WorldWideScience

Sample records for evidence-informed tobacco control

  1. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco-related diseases burden fragile healthcare systems and hinder productivity. Tobacco is ... relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. IDRC partners at the American. University of ... Tobacco and Taxes: A winning strategy, IDRC 2006 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-94887-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html. JA. C. O. B. K.

  2. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  3. Effective Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Intervention and Prevention Using Online Game-Based, E-Learning: An Evidence-Informed Program That Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Heidi; Hayslett, Carrianne; Bansal, Naveen; Ronco, Sharron; Schafer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The host of costly individual and societal consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) use underscores the importance of ATOD prevention education. "It's Up 2U" is an evidence-informed, game-based, e-learning ATOD prevention program developed by Children's Health Education Center (CHEC) targeting middle school…

  4. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  5. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality. Book cover Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Directeur(s) : Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours, and Daniel Buckles. Maison(s) d'édition : Anthem Press, IDRC. 10 septembre 2014. ISBN : 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505823.

  6. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality. Couverture du livre Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Editor(s):. Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours et Daniel Buckles. Publisher(s):. Anthem Press, CRDI. September 10, 2014. ISBN: 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552505823.

  7. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  8. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  9. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  10. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  11. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such ...

  12. Global challenges in tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schotte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented achievements in global tobacco control. These include the entry into force of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and 179 states, as well as the European Union, becoming Parties to the Treaty,leading to an increased global cognizance of the negative health and economic impact of tobacco use. Governments around the world continue to adopt and implement effective tobacco control strategies and financial contributions from major philanthropies have increased the levels of financial support for tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries. The UN high-level summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs in 2011 and the 2015 adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, in which NCDs and acceleration of implementation of WHO FCTC are included as specific targets, represent an increased global recognition of the need to address tobacco use prevalence as a key element of NCD interventions...

  13. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  14. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  15. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  17. Tobacco Control and Health Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski, Mome; Donev, Doncho; Arnikov, Aleksandar; Karadzinski, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    The use of tobacco is considered as one of the main risk factors for numerous chronic diseases, such as: lung diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 4.9 million deaths per year worldwide are tobacco related, having an increasing trend that will lead to double death toll by 2020. WHO is one of the leading organizations in the world actively involved in the health promotion activities related to tobacco consumption reduction and tobacco control. In this regard WHO prepared the Framework...

  18. Tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" and state tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S A; Fox, B J; Glantz, S A

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the perceived effect of tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" by public health professionals on policy interventions for tobacco control. Structured interviews were conducted with state health department project managers in all 17 National Cancer Institute-funded American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) states. Documentation and media records related to ASSIST from the National Cancer Institute, health advocates, and the tobacco industry were analyzed. The tobacco industry filed formal complaints of illegal lobbying activities against 4 ASSIST states. These complaints had a temporary chilling effect on tobacco control policy interventions in those states. ASSIST states not targeted by the tobacco industry developed an increased awareness of the industry's tactics and worked to prepare for such allegations to minimize disruption of their activities. Some self-reported self-censorship in policy activity occurred in 11 of the 17 states (65%). Public health professionals need to educate themselves and the public about the laws that regulate lobbying activities and develop their strategies, including their policy activities, accordingly.

  19. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the influence of the tobacco industry's direct and indirect activities on policy-makers, researchers, funding agencies, and opinion leaders. Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to national economies and those whose livelihoods include income from tobacco production, marketing, or ...

  20. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  1. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco Control Research Group (TCRG), University of Beirut (AUB), is a multidisciplinary team of professionals from the health sciences, medicine, chemistry and engineering departments. The Group was established in 1999 with IDRC support ...

  2. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Situational Analysis (ATSA) supported by IDRC and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation investigated the critical determinants of success for tobacco control in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the initiative evolved an additional goal was added, that of identifying, implementing and enforcing ...

  3. Military line leadership and tobacco control: perspectives of military policy leaders and tobacco control managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Suminski, Richard R; Hoffman, Kevin M; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2010-10-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies.

  4. Willingness of tobacco retailers in Oyo State to participate in tobacco control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma Uchendu

    2018-01-01

    The sale of tobacco products is a profitable venture for retailers. Willingness to participate in tobacco control was high among the retailers. There is a need to raise awareness and co-opt tobacco retailers as change agents in tobacco control efforts.

  5. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  6. Tobacco companies' use of developing countries' economic reliance on tobacco to lobby against global tobacco control: the case of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Mamudu, Hadii M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-10-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC.

  7. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Michael Grossman

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines effectiveness of several tobacco control policies in discouraging cigarette smoking among youths. These policies include increased cigarette excise taxes (which result in higher cigarette prices), restrictions on smoking in public places and at private worksites, and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths. The data employed in this research are taken from the 1992, 1993, and 1994 surveys of eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students conducted by the Univer...

  8. [The hierarchy of approaches to tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Ch

    2001-01-01

    Tobacco represents the single most preventable cause of disease and death in the world today. Of 260 million male deaths in the developed world between 1950 and 2000, it is estimated that 50 million will be due to smoking. In the oral and craniofacial region tobacco use has been associated with the occurrence of cleft palate, periodontal disease and tooth loss, and a variety of soft tissue lesions including oral cancer. For example, smoking is estimated to account for 92% of cancers of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx. Few studies have examined relative efficiency of the many different approaches to tobacco control but, in general, legislative approaches such as increasing tobacco taxes and prohibiting advertising are most effective and those based on printed educational materials and cessation groups, the least effective. In all cases, advice or intervention by health care professionals ranked among the most effective non-legislative approaches to control. A very wide range of professionally-based interventions have been described, including pharmacologic interventions, behavioral approaches and group counseling. The dental profession has a unique opportunity to influence tobacco use by their patients. Its use is almost always immediately evident to the dentist or dental assistant in terms of odor, staining, poor oral hygiene or obvious oral disease. There is also a tendency for the length of personal contact with the dentist to be greater than with a physician. Guidelines are now available that provide the dental professional with advice on the best approaches to tobacco control with their patients.

  9. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  10. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  11. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  12. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  13. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  14. Why nursing research in tobacco control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is an epidemic of overwhelming proportions affecting survival, causing millions of deaths every year, causing untold human suffering worldwide, and contributing to escalating health care costs. Nursing research is vital to advancing knowledge in the field and to the translation of science to evidence-based practice. As the largest group of health care professionals (17 million worldwide), nurses have the capacity for an enormous impact on this leading cause of preventable death. This chapter thus provides a historical overview of the tobacco epidemic, health risks of smoking and benefits of quitting, nicotine addiction, and recommendations of evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment as a backdrop for understanding the importance and need for nursing scholarship. Also examined are nursing science efforts and leadership in removing two barriers to mounting programs of nursing research in tobacco control: (1) lack of nursing education and training in tobacco control, and (2) limited research funding and mentorship. The chapter also addresses the issue of smoking in the profession as it impacts nurses' health, clinical practice, and, potentially, scholarship efforts.

  15. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  16. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?

  17. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  18. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  19. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  20. Tobacco control law implementation in a middle-income country: Transnational tobacco control network overcoming tobacco industry opposition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales. A transnational network including international health groups and funders helped strengthen domestic capacity to implement the law by; promoting public awareness of Ley [Law] 1335; training local health department staff on enforcement; facilitating health agencies' sharing of educational strategies; and providing legal defence assistance. This network included vigilant efforts by local health groups, which continuously monitored and alerted the media to noncompliance, engaged government officials and policy-makers on implementation, and raised public awareness. Support from international health NGOs and funders and continuous engagement by local health groups enhanced implementation capacities to counter continued tobacco industry interference and ensure effective tobacco control implementation.

  1. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  2. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  3. [Tobacco farming in Italy receives more funds in comparison to tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production.

  4. Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control: A How-to Introductory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  5. Regional Tobacco Control Research Initiative (Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative.

  6. Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in Nigeria. The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying ...

  7. Trade-Related Challenges to Tobacco Control in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite progress in implementing tobacco control policies, trade liberalization has significantly increased tobacco consumption among women and children in some Asian countries. It has also reduced advertising restrictions. This project will evaluate the threats to developing and implementing tobacco control policies as a ...

  8. Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  9. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  10. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya. The looming tobacco epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and its potential to thwart the development process has prompted most governments in the region to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries ...

  11. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya. The looming tobacco epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and its potential to thwart the development process has prompted most governments in the region to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries ...

  12. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  13. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  14. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers also need to determine consumers' access to illegally imported cigarette products in Panama and their effects on tobacco use. An analysis of tobacco demand over time can allow researchers to measure the effectiveness of tobacco control initiatives, including fiscal policies. It can also allow them to investigate ...

  15. Tobacco Control in Africa: People, Politics and Policies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Oct 15, 2011 ... Tobacco use in Sub-Saharan Africa is growing rapidly as a result of strong economic growth and the aggressive marketing tactics of tobacco multinationals. Although the policy interventions are well understood, the political economy of tobacco control in Sub-Saharan Africa is not, and this volume is a timely ...

  16. Challenges of Tobacco Control Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohammadi, Younes; Mahmoodi, Azam

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in Iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces, using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 79.73%.). The majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes. Of 160 marketed brands, 38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign, including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands. Being tempted (25.0%), getting nervous (24.1%), and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. The majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. Smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption, particularly among first starters and youth. However, increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.

  17. [Tobacco control politics in Germany. Evidence, success, and barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2010-02-01

    Structural measures of tobacco prevention are effective and cost-efficient measures to reduce tobacco consumption and the related health and economic consequences. However, Germany has been very reluctant in implementing tobacco control laws for several decades. Only recently has Germany increased its efforts in tobacco control, which has resulted in a decrease of tobacco consumption and in a decrease of smoking rates, especially in youths. This paper summarizes the evidence-based measures of tobacco prevention as well as the progress of recent German tobacco control policies. Finally, the barriers of further effective tobacco control policies are discussed and illustrated with examples. For decades, politics gave in to pressure and influence of lobbyists of the strong tobacco industry, which deceived the public and politics for their economic interests and in order to establish a high social acceptance of smoking. In addition, there is the phenomenon of "denialism", which means the convinced denial of scientific findings regarding smoking and smoking prevention in opponents of tobacco control, who are not directly affiliated with the tobacco industry.

  18. The millennium development goals and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Neil E

    2010-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals.

  19. The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achadi, Anhari; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Barber, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Using published data about consumption, economic aspects, and legislation, this paper analyzes tobacco control in Indonesia, a major consumer and producer of tobacco products. Given its large population and smoking prevalence, Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest tobacco consumption globally. Over 62% of Indonesian adult males smoke regularly, contributing to a growing burden of non-communicable diseases and enormous demands on the health care system. Tobacco control policies, however, have remained low on the political and public health agenda for many years. One reason was the contribution of tobacco to government revenues and employment, particularly in the industrial sector. But tobacco's importance in employment has fallen significantly since the 1970s from 38% of total manufacturing employment compared with 5.6% today. Widespread use of tobacco since the 1970s and the concomitant burden of non-communicable diseases have given rise to a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of tobacco production over the last decade. The first tobacco control regulation passed in 1999, succeeded by amendments in 2000 and 2003. Today, few restrictions exist on tobacco industry conduct, advertising, and promotion in Indonesia. We examine the relevance and prospects of advancing in Indonesia four cost-effective tobacco control strategies: price and tax measures, advertising bans, clean air legislation, and public education. We conclude with several suggestions for action for the public health community.

  20. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  1. Perspectives of US military commanders on tobacco use and tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Malone, Ruth E; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use among members of the US military service is unacceptably high, resulting in substantial healthcare and personnel costs. Support of military command is critical to the success of tobacco control policies because line commanders are responsible for implementation and enforcement. This study is the first to examine US military line commanders' perspectives about current tobacco control policies and the impact of tobacco on readiness. We conducted key-informant interviews with 20 officers at the US Army's Command and General Staff College about military tobacco use and tobacco control policy. Participants identified the long-term impact of tobacco use on military members, but were unaware of proximal effects on health and readiness other than lost productivity due to smoke breaks. Officers also discussed nicotine addiction and the logistics of ensuring that an addicted population had access to tobacco. Regarding policy, most knew about regulations governing smoke-free areas and were open to stronger restrictions, but were unaware of current policies governing prevention, intervention and product sales. Findings suggest that strong policy that takes advantage of the hierarchical and disciplined nature of the military, supported by senior line and civilian leadership up to and including the secretaries of the services and the Secretary of Defense, will be critical to substantially diminishing tobacco use by military personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J E; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J

    2001-12-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

  3. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, J.; SARABIA, V.; ASHLEY, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

 PMID:11740029

  4. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, N; Hussain, A K M G; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at -0.64 and of higher priced brands at -0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  5. Tobacco taxation: the importance of earmarking the revenue to health care and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel; Mytaras, Vasileios; Bertic, Monique; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yannis; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation are acknowledged to be one of the most effective tobacco control interventions. This study aimed at determining the mediating role of socioeconomical status (SES) and the earmarking of revenue to healthcare and tobacco control, in influencing population support for the adoption of a 2 Euro tobacco tax increase in Greece, amid the challenging economic environment and current austerity measures. Data was collected from two national household surveys, the "Hellas Health III" survey, conducted in October 2010 and the "Hellas Tobacco survey" conducted in September 2012. Data was analyzed from 694 and 1066 respondents aged 18 years or more, respectively. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the adjusted relationship between socio-economic factors for the former, and support for increased taxation on tobacco products for the latter. In 2012 amidst the Greek financial crisis, population support for a flat two euro tax increase reached 72.1%, if earmarked for health care and tobacco control, a percentage high both among non-smokers (76%) and smokers (64%) alike. On the contrary, when not earmarked, only 43.6% of the population was in support of the equivalent increase. Women were more likely to change their mind and support a flat two-euro increase if the revenue was earmarked for health care and tobacco control (aOR = 1.70; 95% C.I: 1.22-2.38, p = 0.002). Furthermore, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was not associated with SES and income. Despite dire austerity measures in Greece, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was high among both smokers and non-smokers, however, only when specifically earmarked towards health care and tobacco control. This should be taken into account not only in Greece, but within all countries facing social and economic reform.

  6. Case Study: Tobacco Economics Control Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tobacco Control Economics Project is a project that seeks to gather evidence on tobacco use and economics in southern Africa. It is a project of the University of Cape Town with support from the DataFirst repository based at the University of Cape Town. Its aim is to gather data that already exists, sometimes in digital form, frequently in offline records or in some cases paper records, and bring them together as an open resource. The project faces challenges of data gathering as well as permissions. Frequently data is or should be “available” in some form but control over the data is relinquished only unreluctantly. In many cases the legal standing of data is unclear. Many of the challenges relating to the bringing together of the data involve ascertaining what the legal standing of a dataset is or gaining permissions for its re-use. DataFirst is a longstanding data sharing infrastructure with professional and experienced data management staff. Challenges of ensuring continued funding and maintenance are similar to those of data infrastructures globally. The infrastructure meets international standards and provides leadership to other services and platforms in this space.

  7. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second-hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use.

  8. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco control in pediatric dental practices: a survey of practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Cynthia; Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Miller, Arthur J; Walsh, Margaret M

    2008-01-01

    The study purpose was to determine tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) members. A 26-item survey was distributed to a national, random sample of 1,700 AAPD members. Frequencies, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to tobacco control behaviors. Of 1,700 questionnaires, 1,292 (82%) were returned and usable. Over 75% of respondents agreed that it is a pediatric dentist's responsibility to help patients who wish to stop using tobacco; only 142 (11%) had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 905 (70%) were willing to be trained. Not knowing where to send patients for counseling and feeling ineffective with helping patients to stop their tobacco use were significant barriers reported by nearly half the respondents. Two hundred forty-five (19%) reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 491 (38%) reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 284 (22%) reported always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling well prepared to ask about tobacco was significantly associated with assisting tobacco users (odds ratio=8.9; 95% confidence interval=6.6-12). Continuing education programs are needed to enhance the knowledge and skills of pediatric dentists to promote tobacco control behaviors.

  10. Tobacco industry interference with tobacco control policies in Poland: legal aspects and industry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta

    2016-09-01

    Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Tobacco industry interference with tobacco control policies in Poland: legal aspects and industry practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Stokłosa, Michał; Balwicka-Szczyrba, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Wioleta

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2006, when Poland ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), there have been efforts to improve tobacco control regulation in the country. At the same time, at the European Union level, Poland took part in discussions over revision of the Tobacco Tax Directive and the Tobacco Products Directive. This study aims to explore the tobacco industry's tactics to interfere with the creation of those policies. Methods Analysis of 257 documents obtained through freedom of information request. Results We identified three means that the tobacco industry used to interfere with tobacco control policies: creating a positive attitude, expressing a will to be a part of the policymaking process, and exerting pressure. We found that those tactics have often been used unethically, with the industry providing the government with ready legislation proposals, overstating its contribution to the economy and the government revenues, misrepresenting the illicit cigarette problem and misusing scientific evidence. The industry also used legal threats, including use of bilateral trade agreements, against implementation of tobacco control measures. The companies lobbied together directly and through third parties, with the cigarette excise tax structure being the only area of disagreement among the companies. The industry also pushed the Polish government to challenge tobacco control policies in countries with stronger public policy standards, including UK display bans and the Australian plain-packaging law. Conclusions From an object of regulation, the tobacco industry in Poland became a partner with the government in legislative work. Implementation of provisions of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC could prevent further industry interference. PMID:26418616

  12. Tobacco Control in Africa: People, Politics and Policies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 oct. 2011 ... The attention to detail in the 12 country case studies – representing diverse linguistic, geographic, political, legal and developmental environments – sets new standards for tobacco control research on the continent. — Dr Evan Blecher, International Tobacco Control Research Program, American Cancer ...

  13. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco Control Research Group (TCRG), University of Beirut (AUB), is a multidisciplinary team of professionals from the health sciences, medicine, chemistry and engineering departments. View moreTobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon.

  14. An Analysis of Trends in Publications on "Tobacco Control"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unutmaz Durmusoglu, Zeynep Didem; Kocabey Çiftçi, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Publications on tobacco control were quantitatively analysed to gain insight into the essential characteristics of the research field and trends and patterns in publication activities. The goal was to detect changes in the number of publications before and after the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO…

  15. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) to coordinate a research program in support of the successful implementation (in the case of Cambodia) and ratification (in the case of Lao PDR) of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).

  16. International tobacco control: a focus group study of U.S. anti-tobacco activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N

    2001-01-01

    Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.

  17. Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Abascal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Materials and methods. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Results. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  18. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ailsa J; Patel, Raju K K; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited. To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India. Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative. Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12) and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14). They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8), tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16) indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11) were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17). Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved by

  20. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  1. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  2. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, J; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J

    2001-01-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for t...

  3. Global tobacco control diffusion: the case of the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed demographic and social network variables associated with the timing of ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compiled a 2-mode data set that recorded country participation in FCTC negotiations, as well as the number of individuals per country per year who joined an online tobacco control network. We used logistic regression analysis of these 2 data sets along with geographic location to determine whether exposure to prior FCTC adoptions was associated with a country's likelihood of adoption. In the logistic regression analysis, higher income and more nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the Framework Convention Alliance (a network dedicated to the FCTC) were associated with being among the earliest adopters (for income, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55; for NGOs, AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.17) or among early adopters (for income, AOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.84; for NGOs, AOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.45). Network exposure and event history analysis showed that in addition to income, the likelihood of adoption increased with increasing affiliation exposure to FCTC adopters through GLOBALink (an online network facilitating communication between tobacco control advocates). Public health programs should include a plan for creating opportunities for network interaction; otherwise, adoption and diffusion will be delayed and the investments in public health policy greatly diminished.

  4. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  5. The Internationalisation of Tobacco Control, 1950–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David; Berridge, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the internationalisation of tobacco control as a case study in the history of international health regulation. Contrary to the existing literature on the topic, it argues that the history of international anti-smoking efforts is longer and richer than the making of the World Health Organisation’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the early twenty-first century. It thereby echoes the point made by other scholars about the importance of history when making sense of contemporary global health. Specifically, the article shows how the internationalisation of tobacco control started in the 1950s through informal contacts between scientists working on cancer research and how these initial interactions were followed by a growing number of more formal initiatives, from the World Conferences on Tobacco or Health to the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Rather than arranging these efforts in a linear narrative of progress culminating with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, we take anthropological claims about global health’s uneven terrain seriously and portray a history of international tobacco control marked by ruptures and discontinuities. Specifically, we identify three successive periods, with each of them characterised by specific understandings of international action, tobacco control expertise, advocacy networks and funding strategies. PMID:27628857

  6. The Internationalisation of Tobacco Control, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David; Berridge, Virginia

    2016-10-01

    This article explores the internationalisation of tobacco control as a case study in the history of international health regulation. Contrary to the existing literature on the topic, it argues that the history of international anti-smoking efforts is longer and richer than the making of the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the early twenty-first century. It thereby echoes the point made by other scholars about the importance of history when making sense of contemporary global health. Specifically, the article shows how the internationalisation of tobacco control started in the 1950s through informal contacts between scientists working on cancer research and how these initial interactions were followed by a growing number of more formal initiatives, from the World Conferences on Tobacco or Health to the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Rather than arranging these efforts in a linear narrative of progress culminating with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, we take anthropological claims about global health's uneven terrain seriously and portray a history of international tobacco control marked by ruptures and discontinuities. Specifically, we identify three successive periods, with each of them characterised by specific understandings of international action, tobacco control expertise, advocacy networks and funding strategies.

  7. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  8. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  9. Trade-Related Challenges to Tobacco Control in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will evaluate the threats to developing and implementing tobacco control policies as a result of free trade and investment provisions in Southeast Asian countries. It will also assess options for potential reform. The tobacco industry is increasingly using trade and investment agreements to challenge the most ...

  10. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases and promoting public health, this is a five-year partnership between IDRC and the world's leading independent cancer charity dedicated to saving lives ...

  11. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. Now policymakers need evidence of the impact of these policies and the likely impact of additional ones. This grant will allow researchers to undertake a three-year survey of ...

  12. Locus of Control and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, Mark; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed seventh-grade students from two school districts in rural North Carolina to determine the prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco use. Of those reporting use of smokeless tobacco, virtually all were male. Locus of control of "occasional" users was significantly more internal than those reporting "regular" use.…

  13. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. Now policymakers need evidence of the impact of these policies and the likely impact of additional ones. This grant will allow researchers to undertake a three-year survey of ...

  14. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi

    2012-03-01

    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

  15. Implications and priorities of tobacco control in Belgium and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartsch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to define what tobacco control is both in Europe and around the world. The situation of tobacco control in Belgium will be compared to other European countries using the tobacco control scale (TCS. If countries demonstrating a high TCS score have lower tobacco smoking prevalence than countries with a low TCS, it is not known whether the decrease in smoking prevalence over several years is well correlated with the increase in TCS score in each country during the same period. Moreover the article will raise the question of how far research will continue control into controlling the use of tobacco. The remaining 20% of smokers in the best tobacco control scale countries who are still smoking are not similar to the 20% that are now ex-smokers. Indeed we are now facing the "hard core smokers", who show great resistance to policy measures and be considered as ill individuals requiring specialised care rather than individuals with bad habits. The future tobacco control scale should place more importance on the quality of care and the implication of European countries providing improved access to this form of care and validated forms of treatment of this chronic, difficult to treat disease.

  16. Network analysis of global tobacco control collaboration: data from the World Conference on Tobacco or Health (WCTOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Leischow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Conference on Tobacco or Health (WCTOH is held every three years to foster communication and collaboration on global tobacco control. Very little is known about the nature of interactions between WCTOH attendees and their linkages to tobacco control organizations, so knowing this information could help improve tobacco control efforts. Methods At the 2015 WCTOH, we implemented an online survey to assess barriers to global tobacco control activities, which information sources they use for tobacco control information, and with whom they interact regarding tobacco control. Results A total of 169 respondents completed the survey, with responses from all six World Health Organization (WHO regions. Respondents worked in all areas of tobacco control; the most common were research (29.2% and patient care/treatment (23.3%. The top barriers faced regarding tobacco control activities were: funding is weak (56.8%, government commitment (45.0%, tobacco industry interference (43.8%, and lack of coordination (34.3%. The network analysis identified Framework Convention Alliance (FCA and Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT as the two most prominent groups that people belonged to and where they went to exchange information and best practices. Important regional and country specific groups also appear to be growing, such as the African Tobacco Control Alliance (ATCA and the Argentinian Association of Tabacology (ASAT. Discussion Mapping and better understanding the global tobacco control network is important for informing knowledge exchange and best practices, particularly as increasing attention is being focused on global tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries in particular. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that even a subsample of the WCTOH shows considerable collaboration. The full WCTOH network should be mapped in order to foster greater collaboration that has the the potential to

  17. Network analysis of global tobacco control collaboration: data from the World Conference on Tobacco or Health (WCTOH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Okamoto, Janet; McIntosh, Scott; Ossip, Deborah J; Lando, Harry A

    2017-04-20

    The World Conference on Tobacco or Health (WCTOH) is held every three years to foster communication and collaboration on global tobacco control. Very little is known about the nature of interactions between WCTOH attendees and their linkages to tobacco control organizations, so knowing this information could help improve tobacco control efforts. At the 2015 WCTOH, we implemented an online survey to assess barriers to global tobacco control activities, which information sources they use for tobacco control information, and with whom they interact regarding tobacco control. A total of 169 respondents completed the survey, with responses from all six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Respondents worked in all areas of tobacco control; the most common were research (29.2%) and patient care/treatment (23.3%). The top barriers faced regarding tobacco control activities were: funding is weak (56.8%), government commitment (45.0%), tobacco industry interference (43.8%), and lack of coordination (34.3%). The network analysis identified Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) and Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) as the two most prominent groups that people belonged to and where they went to exchange information and best practices. Important regional and country specific groups also appear to be growing, such as the African Tobacco Control Alliance (ATCA) and the Argentinian Association of Tabacology (ASAT). Mapping and better understanding the global tobacco control network is important for informing knowledge exchange and best practices, particularly as increasing attention is being focused on global tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries in particular. The present study demonstrates that even a subsample of the WCTOH shows considerable collaboration. The full WCTOH network should be mapped in order to foster greater collaboration that has the the potential to improve global tobacco control efforts.

