. This electrophysiological technique appeared to be useful as a measure of visual pathway integrity in this specific population.
El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Gallouj, Karim; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Antoine, Pascal
Research suggests that odors may serve as a potent cue for autobiographical retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigated whether odor-evoked autobiographical memory is an involuntary process that shares similarities with music-evoked autobiographical memory. Participants with mild AD and controls were asked to retrieve 2 personal memories after odor exposure, after music exposure, and in an odor-and music-free condition. AD participants showed better specificity, emotional experience, mental time travel, and retrieval time after odor and music exposure than in the control condition. Similar beneficial effects of odor and music exposure were observed for autobiographical characteristics (i.e., specificity, emotional experience, and mental time travel), except for retrieval time which was more improved after odor than after music exposure. Interestingly, regression analyses suggested executive involvement in memories evoked in the control condition but not in those evoked after music or odor exposure. These findings suggest the involuntary nature of odor-evoked autobiographical memory in AD. They also suggest that olfactory cuing could serve as a useful and ecologically valid tool to stimulate autobiographical memory, at least in the mild stage of the disease. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bai, Yang; Wan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Ke; Ni, Yinmei; Qiu, Lirong; Li, Xiaoli
Objective. When prefrontal-transcranial magnetic stimulation (p-TMS) performed, it may evoke hybrid artifact mixed with muscle activity and blink activity in EEG recordings. Reducing this kind of hybrid artifact challenges the traditional preprocessing methods. We aim to explore method for the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact removal. Approach. We propose a novel method used as independent component analysis (ICA) post processing to reduce the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifact. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to decompose signal into multi-components, then the components were separated with artifact reduced by blind source separation (BSS) method. Three standard BSS methods, ICA, independent vector analysis, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were tested. Main results. Synthetic results showed that EEMD-CCA outperformed others as ICA post processing step in hybrid artifacts reduction. Its superiority was clearer when signal to noise ratio (SNR) was lower. In application to real experiment, SNR can be significantly increased and the p-TMS evoked potential could be recovered from hybrid artifact contaminated signal. Our proposed method can effectively reduce the p-TMS evoked hybrid artifacts. Significance. Our proposed method may facilitate future prefrontal TMS-EEG researches.
Kaminska, A; Delattre, V; Laschet, J; Dubois, J; Labidurie, M; Duval, A; Manresa, A; Magny, J-F; Hovhannisyan, S; Mokhtari, M; Ouss, L; Boissel, A; Hertz-Pannier, L; Sintsov, M; Minlebaev, M; Khazipov, R; Chiron, C
Characteristic preterm EEG patterns of "Delta-brushes" (DBs) have been reported in the temporal cortex following auditory stimuli, but their spatio-temporal dynamics remains elusive. Using 32-electrode EEG recordings and co-registration of electrodes' position to 3D-MRI of age-matched neonates, we explored the cortical auditory-evoked responses (AERs) after 'click' stimuli in 30 healthy neonates aged 30-38 post-menstrual weeks (PMW). (1) We visually identified auditory-evoked DBs within AERs in all the babies between 30 and 33 PMW and a decreasing response rate afterwards. (2) The AERs showed an increase in EEG power from delta to gamma frequency bands over the middle and posterior temporal regions with higher values in quiet sleep and on the right. (3) Time-frequency and averaging analyses showed that the delta component of DBs, which negatively peaked around 550 and 750 ms over the middle and posterior temporal regions, respectively, was superimposed with fast (alpha-gamma) oscillations and corresponded to the late part of the cortical auditory-evoked potential (CAEP), a feature missed when using classical CAEP processing. As evoked DBs rate and AERs delta to alpha frequency power decreased until full term, auditory-evoked DBs are thus associated with the prenatal development of auditory processing and may suggest an early emerging hemispheric specialization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
He, Wenxin; Ding, Xiuyong; Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong
It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies.
Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan
Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.
Thakur, J S; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, D R; Soni, K; Kaushal, S S
To investigate the hypothesis of cochlear and retrocochlear damage in scrub typhus, using evoked response audiometry. Prospective, randomised, case-control study. The study included 25 patients with scrub typhus and 25 controls with other febrile illnesses not known to cause hearing loss. Controls were age- and sex-matched. All subjects underwent pure tone audiometry and evoked response audiometry before commencing treatment. Six patients presented with hearing loss, although a total of 23 patients had evidence of symmetrical high frequency loss on pure tone audiometry. Evoked response audiometry found significant prolongation of absolute latencies of wave I, III, V, and wave I-III interpeak latency. Two cases with normal hearing had increased interpeak latencies. These findings constitute level 3b evidence. Findings were suggestive of retrocochlear pathology in two cases with normal hearing. In other patients, high frequency hearing loss may have led to altered evoked response results. Although scrub typhus appears to cause middle ear cochlear and retrocochlear damage, the presence of such damage could not be fully confirmed by evoked response audiometry.
Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine
The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Boston, Jilana S; Harp, Bev
Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public. Participants' ( N = 400) implicit negative associations were measured with an Implicit Association Task, which is a speeded categorization task, and participants' explicit associations were measured with an Explicit Association Task, which is a standard task for assessing consumers' explicit associations with brands (and images of those brands). Puzzle pieces, both those used as autism logos and those used more generically, evoked negative implicit associations ( t(399) = -5.357, p associations ( z = 4.693, p associated puzzle pieces, even generic puzzle pieces, with incompleteness, imperfection, and oddity. Our results bear public policy implications. If an organization's intention for using puzzle-piece imagery is to evoke negative associations, our results suggest the organization's use of puzzle-piece imagery is apt. However, if the organization's intention is to evoke positive associations, our results suggest that puzzle-piece imagery should probably be avoided.
