Blenker, Per; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Korsgaard, Steffen
Adopting the perspective of ‘entrepreneurship as an everyday practice’ in education, the authors conceptualize opportunities as arising from the everyday practice of individuals. Opportunities are thus seen as emanating from the individual entrepreneur’s ability to disclose anomalies...... and disharmonies in their personal life. The paper illustrates how opportunities unfold depending on regional differences, local heritage and gender, to show how entrepreneurship education must take into account differences in context, culture and circumstance. Rather than perceiving entrepreneurship education...... as universalistic and searching for a generally applicable teaching approach, the authors argue that there is a need to tailor entrepreneurship education to the particular. They therefore propose that the pedagogy of entrepreneurship education should be personalized and they build a conceptual framework...
Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing...... their professional knowledge with regards to collective reflection and creating coherent practices and everyday lives for children and families. I propose an alternative perspective on development of professional knowledge, which takes aspects of professional knowledge and everyday practice......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... focusing on the connections between audiences practices and the museum exhibition....
Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.
This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…
Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien
This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.
The treatment of severe coronary stenoses with stent implantation is very effective nevertheless, the underlying problem of atherosclerosis remains unsolved with the implantation of a stent. Therefore, besides lifestyle changes, the adequate medication therapy is of pivotal importance. In the majority of patients scheduled for or acutely undergoing catheterisation, beta-blockers form the basis of medication therapy. Members of the group, however, show significant differences in terms of pharmacodynamics. The third-generation beta-blocker and vasodilator carvedilol possesses complex adrenerg-blocking and Ca-channel blocking effects as well. In the background of the favourable effects, a further positive property is its anti-free-radical effect which most beta-blockers do not have. Therefore, as has been proven by several studies, it provides considerable benefits in hypertension, after myocardial infarction, in diabetes and also in the treatment of patients with cardiac failure. These positive effects have been markedly observed in interventional cardiology practice, as the majority of patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation have hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidaemia. Its anti-free-radical effect is especially beneficial together with its smooth muscle proliferation-inhibitor effect which may favourably affect in-stent restenosis (ISR) as well. To summarise, due to its vasculoprotective effect, carvedilol is an ideal drug of choice following stent implantation in routine everyday practice. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(37): 1453-1457.
Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Røpke, Inge
, a practice theory approach helps us to avoid the risk of ending up with a ‘media-centric’ understanding of the use of new media and adds interesting details and subtleties to the study of the construction of a new normality in everyday life. Our application of practice theory in the study...... of the normalisation process shows how ICTs have become integrated into a wide range of practices of everyday life and thus may contribute to the increasing ‘materialisation’ of everyday practices. Finally, our attempts to apply practice theory in empirical studies reveal some theoretical and methodological issues...... a new ‘normality’ in everyday life: the expectations and conventions regarding a normal home’s necessary ‘infrastructure’ and the ordinary gear for a normal way of life are changing, and the changes are proceeding rapidly. This chapter takes a closer look at the construction of a new normality...
Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar
. However, awareness of climate change problems and intentions to live pro-environmentally friendly do not always translate into actual changed practice. In this sense, there is often a discrepancy between attitude and actual behaviour. This article is an in-depth empirical investigation of the logics...... guiding everyday pro-environmental practices, the aim was to examine the challenges experienced in this regard. Based on visits to households in Copenhagen, four major challenges are identified and discussed. The paper argues that everyday life, as the starting point of individual pro-environmental...... practices, is characterised by a complexity which people have to navigate, and thus that pro-environmental practices should not be seen as one demarcated field, but as interlinked with other practices in everyday life....
for participation. Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create...... knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers.......The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities...
The focus of this article is the subject home economics education in the primary and lower secondary school in the 21st century. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life are suggested as aims of home economics education. It is argued that these elements should...
Madsen, Line Valdorff
The development of residential energy technologies aims to ensure thermal comfort in an increasingly energy-efficient manner. This development influences everyday practices related to comfort in everyday life in dwellings. Therefore, an empirical analysis of interviews with residents in three types...... of Danish detached houses, related to the building age, is used to understand how changes in technologies influence residents’ practices and notions of comfort. Detached houses are the most widespread type of housing in Denmark, constituting 44% of the housing stock. The analysis focuses on differences...... in heating systems between the housing types and shows how changes in technologies and material structures shape the practices of heating and airing. A shift in technology from radiators to underfloor heating was found to make a clear difference in both how houses are heated and thermal comfort is perceived...
Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education
Videbæk Le, Jette; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle
. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. METHODS: Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form......BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood....... Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective...
Fleer, Marilyn; Hedegaard, Mariane
, were invisible to the educators in this study. The findings suggest foregrounding an understanding of children's development as changes in children's activities and thereby changing their relations to reality across institutional practices in order to support a broader view of development in early......Children participate in different institutional collectives in their everyday life. Home, school, and kindergarten are the institutional contexts that most children share. Although there are variations between home practices and school practices, they collectively share a common core framed...... by societal conditions. In drawing upon Vygotsky's (1998) theory of the social situation of development and Hedegaard's (2009) theory of development conceptualised as the child's participation within and across several institutions at the same time, it has been possible to examine how school practices...
Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Warring, Niels; Nielsen, Birger Steen
for learning outcomes. For the social educators this has meant more time being spent on formal learning activities, and they have received the new demands with mixed feelings: on the one hand they can help the social educators getting more acknowledged for doing some valuable and visible work. On the other...... based workshops) the paper will discuss work practice in an everyday life perspective. This perspective opens for understanding professional competence as part of creating coherence in children’s and families’ lives as well as during the day in the day care centers. It also opens for a discussion of how...
Full Text Available There is a gradual, yet sustained increase in creative practices, which explore maternal everyday experience in various mediums and formats. In this article, I am focusing on a contemporary trend of innovative performative strategies explored by creative practitioners in order to stage the spheres of maternal invisibility. This trend is in a intergenerational dialogue with artwork created almost four decades ago, as an early response to female objectification by art institutions. Current artistic consciousness-raising maternal projects similarly share personal experiences within a more public space, to provide focus on personal and social injustice.
Ulrich, Connie M; Taylor, Carol; Soeken, Karen; O'Donnell, Patricia; Farrar, Adrienne; Danis, Marion; Grady, Christine
This paper is a report of a study of the type, frequency, and level of stress of ethical issues encountered by nurses in their everyday practice. Everyday ethical issues in nursing practice attract little attention but can create stress for nurses. Nurses often feel uncomfortable in addressing the ethical issues they encounter in patient care. A self-administered survey was sent in 2004 to 1000 nurses in four states in four different census regions of the United States of America. The adjusted response rate was 52%. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson correlations. A total of 422 questionnaires were used in the analysis. The five most frequently occurring and most stressful ethical and patient care issues were protecting patients' rights; autonomy and informed consent to treatment; staffing patterns; advanced care planning; and surrogate decision-making. Other common occurrences were unethical practices of healthcare professionals; breaches of patient confidentiality or right to privacy; and end-of-life decision-making. Younger nurses and those with fewer years of experience encountered ethical issues more frequently and reported higher levels of stress. Nurses from different regions also experienced specific types of ethical problems more commonly. Nurses face daily ethical challenges in the provision of quality care. To retain nurses, targeted ethics-related interventions that address caring for an increasingly complex patient population are needed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Petersen, Lars Kjerulf
This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... green areas are beneficial for human health. These studies do, however, not go into a broader understanding of the social significance of urban greenspace and its significance in people’s lives. The social functions of urban green areas are not limited to whatever good effects they have on public health...... reports from a recent empirical study in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, and it seeks to unfold and qualify concepts of lifestyle and practice, i.e. concepts by which sociological studies can capture and understand patterns of actions in people’s daily lives and life courses. Particularly it seeks...
Porr, Caroline J
This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Milliken, Aimee; Grace, Pamela
Much attention has been paid to the role of the nurse in recognizing and addressing ethical dilemmas. There has been less emphasis, however, on the issue of whether or not nurses understand the ethical nature of everyday practice. Awareness of the inherently ethical nature of practice is a component of nurse ethical sensitivity, which has been identified as a component of ethical decision-making. Ethical sensitivity is generally accepted as a necessary precursor to moral agency, in that recognition of the ethical content of practice is necessary before consistent action on behalf of patient interests can take place. This awareness is also compulsory in ensuring patient good by recognizing the unique interests and wishes of individuals, in line with an ethic of care. Scholarly and research literature are used to argue that bolstering ethical awareness and ensuring that nurses understand the ethical nature of the role are an obligation of the profession. Based on this line of reasoning, recommendations for education and practice, along with directions for future research, are suggested.
Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders
The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss
Moreno Becerra, Tabita Alejandra
The present study examines how mobile practices of social-media use are integrated into individuals' everyday lives as a way to manage their relationships. Mobile communication technologies and social-media use intersect in people's everyday communicative practices, allowing individuals to engage in continuous interactions that take place on the…
Blenker, Per; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Korsgaard, Steffen; Muller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus
Adopting the perspective of "entrepreneurship as an everyday practice" in education, the authors conceptualize opportunities as arising from the everyday practice of individuals. Opportunities are thus seen as emanating from the individual entrepreneur's ability to disclose anomalies and disharmonies in their personal life. The paper illustrates…
Pereira, B; Llorca, P M; Durif, F; Brousse, G; Blanc, O; Rieu, I; Derost, P; Ulla, M; Debilly, B; de Chazeron, I
The purpose of this study was to develop a short and reliable measure of hypersexuality that could be used in everyday practice in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The original questionnaire containing twenty-five-items, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), was shortened and tested in a PD population. Successive reductions were performed until a final set of items satisfied the model fit requirements. The testing phase consisted of administering the SAST questionnaire to 159 PD patients. It included i) acceptability, ii) dimensionality construct validity, and iii) a complete general correlation structure of data. Finally, criterion validity of the final version of the instrument was assessed. The initial questionnaire was reduced to five items (PD-SAST) with a cut-off score of 2. Psychometric analysis revealed three factors corresponding to "Preoccupation", "Cannot stop" and "Relationship disturbance". The discriminant validity of the PD-SAST was high (ROC area under the curve: 0.96). The PD-SAST performs well as a screening instrument. It has been found to be acceptable to patients and is ready for use. Moreover, it tests multidimensional aspects of hypersexuality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As digital media have become increasingly integrated in everyday life, there have been calls for new literacies to become an integral part of language and literacy education. Yet traditional approaches to digital technologies, which position technology as an occasional add-on to existing pedagogies, continue to persist in Australian school settings. The role of teachers and their approaches to digital technologies have been acknowledged in efforts to explain the challenges associated with tea...
Daily clinical practice confronts us not only with the clinical aspect but also with the political. Political orientation has a direct impact on the way in which we carry out this clinical practice, as well as on the place of those who are outside the system. The politics of civilisation are therefore an option in the face of neoliberalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nurses’ patient education is important for building patients’ knowledge, understanding, and preparedness for self-management. The aim of this study was to explore the conditions for nurses’ patient education work by focusing on managers’ discourses about patient education provided by nurses. In 2012, data were derived from three focus group interviews with primary care managers. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. The discursive practice comprised a discourse order of economic, medical, organizational, and didactic discourses. The economic discourse was the predominant one to which the organization had to adjust. The medical discourse was self-evident and unquestioned. Managers reorganized patient education routines and structures, generally due to economic constraints. Nurses’ pedagogical competence development was unclear, and practice-based experiences of patient education were considered very important, whereas theoretical pedagogical knowledge was considered less important. Managers’ support for nurses’ practical- and theoretical-based pedagogical competence development needs to be strengthened.
Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth
Nurses’ patient education is important for building patients’ knowledge, understanding, and preparedness for self-management. The aim of this study was to explore the conditions for nurses’ patient education work by focusing on managers’ discourses about patient education provided by nurses. In 2012, data were derived from three focus group interviews with primary care managers. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. The discursive practice comprised a discourse order of economic, medical, organizational, and didactic discourses. The economic discourse was the predominant one to which the organization had to adjust. The medical discourse was self-evident and unquestioned. Managers reorganized patient education routines and structures, generally due to economic constraints. Nurses’ pedagogical competence development was unclear, and practice-based experiences of patient education were considered very important, whereas theoretical pedagogical knowledge was considered less important. Managers’ support for nurses’ practical- and theoretical-based pedagogical competence development needs to be strengthened. PMID:28462314
Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra
This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…
Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M
Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Explores the role of institutionalized violence in one young lesbian's decision to drop out of high school. Casting this young woman as a school failure masks the school's unwillingness to interrupt everyday practices (errors of alienation, omission, and repression) that diminished her sense of self and learning capacity. (29 references) (MLH)
The act of engaging in sound and ethical practitioner research, regardless of context, encourages and indeed demands an alignment between the ethical framework employed in the research enterprise and the "everyday ethics" of practice. This paper explores the ethical dimensions of what Cochran-Smith and Lytle have termed the dialectic of…
Lea, Mary R.; Stierer, Barry
In this article we examine issues of academic identity through the lens of academics' everyday workplace writing, offering a complementary perspective to those already evident in the higher education research literature. Motivated by an interest in the relationship between routine writing and aspects of professional practice, we draw on data from…
Orri, Massimiliano; Revah-Lévy, Anne; Farges, Olivier
Background Physicians’ emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice. Methods and Findings 27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women) participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon). 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons’ emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital)—surgeons’ own emotions, their perception of patients’ emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues), the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon), as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability). Conclusions Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons’ experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done) is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur. PMID:26600126
Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.
Orri, Massimiliano; Revah-Lévy, Anne; Farges, Olivier
Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice. 27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women) participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon). 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital)-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues), the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon), as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability). Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done) is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.
Full Text Available The paper considers the link between gay people and the fashion world, their role and and relationship to clothing in different fashion registries, as pointed out by Jennifer Craik, in high and in everyday fashion. Based on secondary literature the paper will outline current problematizations of the relationship between gays and high fashion, as well as their importance for the history of high, elite, designer fashion. In the second part of the paper, based on empirical research on the behavior of gay people in Belgrade fashion-wise, the discourses and practices of everyday fashion within the gay population of the capital of Serbia are presented, with a focus on three aspects of dressing practices: consumption of fashionable clothing and accessories with a focus on shopping, evaluation and hierarchization of branded clothing and the skill of combining them which respondents believe represents the key to their unique styles.
This article draws on data from a research project that combined participant observation with in-depth interviews to explore family relationships and experiences of everyday life during life-threatening illness. In it I suggest that death has often been theorised in ways that make its 'mundane' practices less discernible. As a means to foreground the everyday, and to demonstrate its importance to the study of dying, this article explores the (re)negotiation of food and eating in families facing the end of life. Three themes that emerged from the study's broader focus on family life are discussed: 'food talk' and making sense of illness; food, family and identity; and food 'fights'. Together the findings illustrate the material, social and symbolic ways in which food acts relationally in the context of dying, extending conceptual work on materiality in death studies in novel directions. The article also contributes new empirical insights to a limited sociological literature on food, families and terminal illness, building on work that theorises the entanglements of materiality, food, bodies and care. The article concludes by highlighting the analytical value of everyday materialities such as food practices for future research on dying as a relational experience. © 2018 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.
Blankestijn, Peter J; Grooteman, Muriel; Nube, Menso
There is considerable evidence to suggest that on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF) is superior to standard hemodialysis when comparing effects on clinical end points, especially when a certain minimum convection volume can be achieved. In this chapter we address the question of whether there are any downsides, challenges, or barriers in delivering on-line HDF in everyday clinical practice. We discuss the subject from a medical/practical point of view and briefly from a financial/economic perspective. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund
Ubiquitous media is not just a matter of (digital) media being everywhere and embedded in various objects (clothing, household hardware, buildings…). Using the practices of bereavement and commemoration as displayed by parents on children’s graves and online memorial sites as a case, this paper......). Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014a), this paper demonstrates how bereaved parents perform practices on children’s graves and through other media practices such as online memorial sites...... for creating online memorial profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013). Inspired by multidimensional concepts of media and communication (e.g. Meyrowitz 1973 and Jensen 2010), concepts are developed that can describe the way in which media and media uses are entwined in the everyday practices but not solely...
Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte
activities in which teachers succeed to balance continuities and discontinuities. Studying innovation as a balance between change and stability thus involves emerging, negotiated processes of learning and participation in everyday practices where people talk, interact and conduct their work and studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers’ everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable...... difficulties. Design/methodology/approach – Based on two ethnographic field studies, we analyse vocational teaching situations in which teachers and students engage in daily remaking of the vocational educational training practice. It is argued that these everyday situations can be understood as innovative...