  18. Avoiding "A Massive Spin-Off Effect in West Africa and Beyond": The Tobacco Industry Stymies Tobacco Control in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-07-01

    Nigeria plays important economic and political roles in Africa and is a significant market for the tobacco industry. This study describes the tobacco industry's efforts to block Nigeria's early tobacco control attempts, especially the Tobacco Smoking (Control) Decree 20 of 1990, and efforts to strengthen the Decree in 1995. Analysis of documents from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library and other Internet resources related to Nigeria's Decree 20 and earlier tobacco control efforts. The World Conferences on Smoking and Health and World Health Organization in the late 1970s spurred the Nigerian government to take steps towards tobacco regulation. In response, the tobacco industry lobbied government ministries, used front groups and its trade group, the Tobacco Advisory Council of Nigeria, to block and weaken government efforts. The industry obtained a draft of Decree 20 two years before it was enacted, considered the Decree anti-business and proposed language that led to the passage of a weaker Decree in 1990. It also attempted to influence a potential review of the Decree in 1995. Decree 20 was a strong law for its time, but was weakened due to tobacco industry interference. Nigeria ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005, and enacted a comprehensive National Tobacco Control Act (NTCA) in May 2015. Lessons learned from Decree 20's experience should be applied to protect NTCA 2015, and in compliance with WHO FCTC Article 5.3 which require parties to protect tobacco control policies from tobacco industry interference. This is the first detailed account of tobacco industry interference with tobacco legislation in Africa. The emergence of tobacco control in Nigeria threatened the tobacco industry, which believed that success in Nigeria would have a "domino effect" in Africa. The industry used lobbying and front groups to successfully block and weaken Nigeria's tobacco control, especially the Tobacco Smoking (Control) Decree 20 of 1990 and

  19. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors.Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures.Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body composition outcomes

  20. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  1. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242

  3. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  4. TPPA and tobacco control: threats to APEC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Deborah K; Stumberg, Robert K

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-member countries of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), a free trade agreement to facilitate international trade and investment. As reported by multiple sources, the TPPA would grant the same trade benefits and legal protections to tobacco products, services and investments that it would provide to other sectors. Malaysia proposed excluding tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters while the US proposed only to establish a consultation process in tobacco-related disputes and to declare that tobacco control measures serve a health objective within the scope of the general exceptions. The article analyses selected TPPA trade and investment rules and shows how they strengthen the ability of tobacco companies or a country to challenge the most progressive tobacco control measures. In the absence of a complete TPPA text, the analysis is based on specific leaked chapters, legal analysis from observers in the negotiations, existing free trade agreements among the TPPA parties and positions of the tobacco industry and its allies. Five TPPA chapters pose the most significant threats to tobacco control measures: Investment, Regulatory Coherence, Services, Intellectual Property and Technical Barriers to Trade. Trade negotiators should expand safeguards to ensure that the TPPA does no harm. The most effective would be to exclude (carve out) tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters, as Malaysia has proposed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Effectiveness of tax and price policies in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Straif, Kurt; Leon, Maria E

    2011-05-01

    Over 20 experts on economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control were asked by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to evaluate the strength of the available evidence on the effects of tax and price policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Draft papers presenting and assessing the evidence on the following topics were developed by the experts in an 8-month period prior to the meeting: tobacco industry pricing strategies and tax related lobbying; tax, price and aggregate demand for tobacco; tax, price and adult tobacco use, use among young people and use among the poor; tax avoidance and tax evasion; and the economic and health impact of tobacco taxation. Subsequently, papers were peer reviewed, revised and resubmitted for final discussion at a 6-day meeting at IARC in Lyon, France, where a consensus evaluation of 18 concluding statements using the pre-established criteria of the IARC Cancer Prevention Handbooks took place. Studies published (or accepted for publication) in the openly available scientific literature were the main source of evidence for the review and evaluation; other types of publications were included when appropriate. In support of 12 of the 18 conclusions, the experts agreed that there was sufficient evidence of effectiveness of increased tobacco excise taxes and prices in reducing overall tobacco consumption and prevalence of tobacco use and improvement of public health, including by preventing initiation and uptake among young people, promoting cessation among current users and lowering consumption among those who continue to use. For the remaining six concluding statements the evidence was strong (four statements) or limited (two statements). The evidence presented and assessed in IARC Handbook volume 14 documents the effectiveness of tax and price policies in the control of tobacco use and improvement of public health.

  6. Compliance assessment of tobacco vendors of Ahmedabad city to India's Tobacco control legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Govil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many worldwide strategies and efforts have been made to tackle the menace of tobacco use and related morbidity and mortality. On similar lines, Government of India enacted a law in 2003, Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA, 2003.  Aims & Objectives: To measure compliance to Section 5 & 6(a of COTPA, 2003. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional survey at 432 Point of Sale (POS across Ahmedabad city using random sampling technique.  Results: Only 15.3% of the POS had complied with the size of their main display Board (MDB. Around one third (34% of the shops had displayed the prescribed warning message on their MDB.  More than half (53% of the shops did not display any tobacco advertisement. The proportion of shops with no backlit/illumination MDBs was 30.3%. None of the POS complied with Section 6(a. More than a quarter of the POS (28% were partial tobacco vendors. Proportion of mobile tobacco vendors was 22.9%. Conclusion: There has been a gross violation of Sections 5 & 6(a of COTPA, 2003 across a majority of POS. This kind of laxity in compliance portrays a grim scenario of tobacco control and thus calls for immediate redressal by all the stakeholders involved. 

  7. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  8. A Few More Laps to Go: Tobacco Industry Political Influence, Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Daniel J. BA; Barnes, Richard L. JD; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco policy has been an issue in Indiana since 1893, when the legislature passed a law prohibiting selling tobacco to people under 16. Beginning as early as 1969, Indiana General Assembly members and tobacco control advocates launched uncoordinated efforts to pass a law restricting smoking in government buildings. The tobacco industry responded with a well-financed and well-connected network of lobbyists, campaign contributions and third-party allies which's lobbyists that defeated every s...

  9. Framing tobacco control efforts within an ethical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B J

    2005-08-01

    Public health efforts to promote tobacco control are not performed within a vacuum. They are subject to interpretation and misinterpretation by consumers and policymakers based largely upon the initial framing of the issues. This paper notes how the tobacco industry has established a particular frame that it is the protector of individual rights and that the public health community is trying to eliminate those rights. This paper then shows how the public health community uses metaphors that may unintentionally support this framing and suggests that by reframing public health efforts in accordance with core ethical principles, the public health community can create more positive messages. A public health ethical framework is proposed to examine how the application of the principles can influence the tobacco control movement. Through the increased use of ethics in tobacco control, the public health community may be better positioned to claim the high road as the protector of the public's interests.

  10. The ERS role on Tobacco Control Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gratziou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Respiratory Society is an international medical organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. Its aim is to alleviate suffering from respiratory diseases and promote lung health globally through science, education and advocacy. ERS has since its founding in 1990 demonstrated strong commitment to tobacco control. Through scientific assemblies, education courses, various alliances and collaboration (Framework Convention Alliance, European Chronic Disease Alliance, World Health Organisation etc. As well as a Tobacco Control Committee (TCC dedicated to advocacy, ERS constantly strives to promote strong and evidence-based policies to reduce the burden of tobacco related diseases. One of the main outcome of the TCC is the creation of Smokehaz, a website aimed at providing policy-makers with scientific information on the Health hazards associated with smoking. Recently, ERS created the Latin-America Working Group which aims at strengthening tobacco control activities in Spain, Portugal and Latin-American countries.

  11. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the immediate and longer term. Following a baseline assessment, stakeholder meeting and mapping exercise, the Zambian team has chosen as priorities enforcement of the existing smoke-free law in Lusaka and tobacco cessation in four health districts of Lusaka. This grant will allow the team to work toward these goals.

  12. A gaping gap (smokeless tobacco control in Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is second most common cancer in Pakistan and one of the major contributing factors to its high incidence is smokeless tobacco (SLT) use. 5.3% of Pakistan's youth are current SLT users. The World Health Organization requires the signatories of its "Framework Convention on Tobacco Control" to officially ban the sale of tobacco products to minors. We reviewed the Government of Pakistan's tobacco control, and related supporting policies, to assess how these address the issue of sale of SLT products to minors and found evident gaps in this regard. Legislations need to be in place to ban the sale of SLT products to minors and avoid an SLT epidemic in the future.

  13. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Smoking Among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Henry Wechsler

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers, and level of smoking equations are estimated using appropriate econometric methods. ...

  14. Tobacco Control at Community Colleges: Context and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McIntosh

    2016-12-01

    Opportunities for best practice strategies for tobacco control were identified for community colleges, and would require little additional infrastructure. Policy adherence and enforcement could be improved with awareness raising with students, faculty and staff. Cessation tools for students must be convenient, understandable, and accessible from multiple locations. Feasible approaches for future initiatives could include testing low cost technology such as quitlines, Web Assisted Tobacco Interventions (WATI and outside partnerships with community organizations and health agencies.

  15. Application of Optimisation-Based Data Mining Techniques to Tobacco Control Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dzalilov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Consequently, control of tobacco use is an important global public health issue. Tobacco control may be aided by development of theoretical and methodological frameworks for describing and understanding complex tobacco control systems. Linear regression and logistic regression are currently very popular statistical techniques for modeling and analyzing complex data in tobacco control systems. However, in tobacco markets, numerous interrelated factors nontrivially interact with tobacco control policies, such that policies and control outcomes are nonlinearly related.

  16. Availability of tobacco cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs: Impact of state tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Amanda J; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Jayawardhana, Jayani

    2017-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States. State tobacco control and state demographic data (n=51) were merged with treatment program data from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=10.413) to examine availability of TC screening, counseling and pharmacotherapy services in SUD treatment programs using multivariate logistic regression models clustered at the state-level. Approximately 60% of SUD treatment programs offered TC screening services, 41% offered TC counseling services and 26% offered TC pharmacotherapy services. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed the odds of offering TC services were greater for SUD treatment programs located in states with higher cigarette excise taxes and greater spending on tobacco prevention and control. Findings indicate cigarette excise taxes and recommended funding levels may be effective policy tools for increasing access to TC services in SUD treatment programs. Coupled with changes to insurance coverage for TC under the Affordable Care Act, state tobacco control policy tools may further reduce tobacco use in the United States. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Computational Models Used to Assess US Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirman, Shari P; Glasser, Allison M; Rose, Shyanika; Niaura, Ray; Abrams, David B; Teplitskaya, Lyubov; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-11-01

    Simulation models can be used to evaluate existing and potential tobacco control interventions, including policies. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from computational models used to project population-level effects of tobacco control interventions. We provide recommendations to strengthen simulation models that evaluate tobacco control interventions. Studies were eligible for review if they employed a computational model to predict the expected effects of a non-clinical US-based tobacco control intervention. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 with no date restrictions and synthesized studies qualitatively. Six primary non-clinical intervention types were examined across the 40 studies: taxation, youth prevention, smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, marketing/advertising restrictions, and product regulation. Simulation models demonstrated the independent and combined effects of these interventions on decreasing projected future smoking prevalence. Taxation effects were the most robust, as studies examining other interventions exhibited substantial heterogeneity with regard to the outcomes and specific policies examined across models. Models should project the impact of interventions on overall tobacco use, including nicotine delivery product use, to estimate preventable health and cost-saving outcomes. Model validation, transparency, more sophisticated models, and modeling policy interactions are also needed to inform policymakers to make decisions that will minimize harm and maximize health. In this systematic review, evidence from multiple studies demonstrated the independent effect of taxation on decreasing future smoking prevalence, and models for other tobacco control interventions showed that these strategies are expected to decrease smoking, benefit population health, and are reasonable to implement from a cost perspective. Our recommendations aim to help policymakers and researchers minimize harm and

  18. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. An Overview of a Regionalist Approach to Tobacco Control in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tobacco control network has been finding ways to prevent a tobacco epidemic in developing countries through the adoption of tobacco control laws. However, their efforts are obstructed by the tobacco companies. Using transnationalism and transnational advocacy network theories, the study examines new strategies ...

  20. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS data to tobacco control policy in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Lolley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To use evidence from the GYTS to inform tobacco-control policy in Suriname. Materials and methods. The GYTS was conducted in 2000, 2004, and 2009 among secondary school students (13-15 years in a two-stage cluster sample design. Results. A total of 2744 students participated. From 2000 to 2009, results showed an increased prevalence of “current use of cigarettes” and “other tobacco products” in females (31% and 98%. Additionally, students reported a decreased, but still high, exposure to second-hand smoke at home (56.6-46.6% and in public places (67.8-53.3% and to pro-tobacco advertising (newspapers and magazines: 76.3-54.0%; billboards: 77.4-52.6%. Less than half of all respondents were taught about the dangers of smoking in school. Discussion. National smoking prevalence coincides with regional trends. The results of the GYTS provided evidence for the comprehensive tobacco control legislation, passed in 2013. Future GYTS can further monitor its implementation and progress made in achieving WHO FCTC goals.

  2. Tobacco control law enforcement and compliance in odisha, India - implications for tobacco control policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panda, B.; Rout, A.; Pati, S.; Chauhan, A.S.; Tripathy, A.; Shrivastava, R.; Bassi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very

  3. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  4. The challenge of tobacco control at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ferreira Cruz

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the actions taken by the Commission of Tobacco Control (CTC to control smoking in the hospital environment.Methods: Descriptive and exploratory retrospective documentary research conducted at a university hospital in southern Brazil, in 2014. The content of the minutes of CTC meetings was used to create a database, and the rounds reports were descriptively analyzed. We sought to identify the most relevant actions from 2005 to 2014.Results: The CTC implemented the Tobacco-Free Environment programme restricted cigarette smoking to designated areas and subsequently deactivated these areas. The only remaining outdoor smoking area in 2014 was deactivated.Conclusion: CTC actions have contributed to tobacco control in the hospital environment. This study will hopefully serve as a model to encourage other institutions to implement similar actions.

  5. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  7. [Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James Francis; Chaloupka, Frank; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey; Borland, Ron; Hastings, Gerard; Cummings, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to coordinate tobacco control policies around the world that reduce tobacco consumption. The FCTC's recommended policies are likely to be effective in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, policy evaluation studies are needed to determine policy impact and potential synergies across policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  8. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  9. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Howard K; Judge, Christine M; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control.

  10. Tobacco control: an analysis on paternalism and liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastos Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at verifying if the measures adopted in Brazil for tobacco control are paternalistic and if they, in any way, restrict individual liberties. Firstly, some of the theories on paternalism and their relation to liberty will be analyzed, focusing on the Libertarian Paternalism doctrine. Then, measures for tobacco control adopted in other countries and in Brazil will be discussed. Finally, each measure adopted in Brazil will be thoroughly analyzed, in order to verify if it restricts liberty and if there are less restrictive measures available. The conclusion is that the measures adopted in Brazil, even though they are predominantly paternalistic, do not necessarily restrict individual liberties.

  11. Local labor unions' positions on worksite tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A M; Youngstrom, R; Emmons, K; Barbeau, E; Khorasanizadeh, F; Levenstein, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report describes local unions' positions on tobacco control initiatives and factors related to these positions. METHODS: A national random sample of local union leaders was surveyed by telephone. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of local unions supported worksite smoking bans or restrictions, and only 8% opposed both a ban and a restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Support for tobacco control initiatives among local unions was higher than might be expected on the basis of previous evidence. Engaging unions in smoking policy formation is likely to contribute to the larger public health goal of reducing smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke among workers. PMID:10754979

  12. Tobacco endgames: what they are and are not, issues for tobacco control strategic planning and a possible US scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco ‘endgame’ discourse has emerged in recognition of the nature of the global public health emergency created by tobacco use and tobacco promotion. This discourse is a promising development, but translating it into action requires developing some consensus, at least by countries or regions. It also requires negotiating some of the recurring tensions within the tobacco control movement, contributing to risks for the movement as visionaries clash with pragmatists. This paper outlines one combination of approaches that might hold promise for the US situation. Every significant achievement in tobacco control was preceded by many influential people saying it couldn't be done, wouldn't work, or would create new problems. The risks of not envisioning an endpoint for the tobacco epidemic are far greater than the risks of attempting any endgame solutions and failing. PMID:23591508

  13. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  14. The national and international regulatory environment in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2015-07-09

    Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.

  15. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components “received smoking cessation training” and “raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking”. Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%, believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%, and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96% and using other tobacco products (94%. Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%. Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

  16. Tobacco control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Zafar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Latif, Ehsan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    Reliance on revenue generated from tobacco is one of the fundamental barriers to effective tobacco control in Pakistan. The tobacco control component of the National Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) deems it critical to address this issue. A range of policy and environmental strategies are part of this comprehensive effort; these involve regulating access and limiting demand through restrictions on advertising, marketing, promotion and through price and taxation. The NAP-NCD also encompasses community and school interventions, enforcement of tobacco control policies, cessation programmes, mass media counter-marketing campaigns for both prevention and cessation, and surveillance and evaluation of efforts. As part of NAP-NCD, surveillance of tobacco use has been integrated with a population-based NCD surveillance system. Featuring tobacco prominently as part of an NCD behavioural change strategy and providing wide-ranging information relevant to all aspects of tobacco prevention and control and smoking cessation have been identified as priority area in NAP-NCD. Other priority areas include the gradual phasing out of all types of advertising and eventually a complete ban on advertising; allocation of resources for policy and operational research around tobacco and building capacity in the health system in support of tobacco control. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to develop and enforce legislation on smuggling contrabands and counterfeiting and legislation to subject tobacco to stringent regulations governing pharmaceutical products. The adoption of measures to discourage tobacco cultivation and assist with crop diversification; integration of guidance on tobacco use cessation into health services and insuring the availability and access to nicotine replacement therapy are also part of NAP-NCD.

  17. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for

  18. Tackling the epidemic: Tobacco control research at IDRC | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... Building on a legacy of work for tobacco control. IDRC-supported projects and impact have continued to grow since the Centre's initial focus on small grants in 1994. Learn more. A woman's hand holding a lit cigarette ...

  19. South Africa's winning tobacco control strategy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... A combination of higher excise taxes, industry-imposed price increases, and inflation has increased the retail price of cigarettes by 375 percent since 1993. In real terms, cigarette prices doubled between 1993 and 2000. Just what tobacco control would mean financially for South Africa was little understood, ...

  20. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking

  1. Gender Sensitive Research for Tobacco Control in Brazil | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While there is much research on tobacco control worldwide, there is little that is specific to the Brazilian context. This project will attempt to address the problem by pilot testing a training workshop for Brazilian researchers and government officials on gender methodologies, approaches and protocols as they pertain to ...

  2. Making a difference: nursing scholarship and leadership in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Chan, Sophia S C; Hollen, Patricia; O'Connell, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    This report from members of the Health Behavior Expert Panel of the American Academy of Nursing (AAN) provides an overview of nurse-led scholarship in tobacco control. We reviewed published reviews of nurse-led studies in the field. The synthesis includes theory development, methodological approaches, studies focused on prevention of tobacco use, nursing interventions for tobacco dependence including studies with selected populations, investigations to reduce secondhand smoke, and studies of health care systems and policy. Gaps in the literature provided direction for stimulating nursing science, accelerating adoption of evidence-based recommendations in practice, expanding nursing education, and increasing nursing visibility and influence in health care policy efforts. The AAN is positioned to maximize nursing leadership in this effort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  4. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Accomplishments and challenges in tobacco control endeavors – Report from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Habib Awan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Application and implementation of measures outline in the MPOWER package, formulation and enforcement of sturdy laws on tobacco control, and development of infrastructure and trained workforce are fundamental to manage and reinforce tobacco control measures in the GCC region.

  6. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  7. Prevalence and Patterns of Tobacco Use in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2012: Evidence from International Tobacco Control (ITC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    Full Text Available Smoking and passive smoking are collectively the biggest preventable cause of death in Bangladesh, with major public health burden of morbidity, disability, mortality and community costs. The available studies of tobacco use in Bangladesh, however, do not necessarily employ nationally representative samples needed to monitor the problem at a national scale. This paper examines the prevalence and patterns of tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh and the changes over time using large nationally representative comparable surveys.Using data from two enumerations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Project conducted in 2009 and 2012, prevalence estimates are obtained for all tobacco products by socio-economic determinants and sample types of over 90,000 individuals drawn from over 30,000 households. Household level sample weights are used to obtain nationally representative prevalence estimates and standard errors. Statistical tests of difference in the estimates between two time periods are based on a logistic regression model that accounts for the complex sampling design. Using a multinomial logit model, the time trend in tobacco use status is identified to capture the effects of macro level determinants including changes in tobacco control policies.Between 2009 and 2012, overall tobacco use went down from 42.4% to 36.3%. The decline is more pronounced with respect to smokeless tobacco use than smoking. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking went up from 7.2% to 10.6%; exclusive bidi smoking remained stable at around 2%; while smoking both cigarette and bidi went down from 4.6% to 1.8%; exclusive smokeless tobacco use went down from 20.2% to 16.9%; and both smokeless tobacco use and smoking went down from 8.4% to 5.1%. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher among men, increases from younger to older age groups, and is higher among poorer people. Smoking prevalence is the highest among the slum population

  8. Tobacco control and cessation in Romania – a situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Trofor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian expertise in tobacco control and cessation is relatively young, as it has effectively started in the early ‘90’s. Ever since, smoking prevalence in the general population has decreased from 36.1% (48% B/25%F in 2000 to 26.7% (37.4% B/16.7% F in 2012, but it is still high and needs further efforts from the Romanian tobacco control community. Romania has ratified FCTC in May 2003 and has signed it in June 2004. A recent achievement we are all proud of consists of the new law to ban smoking in public places, applied from March 2016, a much stronger law than the past one. However, the future challenges will be to implement and ensure respect of this new law, to avoid its future amendments which already arise at the horizon, but also to introduce new regulation about taxation, illegal cigarettes traffic and e-cigarettes brands. A good point is the national Stop Smoking program that is still running since 2007 in over 50 Romanian smoking cessation centers to almost fully reimburse costs of pharmacotherapy and counselling. The constant preoccupation for education and expertise development inside the Romanian Society of Pulmonologists, in particular through its Tobaccology section established in 2007 is another plus of the Romanian tobacco control society, as well as its numerous alliances with other national and international professionals. This was fructified in various networks that have contributed to producing national smoking cessation guidelines, to creating many partnerships in tobacco control projects and in the newly successful anti-tobacco legislation.

  9. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-02-27

    This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

  10. Understanding the vector in order to plan effective tobacco control policies: an analysis of contemporary tobacco industry materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B

    2012-03-01

    This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and the implications for tobacco control. The methods involved analysis of a variety of materials, including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by the pricing power of TTCs-their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall, a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the long term future of TTCs. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the business model of the TTCs is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie, profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless tobacco appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, thereby increasing the pricing power of TTCs while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The value maximising approach of TTCs suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed.

  11. The challenge of tobacco control at a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Natália Ferreira; Mantovani, Vanessa Monteiro; Maciel, Sérgio Von Poser; Boaz, Solange Klockner; Knorst, Marli Maria; Echer, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the actions taken by the Commission of Tobacco Control (CTC) to control smoking in the hospital environment.Methods: Descriptive and exploratory retrospective documentary research conducted at a university hospital in southern Brazil, in 2014. The content of the minutes of CTC meetings was used to create a database, and the rounds reports were descriptively analyzed. We sought to identify the most relevant actions from 2005 to 2014.Results: The CTC implemented the Tobac...

  12. Tobacco control policies and activities in Aboriginal community-controlled health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Foster, Raylene; Couzos, Sophia; van der Sterren, Anke E; Sarin, Jasmine; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe tobacco control policies and activities at a nationally representative sample of Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs). The Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project used a quota sampling design to recruit 34 ACCHSs around Australia. Between April 2012 and October 2013, a representative at each ACCHS completed a survey about the service's tobacco control policies and activities. Questions about support for smoke-free policies were also included in the TATS project survey of 2435 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members of the communities served by the ACCHSs. ACCHS tobacco control policies and activities. Thirty-two surveys were completed, covering 34 sites. Most ACCHSs (24/32) prioritised tobacco control "a great deal" or "a fair amount", and all services had smoke-free workplace policies. Most had staff working on tobacco control and had provided tobacco control training within the past year. A range of quit-smoking information and activities had been provided for clients and the community, as well as extra smoking cessation support for staff. There was strong support for smoke-free ACCHSs from within the Aboriginal communities, with 87% of non-smokers, 85% of ex-smokers and 77% of daily smokers supporting a complete ban on smoking inside and around ACCHS buildings. The high level of commitment and experience within ACCHSs provides a strong base to sustain further tobacco control measures to reduce the very high smoking prevalence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

  13. Ending versus controlling versus employing addiction in the tobacco-caused disease endgame: moral psychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2013-05-01

    Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence.

  14. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  15. Differences by gender and education in responding to tobacco control measures implemented in Ukraine since 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged population groups are known to be less responsive to tobacco control policies. The objective of the study was to consider changes in smoking prevalence, exposure to secondhand smoke and tobacco advertising, as well as tobacco-related knowledge by gender and education groups in Ukraine after the implementation of tobacco control policies since 2006. METHODS: Prevalence of daily smoking was compared in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Data on tobacco awareness, exposure to SHS and tobacco advertising were available from the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: The decline in smoking prevalence in 2005-2010 was similar for men and women with different levels of education. Men with university education have lower smoking rates than other men. Women with less than secondary education had the lowest smoking rates which keep consistently low over time. Secondhand smoke and tobacco advertising exposure declined similarly across gender and education. Knowledge about tobacco-related health hazards increased more substantially in lower educated groups. CONCLUSIONS: All demographic groups in Ukraine revealed decline in smoking prevalence, exposure to SHS and the tobacco advertising as well as increase of tobacco-related health knowledge in response to tobacco control policies. Lower educated groups were more responsive to tobacco control policies than it was expected based on findings from high-income countries. In such countries as Ukraine comprehensive tobacco control measures are beneficial for all social groups and could lead to quick decline in prevalence of active and passive smoking.

  16. Perspectives from the front lines of tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Barri; Northridge, Mary E; Hund, Lisa; Green, Molly; Braithwaite, Kisha; Sabol, Barbara; Healton, Cheryl; Treadwell, Henrie M; Wenter, Dana; Dolina, Suzanne; Vallone, Donna; Duke, Jennifer; Batson, Jane; Blackwood, Julie; Bristow, Zuzanne; Demps, Wambui; Ferguson, Cheryl; Laton, Cindy; Mack, Melany; Perez, Leda; Pizarro, Marta; Ragonesi, Cheryl; Ruland, Jodie; Smith, Lucille; Walters, Gayle; North, Sharon R

    2006-02-01

    This research is designed to share valuable experiences and transferable principles from program staff of the Legacy/Community Voices initiative who have been involved in planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining tobacco control activities in underserved communities. Interviews were conducted with 13 front line staff from 9 sites: Alameda County, California; Detroit, Michigan; El Paso, Texas; Ingham County, Michigan; Miami, Florida; New Mexico; North Carolina; Northern Manhattan; and West Virginia. A model emerged from these interviews that places the life cycle of a program in a central position, with many of the identified themes (working with local champions, obtaining support from multiple partners, increasing organizational capacity) repeated throughout, albeit in different forms at different stages. Reflecting upon wisdom gained and identifying best processes for such work may help ensure that tobacco control programs are developed that are culturally safe and effective in meeting the needs of diverse communities throughout the United States.

  17. Country tobacco laws and article 11 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a review of tobacco packaging and labeling regulations of 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awopegba, Ayodeji J; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-11-06

    Urgent, evidence-based tobacco control efforts have been advocated by the WHO through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) articles and guidelines. The level of implementation of these guidelines varies by country and region. This paper identifies areas of alignment and non-alignment of country tobacco laws with respect to the FCTC's article 11 requirements, which lists guidelines for regulating tobacco packaging and labeling. Countries from each of the six WHO regions were ranked by number of smokers and 25 countries were selected, representing countries from all WHO regions with the highest number of smokers. A scoring guide based on the FCTC article 11 requirements was created and used to rank country tobacco laws and assess levels of alignment as well as identify common areas of weakness and strength. Across the countries examined, laws were generally strong in mandating the display of health warning messages on the front and back of cigarette packs and cartons. However, they were deficient in prohibiting the display of emission yields, and placing warnings at the top of the principal display area, as well as requiring health messages on tobacco's negative social and economic outcomes. Country tobacco packaging and labeling laws can be strengthened by greater compliance with the FCTC article 11 guidelines.

  18. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of M...

  19. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided.

  20. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.

  1. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  2. Attitudes of Internet users in Poland toward the new Polish Tobacco Control Law and the EU Tobacco Products Directive – types of arguments and semantic maps portray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Przewoźniak

    2017-05-01

    Qualitative analysis of attitudes toward tobacco control policy is a key for in-depth understanding why people oppose or are in favor of tobacco control policy and its results can help in effective enforcement of the new tobacco control law in Poland.