Lyon, Russ; Lieberman, Jeremy A; Feiner, John; Burch, Shane
This is an animal experiment using transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), mechanically elicited electromyography (EMG), and evoked EMG during spinal nerve root retraction in a pig model. To compare the sensitivity of these 3 electrophysiological measures for a constant retraction force applied to an isolated lumbar nerve root for a specific duration of time. The incidence of nerve root injury during lumbar spine surgery ranges from 0.2% to 31%. Direct retraction of spinal nerve roots may cause these injuries, but the amount and duration of force that may safely be applied is not clear. Using an established porcine model, we examined the changes occurring to multimyotomal TcMEPs, mechanically elicited EMGs, and evoked EMGs during continuous retraction of a nerve root at a constant force applied over 10 minutes. TcMEP, mechanically elicited EMG, and evoked EMG responses were recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 experiments. The dominant root innervating the TA was determined with evoked EMG; preretraction TcMEP and nerve root stimulation threshold (NRT) was obtained. The dominant root was retracted at 2 Newton (N) for 10 minutes. TcMEP trials were elicited every minute during retraction. NRT was measured immediately after retraction. TcMEP and NRT were measured after 10 minutes of recovery. RESULTS.: During the 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N, the amplitude of the TA muscle progressively decreased in all trials in a highly significant curvilinear fashion. The mean TcMEP amplitude decreased 59% +/- 14% from baseline values. The mean NRT after 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N rose to 1.8 +/- 0.7 mA (P EMG activity was variable; tonic EMG was observed in only 2 nerve roots (20%). Three electrophysiologic methods were used intraoperatively to assess neural function during retraction of a single nerve root. Retraction produced consistent changes in TcMEPs and evoked EMG. These 2 methods show promise for assessing the limits on the force and duration
Smith, Sandi W.; Hamel, Lauren M; Kotowski, Michael R.; Nazione, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn; Atkin, Charles K.; Stohl, Cynthia; Skubisz, Christine
Memorable messages about breast cancer sent by different sources, such as friends and family members, were analyzed for the action tendency emotions that they evoked. Negative emotions of fear, sadness, and anger, and positive emotions of hope and relief were analyzed for their associations with prevention and detection breast cancer behaviors. Messages that evoked fear were significantly more likely to be associated with detection behaviors, whereas messages that evoked relief were significa...
Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.
Cholesterol depletion reversibly abolishes carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, without affecting the distribution of IP3 receptors (IP3R) or endoplasmic reticulum, IP3 formation or responses to photolysis of caged IP3. Receptors that stimulate cAMP formation do not alone evoke Ca2+ signals, but they potentiate those evoked by carbachol. We show that these potentiated signals are entirely unaffected by cholesterol depletion and that, within...
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo
as evidenced by a depression of the soleus H-reflex. The objective of this study was to investigate if motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) show a similar depression prior to and at the onset of contraction of muscles that are antagonists to the muscle in which......Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...
Baliazin, V A; Bakhtin, O M; Bu Khaled, Kh E; Filatova, V S
The short-latent acoustic evoked potentials in patients with unilateral neurosensory hypoacusis due to the tumor of the acoustic nerve or other etiology were recorded. It was found that the patients had no potential in the diseased area in monaural sound stimulation, but binaural sound stimulation enabled these potentials to be recorded. With this, the short-latent acoustic evoked potentials in patients with verified neurinoma showed a reduction in the third wave to the point of its disappearance. Those in patients whose neurosensory hypoacusis were unassociated with the development of neoplasms in the area of the acoustic nerve involve the third wave whose magnitude did not differ from that recorded in the examinees with otologically normal hearing. The authors propose to measure the third wave of the short-latent acoustic evoked potential recorded in binaural sound stimulation as a possible screening of persons at a high risk for neurinoma among patients with unilateral neurosensory hypoacusis.
Baker, Robert A; Gawne, Timothy J; Loop, Michael S; Pullman, Sheena
The visual acuity of seven midland banded water snakes was measured by recording evoked responses from telencephalon to temporally modulated square wave grating patterns. Using conventional electrophysiological techniques and signal averaging, high contrast square wave gratings of different spatial frequencies were presented. Acuity was estimated by extrapolating relative response amplitude/log(10) spatial frequency functions which yielded an average acuity of 4.25 cycles/degree. Refractive state was also estimated by recording evoked potentials to intermediate spatial frequencies with different lenses in front of the eye. Polynomial fits indicated that under the experimental conditions the snakes were around 6.4 diopters hyperopic suggesting a corrected acuity of 4.89 cycles/degree. Reduction of grating luminance resulted in a reduction in evoked potential acuity measurements. These results indicate that the spatial resolution of midland banded water snakes is the equal of cat; about 20/120 in human clinical terms.
Huang, Lu; Yuan, Tifei; Tan, Minjie; Xi, Yue; Hu, Yu; Tao, Qian; Zhao, Zhikai; Zheng, Jiajun; Han, Yushui; Xu, Fuqiang; Luo, Minmin; Sollars, Patricia J; Pu, Mingliang; Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Ren, Chaoran
Animals promote their survival by avoiding rapidly approaching objects that indicate threats. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are triggered by the superior colliculus (SC) which receives direct retinal inputs. However, the specific neural circuits that begin in the retina and mediate this important behaviour remain unclear. Here we identify a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that controls mouse looming-evoked defensive responses through axonal collaterals to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and SC. Looming signals transmitted by DRN-projecting RGCs activate DRN GABAergic neurons that in turn inhibit serotoninergic neurons. Moreover, activation of DRN serotoninergic neurons reduces looming-evoked defensive behaviours. Thus, a dedicated population of RGCs signals rapidly approaching visual threats and their input to the DRN controls a serotonergic self-gating mechanism that regulates innate defensive responses. Our study provides new insights into how the DRN and SC work in concert to extract and translate visual threats into defensive behavioural responses.