Maller, Cecily Jane
The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rendle, Katharine A S; May, Suepattra G; Uy, Visith; Tietbohl, Caroline K; Mangione, Carol M; Frosch, Dominick L
The purpose of this study was to explore the everyday barriers to and practices of low-income patients managing their diabetes. The study team conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with 20 patients with type 2 diabetes who were receiving care at safety-net clinics in Southern California. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory to identify emergent themes across participants. Participants described managing diabetes with limited financial resources as often a game of balance and negotiation, whereby purchasing healthy foods is abandoned because of a more pressing concern in their life. Although participants described strategic attempts at incorporating healthy dietary practices for diabetes management into their daily decisions, these efforts were significantly impeded by the existence of persistent and seemingly insurmountable barriers. Although the challenges that low-income patients face in managing their diabetes may seem insurmountable at times, there are several ways that health care providers can help reduce the burden of these challenges, including tailoring their recommendations to incorporate the everyday socioeconomic environment of patients and engaging in clear, open communication with patients.
Full Text Available Despite recent reports suggesting that access to improved sources of drinking water is rising in Ghana, water access remains a daily concern for many of those living in the capital region. Throughout the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA, the urban poor manage uncertainty and establish themselves in the city by leveraging a patchwork system of basic services that draws importantly from informal systems and supplies. This paper takes a case study approach, using evidence gathered from two-months of fieldwork in a peri-urban informal settlement on the fringe of Accra, to explore everyday practices involved in procuring water for daily needs that routinely lead residents outside of the official water supply system. Findings from this case study demonstrate that respondents make use of informal water services to supplement or 'patch up' gaps left by the sporadic water flow of the official service provider, currently Ghana Water Company Ltd. (GWCL. Basic water access is thus constructed through an assemblage of coping strategies and infrastructures. This analysis contributes to understandings of heterogeneity in water access by attending to the everyday practices by which informality is operationalised to meet the needs of the urban poor, in ways that may have previously been overshadowed. This research suggests, for example, that although water priced outside of the official service provider is generally higher per unit, greater security may be obtained from smaller repetitive transactions as well as having the flexibility to pursue multiple sources of water on a day-to-day basis.
Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to 'the what' and 'the why' in bioethics - what action is taken place and why - these should be considered along 'the who' - who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the
Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to ‘the what’ and ‘the why’ in bioethics – what action is taken place and why – these should be considered along ‘the who’ – who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own
Archaeologists routinely deal with the remains of everyday life. Yet the significance anddimensions of daily practices are rarely reflected upon. Merging Bourdieu’s theory of practice, recent theories of everyday life and the materiality approach in archaeology,this study addresses the potential...... importance of daily practices and mundane objects indealing with a rupture caused by migration. As a case study I use an example of medieval(eleventh century) Western Slavic migration to the island of Bornholm (Denmark) andproduction and daily handling of ceramic pots, the so-called Baltic ware. I explore...
Shan, Hongxia; Walter, Pierre
While official rhetoric of multiculturalism claims to value cultural diversity, everyday multiculturalism focuses on how people of diverse cultural backgrounds live together in their everyday lives. Research on everyday multiculturalism has documented ways through which people negotiate senses, sensibilities, emotionality, and relationality across…
Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming....... This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005). The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant...... observations), and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein....
Full Text Available This article investigates digital game play (gaming as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72, in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007 functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming. This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005. The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant observations, and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein.