  3. Tobacco industry attempts to counter the World Bank report Curbing the Epidemic and obstruct the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-12-01

    In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies' ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce "independent" estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers' Association, to question CTE's findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry's failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda.

  4. Tobacco Control in Oman: It’s Time to Get Serious!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad; Mabry, Ruth M.; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is the world’s leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Although Oman remains a country with the lowest tobacco use in the Arab Gulf States, the prevalence of tobacco use is projected to increase to 33.3% by 2025. In 2005, Oman acceded to the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an international treaty with numerous obligations aiming to reduce the global burden of tobacco use. This paper documents, for the first time, Oman’s experience in tobacco control by providing a descriptive analysis of the evolution of tobacco control policies in relation to the country’s international obligations. In order to curb tobacco use and maintain current low prevalence levels, the paper concludes that Oman needs to accelerate action in adopting the highest attainable policies recommended by the World Health Organization’s MPOWER package. PMID:28042396

  5. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  6. Trends in point-of-sale tobacco marketing around college campuses:Opportunities for enhanced tobacco control efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sutfin, Erin L; Song, Eunyoung; King, Jessica L; Egan, Kathleen L; Reboussin, Beth; Debinski, Beata; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2017-10-11

    Colleges have implemented policies to limit tobacco use on-campus; however, the off-campus environment is often overlooked in tobacco control efforts. We assessed availability, marketing, and promotion of cigarettes, snus, and traditional smokeless tobacco (SLT) in a sample of communities surrounding 11 college campuses in North Carolina and Virginia. Between January-March of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 481 tobacco-selling retailers, including convenience stores, pharmacies and supermarkets, located near campuses were assessed. Trained observers completed annual point-of-sale assessments. The percentage of stores selling (81.4% to 58.6%; p<.0001) and advertising snus (80.1% to 53.11%; p<.0001) significantly decreased over time. Convenience stores increased promotions of cigarettes (65.4% to 72.8%; p = 0.04) and SLT (3.1% to 23.3%; p = 0.02). Off-campus environments have abundant tobacco availability and marketing. Colleges should collaborate with state and local tobacco control advocates to address tobacco promotion near campuses to potentially decrease product appeal and access among young adults.

  7. Permissive nicotine regulation as a complement to traditional tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumner Walton

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking takes a staggering toll on human health and attracts considerable public health attention, yet real solutions seem distant. The 2004 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (US Senate bill S2461 would have given the US Food and Drug Administration limited authority to regulate cigarettes to "protect the public health." However, such legislation is unlikely to substantially reduce smoking or related deaths. Discussion The past 500 years of tobacco control efforts demonstrate that nicotine prohibition is a practical impossibility for numerous reasons, state revenue being one of the most ominous. The FDA already has regulatory authority over pharmaceutical grade nicotine products, and requires pharmacists to dispense the most addictive of these only with prescriptions. Meanwhile, every corner store can sell far more addictive and dangerous cigarettes to any adult. The FDA could immediately increase competition between cigarettes and clean nicotine products by approving available nicotine products for over-the-counter sales to adults. Similarly permissive regulation of cigarettes and addictive nicotine products will reduce tobacco use and improve smokers' health, but increase nicotine use in the population. Fortunately, restricted youth access and accurate labeling of nicotine's absolute risks will dissuade many non-smokers from experimenting with it, while accurate depiction of its risks relative to cigarette smoking will encourage many smokers to switch. The FDA could take a series of small steps that might ultimately replace a large proportion of cigarette smoking with equally addictive nicotine products, without risking serious public health setbacks. Vaccine, methadone, and injury prevention policies establish relevant public health precedents. Summary Cigarettes, or an equally addictive alternative, will be a permanent and common product in most societies. Regulations restricting only the safest

  8. The impact of tobacco control policies in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Ross, Hana; Levy, David T

    2010-12-01

    To assess the impact of a tobacco control law adopted in Albania in 2007 and to estimate the share of illicit cigarettes on the market. Comparative analysis of two waves of a nationally representative household survey, one conducted before the new law went into effect and the other after 2 years. Official sales data were contrasted with the consumption estimate based on the survey. Smoking prevalence, quit attempts, exposure to cigarette advertising, exposure to second-hand smoke, total cigarette consumption, share of illicit packs among packs possessed by smokers. Despite the adoption of strong smoke-free policies and adverting restrictions, smoking prevalence in Albania has risen. The increase in prevalence has been driven by higher smoking rates among females (18.9% in 2007 vs 29.3% in 2009) and young adults (23.2% in 2007 vs 38.5% in 2009 among 18-19 year olds). Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and cigarette advertising have been reduced since 2007. The majority of respondents are still exposed to second-hand smoke and more than half are exposed to tobacco advertising. Nevertheless, there are signs that the consumption of illicit cigarettes is declining. The impacts of smoke-free policies and an advertising ban have been limited due to lack of enforcement and failure to adopt a comprehensive set of tobacco control measures. These measures should include sizeable and regular tobacco tax increases in excess of the general level of inflation and income growth. The decline in the share of illicit cigarettes should improve the effectiveness of the cigarette tax policy.

  9. Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Measures in Reducing Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka      

  10. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-09-28

    Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (phospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Zhang, Yian; Meza, Rafael; Cummings, K Michael; Levy, David T

    2015-10-01

    To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  12. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  13. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006-10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers' reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P < 0.001]; and reported exposure to POS tobacco advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P < 0.001). Similarly, in Australia, noticing of POS displays decreased from 73.9 to 42.9%. In contrast, exposure to POS marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes.

  14. The Economics of Tobacco Control in Low and Middle-Income ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Dec 15, 2017 ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco ...

  15. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the l...

  16. The global tobacco control 'endgame': change the policy environment to implement the FCTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Paul; Mamudu, Hadii

    2014-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) has prompted major change in tobacco control globally. However, policy implementation has been uneven, making 'smoke free' outcomes possible in some countries, but not others. We identify the factors that would improve implementation. We describe an ideal type of 'comprehensive tobacco control regimes', where policy environments are conducive to the implementation of tobacco control measures designed to eradicate tobacco use. The ideal type requires that a country have certain policy processes: the department of health takes the policy lead; tobacco is 'framed' as a public health problem; public health groups are consulted at the expense of tobacco interests; socioeconomic conditions are conducive to policy change; and, the scientific evidence is 'set in stone' within governments. No country will meet all these criteria in the short term, and the gap between the ideal type and the current state is wide in many countries. However, the WHO experience provides a model for progress.

  17. Views from a small Pacific island: prospects for tobacco control on Niue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris; Nosa, Vili

    2012-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a significant public health issue in Niue, a small Western Pacific nation where 31% of males and 16% of females smoke, and smoking initiation is still occurring at high levels among young people. There is evidence of political support for stronger tobacco control measures in Niue with ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005 and the Niue Tobacco Control Bill 2007 currently in discussion. However, more information is needed about how best to implement tobacco control measures in Niue. The aim of this research was to identify key contextual factors for progressing effective tobacco control in Niue. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with health, tobacco control, and public health professionals selected purposively from both Niue and New Zealand. A semistructured interview format was used and a qualitative thematic analysis undertaken to explore common and divergent viewpoints. Significant progress in tobacco control is feasible in Niue, but outside technical assistance will be needed as there is very limited capacity to undertake all that needs to be done. Key steps will include developing a comprehensive tobacco control plan that will adopt a health promotion paradigm. This will include the building of strong cross-sectoral political support and community engagement to ensure local contextual knowledge guides the development of interventions. Capacity building throughout will be vital. A comprehensive health promotion approach that draws on outside technical assistance for support and capacity when needed is recommended to advance tobacco control in Niue.

  18. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended.

  19. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  20. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  1. Global health diplomacy for obesity prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-07-01

    To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.

  2. From Kazimierz to Athens - three decades of tobacco control advancement in Europe: time to tobacco-caused diseases endgame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Antoni Zatoński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s the premature mortality of young and middle-aged adults in many countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE reached some of the highest levels in the world. It was not only twice higher than in the countries of Western Europe, but also above the rates of many developing countries, including China and India. The main cause underlying this health catastrophe in CEE were tobacco-caused diseases. In November 1990, almost precisely a year after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, a summit of tobacco control leaders took place in the town of Kazimierz in Poland. The aim of the meeting was to devise a strategy and plan of action that would allow to counteract the tobacco epidemic ravaging the post-communist states. The Kazimierz conference gathered leading tobacco control experts from across Europe and North America. Almost thirty years on from the Kazimierz Declaration, most of its health goals have been fully accomplished. The gap in smoking between young adults in CEE and Western Europe is almost closed, as evidenced by converging lung cancer morbidity and mortality rates. However, tobacco control in Europe is far from being finished business. There is an urgent need to formulate a new plan, akin to the Kazimierz Declaration in the early 1990s, that would allow tobacco control in Europe to take another leap forward. We need a Declaration of Athens that outlines the vision of civil society movement for tobacco end game, and the ENSP is best placed to launch such an initiative.

  3. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  4. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  5. Tobacco consumption among adolescents in rural Wardha: where and how tobacco control should focus its attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Ar; Deshmukh, Pr; Murali, N; Garg, Bs

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study the pattern of tobacco use among rural adolescents (15-19 years) and to find out reasons for use and non use of tobacco products. In the present community-based research, triangulation of qualitative (free list, focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (survey) was undertaken. The study was carried out in surrounding 11 villages of the Kasturba Rural Health Training Centre, Anji during January 2008 where 385 adolescents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed by house to house visits. After survey, six focus group discussions were undertaken with adolescent boys. About 68.3% boys and 12.4% girls had consumed any tobacco products in last 30 days. Out of boys who had consumed tobacco, 79.2% consumed kharra, and 46.4% consumed gutka. Among boys, 51.2% consumed it due to peer pressure, 35.2% consumed tobacco as they felt better, and five percent consumed tobacco to ease abdominal complaints and dental problem. Among girls, 72% used dry snuff for teeth cleaning, 32% and 20% consumed tobacco in the form of gutka and tobacco & lime respectively. The reasons for non use of tobacco among girls were fear of cancer (59%), poor oral health (37.9%). Among non consuming boys it was fear of cancer (58.6%), poor oral health (44.8%) and fear of getting addiction (29.3%). According to FGD respondents, few adolescent boys taste tobacco by 8-10 years of age, while girls do it by 12-13 years. Peer pressure acts as a pro tobacco influence among boys who are outgoing and spend more time with their friends. They prefer to consume freshly prepared kharra which was supposed to be less strong (tej) than gutka. Tobacco is being used in treatment of some health problems. Tobacco is chewed after meals for better digestion, given to ease toothache, pain in abdomen and to induce vomiting in suicidal insecticide poisoning. The current consumption of any tobacco products among rural adolescents was found very high. Hence

  6. Strengthening Tobacco Control in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    higher than the rate of inflation) on tobacco products, legislation requiring graphic warnings on tobacco products (messages to be proposed, pretested and monitored over time by the team) and smoke-free spectator viewing areas at venues ...

  7. Strengthening Tobacco Control in South Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    higher than the rate of inflation) on tobacco products, legislation requiring graphic warnings on tobacco products (messages to be proposed, pretested and monitored over time by the team) and smoke-free spectator viewing areas at venues ...

  8. A Few More Laps to Go: Tobacco Industry Political Influence, Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Indiana 1893-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Daniel J. BA; Barnes, Richard L. JD; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco policy has been an issue in Indiana since 1893, when the legislature passed a law prohibiting selling tobacco to people under 16. Beginning as early as 1969, Indiana General Assembly members and tobacco control advocates launched uncoordinated efforts to pass a law restricting smoking in government buildings. The tobacco industry responded with a well-financed and well-connected network of lobbyists, campaign contributions and third-party allies which defeated every ...

  9. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Marc C; Kiselinova, Maja; Nagelhout, Gera E; Joossens, Luk; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2012-10-15

    Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country's level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country's TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = -.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers

  10. Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertising in changing tobacco use in England: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michelle; Salway, Ruth; Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Szatkowski, Lisa; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 reduced adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Analysis of monthly cross-sectional surveys using generalised additive models. England. More than 80 000 adults aged 18 years or over living in England and interviewed in the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey. Current smoking status, smokers' daily cigarette consumption, tobacco control gross rating points (GRPs-a measure of per capita advertising exposure combining reach and frequency), cigarette costliness, tobacco control activity, socio-demographic variables. After adjusting for other tobacco control policies, cigarette costliness and individual characteristics, we found that a 400-point increase in tobacco control GRPs per month, equivalent to all adults in the population seeing four advertisements per month (although actual individual-level exposure varies according to TV exposure), was associated with 3% lower odds of smoking 2 months later [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.95, 0.999] and accounted for 13.5% of the decline in smoking prevalence seen over this period. In smokers, a 400-point increase in GRPs was associated with a 1.80% (95%CI = 0.47, 3.11) reduction in average cigarette consumption in the following month and accounted for 11.2% of the total decline in consumption over the period 2002-09. Government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 was associated with reductions in smoking prevalence and smokers' cigarette consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Tobacco control in Oman: It's time to get serious

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Lawati, Jawad; Mabry, Ruth M; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Although Oman remains a country with the lowest tobacco use in the Arab Gulf States, the prevalence of tobacco use is projected to increase to 33.3% by 2025...

  12. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Law at Cafe’ and Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Özcebe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to evaluate ideas of some cafe and restaurants’ clients and workers about the tobacco control law three years after entering into force in a central district in Ankara in 2008. Methods: In the descriptive study;105 management, 113 worker and 386 client was visited, face to face interviews were done using two different questionnaire form and another form for managements’ evaluation. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program, Chi-square and t-tests were used. Administrative leave was taken. Results: Mean age of workers was 30.1±8.32 years; 82.3% were men, 54.0% smoker; with clients the values are 27.7±8.61 years; 53.6% women and 39.4% were smokers. There’s a difference between smokers and non- smokers’ ideas about the hazards; death due to second-hand smoking (p=0.024; p<0.01. 80.3% of smokers and 74.3% of non-smokers knew the law in restaurants serving alcoholic beverages. Acceptance of the idea of the law could help to quit smoking was significantly different between smoker/non smoker workers and smoker/non smoker clients (p=0.004;p<0.001. According to observations, 7.6% of the managements didn’t have law related plaque, 94.1% had smoking free areas, 57.1% had show window, 22.7% had smoking individuals and 12.6% had ashtray. Conclusion: Tobacco use is an individualistic reality but also a public health issue. Publicly acceptance of 45 law and implementations are needed besides individual perceptions. Implementations must be inspected and Smokers’ observance of the rules must be supplied in order to decrease tobacco use and related health complications.

  13. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  14. Availability and use of cheap tobacco in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the UK between 2002-2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted 1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory made packs (FM-P), and cartons (FM-C); 2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g. supermarkets, convenience stores) with non-UK/ non-store sources representing tax avoidance/ evasion (e.g. outside the UK, duty free, informal sellers); and 3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalised Estimating Equations tested linear changes over time. 1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. 2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/ evasion. 3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/ non-store sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 - 2014 were statistically significant, but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Options exist driving UK smokers to minimise their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and cartons of packs of factory-made cigarettes. Wide price ranges allowed smokers in 2014 to easily obtain

  15. Smoke free families: a tobacco control program for pregnant women and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Pamela K; Morgan, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy continues to cause health problems for women and children. Nurses can facilitate smoking cessation during pregnancy through the use of tobacco control guidelines and counseling tailored to pregnant women. In this article, the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: Clinical Practice Guideline is reviewed; the Smoke Free Families program, which is tailored for pregnancy, stage matched, and includes second-hand smoke control assistance, is described; and two models for integrating smoking cessation counseling into prenatal services are offered.

  16. Tobacco control advocacy in the age of social media: using Facebook, Twitter and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2013-05-01

    The tobacco industry's use of social media sites, such as Facebook, is an emerging area of research; however, this is the first study of the potential for social media to advance tobacco control. This paper presents three case studies of using social media for tobacco control advocacy, demonstrates how social media can facilitate direct and effective action, and provides tools and lessons learned for future campaigns.

  17. Differential Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Youth Sub-Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J; Jidong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Background: While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and gender. Objective: We examined the relationship between state-level cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws and youth smoking prevalence and intensity for v...

  18. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  19. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  20. The growth in newspaper coverage of tobacco control in China, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Junling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Media coverage of tobacco-related issues can potentially shape individual beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about tobacco use. This study aims to describe news coverage of tobacco control related issues in Chinese newspapers from 2000 to 2010. Methods All 1149 articles related to tobacco control were extracted from the Database of Chinese Important Newspapers and content analyzed for the period Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2010. The changing pattern of tobacco control topic, article type, viewpoint, and article origin, and their relationship were analysed. Results News coverage of tobacco control related issues increased significantly (p p χ2 = 24.09, p = 0.002 and article types (χ2 = 193.35, p Conclusion Chinese newspapers are giving increasing attention to tobacco control, but coverage remains lower than in the USA and Australia. Health workers need to give higher priority to efforts to increase news coverage beyond the present concentration around World No Tobacco Day and to develop strategies for making tobacco control issues more newsworthy to both national and local news outlets.

  1. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  2. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  3. Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando-King, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Lando, Harry A; Jahnke, Sara A; Hawk, Nita; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas. They also perceived mixed messages coming from the USAF, including simultaneous discouragement of and accommodations for tobacco use, and variability in policies and enforcement. Many respondents indicated that allowing tobacco use creates conflict and undermines military discipline and suggested that a tobacco-free policy would be the best way to eliminate these contradictions. Although there has been substantial movement away from a culture of tobacco in the USAF, current policies and variable enforcement of these policies create unnecessary contradictions. Establishing a tobacco-free service would resolve these issues in addition to improving the health of service members and veterans.

  4. Tobacco Packaging and Labeling Policies Under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: Research Needs and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the “Act”), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Methods: Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. Results: The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms “light” and “mild,” and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote “greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco.” As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Conclusion: Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action. PMID:22039072

  5. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  6. Tobacco Policies in Louisiana: Recommendations for Future Tobacco Control Investment from SimSmoke, a Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; Fergus, Cristin; Rudov, Lindsey; McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Carton, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Despite the presence of tobacco control policies, Louisiana continues to experience a high smoking burden and elevated smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke model provides projections of these health outcomes in the face of existing and expanded (simulated) tobacco control polices. The SimSmoke model utilizes population data, smoking rates, and various tobacco control policy measures from Louisiana to predict smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The model begins in 1993 and estimates are projected through 2054. The model is validated against existing Louisiana smoking prevalence data. The most powerful individual policy measure for reducing smoking prevalence is cigarette excise tax. However, a comprehensive cessation treatment policy is predicted to save the most lives. A combination of tobacco control policies provides the greatest reduction in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The existing Louisiana excise tax ranks as one of the lowest in the country and the legislature is against further increases. Alternative policy measures aimed at lowering prevalence and attributable deaths are: cessation treatments, comprehensive smoke-free policies, and limiting youth access. These three policies have a substantial effect on smoking prevalence and attributable deaths and are likely to encounter more favor in the Louisiana legislature than increasing the state excise tax.

  7. Romania- New Tobacco control law from an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaltan Florin Dumitru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our presentation we are evaluating the progress of the tobacco control in Romania looking form the point of view on NGO in the last 26 years. We are signalling the progressive steps towards policy and an advocacy from our perspective and the consequences of our success. The final result is reflected in the new law starting in force on March 17th, 2016, a real advance in our fight. We are identifying in the same time the new challenging problems after launching the new law. Probably the biggest gain of our fight is the extensive partnership with all the factors, our efforts to bring together in a big family as the coalition “Romania Respira” politicians, advocates, judges, economists, young’s and also the new way found to encourage all: mass media, politicians, journalists, public to support us.

  8. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents' smoking? Findings over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Warne, Charles D; Spittal, Matthew J; Durkin, Sarah; Purcell, Kate; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence. Australia, 1990-2005. A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480). Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained. Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. A decade of tobacco control: The South African case of politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The South African (SA) government has implemented comprehensive tobacco control measures in line with the requirements of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The effect of these measures on smoking prevalence and smoking-related attitudes, particularly among young people, is largely ...

  10. The tobacco industry’s past role in weight control related to smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Gonseth, S.; Jacot-Sadowski, I; Diethelm, P.A.; Barras, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. METHODS: We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, ...

  11. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2017-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking. Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco

  12. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic.

  13. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Beatriz Marcet; Sebrié, Ernesto; Schoj, Verónica

    2010-01-01

    Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in tobacco control has evolved over the years to now become more professionalized. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use have brought about significant change with positive and negative consequences. Strengthening civil society not only supports the tobacco control movement but it provides competencies that may be used in many ways to promote change in democratic societies.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15......, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  15. Tobacco Control Act: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-22

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 6/22/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 6/22/2010.

  16. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Walker, Natalie; Thomas, David P; Glover, Marewa; Chang, Anne B; Bullen, Chris; Morris, Peter; Brown, Ngiare; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Borland, Ron; Segan, Catherine; Trenholme, Adrian; Mason, Toni; Fenton, Debra; Ellis, Kane

    2010-03-07

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program). Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth) and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of our study will be important and significant for Indigenous

  17. [Monitoring strategy for control of tobacco in Mexico: advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packaging and labeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Ibañez-Hernández, Norma A; Santos-Luna, René; Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Avila-Tang, Erika; Stillman, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Tobacco products points of sale (POS) were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006) schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS). In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control legislation in regards to selling to minors and single cigarettes. It is necessary to implement a surveillance system to monitor strategies for tobacco control and the tobacco industry.

  18. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6) genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample) responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  19. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. METHODS: A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6 genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. RESULTS: Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  20. Tobacco control policy in France: from war to compromise and collaboration

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    Alain Braillon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absence of an effective tobacco control policy costs lives and tobacco prevention is policy-sensitive. We describe the historical record of tobacco control in France. METHODS: Public policies and main decisions (laws, regulations, health plans for tobacco control were considered from 1950 to 2010. Data for cigarette sales and relative price of cigarettes were obtained from official databases. Sales are expressed in number of cigarettes. The relative price of cigarettes is the nominal price divided by the Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: The first step Veil Law (1976 blunted the steady increase in cigarette sales observed since World War II. The second period began with the Evin Law (1991. This law banned tobacco advertising and withdrew tobacco from the Consumer Price Index allowing for marked and repeated increases in taxes. Sales decreased over the next 6 years, from 97.1 billion to 83.0 billion in 1997 but then remained steady for 5 years (83.5 billion in 2001. The first Cancer Plan (2003 imposed three tax increases in a year (39% increase in price. Cigarette sales decreased to 54.9 billion in 2004. This period ended in 2004 when a moratorium on tobacco taxes was announced. The policies which have been implemented since President Sarkozy was elected in 2007 were flawed and protected the interests of the tobacco industry: prevalence of smoking is now increasing, mainly among the younger generation. Since 1991, the cigarette market has nearly halved but the decline has been a stop-and-go erratic process. The two 5-year periods (1997-2002 and 2005 -2010 during which consumption leveled off seem to demonstrate that government-driven health policies could have been influenced by commercial interests. CONCLUSION: Tobacco control efforts, especially tobacco tax increases, need to be sustained and shielded from the influence of the tobacco industry.

  1. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

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    Hamann Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1 discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2 development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3 delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1 adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2 attracting foreign funding agencies to support small

  2. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  3. Hands-on Workshops Aim to Strengthen Tobacco Control Efforts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2011 by the Indonesian National Institute of Health Research and Development and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, showed that more than 67% of men and almost 40% of boys aged 13-15 use tobacco.

  4. Risk factors of tobacco use among Thai adolescents: finding from International Tobacco Control Policy Survey Southeast Asia (ICT-SEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Jampaklay, Aree; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2009-06-01

    To determine the risk factors of tobacco use among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 706 adolescents sampled from 5 regions of Thailand using stratified multistage sampling. Participants were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires about tobacco use and psychosocial factors. A logistic regression model of risk factors for tobacco use was estimated using backward stepping. The prevalence of smoking in Thai adolescent was 15 percent (27.8% in males, 2.3% in females). Older age (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.02-1.51), number of close friend smoking (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.35-1.93), number of older sibling smoking (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.01-2.04), heavy alcoholic consumption (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 1.87-8.49), low self-worth (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.71-5.84) were risk factors of smoking in Thai adolescents. Females (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.04-0.24), currently studying in school (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.18-0.59) and religious beliefs guide actions (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.22-0.77) were protective factors against smoking. Male adolescents are target group for tobacco control in Thailand. The strong correlation between smoking and alcoholic consumption indicate that anti-smoking campaign should be done in parallel with anti-alcohol campaign.

  5. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  6. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods. Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results. Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion. Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, ag- gressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control.

  7. Costa Rica’s Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods. Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results. Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion. Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control.

  8. Preparedness for tobacco control among postgraduate residents of a medical college in Bangalore

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    Prem K Mony

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major cause of avoidable mortality. Postgraduate doctors in training are an important group of physicians likely to influence patients′ tobacco use/cessation. Objective: To assess preparedness for tobacco control among clinical postgraduate residents of a medical college in southern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among all clinical postgraduate residents enrolled in St. John′s Medical College, Bangalore, to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding tobacco cessation in their patients. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results: The overall response rate was 66% (76/116. Mean (S.D. knowledge score on tobacco use prevalence and disease burden was 6.2 (2.0 out of 10. About 25% of them were not aware of nicotine replacement therapy as a treatment option for tobacco cessation. Nearly two thirds of them expected their patients to ask for assistance with quitting and nearly half were sceptical about patients′ ability to quit. While 80% of them enquired routinely about tobacco use in their patients, only 50% offered advice on quitting and less than a third assessed readiness to quit or offered assistance with quitting in their patients. Conclusion: Our study revealed suboptimal levels of knowledge and tobacco cessation practice among postgraduate residents. Attitudes toward tobacco cessation by their patients was however generally positive and there was substantial interest in further training in tobacco control. Reorienting postgraduate medical education to include tobacco control interventions would enable future physicians to be better equipped to deal with nicotine addiction.

  9. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  10. Associations of tobacco control policies with birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Baum, Christopher F; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-11-01

    It is unclear whether the benefits of tobacco control policies extend to pregnant women and infants, especially among racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic populations that are at highest risk for adverse birth outcomes. To examine the associations of state cigarette taxes and the enactment of smoke-free legislation with US birth outcomes according to maternal race/ethnicity and education. Using a quasi-experimental approach, we analyzed repeated cross sections of US natality files with 16,198,654 singleton births from 28 states and Washington, DC, between 2000 and 2010. We first used probit regression to model the associations of 2 tobacco control policies with the probability that a pregnant woman smoked (yes or no). We then used linear or probit regression to estimate the associations of the policies with birth outcomes. We also examined the association of taxes with birth outcomes across maternal race/ethnicity and education. State cigarette taxes and smoke-free restaurant legislation. Birth weight (in grams), low birth weight (90th percentile for gestational age and sex). White and black mothers with the least amount of education (0-11 years) had the highest prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (42.4% and 20.0%, respectively) and the poorest birth outcomes, but the strongest responses to cigarette taxes. Among white mothers with a low level of education, every $1.00 increase in the cigarette tax reduced the level of smoking by 2.4 percentage points (-0.0024 [95% CI, -0.0004 to -0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 5.41 g (95% CI, 1.92-8.89 g). Among black mothers with a low level of education, tax increases reduced smoking by 2.1 percentage points (-0.0021 [95% CI, -0.0003 to -0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 3.98 g (95% CI, 1.91-6.04 g). Among these mothers, tax increases also reduced the risk of having low-birth-weight, preterm, and small-for-gestational-age babies, but increased the risk

  11. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  12. [The German cigarette industry association--obstructing effective tobacco control in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriss, T; Pötschke-Langer, M; Grüning, T

    2008-05-01

    In spite of up to 140,000 tobacco-related deaths each year, Germany still lacks comprehensive tobacco control policies. Through systematic analysis of internal tobacco industry documents we examined how and to what extent the German Cigarette Industry Association (Verband der Cigarettenindustrie, VdC), which is the tobacco industry's trade organisation in Germany, contributed to this lack of more effective tobacco control. The role and strategies of the VdC are illustrated by using selected case studies. The evaluated documents reveal a profound influence of the VdC on political decision-makers in Federal and State Ministries as well as on German governments. The VdC successfully curbed and delayed the national adoption of EU legislation on tobacco advertising and product regulation, public smoking bans, legislation to protect the youth, and rises in tobacco taxation. The VdC's influence has played a key role in obstructing the development and implementation of effective tobacco control policies in Germany.