Manon W H Schaap
Full Text Available Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs are used in humans and animals to increase knowledge about nociception and pain. Since the SEP in humans increases when noxious stimuli are administered unpredictably, predictability potentially influences the SEP in animals as well. To assess the effect of predictability on the SEP in animals, classical fear conditioning was applied to compare SEPs between rats receiving SEP-evoking electrical stimuli either predictably or unpredictably. As in humans, the rat's SEP increased when SEP-evoking stimuli were administered unpredictably. These data support the hypothesis that the predictability of noxious stimuli plays a distinctive role in the processing of these stimuli in animals. The influence of predictability should be considered when studying nociception and pain in animals. Additionally, this finding suggests that animals confronted with (unpredictable noxious stimuli can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the influence of predictability on central processing of noxious stimuli.
Full Text Available For electrophysiological hearing assessment and diagnosis of brain stem lesions, the most often used are auditory brainstem evoked potentials of short latency. They are characterized by successively arranged maxima as a function of time, called waves. Morphology of the course, in particular, the timing and amplitude of each wave, allow a neurologist to make diagnose, what is not an easy task. A neurologist should be experienced, concentrated, and should have very good perception. In order to support his diagnostic process, the authors have developed an algorithm implementing the automated classification of auditory evoked potentials to the group of pathological and physiological cases, the sensitivity and specificity determined for an independent test group (of 50 cases of respectively 84% and 88%.[b]Keywords[/b]: biomedical engineering, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, wavelet decomposition, support vector machine
Ordelman, Simone C. M. A.; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Veltink, Peter H.
The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system.
Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón
Consumers' increasing demand for fresh, safe and high quality products requires food companies to accurately estimate sensory shelf life and tolerance limits for sensory defects. Sensory shelf-life and acceptance limits for sensory defects have been estimated with consumers' rejection data using survival analysis without considering contextual variables, which could have a major influence on consumers' perception. The aim of the present study was to study how consumers' rejection is affected by different evoked contexts in a laboratory setting. Two studies were carried out to study the influence of evoked contexts on consumers' rejection. In the first study consumers' rejection for consumption at home and purchase at a supermarket was compared using orange juice samples with different storage times. In the second study, consumers' rejection for consumption at home and purchase at a supermarket for brands of different familiarities was compared using dulce de leche with different plastic flavour intensities as samples. Consumers' rejection data were analysed using survival analysis. The use of written scenarios to evoke different contexts affected consumers' rejection of products with different storage times and intensities of a sensory defect. Shelf lives that were estimated based on consumers' rejection to purchase were shorter than those estimated considering consumers' rejection to consume. In the second study, consumers' rejection under the consumption at home evoked context was similar to rejection to repeat purchase of a usual brand. However, a large difference existed between the evoked contexts that involved a usual and a new brand. Consumers were harsher when considering to repeat purchase of a new brand compared to their usual brand. These results suggest that the consideration of evoked contexts could contribute to increase the accuracy of sensory shelf life estimation and acceptance limits of sensory defects, leading to more informed business decisions
Sikand, Parul; Shimada, Steven G.; Green, Barry G.; LaMotte, Robert H.
Itch evoked by cowhage or histamine is reduced or blocked by capsaicin desensitization, suggesting that pruriceptive neurons are capsaicin-sensitive. Topical capsaicin can evoke both nociceptive sensations and itch, whereas intradermal injection of capsaicin evokes only burning pain. To dissociate the pruritic and nociceptive sensory effects caused by the chemical activation of sensory neurons, chemicals were applied in a punctiform manner to the skin of the forearm using individual, heat-inactivated cowhage spicules treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (1–200 mg/ml) or histamine (0.01–100 mg/ml). Perceived intensities of itch, pricking/stinging and burning were obtained every 30s using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale and compared with ratings evoked by individual native cowhage spicules. Similar to cowhage, capsaicin and histamine spicules reliably evoked sensations of itch in a dose-dependent manner that were most often accompanied by pricking/stinging and to a lesser extent burning. Spicules containing 200 mg/ml capsaicin or 10 mg/ml histamine yielded peak magnitudes and durations of sensations comparable to those elicited by cowhage. Each type of spicule also produced comparable areas of dysesthesias (enhanced mechanically evoked itch or pain) and/or skin reactions (wheal and/or flare) in surrounding skin, though inconsistently. The incidence of flare was greater in response to histamine than to capsaicin or cowhage. These results suggest the possibility that capsaicin, histamine and cowhage activate common peripheral or central neural mechanisms that mediate pruritic sensations and associated dysesthesias. PMID:19423224
Jessica A Fawley
Full Text Available Temperature is fundamentally important to all biological functions including synaptic glutamate release. Vagal afferents from the solitary tract (ST synapse on second order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, and glutamate release at this first central synapse controls autonomic reflex function. Expression of the temperature-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 receptor separates ST afferents into C-fibers (TRPV1+ and A-fibers (TRPV1-. Action potential-evoked glutamate release is similar between C- and A-fiber afferents, but TRPV1 expression facilitates a second form of synaptic glutamate release in C-fibers by promoting substantially more spontaneous glutamate release. The influence of temperature on different forms of glutamate release is not well understood. Here we tested how temperature impacts the generation of evoked and spontaneous release of glutamate and its relation to TRPV1 expression. In horizontal brainstem slices of rats, activation of ST primary afferents generated synchronous evoked glutamate release (ST-eEPSCs at constant latency whose amplitude reflects the probability of evoked glutamate release. The frequency of spontaneous EPSCs in these same neurons measured the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. We measured both forms of glutamate from each neuron during ramp changes in bath temperature of 4-5 °C. Spontaneous glutamate release from TRPV1+ closely tracked with these thermal changes indicating changes in the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. In the same neurons, temperature changed axon conduction registered as latency shifts but ST-eEPSC amplitudes were constant and independent of TRPV1 expression. These data indicate that TRPV1-operated glutamate release is independent of action potential-evoked glutamate release in the same neurons. Together, these support the hypothesis that evoked and spontaneous glutamate release originate from two pools of vesicles that are
Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaiser, Daniel; Strnad, Lukas; Seidl, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine; Peelen, Marius V
Visual cues from the face and the body provide information about another's identity, emotional state, and intentions. Previous neuroimaging studies that investigated neural responses to (bodiless) faces and (headless) bodies have reported overlapping face- and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies are typically perceived together and are effortlessly integrated into the percept of a whole person, raising the possibility that neural responses to whole persons are qualitatively different than responses to isolated faces and bodies. The present study used fMRI to examine how FG activity in response to a whole person relates to activity in response to the same face and body but presented in isolation. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we modeled person-evoked response patterns in right FG through a linear combination of face- and body-evoked response patterns. We found that these synthetic patterns were able to accurately approximate the response patterns to whole persons, with face and body patterns each adding unique information to the response patterns evoked by whole person stimuli. These results suggest that whole person responses in FG primarily arise from the coactivation of independent face- and body-selective neural populations.
Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H
The effect of lumbar epidural anesthesia with similar volumes (approximately 20 ml) of 1% and 1.5% etidocaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients in a randomi......The effect of lumbar epidural anesthesia with similar volumes (approximately 20 ml) of 1% and 1.5% etidocaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients...
Adachi, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen; Kawabata, Shigenori; Sato, Tomoya
We are investigating an application of the biomagnetic measurement to non-invasive diagnosis of spinal cord function. Multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetometer systems for the measurement of the evoked magnetic field from spinal cords were developed as hospital-use apparatuses. The specific pattern transition of the spinal cord evoked field distribution was clearly observed. The conduction velocity of the cervical spinal cord, which is a significant information for the diagnosis of the dysfunction, was non-invasively estimated from the magnetic measurement.
Gaume, Antoine; Vialatte, François; Dreyfus, Gérard
Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in the design of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A lot of effort has therefore been devoted to find a fast and reliable way to detect SSVEPs. We study the link between transient and steady-state VEPs and show that it is possible to predict the spectral content of a subject's SSVEPs by simulating trains of transient VEPs. This could lead to a better understanding of evoked potentials as well as to better performances of SSVEP-based BCIs, by providing a tool to improve SSVEP detection algorithms.
Raz, J; Turetsky, B; Fein, G
Brain evoked potential (EP) data consist of a true response ("signal") and random background activity ("noise"), which are observed over repeated stimulus presentations ("trials"). A signal that changes slowly from trial to trial can be estimated by smoothing across trials and over time within trials. We present a method for selecting the smoothing parameter by minimizing an estimate of the mean average squared error (MASE). We evaluate the performance of this method using simulated EP data, and apply the method to an example set of real flash evoked potentials.
Buunk, Abraham P.; 't Goor, Joel Aan; Solano, Alejandro C.
Sex differences in jealousy-evoking rival characteristics in the relationship with a supervisor at work were examined in a community sample of 188 individuals from Argentina. Among men, the rivals' social dominance and communal attributes evoked the most jealousy, followed by physical dominance.
Ubags, L. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Been, H. D.; Koelman, J. H.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.
Transcranial motor evoked potentials (tc-MEPs) are used to monitor spinal cord integrity intraoperatively. We compared myogenic motor evoked responses with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimuli during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia. In 11 patients undergoing spinal surgery, anesthesia was
Sowman, Paul Fredrick; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, P
Tonic pain in one body segment can inhibit the perception of pain in another body segment. This phenomenon is mediated by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), and its efficacy in craniofacial regions is investigated in this study. A compressive device that evoked a tonic, moderate...
Isnanda, R.G.; Brinkman, W.P.; Veling, W.; van der Gaag, M.; Neerincx, M.
Although virtual reality exposure has been reported as a method to induce paranoid thought, little is known about mechanisms to control specific virtual stressors. This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of controlling the stream of potential paranoia evoking events in a virtual
van Dongen, E.P.; Schepens, M A; Morshuis, W J; ter Beek, H T; Aarts, L P; de Boer, A; Boezeman, E H
PURPOSE: Paraplegia is the most dreaded and severe complication of surgery on the descending thoracic aorta (TAA) and thoracoabdominal aorta (TAAA). The functional integrity of the spinal cord can be monitored by means of intraoperative recording of myogenic-evoked responses after transcranial
Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Schaijk, W.J. van; Cools, A.R.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van
In the P50 gating or conditioning-testing (C-T) paradigm, the P50 response, a small positive midlatency (~50 ms after stimulus onset) component of the human auditory evoked potential (AEP), is reduced towards the second click (S2) as compared to the response to the first click (S1). This phenomenon
Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Schaijk, W.J. van; Cools, A.R.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van
In the P50 gating or conditioning-testing (C-T) paradigm, the P50 response, a small positive midlatency ( approximately 50 ms after stimulus onset) component of the human auditory evoked potential (AEP), is reduced towards the second click (S2) as compared to the response to the first click (S1).
Lopes da silva, F.H.; Wieringa, H.J.; Wieringa, H.J.; Peters, M.J.