  13. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  14. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  15. Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertisements with different types of emotional content on tobacco use in England, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, M; Langley, T; Lewis, S; Richardson, S; Szatkowski, L; McNeill, A; Gilmore, A B

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of tobacco control television advertisements with positive and negative emotional content on adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Analysis of monthly cross-sectional surveys using generalised additive models. England. 60 000 adults aged 18 years or over living in England and interviewed in the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey from 2004 to 2010. Current smoking status, daily cigarette consumption, tobacco control gross rating points (GRPs-a measure of per capita advertising exposure), cigarette costliness, concurrent tobacco control policies, sociodemographic variables. After adjusting for cigarette costliness, other tobacco control policies and individual characteristics, we found that a 400-point increase in positive emotive GRPs was associated with 7% lower odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) 1 month later and a similar increase in negative emotive GRPs was significantly associated with 4% lower odds of smoking (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.999) 2 months later. An increase in negative emotive GRPs from 0 to 400 was also associated with a significant 3.3% (95% CI 1.1 to 5.6) decrease in average cigarette consumption. There was no evidence that the association between positive emotive GRPs and the outcomes differed depending on the intensity of negative emotive GRPs (and vice versa). This is the first study to explore the effects of campaigns with different types of emotive content on adult smoking prevalence and consumption. It suggests that both types of campaign (positive and negative) are effective in reducing smoking prevalence, whereas consumption among smokers was only affected by campaigns evoking negative emotions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Public opinions on tax and retail-based tobacco control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Shannon M; Coady, Micaela H; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Chan, Christina; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    While tobacco taxes and smoke-free air regulations have significantly decreased tobacco use, tobacco-related illness accounts for hundreds of thousands of annual deaths. Experts are considering additional strategies to further reduce tobacco consumption. We investigated smokers' (n=2118) and non-smokers' (n=2210) opinions on existing and theoretical strategies, including tax and retailer-based strategies in New York City, across three cross-sectional surveys. Compared with smokers, non-smokers were significantly more likely (psmokers surveyed favoured increasing taxes on cigarettes, climbing to 60% if taxes were used to fund healthcare programmes. Among non-smokers, 72% favoured raising taxes, increasing to 83% if taxes were used to fund healthcare programmes. 54% of non-smoking New Yorkers favoured limiting the number of tobacco retail licences, as did 30% of smokers. The most popular retail-based strategies were raising the minimum age to purchase cigarettes from 18 to 21, with 60% of smokers and 69% of non-smokers in favour, and prohibiting retailers near schools from selling tobacco, with 51% of smokers and 69% of non-smokers in favour. Keeping tobacco products out of customers' view, prohibiting tobacco companies from paying retailers to display or advertise tobacco products and prohibiting price promotions were favoured by more than half of non-smokers surveyed, and almost half of smokers. While the support level varied between smokers and non-smokers, price and retail-based tobacco control strategies were consistently supported by the public, providing useful information for jurisdictions examining emerging tobacco control strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. TOBACCO CONTROL IN INDIA—LOTS NEED TO BE DONE....

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is among the leading causes of preventable premature death and disease all over the world. As per World Health Organization (WHO estimates, at present, its use kills more than 5 million people each year worldwide and most of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. If immediate steps are not taken to tackle the problem gap in deaths between low and middle-income countries and high-income countries is expected to widen further over the next several decades. It is estimated that if current trends of tobacco use persist, it will take a toll of more than 8 million lives worldwide every year by 2030, out of these 80% premature deaths are expected to occur in low and middle-income countries. By the end of this century, tobacco may kill a billion people or more unless urgent action is taken.1 Deaths attributed to tobacco use are increasing in India and account for about one sixth of the world’s tobacco-related deaths. Estimations on tobacco-related deaths revealed the fact that smoking was expected to kill nearly one million Indians by the early 2010.2

  18. The 'diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control'? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries' ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation.

  19. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10-13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007-2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. In 2007-2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Multi-Stakeholder Taskforces in Bangladesh — A Distinctive Approach to Build Sustainable Tobacco Control Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Jackson-Morris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MPOWER policy package enables countries to implement effective, evidence-based strategies to address the threat posed to their population by tobacco. All countries have challenges to overcome when implementing tobacco control policy. Some are generic such as tobacco industry efforts to undermine and circumvent legislation; others are specific to national or local context. Various factors influence how successfully challenges are addressed, including the legal-political framework for enforcement, public and administrative attitudes towards the law, and whether policy implementation measures are undertaken. This paper examines District Tobacco Control Taskforces, a flexible policy mechanism developed in Bangladesh to support the implementation of the Smoking and Tobacco Products Usage (Control Act 2005 and its 2013 Amendment. At the time of this study published research and/or data was not available and understanding about these structures, their role, contribution, limitations and potential, was limited. We consider Taskforce characteristics and suggest that the “package” comprises a distinctive tobacco control implementation model. Qualitative data is presented from interviews with key informants in ten districts with activated taskforces (n = 70 to provide insight from the perspectives of taskforce members and non-members. In all ten districts taskforces were seen as a crucial tool for tobacco control implementation. Where taskforces were perceived to be functioning well, current positive impacts were perceived, including reduced smoking in public places and tobacco advertising, and increased public awareness and political profile. In districts with less well established taskforces, interviewees believed in their taskforce’s ‘potential’ to deliver similar benefits once their functioning was improved. Recommendations to improve functioning and enhance impact were made. The distinctive taskforce concept and lessons from their

  2. Multi-stakeholder taskforces in Bangladesh--a distinctive approach to build sustainable tobacco control implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela M; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Warner, Valerie; Bleymann, Kayleigh

    2015-01-07

    The MPOWER policy package enables countries to implement effective, evidence-based strategies to address the threat posed to their population by tobacco. All countries have challenges to overcome when implementing tobacco control policy. Some are generic such as tobacco industry efforts to undermine and circumvent legislation; others are specific to national or local context. Various factors influence how successfully challenges are addressed, including the legal-political framework for enforcement, public and administrative attitudes towards the law, and whether policy implementation measures are undertaken. This paper examines District Tobacco Control Taskforces, a flexible policy mechanism developed in Bangladesh to support the implementation of the Smoking and Tobacco Products Usage (Control) Act 2005 and its 2013 Amendment. At the time of this study published research and/or data was not available and understanding about these structures, their role, contribution, limitations and potential, was limited. We consider Taskforce characteristics and suggest that the "package" comprises a distinctive tobacco control implementation model. Qualitative data is presented from interviews with key informants in ten districts with activated taskforces (n = 70) to provide insight from the perspectives of taskforce members and non-members. In all ten districts taskforces were seen as a crucial tool for tobacco control implementation. Where taskforces were perceived to be functioning well, current positive impacts were perceived, including reduced smoking in public places and tobacco advertising, and increased public awareness and political profile. In districts with less well established taskforces, interviewees believed in their taskforce's 'potential' to deliver similar benefits once their functioning was improved. Recommendations to improve functioning and enhance impact were made. The distinctive taskforce concept and lessons from their development may provide other

  3. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, T.; Iso, H.; Brunner, E.

    2017-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smokin...

  5. Can tobacco control endgame analysis learn anything from the US experience with illegal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The goals of tobacco control endgame strategies are specified in terms of the desired levels of tobacco use and/or tobacco related health consequences. Yet the strategies being considered may have other consequences beyond tobacco use prevalence, forms and related harms. Most of the proposed strategies threaten to create large black markets with potential attendant harms: corruption, high illegal earnings, violence and/or organised crime. Western societies of course have considerable experience with these problems in the context of prohibition of drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine. These experiences suggest that low prevalence has been achieved only by tough enforcement with damaging unintended consequences. Tobacco prohibition (total or partial) may not present the same trade-off but there is little basis for making a projection of the scale, form and harms of the attendant black markets. Nonetheless, these harms should not be ignored in analyses of the endgame proposals.

  6. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  7. Scope and extent of participation of female volunteers in tobacco control activities in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, J; Muttapppallymyalil, J; Divakaran, B

    2010-07-01

    In India, NGOs play a key role in creating a supportive environment for the control of tobacco consumption. This study was conducted to assess the scope and the extent to which community-based women organizations are involved in tobacco control activities. To assess the scope and extent of participation in tobacco control activities according to the sociodemographic characteristics and also the extent to which they have participated in tobacco control activities. The participants were Kudumbasree volunteers from the rural areas of Kannur district of Kerala state, India. This population-based study adopted a cross-sectional design. A self-administered, structured, close-ended, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data from 1000 female volunteers who participated in the study. Chi-square test was used to compare nonparametric variables, such as education, marital status, and age with attitude toward tobacco control activities. Age of the participants ranged from 17 to 53 years. The association between education level and positive attitude to participate in tobacco control activities was found to be statistically significant (P control activities and marital status (P control activities, in all the education groups more than 90% were willing to participate in tobacco control activities. Among the ever married participants, 98% were willing to participate in antitobacco activities. Old age, husband working in a beedi factory, or not being able to make frequent visits were the reasons reported for their unwillingness of the remaining people. Based on the findings, a set of Kudumbasree volunteers were trained in tobacco and health to work in the community.

  8. [Tobacco control in Japan: what it is, and what it should be].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuta, Manabu

    2013-03-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has been effective as of February 2005. This is an epoch making event for the world tobacco control. However, in Japan, almost nothing has been changed due to the intrusion of the tobacco industry and Ministry of Finance. In article 8, the Government still cannot pass a law to protect Japanese people from passive smoking. In article 11, Ministry of Finance is still permitting an old package. In article 13, no restriction is possible except a self-imposed control. Japan Society for Tobacco Control has made a passive smoking prevention bill and presented a petition to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare with related 4 bills. Cooperation, money and champion are the three most important issues that we have to pursue.

  9. The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Findings from the Netherlands SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Levy, David T; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura; Clancy, Luke; Willemsen, Marc C

    2012-02-01

    To develop a simulation model projecting the effect of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Netherlands SimSmoke-an adapted version of the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy-uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for the Netherlands to predict the effect of seven types of policies: taxes, smoke-free legislation, mass media, advertising bans, health warnings, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcome measures were smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. With a comprehensive set of policies, as recommended by MPOWER, smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 21% in the first year, increasing to a 35% reduction in the next 20 years and almost 40% by 30 years. By 2040, 7706 deaths can be averted in that year alone with the stronger set of policies. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost a million lives will be lost to tobacco-related diseases between 2011 and 2040. Of those, 145,000 can be saved with a comprehensive tobacco control package. Smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in the Netherlands can be reduced substantially through tax increases, smoke-free legislation, high-intensity media campaigns, stronger advertising bans and health warnings, comprehensive cessation treatment and youth access laws. The implementation of these FCTC/MPOWER recommended policies could be expected to show similar or even larger relative reductions in smoking prevalence in other countries which currently have weak policies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  11. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  12. How adolescents view the tobacco endgame and tobacco control measures: trends and associations in support among 14-15 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Healey, Benjamin; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents represent the next generation and have the greatest amount to gain from the tobacco endgame. They will provide the future momentum to achieve the tobacco endgame, thus it is important that their views on interventions are monitored. We examined support among 14-15-year-old New Zealanders for tobacco endgame goals and measures, and trends in this support from 2009 to 2012. This study used data from an annual survey of over 25 000 Year 10 students (14-15 year olds) undertaken by Action on Smoking and Health New Zealand. We assessed support for five tobacco control goals and measures: living in a smoke-free country; having fewer tobacco retail outlets; not selling tobacco in 10 years' time; implementing outdoor smoking bans; and raising the price of tobacco. Support for living in a smoke-free country was 59%, while support for a ban on all tobacco sales in 10 years' time was 57% in the most recent survey year. Most respondents supported each of the tobacco control measures and gave strongest support to having fewer places where tobacco could be sold (71% in 2012). Support for the other two tobacco control measures in the most recent year ranged from 59% to 64% and had increased over time, in most cases significantly. Support was strongest among non-smokers and declined as participants' smoking frequency increased. Young people support New Zealand's smoke-free goal and interventions that could help achieve it; this evidence should galvanise policy action, which remains out of step with public opinion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-05-01

    To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Teaching tobacco dependence treatment and counseling skills during medical school: rationale and design of the Medical Students helping patients Quit tobacco (MSQuit) group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rashelle B; Geller, Alan; Churchill, Linda; Jolicoeur, Denise; Murray, David M; Shoben, Abigail; David, Sean P; Adams, Michael; Okuyemi, Kola; Fauver, Randy; Gross, Robin; Leone, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Waugh, Jonathan; Crawford, Sybil; Ockene, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Physician-delivered tobacco treatment using the 5As is clinically recommended, yet its use has been limited. Lack of adequate training and confidence to provide tobacco treatment is cited as leading reasons for limited 5A use. Tobacco dependence treatment training while in medical school is recommended, but is minimally provided. The MSQuit trial (Medical Students helping patients Quit tobacco) aims to determine if a multi-modal and theoretically-guided tobacco educational intervention will improve tobacco dependence treatment skills (i.e. 5As) among medical students. 10 U.S. medical schools were pair-matched and randomized in a group-randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multi-modal educational (MME) intervention compared to traditional education (TE) will improve observed tobacco treatment skills. MME is primarily composed of TE approaches (i.e. didactics) plus a 1st year web-based course and preceptor-facilitated training during a 3rd year clerkship rotation. The primary outcome measure is an objective score on an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) tobacco-counseling smoking case among 3rd year medical students from schools who implemented the MME or TE. MSQuit is the first randomized to evaluate whether a tobacco treatment educational intervention implemented during medical school will improve medical students' tobacco treatment skills. We hypothesize that the MME intervention will better prepare students in tobacco dependence treatment as measured by the OSCE. If a comprehensive tobacco treatment educational learning approach is effective, while also feasible and acceptable to implement, then medical schools may substantially influence skill development and use of the 5As among future physicians. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health improvement in Poland is contingent on continued extensive tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold; Zatoński, Mateusz; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major avoidable single cause of premature mortality in Poland. Almost one in three Polish males do not live to 65 years of age, and almost half of this premature mortality can be traced back to the much higher smoking prevalence in Poland than in Western Europe--every third Polish male and every fourth Polish female smokes daily. However, the current health situation in Poland is much better than two decades ago when the country entered a period of political and economic upheaval. In the early 1990s, the state of health of the Polish population was catastrophic and its tobacco consumption levels the highest in the world. In the early 1990s, the probability of a 15-year-old Polish boy living to the age of 60 was not just twice lower than in Western Europe, but also lower than in China or India. The health policy of limiting the health consequences of smoking conducted by the European Union and, in the last two decades, by the Polish parliament and government, helped to stop this health catastrophe. In Poland, cigarette consumption has decreased by 30% since 1990, as did lung cancer mortality among males. Despite this progress, tobacco smoking remains the most serious health problem in Poland. Therefore, comprehensive tobacco control policy should not only be continued, but expanded and accelerated. The EU Tobacco Products Directive proposes a package of actions for reducing tobacco-related health harm in Europe. The Directive proposal is rational, science-and-evidence based, and grounded on the best practice examples from other countries. Both the Polish tobacco control law and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), ratified by Poland in 2006, oblige our country to support tobacco control, including all the initiatives taken by the European Union.

  16. Patterns and predictors of smokeless tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S Abdullah

    Full Text Available Although smokeless tobacco (SLT use is prevalent in South Asian countries including Bangladesh, information about the pattern and correlates of SLT use is scarce. This study described the pattern and predictors of SLT use among Bangladeshi adults.The data for this study were derived from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Bangladesh (ITC BD Survey, a prospective cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of smokers and non-smokers, conducted during November 2011 and May 2012. The study included 5522 adults aged 15 or above. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify predictors of SLT use.Of the respondents (N = 5522, 20% were SLT users. In general, SLT use was significantly higher among women, the illiterate and residents of the Dhaka slums or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka; SLT use increased with age. Several attitudinal factors were also associated with SLT use. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed several predictors of SLT use: being female (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.18-3.24, an increasing age, being a resident of a Dhaka slum (OR = 5.86; 95% CI: 3.73-9.21 or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.94-6.03, being illiterate (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.99-5.71, holding positive opinion towards societal approval of SLT use (OR = 5.84; 95% CI: 3.38-10.09, holding positive opinion towards SLT use by women (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.53-4.54, believing that SLT is addictive (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51-5.81, and believing SLT is less harmful than bidi (OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.36-3.62.The findings suggest that coordinated efforts of governmental and non-governmental organizations, targeting both smoked tobacco and SLT use reduction and cessation, could be modified to reach each level of population including those who are marginalized, female, less educated and elderly. As most tobacco control programs in Bangladesh target mainly

  17. Patterns and Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Use among Adults in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S.; Driezen, Pete; Ruthbah, Ummul H.; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C. K.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is prevalent in South Asian countries including Bangladesh, information about the pattern and correlates of SLT use is scarce. This study described the pattern and predictors of SLT use among Bangladeshi adults. Methods The data for this study were derived from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Bangladesh (ITC BD) Survey, a prospective cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of smokers and non-smokers, conducted during November 2011 and May 2012. The study included 5522 adults aged 15 or above. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify predictors of SLT use. Results Of the respondents (N = 5522), 20% were SLT users. In general, SLT use was significantly higher among women, the illiterate and residents of the Dhaka slums or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka; SLT use increased with age. Several attitudinal factors were also associated with SLT use. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed several predictors of SLT use: being female (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.18–3.24), an increasing age, being a resident of a Dhaka slum (OR = 5.86; 95% CI: 3.73–9.21) or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.94–6.03), being illiterate (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.99–5.71), holding positive opinion towards societal approval of SLT use (OR = 5.84; 95% CI: 3.38–10.09), holding positive opinion towards SLT use by women (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.53–4.54), believing that SLT is addictive (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51–5.81), and believing SLT is less harmful than bidi (OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.36–3.62). Conclusion The findings suggest that coordinated efforts of governmental and non-governmental organizations, targeting both smoked tobacco and SLT use reduction and cessation, could be modified to reach each level of population including those who are marginalized, female, less educated and elderly. As most

  18. Multiple streams approach to tobacco control policymaking in a tobacco-growing state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-08-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association's support generated an environment for 100% SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes.

  19. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Bach, Nicoline; Baum, Christopher F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to examine the impact of cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation on current adolescent smoking and smoking frequency overall as well as test whether there were differential policy effects by age. Using data on 717,543 adolescents from 43 states in the 1999-2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, we used difference-in-differences regression models to evaluate the impact of tobacco control policies on current adolescent smoking (yes/no) and, separately, smoking frequency (defined as 0, 1-5, 6-29, 30+ days per month). We tested an interaction between age and cigarette taxes and, separately, smoke-free legislation. From 1999 to 2013, adolescent smoking decreased from 35.3% to 13.9% and 41 of 43 states increased their cigarette tax in real terms by an average of 257%. By the end of the study period, 29 of 43 states had 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation. Although we found no overall effect of cigarette taxes on current smoking, there was a significant interaction by age. Among 14- and 15-year olds, every $1.00 cigarette tax increase was associated with a 2.2 and 1.6 percentage point reduction in smoking, respectively. The enactment of 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation was associated with an overall reduction in adolescent smoking by 1.1 percentage points and there were no differences by age. Cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation were also associated with decreased smoking frequency. The youngest adolescents are the most price sensitive, and cigarette taxes continue to be a successful approach to reduce adolescent smoking. Smoke-free legislation may also be an effective strategy to reduce smoking among all adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Political economy analysis for tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Jesse B; Reich, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco is already the world's leading cause of preventable death, claiming over 5 million lives annually, and this toll is rising. Even though effective tobacco control policies are well researched and widely disseminated, they remain largely unimplemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For the most part, control attempts by advocates and government regulators have been frustrated by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and their supporters. One reason tobacco is so difficult to control is that its political economy has yet to be adequately understood and addressed. We conducted a review of the literature on tobacco control in LMICs using the databases PubMed, EconLit, PsychInfo and AGRICOLA. Among the over 2500 papers and reports we identified, very few explicitly applied political economy analysis to tobacco control in an LMIC setting. The vast majority of papers characterized important aspects of the tobacco epidemic, including who smokes, the effects of smoking on health, the effectiveness of advertising bans, and the activities of TTCs and their allies. But the political and economic dynamics of policy adoption and implementation were not discussed in any but a handful of papers. To help control advocates better understand and manage the process of policy implementation, we identify how political economy analysis would differ from the traditional public health approaches that dominate the literature. We focus on five important problem areas: information problems and the risks of smoking; the roles of domestic producers; multinational corporations and trade disputes in consumption; smuggling; the barriers to raising taxes and establishing spatial restrictions on smoking; and incentive conflicts between government branches. We conclude by discussing the political economy of tobacco and its implications for control strategies.

  1. Understanding the Tobacco Control Act: efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration to make tobacco-related morbidity and mortality part of the USA's past, not its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R

    2013-05-04

    The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D

    2006-01-01

    Background In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. Objective To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. Design A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October–December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May–September 2003). Key measures Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Results Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9–22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking “often or very often” at Wave 2. Conclusions The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro‐tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:16754943

  3. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  4. Mathematical Modeling in Tobacco Control Research: Initial Results From a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirman, Shari P; Donaldson, Elisabeth; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Niaura, Ray; Rose, Shyanika W; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has expressed interest in using mathematical models to evaluate potential tobacco policies. The goal of this systematic review was to synthesize data from tobacco control studies that employ mathematical models. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 to identify published studies that used a mathematical model to project a tobacco-related outcome and developed a data extraction form based on the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices. We developed an organizational framework to categorize these studies and identify models employed across multiple papers. We synthesized results qualitatively, providing a descriptive synthesis of included studies. The 263 studies in this review were heterogeneous with regard to their methodologies and aims. We used the organizational framework to categorize each study according to its objective and map the objective to a model outcome. We identified two types of study objectives (trend and policy/intervention) and three types of model outcomes (change in tobacco use behavior, change in tobacco-related morbidity or mortality, and economic impact). Eighteen models were used across 118 studies. This paper extends conventional systematic review methods to characterize a body of literature on mathematical modeling in tobacco control. The findings of this synthesis can inform the development of new models and the improvement of existing models, strengthening the ability of researchers to accurately project future tobacco-related trends and evaluate potential tobacco control policies and interventions. These findings can also help decision-makers to identify and become oriented with models relevant to their work. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tobacco control and prevention in Oklahoma: best practices in a preemptive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  7. Eye Tracking Outcomes in Tobacco Control Regulation and Communication: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Jarman, Kristen; Wright, Sarah Towner; Klein, Elizabeth G; Goldstein, Adam O; Ranney, Leah

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion. Eye tracking studies on health warnings consistently showed these warnings often were ignored, though eye tracking demonstrated that novel warnings, graphic warnings, and plain packaging can increase attention toward warnings. Eye tracking also revealed that greater visual attention to warnings on advertisements and packages consistently was associated with cognitive processing as measured by warning recall. Eye tracking is a valid indicator of attention, cognitive processing, and memory. The use of this technology in tobacco control research complements existing methods in tobacco regulatory and communication science; it also can be used to examine the effects of health warnings and other tobacco product communications on consumer behavior in experimental settings prior to the implementation of novel health communication policies. However, the utility of eye tracking will be enhanced by the standardization of methodology and reporting metrics.

  8. Epidemiology, control and prevention of tobacco induced oral mucosal lesions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, G

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries like India. Tobacco consumption in smokeless and smoking form along with alcohol is considered as the primary risk factors. Tobacco is a major health challenge with various tobacco products available for use which are known to have deleterious effects on the oral mucosa. The oral lesions caused by tobacco are inclusive of those that are less likely to progress to cancer; lesions with increased tendency to develop into cancer and cancerous lesions. Prevention and control of tobacco induced oral mucosal lesions is the prime requisite currently and mainly involves measures undertaken at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Primary prevention plays a pivotal role in tobacco induced lesions and steps can be taken at policy level, community as well as individual level. This review paper focuses on the epidemiological data of tobacco induced oral mucosal lesions in India available in the literature with an overview on various strategies for their prevention and control.

  9. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms.Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometricapproach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters.

  10. Using findings from a public opinion poll to build political support for tobacco control policy in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, William K; Kitonyo, Rachael; Ogwell, Ahmed E O

    2013-11-01

    To assess the level of public support for tobacco control policies and to discuss how these findings could be used to influence the legislative process in the passing of tobacco control law in the country. A cross-sectional study conducted in Kenya between March and May 2007 on a random sample of 2021 (991 men and 1030 women) respondents aged 18 years and above. Interviews were done using a structured questionnaire by a research consultancy firm with long-standing experience in public polling. The majority of respondents supported tobacco control policies as proposed by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. For example, 95% of the respondents supported smoking restrictions in all enclosed public places and workplaces, 94% supported visible health warnings on tobacco product packages, 83% supported a ban on advertisements of cigarettes and tobacco products and 69% supported a ban on sponsorship of events by tobacco companies. However, 60% perceived that there was very little commitment by legislators to tobacco control. There was overwhelming public support for tobacco control policies and a general view that government was not doing enough in implementing policies to protect the public from tobacco harm. This public opinion poll was used as an advocacy tool to generate support among legislators for national tobacco control law.

  11. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Southeast Asia Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS. This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011, a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9% at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  12. How compliant are tobacco vendors to india's tobacco control legislation on Ban of advertisments at point of sale? A three jurisdictions review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ravinder; Lal, Pranay; Tripathi, Jp; Singh, Rana J; Rathinam, Arul; Christian, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Section 5 of India's tobacco control legislation "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003"comprehensively prohibits all kinds of tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS), but permits advertisments at the point-of-sale (POS) under certain conditions. This provision has been exploited by the tobacco companies to promote their products. To measure compliance with the provisions of Section 5 of Indian tobacco control legislation (COTPA, 2003) at point of sale. A cross-sectional survey using an observation checklist was conducted in 1860 POS across three jurisdictions (Chennai city, District Vadodara and District Mohali) in India. The most common mode of advertisement of tobacco products was product showcasing (51.1%), followed by dangles (49.6%), stickers (33.8%) and boards (27.1%). More than one fourth of POS were found violating legal provisions for displaying advertisement boards in one or other forms (oversized, extended to full body lenth of POS, displayed brandname/ packshot and promotional messages). Advertisement boards (16.3%) without health warnings were also found and wherever found, more than 90% health warning were not as per the specification in respect to size, font and background color. Point of sale advertising is aggressively used by the tobacco industry to promote their products. There is an urgent need of effective implementation of a comprehensive ban on tobacco product advertisement, promotion and sponsorship at point of sale.

  13. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-13

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  14. Building on a legacy of work for tobacco control | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-26

    May 26, 2017 ... IDRC-supported projects and impact have continued to grow since the Centre's initial focus on small grants in 1994. South African and Jamaican researchers were the first to be supported to provide evidence for their countries' first tobacco tax increases. Since then, IDRC's commitment to these neglected ...

  15. Lighting fires for tobacco control | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... The challenge is to communicate the dangers of tobacco in ways that mesh with the priorities of countries dealing with a multitude of economic and other problems ... An apparent relationship between smoking and increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders is another matter that begs further inquiry.

  16. Cytokinin control of sequential leaf senescence in tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)); Letham, D.S.; Parker, C.W. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1990-05-01

    Exogenously applied cytokinins (especially dihydrozeatin) retarded senescence of leaf disks, detached and intact leaves of tobacco. The cytokinin complex in tobacco leaves of various maturities was characterized by radioimmunoassay. Zeatin was the major base whereas zeatin riboside was identified as the main riboside in both young (green) and senescing leaves. The basal, senescing leaves had lower levels of both cytokinin bases and ribosides. Exogenous applications of dihydrozeatin and zeatin to detached tobacco leaves delayed leaf senescence and elevated cytokinin base levels. These differences in endogenous levels of active cytokins in senescent and non-senescent leaves may be involved in the regulation of sequential leaf senescence in tobacco. There was no appreciable difference in either translocation or metabolism of xylem supplied tritium-labelled dihydrozeatin riboside between upper green and lower senescing leaves. The apical, green leaves (and not the basal, yellowing leaves) exhibited incorporation of ({sup 14}C)adenine into zeatin. The differing cytokinin levels in leaves of various maturity levels may be due to difference in cytokinin biosynthetic capacity.

  17. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  18. Acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of cannabis and tobacco both ‘joint’ and individually: a placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hindocha, C; Freeman, T. P.; Xia, J X; Shaban, N. D. C.; Curran, H.V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. Method The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannab...

  19. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  20. Investment incentives and the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-07-01

    Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organisations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to the policy of economic development in Zambia. We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: (1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, (2) economic benefits outweigh health costs and (3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced in implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia's development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must recognise and work within this context in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global context. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonising FCTC implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jun Cho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010, and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.

  3. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A. PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We review evidence for the extent to which individual strategies that comprise a comprehensive tobacco con...

  4. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    ... by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm...

  5. Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Lih; Lin, I-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of a set of comprehensive tobacco control policies implemented in Taiwan in 2009, including extensive smoke-free policy, advertisement ban, pictorial warning and price increase, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Five waves of cross-sectional surveys. Taiwan, 2004-11. Nationally representative sample of junior high schools aged 13-15 years, in a biennial survey, total sample size 101,100. Core questionnaire of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, including ever smoking, 30-day smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. The magnitude of prevalence change before and after the 2009 policy implementation was quantified by adjusted odds ratios estimated by piecewise logistic regression models. The 30-day smoking prevalence demonstrated an upward trend [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10] between 2004 and 2008. Significant decline in 30-day smoking prevalence after the 2009 law implementation was observed (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Those living in non-city areas demonstrated a greater magnitude of change. In addition to changes in prevalence, we observed some delay in the age starting smoking, reduction in smokers who smoke fewer than one cigarette per day, and decrease in smokers who did not buy cigarettes. The decline in smoking prevalence was contributed primarily by the reduction in experimenters. The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among those in earlier stages of smoking and those who resided in non-city areas. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Tobacco control approaches and inequity--how far have we come and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Kate R; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Rivis, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Despite Australia's success in reducing smoking rates, substantial inequities persist--with high smoking prevalence among disadvantaged groups. This article uses Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity to identify promising strategies for promoting equity within tobacco control policies and programmes. A rapid review of the Australian and international literature was conducted in March 2014 using Pubmed, ISI web of Science and Scopus, Cochrane library and Google Scholar. A search of the grey literature was conducted to identify promising policy interventions. Population health surveys suggest that tobacco-related inequities in Victoria are beginning to decline. Data from the Victorian Smoking Survey shows that the inequity gap is narrowing, and in recent years, the prevalence of regular smoking declined fastest among disadvantaged smokers. Future approaches to accelerate reductions in tobacco-related inequities include: (i) continue proven population-based tobacco control policies--especially increasing the price of tobacco (while remaining cognisant of the increased economic burden for those smokers who do not quit), and continuing mass media campaigns; (ii) strengthening social policies to promote equity in early child development; educational experiences; quality of local environments; employment and working conditions; (iii) identifying and investing in targeted approaches to influence social norms and more effectively identify and support disadvantaged smokers to quit; (iv) within tobacco control programmes, give greatest priority to interventions focused on adult smokers (including pregnant women and their partners). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Clearing the air: the evolution of organized labor's role in tobacco control in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer; Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith

    2008-01-01

    As efforts to make U.S. worksites smoke-free took shape in the 1980s, the tobacco industry sought to defeat them by forming alliances with organized labor. The alliance between the tobacco industry and organized labor was based on framing the regulation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a threat to jobs, an example of management unilateralism, and an issue that divided smoking and nonsmoking union members. The dynamics of organized labor and tobacco control began to change in the late 1980s with attempts to ban smoking on airlines and in the hospitality industry. Flight attendants, bar and restaurant workers, and casino dealers-all subject to ETS in their work environments-confronted ETS as an occupational health issue. Against the backdrop of increasing awareness of the hazards of ETS, and the acceptance of tobacco control policy, this framing changed the basis of organized labor's role in tobacco control. Because service workers share the workplace with the general public, their occupational health issues are also public health issues. This fact presents new opportunities for coalition building to protect the health of service workers and the public alike.

  8. The effects of tobacco control policies on retailer sales to minors in the USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-02-20

    Under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act , the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been routinely inspecting tobacco retailers' compliance with under-age sales laws. We seek to identify factors associated with Retail Violation Rate for sale to minors (RVRm). We collected the tobacco retailer inspection data for 2015 from the FDA compliance check database. RVRm was calculated at the census tract level and overlaid with tobacco regulations and youth smoking prevalence at the state level. Multi-level spatial analysis was performed to examine the impacts of tobacco jurisdiction variations, youth smoking rates and neighbourhood social characteristics on RVRm. A total of 136 816 compliance checks involving minors conducted by the FDA in 2015 were analysed. A higher RVRm was associated with higher youth smoking prevalence (aRR=1.04, ptax per pack, the likelihood of retail violations was reduced by 2% (aRR=0.98, p=0.03). For every 10% increase in tobacco prevention spending towards Centers for Disease Control recommended funding targets, the likelihood of retail violations was reduced by 1% (aRR=0.99, p=0.01). RVRm increased in states that enacted stronger smoke-free air policies (aRR=1.08, pcompliance with under-age sales laws. This study provides evidence to support stronger tobacco regulations and control policies in reducing youth access to tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Opportunity for collaboration: a conceptual model of success in tobacco control and cancer prevention.

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    Stillman, Frances A; Schmitt, Carol L; Rosas, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and tobacco control experts generated statements describing the components of a successful cancer prevention or tobacco control program and 33 participants sorted and rated the final 99 statements. Multidimensional scaling analysis with a 2-dimensional solution was used to identify an 8-cluster conceptual map of program success. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for all 99 statements to compare the item-level ratings of both groups and used t tests to compare the mean importance of ratings assigned to each cluster. Eight major clusters of success were identified: 1) advocacy and persuasion, 2) building sustainability, 3) partnerships, 4) readiness and support, 5) program management fundamentals, 6) monitoring and evaluation, 7) utilization of evidence, and 8) implementation. We found no significant difference between the maps created by the 2 groups and only 1 mean difference for the importance ratings for 1 of the clusters: cancer prevention experts rated partnerships as more important to program success than did tobacco control experts. Our findings are consistent with those of research documenting the necessary components of successful programs and the similarities between cancer prevention and tobacco control. Both programs value the same strategies to address a common risk factor: tobacco use. Identifying common ground between these 2 research and practice communities can benefit future collaborations at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels, and inform the

  10. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  11. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

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    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  13. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  14. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  15. System level approaches for mainstreaming tobacco control into existing health programs in India: Perspectives from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457 to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population

  16. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combined Effects of Web and Quitline Interventions for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G.; Severson, Herbert H.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Andrews, Judy A.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Lichtenstein, Edward; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Hudkins, Coleen; Widdop, Chris; Crowley, Ryann; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) is a significant public health problem but smokeless tobacco users have few resources to help them quit. Web programs and telephone-based programs (Quitlines) have been shown to be effective for smoking cessation. We evaluate the effectiveness of a Web program, a Quitline, and the combination of the two for smokeless users recruited via the Web. Objectives To test whether offering both a Web and Quitline intervention for smokeless tobacco users results in significantly better long-term tobacco abstinence outcomes than offering either intervention alone; to test whether the offer of Web or Quitline results in better outcome than a self-help manual only Control condition; and to report the usage and satisfaction of the interventions when offered alone or combined. Methods Smokeless tobacco users (N= 1,683) wanting to quit were recruited online and randomly offered one of four treatment conditions in a 2×2 design: Web Only, Quitline Only, Web + Quitline, and Control (printed self-help guide). Point-prevalence all tobacco abstinence was assessed at 3- and 6-months post enrollment. Results 69% of participants completed both the 3- and 6-month assessments. There was no significant additive or synergistic effect of combining the two interventions for Complete Case or the more rigorous Intent To Treat (ITT) analyses. Significant simple effects were detected, individually the interventions were more efficacious than the control in achieving repeated 7-day point prevalence all tobacco abstinence: Web (ITT, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.94, p = .033) and Quitline (ITT: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.11, p = .007). Participants were more likely to complete a Quitline call when offered only the Quitline intervention (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = .054, .093, p = .013), the number of website visits and duration did not differ when offered alone or in combination with Quitline. Rates of program helpfulness (p Web and

  18. What works in Indigenous tobacco control? The perceptions of remote Indigenous community members and health staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Thomas, David P

    2010-04-01

    To explore the perceptions of remote Indigenous community members and health staff regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of different tobacco control health promotion interventions. Qualitative methods were used for this exploratory study, including interviews with remote Indigenous community members and health staff, as well as observations of the delivery of different tobacco control activities in three remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT). Several tobacco control interventions for which there is strong evidence in other settings were generally perceived as acceptable and efficacious in the remote Indigenous setting. Primary care interventions, such as brief advice and pharmaceutical quitting aids, when available and accessible, were perceived as important and effective strategies to help people quit, as were the promotion of smokefree areas. By contrast unmodified Quit programs were perceived to have questionable application in this context and there were conflicting findings regarding taxation increases on tobacco and social marketing campaigns. Several evidence-based 'mainstream' activities are perceived to be acceptable to this population, but we may also need to address the concerns raised by health staff and community members about the acceptability of some unmodified activities. Additionally, organisational barriers within the health system may be contributing to the reduced effectiveness of tobacco control in this setting.

  19. Global tobacco prevention and control in relation to a cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention framework: A narrative review.

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    Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The tobacco industry's past role in weight control related to smoking.

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    Gonseth, Semira; Jacot-Sadowski, Isabelle; Diethelm, Pascal A; Barras, Vincent; Cornuz, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson and British American Tobacco) that were Defendants in tobacco litigation settled in 1998. Findings are dated from 1949 to 1999. The documents revealed the strategies planned and used by the industry to enhance effects of smoking on weight and appetite, mostly by chemical modifications of cigarettes contents. Appetite-suppressant molecules, such as tartaric acid and 2-acetylpyridine were added to some cigarettes. These tobacco companies played an active and not disclaimed role in the anti-appetite effects of smoking, at least in the past, by adding appetite-suppressant molecules into their cigarettes.

  1. The role of taxation in tobacco control and its potential economic impact in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhengzhong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Wendong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify key economic issues involved in raising the tobacco tax and to recommend possible options for tobacco tax reform in China. Methods Estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes, prevalence data and epidemiology are used to estimate the impact of a tobacco tax increase on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, lives saved, employment and revenue loss in the cigarette industry and tobacco farming. Results The recent Chinese tax adjustment, if passed along to the retail price, would reduce the number of smokers by 630 000 saving 210 000 lives, at a price elasticity of −0.15. A tax increase of 1 RMB (or US$0.13) per pack of cigarettes would increase the Chinese government's tax revenue by 129 billion RMB (US 17.2 billion), decrease consumption by 3.0 billion packs of cigarettes, reduce the number of smokers by 3.42 million and save 1.14 million lives. Conclusion The empirical economic analysis and tax simulation results clearly indicate that increasing the tobacco tax in China is the most cost-effective instrument for tobacco control. PMID:20008158

  2. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G. Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes at reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. Objectives First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users’ tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of sixteen low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Methods We use data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and the type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We use self-reported information about the source of a smoker’s last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France. Findings We find prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the United Kingdom, more than 10% of smokers report last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources while in Malaysia, some prevalence estimates suggest substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also find important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, vary both in

  3. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes in reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users' tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of 16 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. We used data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We used self-reported information about the source of a smoker's last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We used generalised estimating equations to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, the USA, the UK and France. We found prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the UK, more than 10% of smokers reported last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources, while in Malaysia some prevalence estimates suggested substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also found important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, varied both in direction and magnitude across countries.

  4. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

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    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  5. Impact on cardiovascular disease events of the implementation of Argentina's national tobacco control law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Mejia, Raul; Coxson, Pamela; Moran, Andrew; Goldman, Lee; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-03-01

    Argentina's congress passed a tobacco control law that would enforce 100% smoke-free environments for the entire country, strong and pictorial health warnings on tobacco products and a comprehensive advertising ban. However, the Executive Branch continues to review the law and it has not been fully implemented. Our objective was to project the potential impact of full implementation of this tobacco control legislation on cardiovascular disease. The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model was used to project future cardiovascular events. Data sources for the model included vital statistics, morbidity and mortality data, and tobacco use estimates from the National Risk Factor Survey. Estimated effectiveness of interventions was based on a literature review. Results were expressed as life-years, myocardial infarctions and strokes saved in an 8-year-period between 2012 and 2020. In addition we projected the incremental effectiveness on the same outcomes of a tobacco price increase not included in the law. In the period 2012-2020, 7500 CHD deaths, 16 900 myocardial infarctions and 4300 strokes could be avoided with the full implementation and enforcement of this law. Annual per cent reduction would be 3% for CHD deaths, 3% for myocardial infarctions and 1% for stroke. If a tobacco price increase is implemented the projected avoided CHD deaths, myocardial infarctions and strokes would be 15 500, 34 600 and 11 900, respectively. Implementation of the tobacco control law would produce significant public health benefits in Argentina. Strong advocacy is needed at national and international levels to get this law implemented throughout Argentina.

  6. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-07-01

    To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The impact of changes in tobacco control funding on healthcare expenditures in California, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Lightwood, James

    2013-05-01

    This study presents estimates of the impact of changes in California tobacco control funding on healthcare expenditures for 2012-2016 under four funding scenarios. Smoking prevalence is projected using a cointegrated time series regression model. Smoking-attributable healthcare expenditures are estimated with econometric models that use a prevalence-based annual cost approach and an excess cost methodology. If tobacco control spending in California remains at the current level of 5 cents per pack (base case), smoking prevalence will increase from 12.2% in 2011 to 12.7% in 2016. If funding is cut in half, smoking prevalence will increase to 12.9% in 2016 and smoking-attributable healthcare expenditures will be $307 million higher over this time period than in the base case. If the tobacco tax is increased by $1.00 per pack with 20 cents per pack allocated to tobacco control, smoking prevalence will fall to 10.4% in 2016 and healthcare expenditures between 2012 and 2016 will be $3.3 billion less than in the base case. If funding is increased to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended level, smoking prevalence will fall to 10.6% in 2016 and there will be savings in healthcare expenditures of $4.7 billion compared to the base case due to the large reduction in heavy smoking prevalence. California's highly successful tobacco control program will become less effective over time because inflation is eroding the 5 cents per pack currently allocated to tobacco control activities. More aggressive action needs to be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and healthcare expenditures in the future.

  8. Effect of the California tobacco control program on personal health care expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Lightwood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Large state tobacco control programs have been shown to reduce smoking and would be expected to affect health care costs. We investigate the effect of California's large-scale tobacco control program on aggregate personal health care expenditures in the state.Cointegrating regressions were used to predict (1 the difference in per capita cigarette consumption between California and 38 control states as a function of the difference in cumulative expenditures of the California and control state tobacco control programs, and (2 the relationship between the difference in cigarette consumption and the difference in per capita personal health expenditures between the control states and California between 1980 and 2004. Between 1989 (when it started and 2004, the California program was associated with $86 billion (2004 US dollars (95% confidence interval [CI] $28 billion to $151 billion lower health care expenditures than would have been expected without the program. This reduction grew over time, reaching 7.3% (95% CI 2.7%-12.1% of total health care expenditures in 2004.A strong tobacco control program is not only associated with reduced smoking, but also with reductions in health care expenditures.

  9. Bladder cancer and black tobacco cigarette smoking. Some results from a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momas, I; Daures, J P; Festy, B; Bontoux, J; Gremy, F

    1994-10-01

    A retrospective study was planned in the Hérault (Mediterranean) region of France where bladder cancer mortality and incidence rates are high. In the present paper, variations in bladder cancer risk according to various smoking-related variables, in particular time of exposure and type of tobacco, are examined. This case-control study with 219 male incident cases and 794 male population controls randomized from electoral rolls was carried out in 1987-89. Trained interviewers obtained information on demographics, dietary habits (coffee, alcohol, artificial sweeteners, vegetables, spices, etc.), occupational exposures and detailed history of tobacco smoking (average number of cigarettes per day, number of years of smoking, age at which they began and/or quitted smoking, use of filter-tip and type of tobacco). The odds ratio (OR) for cigarette smokers versus non-smokers was greater than 5. Results for number of cigarettes daily, duration of smoking and lifetime smoking showed a highly significant dose-response relationship, which was confirmed when these variables were treated as continuous in a logistic regression model. Eighty-eight percent of the smokers used black tobacco. Quitting smoking did not result in a significant reduction in bladder cancer risk. Higher risks were associated with starting to smoke at an early age (OR before age 13 versus after age 21 = 3.42; 95% CI 1.07-10.9) and with black tobacco smoking (OR black versus blond = 1.63; 95% CI 0.73-3.64). Results suggest that black tobacco may be more harmful than blond tobacco and may have an early non-reversible role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  10. Effect of alcohol and tobacco use on vascular dementia: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Caldwell, Casey R; Targonski, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the United States. The underlying association of tobacco and alcohol with vascular dementia is not completely understood. Determine the relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with the development of vascular dementia (VaD). This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN. Cases of VaD were identified through medical record abstraction using conventionally accepted definitions of VaD, using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Ensignement en Neurosicences ( NINDS-AIRENS) criteria and were matched to controls by gender and age within 3 years among persons free of dementia on the index date. Exposure data for alcohol and tobacco use were abstracted by trained nurses, along with demographic, lifestyle, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and vascular comorbid disease characteristics. Matched conditional logistic regression for univariate and multivariate evaluation of the association of tobacco and alcohol use with VaD was utilized. Current alcohol exposure was associated with a decreased risk of VaD with an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.74). This protective effect of alcohol was seen in men, women, and subjects under 80 years of age. Tobacco use was not associated with VaD in univariate and multivariate analysis, and stratified analysis did not reveal any subgroup-specific associations between tobacco use and VaD in the study population. Current alcohol use appears to have protective effects against the development of vascular dementia. The effects are more pronounced in subjects under age 80. This may reflect the direct vascular effects of alcohol on the vascular system or may represent a surrogate for better social or functional status. Previous alcohol use was not protective. Tobacco use was not a risk factor for VaD status, which was possibly an indication of survivorship

  11. Research required for the effective implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control, articles 9 and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nigel; Borland, Ron

    2013-04-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge.

  12. Partnering with education and job and training programs for sustainable tobacco control among Baltimore african american young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Bone, Lee; Clay, Eric A; Owings, Kerry; Thames, Sean; Stillman, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Young adults are generally overlooked in tobacco control initiatives, even though they are critical to sustained success. African American young adults who are not in higher education or working are particularly vulnerable to harmful tobacco use, given high smoking rates and limited access to cessation services. Guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, we sought to identify program and community-level strategies to reduce tobacco use among African American young adults in Baltimore. We describe the challenges and opportunities for integrating effective tobacco control into community-based education and job training programs for unemployed young adults. As part of a longstanding community-research partnership in Baltimore, we conducted fourteen semistructured key informant interviews with leaders from city government and education and job training programs for young adults. The research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination all included dialogue between and active contribution by both research and community partners. Interview data were structured into opportunities (mindset for change and desire for bonds with a trusted adult), challenges (culture of fatalism, tobacco as a stress reliever, and culture of tobacco use among young adults), and possible tobacco control solutions (tobacco education designed with and for program staff and participants and integration of tobacco issues into holistic program goals and policies). The emergent themes enhance our understanding of how tobacco is situated in the lives of unemployed young adults and the potential for building sustainable, community-based public health solutions.

  13. A neo-strategic planning approach to enhance local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda R; Carter, Sara Sally R; Wilson, Andrew P; Chan, Andie

    2015-01-01

    Research in tobacco control demonstrating best practices is widely disseminated; however, application at the local level is often difficult. Translating research into practice requires a concerted effort to develop an understanding of the evidence and how it can be applied within diverse contexts. A strategic planning infrastructure was developed to support the translation of evidence-based interventions into community practice. This paper highlights the strategic process of turning "know-what" into "know-how" to facilitate the strategic planning and implementation of tobacco control best practices at the local level. The purpose, people, process, and product strategies of knowledge management and translation provided a framework for the strategic planning infrastructure. The knowledge translation concepts of audience, motivations, and mechanisms were synergized in the neo-strategic planning component design. The participants were 20 community coalitions funded to implement local tobacco control programs. From 2004 to 2011, the strategic planners facilitated a cyclical process to translate research into practice using a trio of integrated tools, skill-building workshops on strategic planning, and grantee-driven technical assistance and consultation. In the short term, the usefulness of the strategic planning components to the programs was measured. The intermediate outcome was the successful movement of the community programs from the planning stage to the implementation stage. The achievement of community-level changes in planned tobacco control efforts was the overall outcome measure for the success of the local coalitions. Seventeen of 20 communities that began the planning process implemented strategic plans. All 17 of the programs implemented evidence-based practices, resulting in numerous tobacco-free policies, increased cessation, and increased support from the media and community. Bridging the gap between research and practice can enhance the practicality

  14. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for the Control of Insect Pests in Stored Tobacco: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the insect species causing infestations and serious damages to stored commodities, the cigarette beetle, Lasiodermaserricorne (F. and the tobacco moth, Ephestiaelutella (Hübner are the major pests of both raw and manufactured tobacco. Post-harvest tobacco control is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring, and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and increasing regulatory pressure is being exerted on fumigants. Biological control agents such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt appear to be environmentally sound and potentially viable alternatives to chemical control. Bt is a bacterium that produces insecticidal crystal proteins during the sporulation phase and has been, for more than 40 years, the microorganism of choice for the biocontrol of phytophagous insect pests. It produces insecticidal crystal proteins that display specific activity against certain orders of insects and become active upon ingestion by the insect. Our laboratory has conducted extensive research and worldwide surveys to evaluate the presence of Bt in stored tobacco and has confirmed previous findings indicating that Bt may be considered part of the naturally occurring phylloplanemicroflora. Several Bt strains were isolated from tobacco and characterized by DNA and protein profiling. The insecticidal activity of selected strains and of two commercial products against the larvae of L. serricorne was determined by diet incorporation assays. Moreover, the stability of Bt spores and crystal proteins on cured tobacco leaves was assessed over a storage period of time of 30 months. Cigarette prototypes were made with Bt-treated tobacco. Standard cigarette and smoke evaluations did not show any significant difference between the test and control cigarettes. Although the tested Bt strains and products did not yield satisfactory levels of mortality at the required times and doses, the experimental results

  16. Awareness of Tobacco-Related Health Harms among Vulnerable Populations in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Driezen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a cigarette smoking and (b smokeless tobacco use and (c whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  17. Global frameworks, local strategies: Women's rights, health, and the tobacco control movement in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Martínez, Hepzibah; Pederson, Ann

    2018-02-23

    The article examines how civil society organisations in Argentina used the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to frame the country's failure to enact strong national tobacco control legislation as a violation of women's rights in the late 2000s. We analyze this case study through the politics of scale, namely the social processes that produce, reproduce, and contest the boundaries of policies and socio-economic relations. This approach understands how multiple scales overlap and connect to obstruct or enhance the right to health in Latin America. In Argentina, the global organisation of tobacco companies, the reach of international financial institutions and the national dynamics of economic austerity and export-orientation promoted the local production and use of tobacco (leaf and cigarettes) and reproduced health inequalities in the country throughout the 1990s and the early 2000s. Yet, the visible legacy of local and national human rights struggles in the adoption of international human rights treaties into Argentina's national constitution allowed the tobacco control movement to link the scale of women's bodies to the right to health through the use of CEDAW to change national legislation, tackling the social determinants of the tobacco epidemic.

  18. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  19. Health Experts' Opinions about Tobacco Control Activities in Iran: Results from a Delphi Panel of National Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hooman; Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Iran signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on June 16, 2003 and it was ratified by the parliament and the House of Representatives on November 6, 2005. Finally, it came into force on February 4, 2006. In this study, we aimed to evaluate health experts' opinion about tobacco control activities in Iran. This was a qualitative case study. We used a series of open-ended questionnaires to assess important information regarding Iranian National Tobacco Control law and FCTC implementation. The study population comprised of health experts. Use of this method ensured the validity of questionnaires' contents. The first round of the questionnaire had been pre-tested in a pilot study. The final structure and lay out of questionnaires consisted of three main parts. The first part was designed with 7 multiple choice questions. Participants were able to rank answers from five (the most important) to one (the least important). The second part comprised four questions mainly on National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and the final part was about FCTC. Data collection was carried out between May 2010 and May 2011. In the analysis process each interview was considered as a separate case and then compared to other cases to ascertain variations in answers. All 40 members (100%) of the panel completed the entire process. All the participants had a consensus on tobacco control program in Iran. They believed the prevention programs to be important priorities in this regard. Tobacco Company as a governmental organization is believed to be the main barrier against tobacco control activities in Iran, and banning sales of tobacco to minors and controlling its smuggling are important factors for decreasing the supply of tobacco products. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran that covers all the priorities mentioned above. Considering the chronological aspect of law

  20. The Stage of Obesity Epidemic Model: Learning from Tobacco Control and Advocacy for a Framework Convention on Obesity Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-01-30

    The 2011 United Nations Political Declaration against noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted 4 major risk factors: tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), MPOWER strategies, and the four-stage model of tobacco epidemic are useful references for the prevention and control of other risk factors and NCDs. Obesity control is a more complex challenge involving two major risk factors: physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. We propose the Stage of Obesity Epidemic Model (SOEM) for the expanding epidemic. Obesity is at the early stages (Stage 1 or 2) in most countries with increasing prevalence, but its full effects on mortality will be rapidly increasing, even if the prevalence of obesity may have reached the peak and be declining. Based on current relative risk, obesity kills one out of three obese people. Like tobacco, epidemiological studies at early stages would underestimate the risks and disease burden. Further research will reveal more harm, especially from long-term obesity since childhood. Obesity would overtake smoking but commitments to obesity control are too weak. The SOEM is needed and should be useful to forewarn the expanding public health problems and the challenges in epidemiology and interventions. Learning from tobacco control, we advocate for a Framework Convention on Obesity Control. To frame obesity control initiative in the spirit of the MPOWER strategies against tobacco should be considered for the prevention and control of obesity and obesity induced diseases. Health care professionals should take leading roles, and obese individuals should reduce weight and 'quit' obesity. (250 words). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  2. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands : A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  3. The Association Between Tobacco Control Policy and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands from 1988 Through 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Stronks, Karien; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco control policies seemed to have failed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in the past. It has been argued that a comprehensive mix of policies is needed. Our aim was to assess whether tobacco control policy development in the Netherlands between 1988 and 2011 was associated with

  4. Tobacco control and cessation in Eastern Europe - a situation analysis: The Russian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia ratified WHO FCTC on 3 June 2008. On December 22, 2008 Federal law "Technical regulations on tobacco products" was adopted, probably normalizing activities of tobacco companies in view of risks posed by the Convention. Annual production capacity exceeds 700 billion cigarettes. According to GATS the highest prevalence of tobacco use in 2009 was in Russia, 39.1% of adults (43.9 million used tobacco, smoking prevalence of 60.2% among men and 21.7% among women. In 2015, the Ministry of Health reported a 17% decline in the number of smokers since the adoption of tobacco control legislation in 2013. The law introduced comprehensive smoke free policies, picture warnings, banned point of sales materials (POSM, alas standards and order of cessation care have not been approved yet. Taxes are low and are regulated within Eurasian Economic Union agreements with a risk of remaining low. Article 5.3 implementation and signing of Protocol on Illicit Trade are among priorities.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leão, Teresa; Kunst, Anton E.; Perelman, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Consistent evidence shows the importance of preventing smoking at young ages, when health behaviours are formed, with long-term consequences on health and survival. Although tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents are widely promoted, the cost-effectiveness of such

  6. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  7. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Boyd, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Eke, C.; Golitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Susser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010

  8. Tobacco control policy and socio-economic inequalities in smoking in 27 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores, in the early 2000s were associated with higher smoking cessation rates across Europe, both among lower and higher educated people. We aimed to assess if this association held in recent years. Repeated cross-sectional Eurobarometer surveys were used, in 27

  9. Deconstructing myths, building alliances: a networking model to enhance tobacco control in hospital mental health settings

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    Montse Ballbè

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain. To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals —the early adopters— based on Rogers’ theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units. Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals’ awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings.