Theoretically, the information we can obtain about the functional localization of a source of brain activity from the scalp, for instance evoked by a sensory stimulus, is the same whether one uses EEG or MEG recordings. However, the nature of the sources and, especially of the volume conductor,
El Haj, M.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two
Schaap, M.W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314411488; van Oostrom, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340414634; Doornenbal, A.; Baars, A.M.; Arndt, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483615X; Hellebrekers, L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073499234
Abstract Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) are used in humans and animals to increase knowledge about nociception and pain. Since the SEP in humans increases when noxious stimuli are administered unpredictably, predictability potentially influences the SEP in animals as well. To assess the
Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil
The current study aimed to identify specific stimuli associated with music that served as an establishing operation (EO) for the problem behavior of a 6-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. Specific EOs for problem behavior evoked by auditory stimulation could be identified. A differential negative reinforcement procedure was implemented for…
Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H
We have studied the effect of surgical injury on cutaneous sensitivity and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to dermatomal electrical stimulation in 10 patients undergoing hysterectomy. Forty-eight hours after surgery, sensory threshold increased from 2.2 (SEM 0.3) mA to 4.4 (1.1) mA (P less...
Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H
The effect of lumbar epidural analgesia with similar volumes (about 25 ml) of 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients. Level of sensory...
Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Dirksen, R.
The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats, by measuring diazepam effects on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n=8) received 4 mg.kg-1 diazepam s.c. or vehicle, counterbalanced over two
Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Egmond, J. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Sambeth, A.; Coenen, A.M.L.
Though being a sedative increases b-activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Diazepam also affects auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). We investigated if the effect of diazepam on AEPs could be ascribed to its b-increasing effect. Eight rats received vehicle and diazepam counterbalanced. AEPs were
Minshull, Claire; Eston, Roger; Bailey, Andrea; Rees, Dai; Gleeson, Nigel
The effects of serial episodes of fatigue and recovery on volitional and magnetically evoked neuromuscular performance of the knee flexors were assessed in 20 female soccer players during: (i) an intervention comprising 4 × 35 s maximal static exercise, and (ii) a control condition. Volitional peak force was impaired progressively (-16% vs. baseline: 235.3 ± 54.7 to 198.1 ± 38.5 N) by the fatiguing exercise and recovered to within -97% of baseline values following 6 min of rest. Evoked peak twitch force was diminished subsequent to the fourth episode of exercise (23.3%: 21.4 ± 13.8 vs. 16.4 ± 14.6 N) and remained impaired at this level throughout the recovery. Impairment of volitional electromechanical delay performance following the first episode of exercise (25.5%: 55.3 ± 11.9 vs. 69.5 ± 24.5 ms) contrasted with concurrent improvement (10.0%: 24.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.1 ± 5.0 ms) in evoked electromechanical delay (P exercise provoked substantial impairments to volitional strength and volitional electromechanical delay that showed differential patterns of recovery. However, improved evoked electromechanical delay performance might identify a dormant capability for optimal muscle responses during acute stressful exercise and an improved capacity to maintain dynamic joint stability during critical episodes of loading.
R V, Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan
The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. To compare the visual reaction time, visual evoked potential (VEP) in rotating night shift workers & day workers and also to correlate the changes in visual reaction time with visual evoked potential. Forty healthy male security guards & staff (25 - 35 y) who did rotating night shifts at least for six months & 40 d workers (25 - 35 y) who did not do night shift in last two years were involved in the study. Visual reaction time and the latency & amplitude of VEP were recorded. Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for normalcy showed the latencies & amplitude of VEP to be normally distributed. Student's unpaired t test showed significant difference (ptime and in the latencies of VEP between night shift & day workers. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VEP. Night shift workers who are prone to circadian rhythm alteration will have prolonged visual reaction time & visual evoked potential abnormalities. Implementation of Bright Light Therapy would be beneficial to the night shift worker.
Flegal, Jane A.; Gupta, A.
This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such “vanguard
Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard
We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge-c...
The topographic pattern and latency of the P2 component of the somatosensory evoked potential elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the sural nerve was compared to the P3a event-related potential evoked by an infrequent task-irrelevant (deviant) innocuous sural nerve stimulus presented as part of the deviant-odd ball paradigm. Conditions typically used to record the sural nerve pain-evoked P2 (multiple stimulus levels, short fixed inter-stimulus intervals, and the subjects engaged in a pain rating task) did not elicit a P3a. The P3a was elicited when the painful stimuli were presented at a long and variable inter-stimulus interval. When present, the P3a occurred immediately following P2. These findings demonstrate that P2 is not a pain-evoked P3a. Rather, the response properties and latency of P2 present the possibility that it indexes a stimulus evaluation process where the sensory input is compared to an environmental template maintained by working memory.
Wronka, E.; Kaiser, J.; Coenen, A.M.L.
The aim of the present study was to define the scalp topography of the two subcomponents of the P3 component of the auditory evoked potential elicited in a three-stimulus oddball paradigm and to identify their cortical generators using the standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography
Full Text Available Background: Influence of gender on auditory evoked potentials is contentious. Although there are quite a few studies documenting the gender as an influencing factor on auditory evoked potentials in younger subjects, but there is a lack of similar studies among elderly population. The present study was conducted to find out the pattern of gender based differences in auditory evoked potentials among healthy elderly subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on age matched, healthy males (n = 35 and females (n = 34, aged 50-70 years. The measures included latencies of waves I-V and interpeak latencies (IPL I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analyzed statistically using Students unpaired t-test, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software v13.0. Results: The values of all the latencies and IPL for both the ears were non-significantly higher (P > 0.05 in males as compared to females. These results may be attributed to the differences in head circumference between both the genders and to the changed hormonal milieu of sex hormones after menopause. Conclusions: Statistical insignificance of latencies among male and female elderly subjects excludes gender as an influencing factor on auditory evoked potentials in this age group.
R.V., Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan
Background: The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential.
Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.
Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…
Hu, Yu; Chen, Zhuoming; Huang, Lu; Xi, Yue; Li, Bingxiao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Jiajian; Lee, Tatia M C; Tao, Qian; So, Kwok-Fai; Ren, Chaoran
Rapidly approaching objects indicating threats can induce defensive response through activating a subcortical pathway comprising superior colliculus (SC), lateral posterior nucleus (LP), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Abnormal defensive response has been reported in autism, and impaired synaptic connections could be the underlying mechanism. Whether the SC-LP-BLA pathway processes looming stimuli abnormally in autism is not clear. Here, we found that looming-evoked defensive response is impaired in a subgroup of the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism. By combining the conventional neurotracer and transneuronal rabies virus tracing techniques, we demonstrated that synaptic connections in the SC-LP-BLA pathway were abnormal in VPA mice whose looming-evoked defensive responses were absent. Importantly, we further translated the finding to children with autism and observed that they did not present looming-evoked defensive response. Furthermore, the findings of the DTI with the probabilistic tractography showed that the structural connections of SC-pulvinar-amygdala in autism children were weak. The pulvinar is parallel to the LP in a mouse. Because looming-evoked defensive response is innate in humans and emerges much earlier than do social and language functions, the absence of defensive response could be an earlier sign of autism in children.
Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A
of muscarinic receptors, but it is unclear why choline does not evoke tachyphylaxis. The response to choline allows us to exclude a number of the possible causes of tachyphylaxis that have previously been considered, so that an excessive buildup of cytosolic free Ca now remains as the most likely cause...
B.J. van Beugen (Boeke); R.Y. Nagaraja (Raghavendra); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)
textabstractEndocannabinoid signaling has been demonstrated to mediate depolarization-induced suppression of excitation at climbing fiber (CF) and parallel fiber (PF) synapses onto cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, we show that CF-evoked release of cannabinoids (CBs) additionally suppresses a
Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard
Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…
Lund, C; Selmar, P; Hansen, O B
The effect of the extradural (L2-3) administration of morphine 6 mg on early (less than 0.5 s) somatosensory evoked cortical potentials (SEP) to electrical stimulation of the L1- and S1-dermatomes was examined in eight patients. Extradural morphine did not influence SEP amplitude. SEP latency did...
Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.
Two classes of hand action representations are shown to be activated by listening to the name of a manipulable object (e.g., cellphone). The functional action associated with the proper use of an object is evoked soon after the onset of its name, as indicated by primed execution of that action. Priming is sustained throughout the duration of the…
Witting, Nanna; Kupers, Ron; Svensson, Peter
allodynia. Nine patients with peripheral nerve injury were scanned during rest, brush-evoked allodynia, and brushing of normal contralateral skin. PET data were analyzed for the whole group and for single subjects. Allodynic stimulation activated the contralateral orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) in every...
van Gendt, Margriet J.; Boyen, Kris; de Kleine, Emile; Langers, Dave R. M.; van Dijk, Pim
Tinnitus is a phantom sound percept that can be severely disabling. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, partly due to the inability to objectively measure neural correlates of tinnitus. Gaze-evoked tinnitus (GET) is a rare form of tinnitus that may arise after vestibular schwannoma removal.
Iodice, R; Carotenuto, A; Dubbioso, R
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown the therapeutic effect of fingolimod in reducing disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), but its influence on nervous conduction assessed by evoked potentials (EPs) has not been previously investigated. METHODS: EP data of 20...
Ellingson, Roger M; Oken, Barry
Report contains the design overview and key performance measurements demonstrating the feasibility of generating and recording ambulatory visual stimulus evoked potentials using the previously reported custom Complementary and Alternative Medicine physiologic data collection and monitoring system, CAMAS. The methods used to generate visual stimuli on a PDA device and the design of an optical coupling device to convert the display to an electrical waveform which is recorded by the CAMAS base unit are presented. The optical sensor signal, synchronized to the visual stimulus emulates the brain's synchronized EEG signal input to CAMAS normally reviewed for the evoked potential response. Most importantly, the PDA also sends a marker message over the wireless Bluetooth connection to the CAMAS base unit synchronized to the visual stimulus which is the critical averaging reference component to obtain VEP results. Results show the variance in the latency of the wireless marker messaging link is consistent enough to support the generation and recording of visual evoked potentials. The averaged sensor waveforms at multiple CPU speeds are presented and demonstrate suitability of the Bluetooth interface for portable ambulatory visual evoked potential implementation on our CAMAS platform.
The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-aural administration of aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ticarcillin (used off-licence) was associated with changes in hearing as measured by brainstem auditory evoked responses. Dogs diagnosed with otitis media (n=37) underwent brainstem auditory evoked response testing and then were treated for their ear disease. First, the external ear canal and middle ear were flushed with sterile saline followed by EDTA tris with 0·15% chlorhexidine. Then, a combination of aqueous antibiotic mixed with an aqueous solution of EDTA tris was instilled into the middle ear. Follow-up examinations were undertaken for each dog, and treatment was continued until there were no detected infectious organisms or inflammatory infiltrate. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing was repeated after resolution of the infection and discontinuation of therapy. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in dogs treated with aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin or gentamicin remained unchanged or improved after therapy of otitis media but were impaired in dogs treated with ticarcillin or tobramycin. If off-licence use of topical antibiotics is deemed necessary in cases of otitis media, aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be less ototoxic than aqueous solutions of ticarcillin or tobramycin. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Gutjar, Swetlana; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, Rene A.; Palascha, Aikaterini; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers' emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
Gutjar, S.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de R.A.; Palascha, A.; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, G.
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers’ emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
van Loon, J.P.A.M.; Stienen, P.J.; Doornenbal, A.; Hellebrekers, L.J.
Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jul;70(7):813-9. Use of epidurally derived evoked potentials for quantification of caudal nociception in ponies. van Loon JP, Stienen PJ, Doornenbal A, Hellebrekers LJ. Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, The
van Oostrom, H.; Stienen, P.J.; Doornenbal, A.; Hellebrekers, L.J.