  10. Globalizing tobacco control: anti-smoking campaigns in California, France, and Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, Roddey

    2005-01-01

    ...." -David J. Hess, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute "At the cutting edge of comparative health policy studies in a globalizing world, Reid's book will set the pace for years to come." Reid Globalizing Globalizing Tobacco Control -Adele E. Clarke, University of California, San Francisco A tangible aspect of living, working, and traveling in the...

  11. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Boyd, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Eke, C.; Golitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Susser, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional

  12. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  13. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    Full Text Available In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the World Health Organization (WHO has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs to try to undermine the proposed convention.The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists, and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation.TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help

  14. Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies in 28 Countries (including 9 EU countries: The ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its start in 2002, the ITC Project has been conducting evaluation studies of tobacco control policies via prospective cohort surveys of tobacco users in 28 countries, including 9 EU countries. This presentation will focus on the design of the ITC Project and how it differs from and complements existing evidence-gathering systems (monitoring and surveillance systems in measuring and understanding the impact of FCTC policies. The presentation will also describe the ITC Project's most recent initiatives: (1 the EUREST-PLUS study focusing on measuring the impact of the Tobacco Products Directive, and (2 a large-scale international cohort study of e-cigarettes starting in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

  15. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Boyd, Anders; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro; Eke, Ceyda; Golitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1%) were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3%) and a tenth (10.0%) of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (pParents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR = 1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking.

  17. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Kovess

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS scores. METHODS: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE, a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. RESULTS: A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1% were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3% and a tenth (10.0% of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.001. Parents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR = 1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. SIGNIFICANCE: Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking.

  18. What do veterans service organizations' web sites say about tobacco control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about veterans service organizations (VSOs) and their perspectives on veterans smoking or military tobacco control. Veterans have high smoking rates and many started smoking in the military, where a culture promoting use exists. A qualitative content analysis of VSO Web sites was conducted to classify health topics and identify tobacco-related information. Web sites were coded by trained raters from January to June of 2011. Data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed from July 2011 to January 2012. Twenty-four active VSO Web sites meeting inclusion criteria were rated independently. A comprehensive form was used to code 15 veteran-relevant health topics across multiple content areas/domains within the Web sites. Raters achieved 94.5% interrater agreement over nearly 5000 data points. Health content was coded as present or not within multiple VSO Web site areas/domains. The frequency of coverage by each VSO Web site and the number of VSO Web sites that mentioned a health topic in different Web site areas/domains were tabulated. A total of 277 health topics were addressed, with the top five being insurance/Tricare/Veterans Administration issues (28.2%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 15.5%), disability/amputation/wounds (13.4%), Agent Orange (10.5%), and traumatic brain injury (9.0%). Tobacco was mentioned four times (1.4%) across all 24 VSO Web sites, and smoking cessation was never addressed. VSO Web sites provide little information on tobacco-related topics and none offered information about smoking cessation. Given the high rates of tobacco use among veterans and active-duty service members, and the interaction between smoking and PTSD symptoms and treatment outcomes, VSOs should consider making tobacco control and smoking cessation higher-priority health issues on their Web sites.

  19. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  20. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  1. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. The analysis of Hyogo's SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry.

  2. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  3. Attitudes of women from five European countries regarding tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Wei, Mei; Heck, Julia E; Allwright, Shane; Haglund, Margaretha; Sanchez, Sara; Kralikova, Eva; Stücker, Isabelle; Tamang, Elizabeth; Gritz, Ellen R; Hashibe, Mia

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco-related cancers and, in particular, lung cancer still represents a substantial public health epidemic across Europe as a result of high rates of smoking prevalence. Countries in Europe have proposed and implemented tobacco control policies to reduce smoking prevalence, with some countries being more progressive than others. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced women's attitudes across five European countries relative to comprehensive smokefree laws in their countries. A cross-sectional landline telephone survey on attitudes towards tobacco control laws was conducted in five European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. Attitudinal scores were determined for each respondent relative to questions about smokefree laws. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 5000 women were interviewed (1000 women from each country). The majority of women, regardless of smoking history, objected to smoking in public buses, enclosed shopping centers, hospitals, and other indoor work places. More women who had quit smoking believed that new tobacco control laws would prompt cessation - as compared with women who still smoked. In general, there is very high support for national smokefree laws that cover bars, restaurants, and public transport systems. As such laws are implemented, attitudes do change, as demonstrated by the differences between countries such as Ireland and the Czech Republic. Implementing comprehensive smokefree laws will gain high approval and will be associated with prompting people to quit.

  4. Acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of cannabis and tobacco both 'joint' and individually: a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, C; Freeman, T P; Xia, J X; Shaban, N D C; Curran, H V

    2017-11-01

    Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design. Verbal memory (prose recall), working memory (WM) performance including maintenance, manipulation and attention (N-back), psychotomimetic, subjective and cardiovascular measures were recorded on each of four sessions. Cannabis alone impaired verbal memory. A priori contrasts indicated that tobacco offset the effects of cannabis on delayed recall. However, this was not supported by linear mixed model analysis. Cannabis load-dependently impaired WM. By contrast, tobacco improved WM across all load levels. The acute psychotomimetic effects and ratings of 'stoned' and 'dizzy' induced by cannabis were not altered by tobacco. Cannabis and tobacco had independent effects on increasing heart rate and interacting effects on increasing diastolic blood pressure. Relative to placebo, acute cannabis impaired verbal memory and WM. Tobacco enhanced performance on WM, independently of cannabis. Moreover, we found some preliminary evidence that tobacco may offset the effects of cannabis on delayed, but not immediate, verbal recall. In contrast, the psychotomimetic and subjective effects of cannabis were unaffected by tobacco co-administration. By reducing the cognitive impairment from cannabis, tobacco co-administration may perpetuate use despite adverse health consequences.

  5. Metabolic Control of Tobacco Pollination by Sugars and Invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Marc; Guivarćh, Anne; Hirsche, Jörg; Bauerfeind, Martin Andreas; González, María-Cruz; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Chriqui, Dominique; Engelke, Thomas; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Pollination in flowering plants is initiated by germination of pollen grains on stigmas followed by fast growth of pollen tubes representing highly energy-consuming processes. The symplastic isolation of pollen grains and tubes requires import of Suc available in the apoplast. We show that the functional coupling of Suc cleavage by invertases and uptake of the released hexoses by monosaccharide transporters are critical for pollination in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Transcript profiling, in situ hybridization, and immunolocalization of extracellular invertases and two monosaccharide transporters in vitro and in vivo support the functional coupling in supplying carbohydrates for pollen germination and tube growth evidenced by spatiotemporally coordinated expression. Detection of vacuolar invertases in maternal tissues by these approaches revealed metabolic cross talk between male and female tissues and supported the requirement for carbohydrate supply in transmitting tissue during pollination. Tissue-specific expression of an invertase inhibitor and addition of the chemical invertase inhibitor miglitol strongly reduced extracellular invertase activity and impaired pollen germination. Measurements of (competitive) uptake of labeled sugars identified two import pathways for exogenously available Suc into the germinating pollen operating in parallel: direct Suc uptake and via the hexoses after cleavage by extracellular invertase. Reduction of extracellular invertase activity in pollen decreases Suc uptake and severely compromises pollen germination. We further demonstrate that Glc as sole carbon source is sufficient for pollen germination, whereas Suc is supporting tube growth, revealing an important regulatory role of both the invertase substrate and products contributing to a potential metabolic and signaling-based multilayer regulation of pollination by carbohydrates. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Fryer

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology.Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research.We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs.The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  7. Effect of alcohol and tobacco use on vascular dementia: a matched case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the United States. The underlying association of tobacco and alcohol with vascular dementia is not completely understood.Purpose: Determine the relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with the development of vascular dementia (VaD.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN. Cases of VaD were identified through medical record abstraction using conventionally accepted definitions of VaD, using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Ensignement en Neurosicences (NINDS-AIRENS criteria and were matched to controls by gender and age within 3 years among persons free of dementia on the index date. Exposure data for alcohol and tobacco use were abstracted by trained nurses, along with demographic, lifestyle, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and vascular comorbid disease characteristics. Matched conditional logistic regression for univariate and multivariate evaluation of the association of tobacco and alcohol use with VaD was utilized.Results: Current alcohol exposure was associated with a decreased risk of VaD with an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.74. This protective effect of alcohol was seen in men, women, and subjects under 80 years of age. Tobacco use was not associated with VaD in univariate and multivariate analysis, and stratified analysis did not reveal any subgroup-specific associations between tobacco use and VaD in the study population.Conclusion: Current alcohol use appears to have protective effects against the development of vascular dementia. The effects are more pronounced in subjects under age 80. This may reflect the direct vascular effects of alcohol on the vascular system or may represent a surrogate

  8. Health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement. PMID:22998748

  9. Health policymakers' knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Mayxay, Mayfong; Tomson, Tanja

    2012-09-21

    In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers' knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians' behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

  10. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  11. How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Reports. Análisis de la demanda de tabaco en Panamá y el control del efecto asequibilidad con medidas fiscales y control del contrabando : implicaciones para Política Fiscal, 2000-2011. Download PDF ...

  12. The role of labor organizations in tobacco control: what do unionized workers think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Weisman, Susan R; Jones, Resa M; Erickson, Darin

    2009-01-01

    Examine unionized workers' knowledge and attitudes about workplace tobacco use, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and the role of labor unions in addressing smoking and cessation coverage policies. Random-digit dial telephone survey. Unionized workers in Minnesota (N = 508). Knowledge and attitudes about workplace tobacco use and tobacco control policy making. Multiple logistic regression. The majority of respondents viewed secondhand smoke exposure as an important workplace health and safety issue, a health risk to nonsmokers, and a driver of increased health care costs, but smokers were less likely than nonsmokers to agree. Only 7% of respondents supported their unions taking the lead in tobacco control policy making. A large majority of those surveyed rated smoking cessation programs as an important benefit for which their labor unions could bargain; however, smokers and those whose workplaces allowed smoking were less likely than their counterparts to agree. Most unionized workers were aware of the health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke and supported union bargaining for restrictions on workplace smoking and cessation programs, although few workers supported their unions taking the lead in initiating worksite smoking policies. Results suggest that campaigns to promote smoke-free worksites should be tailored to unionized workers, and further collaborations with labor unions to promote policy change are needed.

  13. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing.

  14. Tobacco Use, Taxation and Self Control in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Fletcher; Partha Deb; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that higher taxes on addictive goods could increase welfare by assisting individuals with self control problems and trouble resisting 'temptation'. In contrast, if individuals continue to use despite increased prices, taxation may serve to reduce the welfare of these individuals while providing no benefits in managing self control nor mitigating externalities. We use data on adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to e...

  15. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  16. Phenotypic charactheristics of fluorescent pseudomonss, biological control agent of lincat disease of temanggung tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINING NURUL AZIZAH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  18. How Can Progress on Global Tobacco Control Inform Progress on NCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2 questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based alliance to make progress; 2) visible and courageous leadership matters, and is aided by financial support; and 3) in developing the FCTC, WHO focused on a few messages: demonize industry, tax, and regulate tobacco. We now need to broaden public and private players required for progress, use insights on levering market forces for NCD control, and build approaches that demonstrate empathy for millions struggling with NCD risks. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other tobacco products: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Sandeep; Kamath, Ramachandra; Shetty, Bharatesh K; Binu, V S

    2015-01-01

    Although tobacco deaths rarely make headlines, tobacco kills one person every six seconds. Tobacco kills a third to half of all people who use it, on average 15 years prematurely. To study the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka consumption and other tobacco products. (1) To find the association between gutka consumption and oral cancer. (2) To study the association between oral cancer and other tobacco products. A case-control study of 134 cases and 268 controls, over a period of 5 months, from March 2013 to July 2013, was carried out at the Kasturba medical hospital in Manipal, India. The participants were personally interviewed by the investigator using a structured questionnaire on consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient dip products, alcohol, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices and demographic status. Univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate logistic regression was done for identifying the risk factors and adjusted for the confounding variables. Analysis showed that gutka (tobacco (P oral cancer upon adjustment. The study provided strong evidence that gutka, supari, chewing tobacco, betel quid, bidi and alcohol are independent risk factors for oral cancer.

  20. Does tobacco-control mass media campaign exposure prevent relapse among recent quitters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Bowe, Steven J; Durkin, Sarah J; Yong, Hua-Hie; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Borland, Ron

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether greater mass media campaign exposure may assist recent quitters to avoid relapse. Using date of data collection and postcode, media market estimates of televised tobacco-control advertising exposure measured by gross ratings points (GRPs) were merged with a replenished cohort study of 443 Australians who had quit in the past year. Participants' demographic and smoking characteristics prior to quitting, and advertising exposure in the period after quitting, were used to predict relapse 1 year later. In multivariate analysis, each increase in exposure of 100 GRPs (i.e., 1 anti-smoking advertisement) in the three-month period after the baseline quit was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of not smoking at follow-up (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07, p exposure to tobacco-control mass media campaigns may reduce the likelihood of relapse among recent quitters.

  1. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study......, including daily smoking (dichotomous). FINDINGS: Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...

  2. [A return on investment tool in tobacco control: what do stakeholders think?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Celia; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; de Vries, Hein; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The European EQUIPT study will co-create a return on investment tool in several countries, aiming to provide decision makers with information and justification on the returns that can be generated by investing in tobacco control. This study aimed to identify the needs of potential users in Spain in order to provide information on the transferability of the tool. Telephone interviews with stakeholders were conducted including questions about the implementation of the tool, intended use and tobacco control interventions. Implementing the tool could provide added value to the information used in decision-making to advocate for cost-effective policies. The main drawback would be the training and time needed to learn how the tool works and for internal calculations. Knowledge and ideas from potential users collected in this study could inform the EQUIPT Tool adaptation. Thus, stakeholders could have an instrument that assists them on making healthcare decisions. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Labor positions on worksite tobacco control policies: a review of arbitration cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Youngstrom, R; Maclachlan, C; Gibson, S J; Emmons, K; Johnston, D; Levenstein, C

    1997-01-01

    Although worksite smoking restrictions have become increasingly common in recent years, organized labor has generally not been involved in the adoption of these policies; some evidence suggests that unions often oppose the adoption of worksite smoking policies. To contribute to an understanding of labor's role in tobacco control policies, this paper reports the results of a review of 85 arbitration cases and 5 cases of unfair labor practices charges published between 1986 and 1994. In most of the cases reviewed, management unilaterally imposed a new smoking policy, which the union then grieved. Union opposition to the policy generally focused on the process by which the policy was adopted, rather than the content of the policy; the concern was that management had breached its duty to bargain with the union regarding the adoption of the policy. These results underline the importance of joint labor-management actions on worksite tobacco control policies.

  4. Self-reported practices and attitudes of community health workers (accredited social health activist in tobacco control - Findings from two states in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Persai

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Study findings reflect suboptimal engagement of ASHAs in providing information pertaining to specific tobacco-related diseases. There is an urgent need to sensitize and train ASHAs in appropriate tobacco control practices.

  5. EQUIPT: supporting European stakeholders to make decisions about investment in evidence-based tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available EQUIPT brings together expertise from multiple disciplines and aims to provide policy makers and wider stakeholders with bespoke information about the economic and wider returns that investing in evidence-based tobacco control including smoking cessation agendas can generate. Led by Health Economics Research Group (HERG at Brunel University, London, EQUIPT is a partnership of 11 consortium members from 7 member states – Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  6. The effectiveness of tobacco control television advertisements in increasing the prevalence of smoke-free homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Sarah; Sims, Michelle; Richardson, Sol; Langley, Tessa; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that tobacco control mass media campaigns can change smoking behaviour. In the UK, campaigns over the last decade have contributed to declines in smoking prevalence and been associated with falls in cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. However, it is less evident whether such campaigns can also play a role in changing smokers’ behaviour in relation to protecting others from the harmful effects of their smoking in the home. We investigated ...

  7. Deconstructing myths, building alliances: a networking model to enhance tobacco control in hospital mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballbè, Montse; Gual, Antoni; Nieva, Gemma; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals -the early adopters- based on Rogers' theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units). Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals' awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on adolescent smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hizlinda; Ishak, Noriah Mohd; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Ahmad, Farah Naaz Momtaz; Aziz, Abdul Anis Ezdiana; Omar, Khairani

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.

  9. Global control in Pseudomonas fluorescens mediating antibiotic synthesis and suppression of black root rot of tobacco.

    OpenAIRE

    Laville, J; Voisard, C; C. Keel; Maurhofer, M.; Défago, G; Haas, D

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 colonizes plant roots, produces several secondary metabolites in stationary growth phase, and suppresses a number of plant diseases, including Thielaviopsis basicola-induced black root rot of tobacco. We discovered that mutations in a P. fluorescens gene named gacA (for global antibiotic and cyanide control) pleiotropically block the production of the secondary metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl), HCN, and pyoluteorin. The gacA mutants of strain CHA0 have...

  10. Using viral e-mails to distribute tobacco control advertisements: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert; Jalleh, Geoffrey

    2011-08-01

    The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements ("Toilet" and "Rubbish") emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web page playing Toilet or Rubbish on endless loop. Viewers were encouraged to forward the e-mail to their friends and invited to complete an online survey about the advertisement. Unique downloads for each advertisement were identified by internet provider (IP) location and tallied by date and geographical location to assess subsequent dissemination beyond the initial 200 students. There were 826 unique viewings of the advertisements averaging 26.9 viewings per day for the first fortnight, followed by a lower average of 4.1 hits per day for the next 3.5 months. IP addresses identified hits from 3 other Australian states and 7 other countries. Online surveys were completed by 103 respondents (12.5% of total hits) but included few smokers (n = 9). Significantly more respondents rated Toilet as "funny" compared with Rubbish (40% vs. 11%; p viral e-mails being forwarded onwards but only exceptionally compelling tobacco control materials are ever likely to become self-perpetuating.

  11. Tobacco control policy and adolescent cigarette smoking status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T; Haynie, Denise L; Iannotti, Ronald J; Wang, Jing; Gase, Lauren; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco policies that limit the sale of cigarettes to minors and restrict smoking in public places are important strategies to deter youth from accessing and consuming cigarettes. We examined the relationship of youth cigarette smoking status to state-level youth access and clean indoor air laws, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette price. Data were analyzed from the 2001 to 2002 U.S. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted with a nationally representative sample of 13,339 students in the United States. Compared with students living in states with strict regulations, those living in states with no or minimal restrictions, particularly high school students, were more likely to be daily smokers. These effects were somewhat reduced when logistic regressions were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette price, suggesting that higher cigarette prices may discourage youth to access and consume cigarettes independent of other tobacco control measures. Strict tobacco control legislation could decrease the potential of youth experimenting with cigarettes or becoming daily smokers. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking policies, particularly clean indoor air provisions, reduce smoking prevalence among high school students.

  12. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig S Fryer; Elizabeth L Seaman; Rachael S Clark; Vicki L Plano Clark

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations...

  13. The reinforcement threshold for nicotine as a target for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; LeSage, Mark G

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoking represents an enormous public health problem worldwide that leads to over 5 million deaths per year. The gradual reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes below the threshold that is required to develop addiction is one strategy that might substantially reduce the number of addicted smokers and prevent adolescents from becoming addicted to nicotine (Benowitz and Henningfield, 1994). While the potential public health benefits of this approach are enormous, the guiding concepts and relevant empirical evidence needed to support the implementation of a nicotine reduction policy require a critical examination. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the current concepts and research regarding nicotine reduction while also discussing the utility of the addictive threshold for nicotine in this approach. The accurate determination of the nicotine addiction threshold presents some conceptual challenges as there is a lack of consensus on how to best measure nicotine addiction. This difficulty can impede the progress for developing a science-based tobacco control policy. As an alternative, the nicotine reinforcement threshold is a relatively clear concept, and well-accepted methods and criteria are available to measure nicotine reinforcement. However, there are many gaps in our current knowledge concerning the nicotine reinforcement threshold in humans. The threshold for nicotine reinforcement remains to be determined in controlled settings using different populations of current or potential tobacco users. In addition, the value of the nicotine reinforcement threshold in predicting tobacco use in real-world settings needs to be examined. The results of such studies will determine the potential utility of the estimated threshold for nicotine reinforcement in developing science-based tobacco control policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tobacco control policy and socio-economic inequalities in smoking in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Willemsen, Marc C; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-08-01

    Higher Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores, in the early 2000s were associated with higher smoking cessation rates across Europe, both among lower and higher educated people. We aimed to assess if this association held in recent years. Repeated cross-sectional Eurobarometer surveys were used, in 27 European countries from 2006 to 2012 (study sample=73,617 adults). We used multilevel regression to model associations between the TCS (ranging from 0 to 100, quantifying: tobacco price, smoke-free laws, mass-media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, and cessation support) and both smoking cessation and cigarettes smoked per day. We modelled associations according to respondents' education and occupation, with adjustment for age, sex, and survey-wave. We found no association between the TCS and smoking cessation for lower or middle educated respondents, but we did find an association for higher educated respondents (OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.08 to 1.19). For smoking intensity, we observed no associations with the TCS for lower educated respondents (beta: 0.04, 95%CI: -0.33 to 0.41) but we did observe significant associations for middle (beta: -0.25, 95%CI: -0.47 to -0.03) and higher educated respondents (beta: -0.27, 95%CI: -0.55 to -0.01). Associations were observed for both manual and non-manual classes, but not for those not working for pay. Of the TCS domains, none were associated with smoking cessation for lower educated respondents, but five were for higher educated respondents. Associations between tobacco control policies and smoking cessation were found mostly among higher socioeconomic groups. This underlines the need for specific tobacco control policies that explicitly focus on reaching low socio-economic groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of continued engagement during the implementation phase of tobacco control policies in a middle-income country: the case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the process of implementing and enforcing smoke-free environments, tobacco advertising, tobacco taxes and health warning labels from Costa Rica's 2012 tobacco control law. Review of tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles and interviewing key informants. Despite overcoming decades of tobacco industry dominance to win enactment of a strong tobacco control law in March 2012 consistent with WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the tobacco industry and their allies lobbied executive branch authorities for exemptions in smoke-free environments to create public confusion, and continued to report in the media that increasing cigarette taxes led to a rise in illicit trade. In response, tobacco control advocates, with technical support from international health groups, helped strengthen tobacco advertising regulations by prohibiting advertising at the point-of-sale (POS) and banning corporate social responsibility campaigns. The Health Ministry used increased tobacco taxes earmarked for tobacco control to help effectively promote and enforce the law, resulting in high compliance for smoke-free environments, advertising restrictions and health warning label (HWL) regulations. Despite this success, government trade concerns allowed, as of December 2015, POS tobacco advertising, and delayed the release of HWL regulations for 15 months. The implementation phase continues to be a site of intensive tobacco industry political activity in low and middle-income countries. International support and earmarked tobacco taxes provide important technical and financial assistance to implement tobacco control policies, but more legal expertise is needed to overcome government trade concerns and avoid unnecessary delays in implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the First Amendment: why a substantial interest in protecting public health won't save some new restrictions on tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written.

  17. [Prevalence of tobacco smoking university students and health locus of control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Zadarko, Emilian; Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    Global spread of diseases of civilization, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, cancers, caused, that individual or group healthy behaviours, have become, for practitioners and researches, a basic area of interest. Healthy behaviours are the effect of shaped attitude against health, and particular against a sense of responsibility for owns health and co-responsibility for others health. Health Locus of Control theory indicates, that there exist relations between owns health locus of control and providing pro-health activities, for example reduce tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was the assessment of relation between prevalence of tobacco smoking among university students and health locus of control. The study was carried out among 457 university students from Podkarpackie Region- University of Rzeszow PWSZ Krosno and PWSZ Sanok. The survey was conducted by means of diagnostic survey with the use of questionnaire and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B- MHCL-B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and chi-square test were used in statistic analyzes. The study proved that the majority of students has never smoked and does not smoke. Place of residence turned out to be a differentiation factor of tobacco smoking, and there were more smokers among students living in cities. There were observed no characteristic differences in the group of smokers and non-smokers and health locus of control. Internal control, in the opinion of studied group, was recognized to be the most important factor, more less role was attributed to the impact of others and a chance. Faculty of study turned out to different the assessment of importance of internal control and a chance for health state. Internal control was the least emphasized by nursing students, and a chance by obstetrics students.

  18. Strategies Implemented by 20 Local Tobacco Control Agencies to Promote Smoke-Free Recreation Areas, California, 2004-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, local jurisdictions in California have enacted hundreds of policies and ordinances in an effort to protect their citizens from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. We evaluated strategies used by state-funded local tobacco control programs to enact local smoke-free policies involving outdoor recreational spaces. Methods The Tobacco Control Evaluation Center analyzed 23 final evaluation reports that discussed adopting local smoke-free policies in outdoor recreation...

  19. Differential impact of tobacco control policies on youth sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-09-12

    While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and gender. We examined the relationship between state-level cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws and youth smoking prevalence and intensity for various youth sub-populations in the United States. We estimated a 2-part model of cigarette demand using data from the 1991 through 2010 nationally representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students as part of the Monitoring the Future project. We found that real cigarette prices are strong determinants of youth smoking. Blacks, females, Hispanics, and low-SES subpopulations are found to have a larger price response with respect to smoking prevalence than the full sample. Smoke-free air laws are found to have a negative effect on smoking prevalence for the full sample and for the male, white, and high-SES sub-populations. This research concludes that higher cigarette prices will reduce smoking prevalence rates of Blacks, Hispanics, females, and low-SES subpopulations faster than the overall youth population and other youth sub-populations. Moreover, this research concludes that smoke-free air laws will reduce smoking prevalence for the overall youth population with the largest reductions in high SES and male subpopulations.

  20. [Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

    2010-02-01

    In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations.

  1. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Myrthe J; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W; Reiss, Irwin K; Mol, Ben W; Been, Jasper V

    2016-04-22

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000-2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign.

  2. Measuring activities in tobacco control across the EU. The MAToC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ulrich

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of this study are (a to develop a comprehensive and economic tool to estimate tobacco control (TC activities in single EU member states, (b to compare TC activities between member states of the EU. This article provides the questionnaire and gives a benchmark of EU member states according to their perceived TC activities. Methods: An international workshop was specifically initiated to develop the questionnaire "Measuring Activities in Tobacco Control (MATOC". TC experts from 8 European countries participated and chose 40 items to cover 11 general topics of TC. At the World Conference of Tobacco or Health in Helsinki 2003 participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire. N = 142 participants from EU-member states returned questionnaires. Results Subjects from the tobacco field in Finland gave the highest TC values to their country, followed by Sweden, Ireland, the UK and the Netherlands. The least active countries in TC were Greece and Germany, behind Austria, Spain, Belgium and Portugal. Italy, France and Denmark constituted the middle field. Conclusion The MATOC provides a profile of TC across European countries and delivers results that are plausible and fit into the existing findings. The data presented here fulfils the purpose to illustrate what is possible with the MATOC and underlines the value of such an approach in delivering information for policy makers and TC advocates how TC is perceived in each country. Yet, further validity testing is necessary, the number of experts per country differs and is partly rather small. Further research with the MATOC should encounter these limitations. The procedure though could serve as model of practice for alcohol and legal drug policy as well.

  3. Civil society-a leader in HIV prevention and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia; Bonnell, Roxana; Hoover, Jeff

    2006-11-01

    change drug and tobacco policy in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU). It concludes that in Poland and Kazakhstan, in terms of tobacco control, and increasingly in Ukraine and parts of Central Asia in terms of harm reduction, multi-sectoral approaches are the most effective way to engage citizens and to implement comprehensive strategies to change behaviour by supportive measures, not punitive ones.

  4. Lecciones aprendidas en el control del tabaquismo en España Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En España ha sido visible la creciente implicación de la sociedad civil en la demanda de políticas de control del tabaquismo. Las bases para la creación del Comité Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo (CNPT fueron asentadas en 2004. A finales de ese año la intensa actuación para concretar las acciones reguladoras del incipiente Plan Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo culminó en una ley que permitió un salto cualitativo, aprovechando la trasposición legal de la directiva europea de publicidad: la Ley 28/2005, que, en un clima de amplio consenso político y mediático, dispone medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo y regula la venta, el suministro, el consumo y la publicidad de los productos del tabaco. El objetivo declarado por esta ley es evitar el inicio del consumo de tabaco particularmente entre los jóvenes, garantizar el derecho de los no fumadores a respirar aire sin humo del tabaco y hacer más fácil el abandono de este hábito a las personas que lo deseen. Sus temas principales son la prohibición de la publicidad del tabaco y la limitación de su consumo en centros de trabajo y espacios públicos cerrados. La nueva ley ha substituido a la normativa previa en España, que era una de las más permisivas de la Unión Europea en temas como la venta de tabaco, limitación de la publicidad y restricciones de lugares de consumo. No obstante, está claro que aún queda mucho por hacer. En este momento hace falta generar apoyo social a la nueva regulación y hacer un esfuerzo importante de sensibilización y educación del público.The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulartory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a

  5. Role of the Health Promotion Foundation in tobacco control and capacity building among healthcare professionals in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Janik-Koncewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first summit of world tobacco control leaders in Central and Eastern Europe, held in 1990 in Kazimierz in Poland, the inadequate engagement of medical professionals in helping people to quit smoking was identified as one of the main problems of the region. The Health Promotion Foundation was established in 1992 to co-ordinate the anti-tobacco movement in Poland and to implement the resolutions of Kazimierz. The Foundation initiated actions to introduce anti-tobacco legislation in Poland passed by the Polish Parliament in 1995. It was one of the first legislative acts in the world to recommend tobacco dependence treatment. The Foundation also took active part in the preparation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and was one of the contributing authors of Article 14. The Foundation has also engaged in competence building among healthcare providers. It has trained thousands of Polish doctors and nurses using a core, nation-wide tool: the Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Tobacco Dependence. Finally, the Foundation engaged in activities to increase cessation drug availability, e.g. by conducting research, disseminating knowledge on, and promoting cytisine. Since the 1990s millions of Poles quit smoking, also thanks to the Foundation’s comprehensive activities. Further work is now focused on developing effective ways to engage greater numbers of medical doctors in the treatment of tobacco dependence and building innovative technologies supporting them and people who want to quit smoking.

  6. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.

  7. Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.; Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Kunst, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In 2003, the Netherlands introduced tobacco control policies, including bans on tobacco sales to minors, advertising and sponsoring and tobacco sales in government institutions. We examined the extent to which these policies were associated with a change in educational

  8. The California Tobacco Control Program: A Decade of Progress, Results from the California Tobacco Survey, 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of California, San Diego

    2001-01-01

    Executive Summary: During the 1990s in California, smoking behavior and attiudes about smoking have changed, as measured from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS) and other data sources. Some of the most important findings from the CTS are highlighted below. For a more complete summary, see the Key Findings from each chapter of this report, which appear both in this Executive Summary and at the end of each chapter. Throughout this report, results are given with the margin of error...

  9. The California Tobacco Control Program: A decade of progress, Results from the California Tobacco Survey, 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Cancer Prevention and Control Program; University of California, San Diego

    2000-01-01

    Executive Summary and Key Findings EXECUTIVE SUMMARY During the 1990s in California, smoking behavior and attitudes about smoking have changed, as measured from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS) and other data sources. Some of the most important findings from the CTS are highlighted below. For a more complete summary, see the Key Findings from each chapter of this report, which appear both in this Executive Summary and at the end of each chapter. Throughout this report, results are given w...

  10. Feasibility of implementing intervention methods in an adolescent worksite tobacco control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M K; Fagan, P; Lederman, R; Stoddard, A; Frazier, L; Girod, K; Sorensen, G

    2003-12-01

    To present feasibility data on SMART, the first teen worksite behavioural tobacco control intervention. This phase II study was designed to estimate the efficacy and feasibility of a small scale, randomised, controlled intervention. This study, addressing youths aged 15-18 years, was implemented in four intervention and five control grocery stores that had an average of 44 eligible teens. The tobacco use cessation and prevention interventions were based on social influences and peer leader models. Employee break rooms served as centres both for interactive activities including open houses, teen advisory boards, peer leader interviews, games and contests; and non-interactive interventions including bulletin boards and table tents with health messages and home mailings. MAIN PROCESS MEASURES: Project staff collected process data on the extent of implementation of intervention activities, participation rates in activities, and contacts with peer leaders. On the final survey, teens reported on awareness of, participation in, and motivation for participating in project activities. Indicators of feasibility were identified and discussed, including the number of activities implemented, teen participation, management support, cost, and barriers to and facilitators of implementation. During the 12 month intervention, a mean of 24.1 interactive activities and 55.3 non-interactive activities were implemented, and a mean 14.2% participation rate per activity per site was achieved. Eighty four per cent of teens reported being aware of SMART, and 39% reported participating in interactive and 67% in non-interactive activities. Teen smoking cessation rates in worksite programmes might be improved if they are conducted in companies where there is job stability and if teen programmes are part of worksite-wide tobacco control programmes that include both teens and adults.

  11. The effectiveness of tobacco control television advertisements in increasing the prevalence of smoke-free homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Sims, M; Richardson, S; Langley, T; Szatkowski, L; McNeill, A; Gilmore, A B

    2015-09-08

    There is considerable evidence that tobacco control mass media campaigns can change smoking behaviour. In the UK, campaigns over the last decade have contributed to declines in smoking prevalence and been associated with falls in cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. However, it is less evident whether such campaigns can also play a role in changing smokers' behaviour in relation to protecting others from the harmful effects of their smoking in the home. We investigated whether exposure to English televised tobacco control campaigns, and specifically campaigns targeting second hand smoking, is associated with smokers having a smoke-free home. We used repeated cross-sectional national survey data on 9872 households which participated in the Health Survey for England between 2004 and 2010, with at least one adult current smoker living in the household. Exposure to all government-funded televised tobacco control campaigns, and to those specifically with a second hand smoking theme, was quantified in Gross Rating Points (GRPs), an average per capita measure of advert exposure where 100 GRPs indicates 100 % of adults exposed once or 50 % twice. Our outcome was self-reported presence of a smoke-free home (where no one smokes in the home on most days). Analysis used generalised additive models, controlling for individual factors and temporal trends. There was no association between monthly televised campaigns overall and the probability of having a smoke-free home. However, exposure to campaigns specifically targeting second hand smoke was associated with increased odds of a smoke-free home in the following month (odds ratio per additional 100 GRPs, 1.07, 95 % CI 1.01 to 1.13), though this association was not seen at other lags. These effects were not modified by socio-economic status or by presence of a child in the home. Our findings provide tentative evidence that mass media campaigns specifically focussing on second hand smoke may be effective in reducing

  12. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Brazilian political agenda, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luiz Antônio da Silva; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Ferreira, Vanessa Nolasco

    2017-09-21

    This study analyses the development of a tobacco-control agenda in Brazil following the country's participation in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). This process started with the diplomatic negotiations for the participation of Brazil in the treaty, in 2003, and its ratification by the National Congress, in 2005, and was marked by substantial controversies between public health players, who are accountable for tobacco-control actions, and the high echelon of Brazilian diplomacy, emissaries of the tobacco industry, representatives of small tobacco farmers from the Southern region of the country, congress representatives, senators and ministers. The study is based on the contributions of John W. Kingdon on the development of an agenda for the formulation of public policies. It took into account secondary references, legislative and institutional sources from the 1995 to 2005 period. It concluded that the association of tobacco-related healthcare actions by technically skilled officials, the involvement of the high echelon of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (policy flow), the initiative for the establishment of the WHO-FCTC (problem flow), and the existence of a favorable environment in both, executive and legislative (political flow), opened a window of opportunity for WHO-FCTC ratification and its inclusion in the government decision agenda.

  13. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, N; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Methods: : Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Conclusions: Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values. PMID:16046690

  14. Translation of tobacco control programs in schools: findings from a rapid review of systematic reviews of implementation and dissemination interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, L; Carruthers, J; Wyse, R; Yoong, S

    2014-08-01

    School-based programs targeting the prevention of tobacco use are a key strategy for reducing the overall tobacco-related mortality and morbidity in the community. While substantial research investment has resulted in the identification of various effective tobacco prevention interventions in schools, this research investment will not result in public health benefits, unless effectively disseminated and implemented. This rapid review aimed to identify effective implementation or dissemination interventions, targeting the adoption of school-based tobacco prevention programs. A systematic search was conducted to identify published systematic reviews that examined the effectiveness of implementation and dissemination strategies for facilitating the adoption of tobacco policies or programs in schools from 1992 to 2012. The search yielded 1028 results, with one relevant systematic review being identified. The review included two controlled studies examining the implementation and dissemination of tobacco prevention programs and guidelines. The two randomised trials examined the delivery of active face-to-face training to implement a school-based curriculum compared with video-delivered or mail-based training. Improvements in the implementation of the programs were reported for the face-to-face training arm in both trials. Little rigorous evidence exists to guide the implementation and dissemination of tobacco prevention programs in schools. SO WHAT? Few systematic reviews exist to inform the implementation of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. In the absence of a strong evidence base, health care policymakers and practitioners may need to draw on setting-based frameworks or parallel evidence from other settings to design strategies to facilitate the adoption of tobacco prevention initiatives.

  15. Raw and real: an innovative communication approach to smokeless tobacco control messaging in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murukutla, Nandita; Mallik, Vaishakhi; Sinha, Praveen; Mullin, Sandra

    2017-07-01

    The evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control messages in low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings is limited but growing. Low message salience and disengagement, in the face of tobacco control messages, are possible barriers to self-efficacy and cessation-related behaviours of tobacco users. Although adaptations of existing pretested graphic and emotional appeals have been found to impact on behaviours, more personalised, culturally relevant and compelling appeals may more fully engage message receivers to elicit optimal behavioural responses. The objective of these case studies is to use lessons learnt from high-income country tobacco control communication programmes, and adapt practical approaches to provide cost-effective, culturally nuanced, graphic and personalised messages from tobacco victims to achieve the optimal behavioural impact for population-level communication campaigns in the resource-constrained settings of LMICs. The 'raw and real' messaging approach, which emanated from message pretesting in India, outlines creative and production processes for the production of tobacco victim testimonials, given the need to source patients, facing life-threatening conditions. This cost-efficient approach uses real tobacco victims, doctors and family members in a cinéma vérité style approach to achieve more personalised and culturally resonant messages. The methodological approach, used for the development of a number of patient testimonial messages initially in India, and later adapted for tobacco cessation, smoke-free and graphic health warning communication campaigns in other countries, is outlined. Findings from campaigns evaluated to date are encouraging as a result of the simple fact that true stories of local people's suffering are simply too difficult to ignore. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shacham Galia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1 compilation of a list of potential interventions 2 modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3 streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4 refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive

  17. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Marice; Jernigan, David; Kline, Randolph; Galaz, Rhonda

    2003-09-01

    We desired to understand how legal tools protect public health by regulating the location and density of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food retail outlets. We reviewed the literature to determine how land use regulations can function as control tools for public health advocates. We found that land use regulations are a public health advocacy tool that has been successfully used to lessen the negative effects of alcohol retail outlets in neighborhoods. More research is needed to determine whether such regulations are successful in reducing the negative effects of other retail outlets on community health.

  18. A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control.

  19. Young peoples awareness and support for tobacco control legislation: A study among in-school youth in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Oluwakemi Ololade; Chife, Jacob Obi; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A; Nwangwu, Genevieve I

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the health risks associated with tobacco use has led many countries to enact tobacco control legislation to protect citizens from the harmful effects of tobacco use. Young people are important stakeholders in many aspects of tobacco control legislation. This study.aims to assess the awareness of existing tobacco control laws among young people, their attitudes towards these laws and the factors associated with youth awareness and support for tobacco control legislation in Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 950 students enrolled in six randomly selected public and private schools in the, Mushin local government area of Lagos state using a multi stage sampling method. The respondents completed a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on their awareness and support for tobacco control laws in selected thematicareas Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 and presented as frequency tables and cross tabulations. Most of the participants were between 14-18 years of age (55.8%) with a mean age of 14.1 +/- 2.2 years. There were slightly more male than female respondents. About two-thirds of the respondents were aware that laws exist to regulate tobacco use in Nigeria. Specifically, more than 60% of the students knew that tobacco smoking was outlawed in schools, medical establishment, public vehicles and offices. Many were aware of the advert bans on tobacco products on television, newspapers, radio, magazines and cinemas. The respondents were however less informed of the penalties for violating tobacco restriction laws. Majority supported the law prohibiting cigarette smoking in health facilities (84.3%), schools (83.7%), public transportation (79.5%) and cinemas (76.3%). Relatively fewer (49.6%) respondents felt that smoking should be prohibited in bars, restaurants and nightclubs. A significant proportion believed that young people in Nigeria should not be allowed to buy (76.4%) or sell (76

  20. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hitchman, Sara C; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children's exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children's health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children's health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children's health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children's health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  2. Differential Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Youth Sub-Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Tauras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic status (SES, race/ethnicity, and gender. Objective: We examined the relationship between state-level cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws and youth smoking prevalence and intensity for various youth sub-populations in the United States. Methods: We estimated a 2-part model of cigarette demand using data from the 1991 through 2010 nationally representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students as part of the Monitoring the Future project. Findings: We found that real cigarette prices are strong determinants of youth smoking. Blacks, females, Hispanics, and low-SES subpopulations are found to have a larger price response with respect to smoking prevalence than the full sample. Smoke-free air laws are found to have a negative effect on smoking prevalence for the full sample and for the male, white, and high-SES sub-populations. Conclusions: This research concludes that higher cigarette prices will reduce smoking prevalence rates of Blacks, Hispanics, females, and low-SES subpopulations faster than the overall youth population and other youth sub-populations. Moreover, this research concludes that smoke-free air laws will reduce smoking prevalence for the overall youth population with the largest reductions in high SES and male subpopulations.

  3. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with employees' tobacco consumption prevalence 35–39% (72.2% increase; p < 0.05) and hospitals that had recently implemented smoke-free policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549

  4. Tobacco treatment TrAining Network in Crete (TiTAN-Crete: protocol for a controlled before-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Girvalaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of tobacco use in Greece are among the highest in Europe and are responsible for an enormous burden of chronic disease and death. A large proportion of tobacco users report an interest in quitting. Family medicine practices have been identified as important settings for identifying tobacco users, delivering advice to quit smoking, and providing tobacco treatment interventions. The 5A’s (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange schema is an evidence-based model for addressing tobacco use in clinical settings. The rates at which primary care clinicians in Greece address tobacco use in their practice is unknown but, as in other countries, is understood to be sub-optimal. This paper describes the rationale, design, and protocol for a pre/post, controlled study to compare the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention delivered in primary care practices in Heraklion, Greece. The TiTAN-Crete intervention includes a 1-day tobacco treatment training program, dissemination of provider and patient resources and two booster training sessions. Participating providers and a cross-sectional sample of patients from their practices, will be surveyed. Outcome measures include changes in provider attitudes and beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and barriers related to smoking cessation treatment delivery. Rates at which providers deliver tobacco treatment to patients will be measured by patient report of 5As delivery. Multi-level modeling will be used to examine the effects of the intervention. This study will lead to a better understanding of how to best assist clinicians in Greece to enhance the rates at which smoking cessation treatments are delivered to smokers.

  5. Development and evaluation of a capacity building program in gender-relevant tobacco control research: A Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Regina C; Person, Sharina D; Bittencourt, Lorna; Efing, Ana C; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2018-02-02

    There is an increased need for capacity building of researchers and professionals in low- and middle-income countries with evidence-based approaches across the tobacco control continuum, particularly with regard to gender-relevant strategies. We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Career Development and Research Training Program (CDRTP) in tobacco control. The CDRTP is organized into two modules: Module I is open to the public and provides an overview of tobacco control; Module II, consists of a one-year program with multi-mode sessions toward the development of a pilot research project. Activities are implemented through co-learning to facilitate cross-fertilization of knowledge, collaborations, and team science. Between 2010 and 2015, 255 individuals participated in Module I with 57 applying for Module II's selective process. Out of these, 35 were selected, 29 completed the program (83%), 21 submitted pilot research projects that have undergone review, and 16 were approved for funding. Pre- and post-tests among the 29 participants who completed the training indicated improvement in scholars' perceived knowledge and skills on all of the components. In addition to attracting researchers and professionals who have not been working in tobacco control, the capacity building program has promoted knowledge, skills, and confidence among participants to pursue gender-relevant tobacco control research. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Strategies implemented by 20 local tobacco control agencies to promote smoke-free recreation areas, California, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-09-01

    Since 2000, local jurisdictions in California have enacted hundreds of policies and ordinances in an effort to protect their citizens from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. We evaluated strategies used by state-funded local tobacco control programs to enact local smoke-free policies involving outdoor recreational spaces. The Tobacco Control Evaluation Center analyzed 23 final evaluation reports that discussed adopting local smoke-free policies in outdoor recreational facilities in California. These reports were submitted for the 2004 through 2007 funding period by local tobacco control organizations to the California Department of Public Health, Tobacco Control Program. We used a comparative technique whereby we coded passages and compared them by locale and case, focusing on strategies that led to the enactment of smoke-free policies. Our analysis found the following 6 strategies to be the most effective: 1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward, 2) tapping into a pool of potential youth volunteers, 3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool, 4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts, 5) working strategically in the local political climate, and 6) framing the policy appropriately. These strategies proved effective regardless of whether policies were voluntary, administrative, or legislative. Successful policy enactment required a strong foundation of agency funding and an experienced and committed staff. These results should be relevant to other tobacco control organizations that are attempting to secure local smoke-free policy.

  7. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use...

  8. Epidemiology, control and prevention of tobacco induced oral mucosal lesions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries like India. Tobacco consumption in smokeless and smoking form along with alcohol is considered as the primary risk factors. Tobacco is a major health challenge with various tobacco products available for use which are known to have deleterious effects on the oral mucosa. The oral lesions caused by tobacco are inclusive of those that are less likely to progress to cancer; lesions with i...

  9. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  10. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  11. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  12. Influence of penetration controlled irradiation with charged particles on tobacco pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Research for Environment and Resources; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center; Inoue, Masayoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-09-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation on biological systems, an apparatus for penetration controlled irradiation with charged particles was set up. By comparison of ranges of 1.5 MeV/u He{sup 2+} between the theoretically calculated ranges and the practical ranges using RCD dosimeter, it was demonstrated that the range of particles could be controlled linearly by changing the distance from the beam window in the atmosphere to a target. In addition, the penetration controlled irradiation of tobacco pollen increased the frequency of `leaky pollen`. The increased frequency of the leaky pollen suggests that a damage in the pollen envelope would be induced at the range-end. (orig.)

  13. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, adults, and athletes DON’T use tobacco. Make friends, develop athletic skills, control weight, be independent, be cool … play sports. Don’t waste (burn) money on tobacco. Spend ...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine following the controlled use of a prototype novel tobacco vapor product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Sakaguchi, Chikako; Kikuchi, Akira; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of nicotine following the use of a prototype novel tobacco vapor (PNTV) product in comparison to a conventional cigarette (CC1). The study was conducted in Japanese healthy adult male smokers, using an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover design, to assess the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after controlled use of a PNTV product or CC1. During the study period, blood samples were drawn from subjects for the measurement of plasma nicotine concentrations and nicotine intake was estimated from the mouth level exposure (MLE). The Cmax and AUClast following the use of PNTV product were 45.7% and 68.3%, respectively, of those obtained with CC1 and there were no significant differences in the tmax and t1/2 between PNTV product and CC1. The estimated MLE following the use of PNTV product was approximately two-thirds of that obtained following the smoking of CC1, but the relative bioavailability of PNTV product to CC1 was approximately 104%. The differences in Cmax and AUClast between PNTV product and CC1 therefore are explained by differences in nicotine intake. These results suggest that the PNTV product shows a similar pharmacokinetic profile to CC1, while delivering less nicotine following controlled use. Copyright © 2017 Japan Tobacco Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A decade of tobacco control: the South African case of politics, health policy, health promotion and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Priscilla; James, Shamagonam; Sewpaul, Ronel; Yach, Derek; Resnicow, Ken; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Mthembu, Zanele; Mbewu, Anthony

    2013-09-30

    The South African (SA) government has implemented comprehensive tobacco control measures in line with the requirements of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The effect of these measures on smoking prevalence and smoking-related attitudes, particularly among young people, is largely unknown. To describe the impact of a comprehensive health promotion approach to tobacco control amongst SA school learners. Four successive cross-sectional Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTSs) were conducted in 1999, 2002, 2008 and 2011 among nationally representative samples of SA grades 8 - 10 school learners. We assessed the prevalence of current smoking (having smoked a cigarette on ≥1 day in the 30 days preceding the survey) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviours. Over the 12-year survey period current smoking among learners declined from 23.0% (1999) to 16.9% (2011) - a 26.5% reduction. Reductions in smoking prevalence were less pronounced amongst girls and amongst black learners. We observed an increase in smoking prevalence amongst learners between 2008 and 2011. Smoking-related attitudes and behaviours showed favourable changes over the survey period. These surveys demonstrate that the comprehensive and inter-sectorial tobacco control health promotion strategies implemented in SA have led to a gradual reduction in cigarette use amongst school learners. Of concern, however, are the smaller reductions in smoking prevalence amongst girls and black learners and an increase in smoking prevalence from 2008 to 2011. Additional efforts, especially for girls, are needed to ensure continued reduction in smoking prevalence amongst SA youth.

  16. Tobacco prevention and reduction with nursing students: A non-randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schulze, Katrin; Rustler, Christa; Scheifhacken, Sabine; Schweizer, Ines; Bonse-Rohmann, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of tobacco use among nurses and nursing students is disproportionally high in Germany. However, from a public health perspective they are considered to be an important group for delivering smoking cessation interventions. As delivery of tobacco-related treatment depends on own smoking status, smoking prevention and cessation among the nursing professions is indicative for improving nurse and public health. To evaluate the feasibility and effects of a comprehensive tobacco prevention and reduction program on psychosocial and environmental factors related to smoking behavior of nursing students. Between 2014 and 2015, a non-randomized, controlled feasibility study was conducted in 12 schools of nursing with 397 nursing students in Germany. Students in the intervention group received a program (ASTRA) consisting of an introductory session, steering committee workshop, stress prevention lessons, evidence-based smoking cessation intervention, and action project. Six months after baseline assessment, change in smoking-related protective and risk factors was determined. Secondary endpoints included smoking behavior. The program was implemented in total in 5 of 7 intervention schools. About one third of smoking nursing students participated in a cessation intervention. The program seems to do better than a minimal intervention booklet in four primary outcomes: perceived descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms towards smoking and nursing as well as perceived social support. As anticipated, there was no change in smoking behavior. The applied approach is feasible and able to improve important smoking-related norm perceptions of student nurses and perception of social support. However, additional context measures to influence the settings of nursing education currently rather supporting smoking seem to be necessary in order to promote smoking cessation among nursing students and to scale up implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. The heterogeneous effects of cigarette prices on brand choice in China: implications for tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; White, Justin S; Hu, Teh-Wei; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yuan, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    China has long kept its tobacco taxes below international standards. The Chinese government has cited two rationales against raising tobacco tax, namely, the unfair burden it places on low-income smokers and the ability of consumers to switch to cheaper brands. This study examines how different socioeconomic subgroups of Chinese smokers switch brands in response to cigarette price changes. We model smokers' choice of cigarette tier as a function of tier-specific prices. We examine heterogeneous responses to prices by estimating mixed logit models for different income and education subgroups that allow for random variation in smokers' preferences. We use data from three waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control China Survey, collected in six large Chinese cities between 2006 and 2009. Low-income and less educated smokers are considerably more likely to switch tiers (including both up-trading and down-trading) than are their high-socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts. For those in the second-to-lowest tier, a ¥1 ($0.16, or roughly 25%) rise in prices increases the likelihood of switching tiers by 5.6% points for low-income smokers and 7.2% points for less educated smokers, compared to 1.6% and 3.0% points for the corresponding high-SES groups. Low-income and less educated groups are also more likely to trade down compared to their high-SES counterparts. Only a small percentage of low-income and less educated Chinese smokers switched to cheaper brands in response to price increases. Hence, the concern of the Chinese government that a cigarette tax increase will lead to large-scale brand switching is not supported by this study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Using a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign and other synergistic elements to address social inequalities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Murukutla, Nandita; Gupta, Shefali; Kaur, Jagdish; Mullin, Sandra; Saradhi, Ranjana; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2012-03-01

    The burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in India is substantial, with smokeless tobacco being the predominant form of tobacco use. Use of smokeless tobacco (for example gutkha, paan, khaini, and pan masala) is linked to a host of socioeconomic and cultural factors including gender, regional differences, educational level, and income disparities. Given the scale of the problem, a national social marketing campaign was developed and implemented. The creative approach used testimonials from a surgeon and patients at Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai. The communication message approach was designed to reflect the realities of disfiguring, disabling, and fatal cancers caused by smokeless tobacco. Evaluation of the campaign identified significant differences across a range of campaign behavioral predictors by audience segments aware of the campaign versus those who were "campaign unaware". Significant findings were also identified regarding vulnerable groups by gender (female/male) and rural/urban disparities. Findings are discussed in relation to the powerful impact of using graphic, emotive, and testimonial imagery for tobacco control with socially disadvantaged groups.