Eur J Pain. 2009 Feb;13(2):154-60. Epub 2008 May 16. Nociception-related somatosensory evoked potentials in awake dogs recorded after intra epidermal electrical stimulation. van Oostrom H, Stienen PJ, Doornenbal A, Hellebrekers LJ. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Division
Malmqvist, Lasse; Santiago de Abreu, Lucimar; Fraser, C.
Purpose: The multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) provides a topographical assessment of visual function, which has already shown potential for use in patients with glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. However, the variability in mfVEP measurements has limited its broader application. The purpose...
Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Lung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min
Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities.
Evoking the Knowledge of Tree Tenure in the Humid Tropics: A Review of Dimensions in Agro-Plantation System in Nigeria. ... Some of the challenges of maintenance forest reserves include diseases and pests, wild fires, poaching, village/community participation, poor budgetary allocation among others. A proper ...
Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ahlgrimm, Nils
(EEG-fMRI) in patients with spontaneous generalised spike-wave discharges (GSW) have revealed activation of the thalamus and deactivation in frontoparietal areas, EEG-fMRI studies on evoked GSW such as PPR are lacking. In this EEG-fMRI study, 30 subjects with reported generalised PPR underwent...
Jongsma, M.L.A.; Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.
In this study, we investigated how rhythms are processed in the brain by measuring both behaviourally obtained ratings and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from the EEG. We presented probe beats on seven positions within a test bar. Two bars of either a duple- or triple meter rhythm preceded probe
Wieling, W.; Harms, M. P.; ten Harkel, A. D.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Sprangers, R. L.
1. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced transient fall in arterial blood pressure evoked by a 3 s bout of bicycle exercise were investigated in twenty healthy young adults and four patients with hypoadrenergic orthostatic hypotension. 2. In healthy subjects a 3 s bout of upright cycling induced
Flegal, Jane A.; Gupta, A.
This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such “vanguard
Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S
-evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...
Arnfred, Sidse M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef
as an indication of increased readiness. This is achieved through detailed analysis of both evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Electroencephalography in a 64 channels montage was recorded in four-teen healthy subjects. Two paradigms were explored: A Regular alternation between hand...
Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Oliviero, A; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Tonali, P A
To determine the diagnostic value of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the diagnosis of lumbosacral cord disorders. MEPs in 37 patients with sensory and motor deficits in the lower limbs were studied. MRI demonstrated spinal cord involvement in 10 patients and cauda equina lesions in 27 patients. A double determination of central motor conduction time (CMCT), calculated as the difference between the latencies of responses evoked by cortical and paravertebral magnetic stimulation and as the difference between the latency of cortical MEP and the total peripheral conduction time calculated from the F-wave latency, enabled discrimination between a delay along the proximal root and a delay along the corticospinal tract. An abnormality of the CMCT calculated with both techniques is indicative of central motor pathway damage, whereas an abnormality of the CMCT calculated from the latency of responses evoked by paravertebral magnetic stimulation associated with a normal CMCT calculated from the F-wave latency suggests a cauda equina lesion. Neurophysiologic findings strongly correlated with the lesion site documented by MRI (cauda equina or lumbosacral cord). All patients with MR evidence of cord involvement had an abnormality of CMCT calculated with both methods, suggesting a lesion of central motor pathways. Clinical examination often failed to document a spinal cord lesion, suggesting pure peripheral involvement in 5 of the 10 patients with MR evidence of cord lesion. Motor evoked potential recording is an accurate and easily applicable test for the diagnosis of lumbosacral spinal cord lesions.
Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene
This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...
David I. Waddington
Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.
Nazarian, A; Tenayuca, J M; Almasarweh, F; Armendariz, A; Are, D
Sex differences in pain have been well documented; however, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. The present study examined whether sex differences exist in the functioning of primary afferent fibres by assessing formalin-evoked release of substance P by way of neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) internalization. The study also investigated whether the observed effects would be oestradiol-sensitive. Intact and gonadectomized male and female rats were given intraplantar formalin and then euthanized either 5 or 30 min later, representing phase 1 or 2 of the formalin response, respectively. In a subsequent experiment, ovariectomized females received oestradiol prior to formalin administration. Lastly, formalin-evoked NK1r internalization was assessed across the female oestrous cycle. Intraplantar formalin evoked significant NK1r internalization, during phase 1 and 2, in both males and females. During phase 1, no differences in NK1r internalization were detected between males or females, regardless of the gonadal status. In contrast, during phase 2, intact females exhibited greater NK1r internalization than intact males. Moreover, ovariectomy reduced NK1r internalization as compared to intact females, whereas castration had no effect as compared to intact males. Oestradiol supplementation in ovariectomized females increased NK1r internalization to levels observed in intact females. Formalin-evoked NK1r internalization did not differ across the oestrous cycle. These findings suggest that oestradiol mediates sex differences in formalin-evoked substance P release, which may contribute to a differential development of central sensitization and pain behaviours in males and females. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Fritz, Thomas; Herrera, Perfecto; Bonhage, Corinna; Küssner, Mats B; Jacobs, Arthur M
This study investigates neural correlates of music-evoked fear and joy with fMRI. Studies on neural correlates of music-evoked fear are scant, and there are only a few studies on neural correlates of joy in general. Eighteen individuals listened to excerpts of fear-evoking, joy-evoking, as well as neutral music and rated their own emotional state in terms of valence, arousal, fear, and joy. Results show that BOLD signal intensity increased during joy, and decreased during fear (compared to the neutral condition) in bilateral auditory cortex (AC) and bilateral superficial amygdala (SF). In the right primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) BOLD signals increased during exposure to fear-evoking music. While emotion-specific activity in AC increased with increasing duration of each trial, SF responded phasically in the beginning of the stimulus, and then SF activity declined. Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI) analysis revealed extensive emotion-specific functional connectivity of AC with insula, cingulate cortex, as well as with visual, and parietal attentional structures. These findings show that the auditory cortex functions as a central hub of an affective-attentional network that is more extensive than previously believed. PPI analyses also showed functional connectivity of SF with AC during the joy condition, taken to reflect that SF is sensitive to social signals with positive valence. During fear music, SF showed functional connectivity with visual cortex and area 7 of the superior parietal lobule, taken to reflect increased visual alertness and an involuntary shift of attention during the perception of auditory signals of danger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aldosari, Mohammed; Mabie, Ann; Husain, Aatif M
Delayed visual maturation is a term used to describe infants who initially seem blind but subsequently have a marked improvement. The mechanism of visual loss and the subsequent improvement remains unknown. Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony is a condition of hearing impairment associated with absent or severely abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials but normal cochlear functions as measured by otoacoustic emissions. In this report, a 9-month-old infant who had no visual fixation for the first 3 months of life and congenital hearing impairment is described. Her brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 2.5 months of age showed no response to click stimuli presented at 90 dB nHL, whereas her otoacoustic emissions were normal. Subsequently, her vision and hearing improved. A brainstem auditory evoked potential study at 9 months of age showed reproducible waveforms. This case suggests the need for a detailed hearing evaluation of children with delayed visual maturation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for follow-up brainstem auditory evoked potential testing prior to pursuing any audiologic intervention.