  19. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Koon K; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Hawken, Steven; Pandey, M R; Valentin, Vicent; Hunt, David; Diaz, Rafael; Rashed, Wafa; Freeman, Rosario; Jiang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yusuf, Salim

    2006-08-19

    Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable causes of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the risks associated with tobacco use (both smoking and non-smoking) and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) worldwide. We did a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with 27,089 participants in 52 countries (12,461 cases, 14,637 controls). We assessed relation between risk of AMI and current or former smoking, type of tobacco, amount smoked, effect of smokeless tobacco, and exposure to SHS. We controlled for confounders such as differences in lifestyles between smokers and non-smokers. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of non-fatal AMI (odds ratio [OR] 2.95, 95% CI 2.77-3.14, pexposed to SHS in the never smoker reference group raised the risk in former smokers by about 10%. Smoking beedies alone (indigenous to South Asia) was associated with increased risk (2.89, 2.11-3.96) similar to that associated with cigarette smoking. Chewing tobacco alone was associated with OR 2.23 (1.41-3.52), and smokers who also chewed tobacco had the highest increase in risk (4.09, 2.98-5.61). SHS was associated with a graded increase in risk related to exposure; OR was 1.24 (1.17-1.32) in individuals who were least exposed (1-7 h per week) and 1.62 (1.45-1.81) in people who were most exposed (>21 h per week). Young male current smokers had the highest population attributable risk (58.3%; 95% CI 55.0-61.6) and older women the lowest (6.2%, 4.1-9.2). Population attributable risk for exposure to SHS for more than 1 h per week in never smokers was 15.4% (12.1-19.3). Tobacco use is one of the most important causes of AMI globally, especially in men. All forms of tobacco use, including different types of smoking and chewing tobacco and inhalation of SHS, should be discouraged to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brunner, Eric

    2017-11-18

    Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important. For example, the inverse equity hypothesis recognizes that inequality may evolve in stages. New population-based interventions are initially primarily accessed by the affluent and well-educated, so there is an initial increase in socioeconomic inequality (early stage). These inequalities narrow when the deprived population can access the intervention after the affluent have gained maximum benefit (late stage). Following this hypothesis, all tobacco control measures may have the potential to reduce smoking inequality, if they continue for a long term, covering and reaching all socioeconomic subgroups. Re-evaluation of the impact of the interventions on smoking inequality using a long time-course perspective may lead to a favorable next step in equity effectiveness. Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target for the reduction of inequality in health.

  1. Are political views related to smoking and support for tobacco control policies? A survey across 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Girvalaki, Charis; Mechili, Enkeleint-Aggelos; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    General political views are rarely considered when discussing public support for tobacco control policies and tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between political views, smoking and support for tobacco control policies. We analysed responses from 22,313 individuals aged ≥15 years from 28 European Union (EU) member states, who self-reported their political views (far-left [1-2 on a scale 1-10]; centre-left (3-4); centre (5-6); centre-right (7-8); and far-right (9-10) in wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey in 2014. We ran multi-level logistic regression models to explore associations between political views and smoking, as well as support for tobacco control policies, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Compared to those placing themselves at the political centre, people with far-left political views were more likely to be current smokers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01-1.26), while those in the centre-right were the least likely to smoke (OR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.93). Similar associations were found for having ever been a smoker. Respondents on the left side of the political spectrum were more likely to support tobacco control policies and those on the centre-right were less likely to support them, as compared to those at the political centre, after controlling for smoking status. General political views may be associated not only with support for tobacco control policies, but even with smoking behaviours, which should be taken into account when discussing these issues at a population level. Further research is needed to explore the implications of these findings.

  2. Linking data to tobacco control program action among students aged 13-15 in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirichotiratana, N; Sovann, S; Aditama, T Y; Krishnan, M; Kyaing, N N; Miguel-Baquilod, M; Hai, P T; Sinha, D N; Warren, C W; Jones, N R

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has made tobacco use prevention a primary health issue. All ASEAN countries except Indonesia have ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the world's first public health treaty on tobacco control. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data were collected from representative samples of students in school grades associated with ages 13-15 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos (Vientiane), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (Hanoi). Current cigarette smoking ranged from less than 5% (Vietnam and Cambodia) to 20.2% in Malaysia. Current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was less than 10% in all countries. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products. Exposure to second-hand smoke in public places was greater than 50%, direct pro-tobacco advertising exposure was greater than 75% and over 10% of students were exposed to indirect advertising. Over 60% of students who currently smoked cigarettes wanted to stop, but 80% who tried to quit in the year prior to the survey failed. Efforts to reduce the current and projected harm caused by tobacco use in the ASEAN countries are urgently needed. ASEAN countries need to expand their national comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs and enforce those laws already passed. Without this effort little reduction can be expected in the burden of chronic diseases and tobacco-related mortality.

  3. The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Methodology/Principal Findings Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Conclusions/Significance Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion. PMID:23418411

  4. Continuing to lift the burden: using a continuous quality improvement approach to advance Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alvin; Lucas, Kerri; Campbell, Megan A; Sarin, Jasmine

    2016-12-14

    Smoking remains the most preventable cause of early mortality and ill health in Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council of New South Wales has developed the Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control (ATRAC) Yarning Tool with a range of key stakeholders, to contribute to reducing the prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal communities. The Yarning Tool was adapted from the ATRAC Framework and aims to promote the meaningful discussion, planning and strengthening of tobacco resistance and control activities using a continuous quality improvement (CQI) approach. CQI provides an opportunity to closer align current health service practice with evidence. The Yarning Tool was piloted using focus group testing across four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) and three Local Health Districts. Purposive sampling was used to ensure that services engaged were from a diverse range of settings, with representation from metropolitan, regional and rural areas, and services with varying degrees of tobacco control capacity. Overall, feedback on the Yarning Tool and its potential use was positive. Pilot participants consistently reported that the Yarning Tool brought staff from a range of positions together to focus on tackling tobacco for the service and community. The pilot participants agreed that the Yarning Tool could be practical for the planning and reviewing stages of a CQI activity, and recommended that the tool should be completed every 6 months. The Yarning Tool is a simple tool to guide the ATRAC Framework principles into practice, and provides a platform to support Aboriginal community-led efforts, and coordination and integration of tobacco control efforts. The tool shows promise as a mechanism to encourage ACCHSs and other relevant services to use a CQI approach to reduce tobacco use in Aboriginal communities.

  5. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Case-control study. A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption.

  6. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the Tobacco Tactics website for operating engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Sonia A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research indicates that 35 percent of blue-collar workers in the US currently smoke while only 20 percent of white-collar workers smoke. Over the last year, we have been working with heavy equipment operators, specifically the Local 324 Training Center of the International Union of Operating Engineers, to study the epidemiology of smoking, which is 29% compared to 21% among the general population. For the current study funded by the National Cancer Institute (1R21CA152247-01A1, we have developed the Tobacco Tactics website which will be compared to the state supported 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Outcome evaluation will compare those randomized to the Tobacco Tactics web-based intervention to those randomized to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW control condition on: a 30-day and 6-month quit rates; b cotinine levels; c cigarettes smoked/day; d number of quit attempts; and e nicotine addiction. Process evaluation will compare the two groups on the: a contacts with intervention; b medications used; c helpfulness of the nurse/coach; and d willingness to recommend the intervention to others. Methods/Design This will be a randomized controlled trial (N = 184. Both interventions will be offered during regularly scheduled safety training at Local 324 Training Center of the International Union of Operating Engineers and both will include optional provision of over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy and the same number of telephone contacts. However, the Tobacco Tactics website has graphics tailored to Operating Engineers, tailored cessation feedback from the website, and follow up nurse counseling offered by multimedia options including phone and/or email, and/or e-community. Primary Analysis of Aim 1 will be conducted by using logistic regression to compare smoking habits (e.g., quit rates of those in the intervention arm to those in the control arm. Primary analyses for Aim 2 will compare process measures (e.g., medications

  7. Assessing the Risk of Oral Cancer associated with Gutka and Other Smokeless Tobacco Products: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K H; Hussain, Q A; Patil, Shankargouda; Maralingannavar, Mahesh

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco and tobacco-related products have been attributed to be causative factors for oral cancer. Newer, chewable, and commercially available smokeless tobacco (ST) products, such as gutka pose further threat in this direction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other ST products. A case-control study of 134 cases and 134 controls, over a period of 6 months (July-December 2014), was carried out at the Baqai University, Karachi, Pakistan. An interview-based questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and type, duration, and frequency of use of tobacco-related products. Data were analyzed using the Pearson's chi-square (χ2) test with the level of significance set as p tobacco-related products [odds ratio (OR) 5.54; 95% CI 2.83-10.83; p < 0.001)]. Participants who consumed other ST products also showed 2 to 4 times higher odds ratio of developing oral cancer than compared to those who did not consume these products. The study provided strong evidence that gutka and other ST products are independent risk factors for oral cancer. This study highlights the strong association of different types of ST and oral cancer. This results in identification of high-risk groups for targeted screening for potential oral cancer lesions.

  8. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Ngalesoni

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. The prevalence of smoking is estimated to be increasing in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, especially among women and youth. Even so, the implementation of tobacco control measures has been discouraging in the country. Efforts to foster investment in tobacco control are hindered by lack of evidence on what works and at what cost.We aim to estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in Tanzania.A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using an Excel-based Markov model, from a governmental perspective. We employed an ingredient approach and step-down methodologies in the costing exercise following a government perspective. Epidemiological data and efficacy inputs were derived from the literature. We used disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted as the outcome measure. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out with Ersatz to incorporate uncertainties in the model parameters.Our model results showed that all five tobacco control strategies were very cost-effective since they fell below the ceiling ratio of one GDP per capita suggested by the WHO. Increase in tobacco taxes was the most cost-effective strategy, while a workplace smoking ban was the least cost-effective option, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$5 and US$267, respectively.Even though all five interventions are deemed very cost-effective in the prevention of CVD in Tanzania, more research on budget impact analysis is required to further assess the government's ability to implement these interventions.

  10. Equity-focused health impact assessment of Portuguese tobacco control legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A; Cortes, M; Sena, C; Nunes, E; Nogueira, P; Shivaji, T

    2016-10-02

    The World Health Organization recommend the Equity-Focused Health Impact Assessment (HIA) as a means to assess the impact of social and economic policies on the health of populations, and acknowledges their contribution to health inequality. We describe the application of the Equity-focused Impact Assessment methodology on the Portuguese law on Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control (Law No. 37/2007). A rapid assessment was carried out to issue recommendations which could be incorporated into the law during a revision in 2014. Quantitative (consumption and health status indicators; equity analysis) and qualitative (Focus Group) approaches were taken to evaluate the impact of the law and formulate recommendations. Young people, men and women of low socioeconomic status, and pregnant women were identified as requiring specific and appropriate interventions to prevent smoking and support smoking cessation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Electronic Cigarettes Among Priority Populations: Role of Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kim, Yoonsang; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-02-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market has evolved rapidly in recent years, with exploding growth in brands and product types; however, e-cigarette use among priority (sexual minority and low-income) populations and its relationship with smoking-cessation and tobacco control policies have yet to be fully characterized. The authors conducted a nationally representative online survey of 17,522 U.S. adults in 2013. Participants were drawn from GfK's KnowledgePanel. Logistic regression models were used to analyze relationships between e-cigarettes (awareness, ever use, current use) and cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors, tobacco control policies, and demographics. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 15% of participants reported ever use of e-cigarettes, 5.1% reported current use, and 34.5% of ever users reported current use. E-cigarette awareness was lower among women, minorities, and those with low education. Ever and current use of e-cigarettes was higher among current cigarette smokers, young adults, and those with low SES; both ever use and current use were correlated with current cigarette smoking status, particularly when combined with quit intentions or attempts. Lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender respondents had higher rates of ever use and current use. Ever use was lower in states with comprehensive smoking bans. No significant relationship between cigarette price and e-cigarette use was detected. Ongoing surveillance of e-cigarette use among subpopulation groups and monitoring their use for combustible cigarette cessation are needed. Important variations in the patterns and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and use exist among priority populations. These findings have implications for future e-cigarette policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The Granting of Iran Office of Foreign Asset Control's Licenses to Big Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  13. Epidemiology of oral-cavity and oropharyngeal carcinomas: controlling a tobacco epidemic while a human papillomavirus epidemic emerges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashibe, Mia; Sturgis, Erich M

    2013-08-01

    Although tobacco prevalence is declining in most developed countries, less developed countries are still experiencing an increase in tobacco use. Thus the future burden of oral-cavity and oropharyngeal cancers in less developed countries is expected to be heavy. The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer is dramatically increasing in the United States and other developed countries, although trends in less developed countries are not clear at present. HPV vaccine compliance in the United States is low, although it continues to increase each year. Increasing the HPV vaccination rate to control future HPV-associated cancer incidence remains a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining Implementation of Tobacco Control Policy at the District Level: A Case Study Analysis from a High Burden State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Persai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program.

  15. Firm strategy and consumer behaviour under a complex tobacco tax system: implications for the effectiveness of taxation on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuk, Oğuz; Özmen, M Utku

    2017-05-01

    The current tobacco taxation scheme in Turkey, a mix of high ad valorem tax and low specific tax, contains incentives for firms and consumers to change pricing and consumption patterns, respectively. The association between tax structure and price and tax revenue stability has not been studied in detail with micro data containing price segment information. In this study, we analyse whether incentives for firms and consumers undermine the effectiveness of tax policy in reducing consumption. We calculate alternative taxation scheme outcomes using differing ad valorem and specific tax rates through simulation analysis. We also estimate price elasticity of demand using detailed price and volume statistics between segments via regression analysis. A very high ad valorem rate provides strong incentives to firms to reduce prices. Therefore, this sort of tax strategy may induce even more consumption despite its initial aim of discouraging consumption. While higher prices dramatically reduce consumption of economy and medium price segment cigarettes, demand for premium segment cigarettes is found to be highly price-inelastic. The current tax scheme, based on both ad valorem and specific components, introduces various incentives to firms as well as to consumers which reduce the effectiveness of the tax policy. Therefore, on the basis of our theoretical predictions, an appropriate tax scheme should involve a balanced combination of ad valorem and specific rates, away from extreme ( ad valorem or specific dominant) cases to enhance the effectiveness of tax policy for curbing consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Comparison of tobacco control scenarios: quantifying estimates of long-term health impact using the DYNAMO-HIA modeling tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, M.C.; Nusselder, W.J.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Lhachimi, S.K.; Fernández, E.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Smit, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There are several types of tobacco control interventions/policies which can change future smoking exposure. The most basic intervention types are 1) smoking cessation interventions 2) preventing smoking initiation and 3) implementation of a nationwide policy affecting quitters and

  17. 75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... 1140 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0136] RIN 0910-AG33 Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... this document. Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received, go...

  18. Political Barriers to Evidence-Based Tobacco Control Policy: Cronyism and Cognitive Dissonance, a Tasmanian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, Kathryn; Walters, E. Haydn; Wood-Baker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Tasmania led in several areas of tobacco control legislation reform in the period 1997 to 2010. Despite this, Tasmania lagged in other crucial areas, particularly the allocation of resources for community education, mass media campaigns and cessation programmes. Key impediments were crony capitalism; the conservative ideology of "white…

  19. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-12-01

    Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents-off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (ppromotion is higher since the MSA (ppromotion is negatively related to the MSA (ppromoted cigarette sales and increased promotional values in market areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas.

  20. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-10-01

    We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.

  1. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Dzurova, D.; Helmert, U.; Klumbiene, J.; Santana, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower

  2. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; Crone, M.R.; van den Putte, B.; Willemsen, M.C.; Fong, G.T.; de Vries, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International

  3. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  4. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  5. Recommendations for Tobacco Control on Post-Secondary Campuses that are Geographically Isolated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P. Gauthier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Ontarians continue to report exposure to second-hand smoke in public spaces. Completely smoke-free environments are the preferred and socially responsible option for non-smoking policies; however, when considering the variety of landscapes in which post-secondary institutions are located, „a one size fits all‟ smoking policy is unrealistic to implement and en-force. The purpose of the study was to: 1 gain a better sense of the prevalence of smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke in a post-secondary context that is geographically isolated; 2 assess the awareness of existing non-smoking initiatives; and 3 identify preferred approaches for tobacco control. Methods: An online survey was distributed in 2012 to all members of the Laurentian University community. Descriptive statistics are presented, using frequency distributions, and group comparisons are reported, using Chi-Square analyses. Results: A total of 1282 persons completed the survey. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that they had been exposed to second-hand smoke in the past month on campus and the majority of respondents felt that smoking should only be allowed in Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas (51.5%; including 37.3% of daily smokers and occasional smokers. Conclusion: Institutions with a geographically isolated campus, which limit options to divert smokers from public entrances, should consider the use of Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas. Implementation will create immediate reductions in the prevalence of smoking at building entrances and in high traffic locations and will therefore protect non-smokers from the dangers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  6. From global agenda-setting to domestic implementation: successes and challenges of the global health network on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Global policy attention to tobacco control has increased significantly since the 1990 s and culminated in the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization--the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the political process that led to the creation of the FCTC has been extensively researched, the FCTC's progression from an aspirational treaty towards a global health governance framework with tangible policy effects within FCTC member countries has not been well-understood to date. This article analyses the role of the global health network of tobacco control advocates and scientists, which formed during the FCTC negotiations during the late 1990 s, in translating countries' commitment to the FCTC into domestic policy change. By comparing the network's influence around two central tobacco control interventions (smoke-free environments and taxation), the study identifies several scope conditions, which have shaped the network's effectiveness around the FCTC's implementation: the complexity of the policy issue and the relative importance of non-health expertise, the required scope of domestic political buy-in, the role of the general public as network allies, and the strength of policy opposition. These political factors had a greater influence on the network's success than the evidence base for the effectiveness of tobacco control interventions. The network's variable success points to a trade-off faced by global health networks between their need to maintain internal cohesion and their ability to form alliances with actors in their social environment. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2015; all rights reserved.

  7. The Association Between Tobacco Control Policy and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands from 1988 Through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Nagelhout, Gera E; Stronks, Karien; Willemsen, Marc C; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco control policies seemed to have failed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in the past. It has been argued that a comprehensive mix of policies is needed. Our aim was to assess whether tobacco control policy development in the Netherlands between 1988 and 2011 was associated with educational inequalities in smoking cessation and cigarette consumption. Data were derived from the cross-sectional Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits, with a study sample of 259,140 respondents from 1988 through 2011. Outcomes were the quit ratio and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. The determinant was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). We used multilevel logistic regression modeling, with years, quarters, and individuals as levels, and controlled for sex, age, and time. A significant association between the TCS and smoking cessation was found in 2001-2011, but not in 1988-2000. Associations for low- and high-education groups were similar (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.12-1.34 and OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.03-1.32 respectively). The TCS was not significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day for either the low- or high-education groups (B = -0.09; 95% CI = -0.46-0.27 and B = -0.59; 95% CI = -1.24-0.06 respectively). Strong tobacco control policies introduced in the Netherlands after 2000 were positively associated with national trends in smoking cessation, whereas weaker policies introduced gradually before 2000 were not. However, these measures do not seem to have either widened or narrowed educational inequalities in smoking cessation rates-both groups benefitted about equally. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. State-level tobacco control and adult smoking rate in the United States: an ecological analysis of structural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Christopher P; Pratte, Morgan A

    2013-01-01

    A variety of population-level tobacco control measures (TCMs) exist, such as excise taxation, smoking restrictions, cessation program funding, counter-advertising, and restrictions on tobacco marketing. Several factors may contribute to often-suboptimal levels of implementation of TCMs at the state level. To use the American Lung Association (ALA) grading framework to assess impacts of TCMs and to explore relationships between environmental factors and level of implementation of TCMs as rated by the ALA. Secondary data analysis of publicly available data, using linear regression to examine relative effects of state TCMs on adult smoking rates and the extent to which environmental factors influence the strength of each TCM in states. The 50 US states, excluding territories, districts, and possessions. Cigarette excise taxes, state-level tobacco control expenditures relative to Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, smoking restrictions, and support for smoking cessation by state Medicaid programs. Adult smoking rate in each state for 2010; strength of TCMs as measured by the ALA. The ALA smokefree score (β = -.045, P = .005) and tax rate per pack (β = -1.205, P = .019) were significant negative predictors of state adult smoking rates in 2010. Percentage of seats in lower houses of state legislatures held by Republicans was significant in predicting tax per pack (β = -.032, P smoking restrictions have the most immediate statewide impacts on smoking rate. Probusiness/antitax politics and tobacco manufacturing affect level of implementation of these and other effective TCMs.

  9. Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbod, Behrooz; Sharma, Mohit; Baxi, Ruchi; Roseby, Robert; Webster, Premila

    2018-01-31

    Children's exposure to other people's tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children in child care or educational settings are also at risk of exposure to ETS. Preventing exposure to ETS during infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register and conducted additional searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and the Social Science Citation Index & Science Citation Index (Web of Knowledge). We conducted the most recent search in February 2017. We included controlled trials, with or without random allocation, that enrolled participants (parents and other family members, child care workers, and teachers) involved in the care and education of infants and young children (from birth to 12 years of age). All mechanisms for reducing children's ETS exposure were eligible, including smoking prevention, cessation, and control programmes. These include health promotion, social-behavioural therapies, technology, education, and clinical interventions. Two review authors independently assessed studies and extracted data. Due to heterogeneity of methods and outcome measures, we did not pool results but instead synthesised study findings narratively. Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and we assessed all evidence to be of low or very low quality based on GRADE assessment. We judged nine studies to be at low risk of bias, 35 to have unclear overall risk of bias, and 34 to have high risk of bias. Twenty

  10. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Migraineurs variably attribute the cause of their headache to tobacco exposure, whereas tobacco is often stated to cause headache-related disability worldwide. Given tobacco's physiological and emotional addictiveness and migraine's substantial economic impact, improved functionality can be difficult for those with migraine exposed to tobacco products. Environmental tobacco exposure in indoor spaces and workplaces is associated with exacerbation of headache. Avoidance of headache triggers is included in most comprehensive migraine treatment programs, yet tobacco awareness, avoidance, or coping is rarely emphasized as part of that regimen. The aims of this study were to examine the various types of tobacco products to which headache sufferers are exposed and the known basic mechanisms by which tobacco (nicotine) exposure promotes headache pain, and to review the extensive literature on tobacco related to headache with a detailed descriptive narrative providing the basis for conclusions regarding association of noncluster headache-related tobacco exposure. Tobacco-related recommendations are offered. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched without yearly restriction through the date of submission (May 2015), using the MeSH terms "tobacco," "tobacco products," "smoking," "tobacco use," "headache," and "headache disorders." The selection of articles was not limited to English studies or to humans. Articles were excluded when "headache" and "tobacco" were not both mentioned with data provided. Case series were included. Bibliographies of all articles were screened for additional relevant articles. Although migraineurs worldwide report tobacco smoke among triggers, it is rarely among the highest in frequency, and biases abound with predominantly noncontrolled retrospective data. Prospective population-based diary data are extremely limited, and no controlled trials exist to confirm a cause and effect for headache of any type. Although some studies are

  11. Assessment of short reports using a human rights-based approach to tobacco control to the Commitee on Economics, Cultural and Social Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Henry, Kirsten; Loftus, John; Lando, Harry

    2017-07-28

    The health impact of tobacco use remains a major global public health concern and a human rights issue. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network (HRTCN) was established to increase the visibility of tobacco as a human rights issue. HRTCN submitted short reports to the UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights evaluating individual nations' tobacco control policies and offering recommendations. HRTCN reviewed Concluding Observations documents for nations for which the HRTCN submitted reports. If tobacco was mentioned in the Concluding Observations through acknowledging the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ratification, policy changes or discussing tobacco in the recommendations, this was scored as a positive finding. HRTCN also reviewed Concluding Observations for nations for which HRTCN did not submit reports as a comparison. Thirty-eight HRTCN reports were submitted and tobacco was mentioned in Concluding Observations for 11 nations for a rate of 28.9%. In a comparison set of Concluding Observations (n=59), 7% had comments or recommendations relative to tobacco. This was not a controlled study and the 28.9% 'success rate' for impacting the Concluding Observations, although encouraging, is less than optimal-and leaves room for improvement. The higher rate of tobacco mentions for the cases where the HRTCN short reports were submitted provides preliminary indications that the short reports may have potential to increase the state focus on tobacco control. Future work will seek to improve the design and scope of the reports, and the specificity of the background information and recommendations offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Relationship of Lifetime Exposure to Tobacco, Alcohol and Second Hand Tobacco Smoke with Upper aero-digestive tract cancers in India: a Case-Control Study with a Life-Course Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Newell W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=48...

  13. Examining the Feasibility and Impact of a Graduate Public Administration Course in Evidence-Informed Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Mathieu; Lapointe, Luc; Léon, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    A pilot controlled before-and-after design was used to assess the impact of a new master-level course in evidence-informed policy making on students' basic knowledge in evidence-based practice. The primary outcome variable was the mean percentage of pre-post improvement on the knowledge test. In the treatment group, the mean percentage of pre-post…

  14. Barriers and challenges of implementing tobacco control policies in hospitals: applying the institutional analysis and development framework to the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    This article analyzes tobacco control policies in hospitals based on the experience of the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals, Spain. The objective is to understand through this case study how tobacco policies are designed and implemented in health care organizations. Because tobacco control is a public health issue, governmental, institutional, and professional involvement is necessary. This article identifies and examines the structure and relationships among the different actors involved in the tobacco control policies in health care organizations using Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework.This theory helps one understand the policy failures and rethink the future challenges. Critical issues should be reviewed to enhance implementation of smoke-free hospitals-such as assuring the compliance of nonsmoking areas and introducing compulsory tobacco cessation activities that are promoted and monitored by the public administration. The author suggests that relying primarily on an organization's interpretation of rules leads to irregular implementation.

  15. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  16. Setting the agenda for a healthy retail environment: content analysis of US newspaper coverage of tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale (POS) are an emerging intervention, yet POS-related news media content has not been studied. We describe news coverage of POS tobacco control efforts and assess relationships between article characteristics, including policy domains, frames, sources, localisation and evidence present, and slant towards tobacco control efforts. High circulation state (n=268) and national (n=5) newspapers comprised the sampling frame. We retrieved 917 relevant POS-focused articles in newspapers from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. 5 raters screened and coded articles, 10% of articles were double coded, and mean inter-rater reliability (IRR) was 0.74. POS coverage emphasised tobacco retailer licensing (49.1% of articles) and the most common frame present was regulation (71.3%). Government officials (52.3%), followed by tobacco retailers (39.6%), were the most frequent sources. Half of articles (51.3%) had a mixed, neutral or antitobacco control slant. Articles presenting a health frame, a greater number of protobacco control sources, and statistical evidence were significantly more likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Articles presenting a political/rights or regulation frame, a greater number of antitobacco control sources, or government, tobacco industry, tobacco retailers, or tobacco users as sources were significantly less likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Stories that feature procontrol sources, research evidence and a health frame also tend to support tobacco control objectives. Future research should investigate how to use data, stories and localisation to encourage a protobacco control slant, and should test relationships between content characteristics and policy progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to h