Sense organs filter relevant information from a broad background of physical interactions and discard possible perceptual input that has not proven useful during the course of biological evolution. Sense organs not only limit the access to physical reality, under certain conditions they have a life of their own and produce responses even in the absence of physical stimulation. As a perfect example, the inner ear, the cochlea, in addition to detecting incoming sound waves, it also is capable of producing sound energy. Such "active" processes, however, seem to be necessary to push detection thresholds close to physical limits. The price that has to be paid are "cochlear artifacts" like otoacoustic emissions. In the following, measurement of sound that is emitted by the ear will be introduced as a noninvasive means to assess cochlear function and to help to unravel the mechanical interaction between sensory cells and supporting structures that ultimately leads to sensitive and sharply tuned auditory perception. One focus will be on the cochlea of echo-locating bats that use audition as the main window of perception to their environment and therefore have highest demands on cochlear performance.
Sense organs filter relevant information from a broad background of physical interactions and discard possible perceptual input that has not proven useful during the course of biological evolution. Sense organs not only limit the access to physical reality, under certain conditions they have a life of their own and produce responses even in the absence of physical stimulation. As a perfect example, the inner ear, the cochlea, in addition to detecting incoming sound waves, it also is capable of producing sound energy. Such ``active'' processes, however, seem to be necessary to push detection thresholds close to physical limits. The price that has to be paid are ``cochlear artifacts'' like otoacoustic emissions. In the following, measurement of sound that is emitted by the ear will be introduced as a noninvasive means to assess cochlear function and to help to unravel the mechanical interaction between sensory cells and supporting structures that ultimately leads to sensitive and sharply tuned auditory perception. One focus will be on the cochlea of echo-locating bats that use audition as the main window of perception to their environment and therefore have highest demands on cochlear performance.
Cone, Jackson J; Roitman, Jamie D; Roitman, Mitchell F
Environmental stimuli that signal food availability hold powerful sway over motivated behavior and promote feeding, in part, by activating the mesolimbic system. These food-predictive cues evoke brief (phasic) changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine concentration and in the activity of individual NAc neurons. Phasic fluctuations in mesolimbic signaling have been directly linked to goal-directed behaviors, including behaviors elicited by food-predictive cues. Food-seeking behavior is also strongly influenced by physiological state (i.e., hunger vs. satiety). Ghrelin, a stomach hormone that crosses the blood-brain barrier, is linked to the perception of hunger and drives food intake, including intake potentiated by environmental cues. Notwithstanding, whether ghrelin regulates phasic mesolimbic signaling evoked by food-predictive stimuli is unknown. Here, rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning in which one cue predicted the delivery of rewarding food (CS+) and a second cue predicted nothing (CS-). After training, we measured the effect of ghrelin infused into the lateral ventricle (LV) on sub-second fluctuations in NAc dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and individual NAc neuron activity using in vivo electrophysiology in separate groups of rats. LV ghrelin augmented both phasic dopamine and phasic increases in the activity of NAc neurons evoked by the CS+. Importantly, ghrelin did not affect the dopamine nor NAc neuron response to the CS-, suggesting that ghrelin selectively modulated mesolimbic signaling evoked by motivationally significant stimuli. These data demonstrate that ghrelin, a hunger signal linked to physiological state, can regulate cue-evoked mesolimbic signals that underlie food-directed behaviors. Cues that predict food availability powerfully regulate food-seeking behavior. Here we show that cue-evoked changes in both nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) and NAc cell activity are modulated by intra-cranial infusions of the stomach
Estigoni, Eduardo H; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M
This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery.
Eduardo H. Estigoni
Full Text Available This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES. Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA, and the m-wave area (Area were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery.
Emissions grandfathering holds that a history of emissions strengthens an agent’s claim for future emission entitlements. Though grandfathering appears to have been influential in actual emission control frameworks, it is rarely taken seriously by philosophers. This article presents an argument for thinking this an oversight. The core of the argument is that members of countries with higher historical emissions are typically burdened with higher costs when transitioning to a given lower level...
Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises
The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L.; Osler, Merete
HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC).The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔCA ).The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intellig......HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC).The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔCA ).The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing...... for the anterior region. In addition, the correlation between ΔC and long-term memory was robust when controlling for working memory, as well as a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including intelligence, length of education, speed of processing, visual attention and executive function. Moreover, we...