Fernández, David Lorente
This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article argues for a reconceptualization of the concept of "corrective feedback" for the investigation of correction practices in everyday second language (L2) interaction ("in the wild"). Expanding the dataset for L2 research as suggested by Firth and Wagner (1997) to include interactions from the wild has consequences…
Maelan, Ellen Nesset; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Baklien, Børge; Samdal, Oddrun; Thurston, Miranda
This study aimed to explore teachers' and head teachers' understandings of how they work to support pupils' mental health through their everyday practices. A qualitative study, including individual interviews with head teachers and focus groups with teachers, was conducted in lower secondary schools in Norway. Rich descriptions of teachers' and…
Agee, Jane; Altarriba, Jeanette
This study focused on 189 sixth and seventh graders in two large suburban schools and their use of computer technologies as part of their everyday literacy practices. The authors were especially interested in the students' conceptions of computer technologies and how computer use varied across grade and reading levels. The study included a survey…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern hospital care should ostensibly be multi-professional and person-centred, yet it still seems to be driven primarily by a hegemonic, positivistic, biomedical agenda. This study aimed to describe the everyday practices of professionals and patients in a coronary care unit, and analyse how the routines, structures and physical design of the care environment influenced their actions and relationships. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over a 16-month period (between 2009 and 2011 by two researchers working in parallel in a Swedish coronary care unit. Observations, informal talks and formal interviews took place with registered nurses, assistant nurses, physicians and patients in the coronary care unit. The formal interviews were conducted with six registered nurses (five female, one male including the chief nurse manager, three assistant nurses (all female, two cardiologists and three patients (one female, two male. Results We identified the structures that either promoted or counteracted the various actions and relationships of patients and healthcare professionals. The care environment, with its minimalistic design, strong focus on routines and modest capacity for dialogue, restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This resulted in feelings of guilt, predominantly on the part of the registered nurses. Conclusions The care environment restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This may result in increased moral stress among those in multi-professional teams who work in the grey area between biomedical and person-centred care.
Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella; Wadensten, Barbro; Pöder, Ulrika; Jansson, Inger; Nordgren, Lena
This study aimed to describe and explain teamwork and factors that influence team processes in everyday practice in an intensive care unit (ICU) from a staff perspective. The setting was a Swedish ICU. Data were collected from 38 ICU staff in focus groups with registered nurses, assistant nurses, and anaesthetists, and in one individual interview with a physiotherapist. Constant comparative analysis according to grounded theory was conducted, and to identify the relations between the emerged categories, the paradigm model was applied. The core category to emerge from the data was "balancing intertwined responsibilities." In addition, eleven categories that related to the core category emerged. These categories described and explained the phenomenon's contextual conditions, causal conditions, and intervening conditions, as well as the staff actions/interactions and the consequences that arose. The findings indicated that the type of teamwork fluctuated due to circumstantial factors. Based on the findings and on current literature, strategies that can optimise interprofessional teamwork are presented. The analysis generated a conceptual model, which aims to contribute to existing frameworks by adding new dimensions about perceptions of team processes within an ICU related to staff actions/interactions. This model may be utilised to enhance the understanding of existing contexts and processes when designing and implementing interventions to facilitate teamwork in the pursuit of improving healthcare quality and patient safety.
Cicora, F; Massari, P; Acosta, F; Petrone, H; Cambariere, R; Imperiali, N; López, F; Arriola, M; Roberti, J
Everolimus (EVL)-based immunosuppressive strategies may permit the reduction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and their side effects, while offering a safe and efficient treatment. Our aim was to describe our experience with EVL in everyday practice and provide information for its optimal utilization. Prospective, multicenter study of 181 kidney transplant recipients treated with EVL as part of their immunosuppressive regimen, with a follow-up of 24 months. We studied demographic data, transplant characteristics, clinical information, drugs used, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), rejection episodes, and adverse events. In total, 181 renal transplant recipients were included. Of these, 30 (16.6%) received EVL de novo and 151 (83.4%) were converted; median time from transplantation to conversion was 10 (range, 1-312) months. Main reasons for conversion were prevention of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (23.9%), intolerance to immunosuppressants (11.1%), neoplasia (13.9%), nephrotoxicity (8.9%), and cytomegalovirus infections (8.3%). The eGFR values at baseline, months 12, and 24 were 46.4 ± 27.4 mL/min, 54.8 ± 22.9 mL/min, and 55.9 ± 26.5 ml/min, respectively. Two of 181 (1.1%) patients died, 5 of 181 (2.8%) lost their grafts, 12 of 181 (6.6%) had an episode of acute rejection, 13 of 181 (7.2%) had ≥1 serious event and infection, and 85 of 181 (49.9%) had ≥1 nonserious adverse event or infection. Multivariate analysis showed that increased eGFR at month 24 was associated with lower donor age, shorter time from transplant to EVL introduction, and a baseline eGFR ≥40 mL/min. Through different strategies among centers, the inclusion of EVL improved renal function during the first 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.14-0.22, or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22. Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly.
Full Text Available A review of Michael Sheringham, Everyday Life: Theories and Practices from Surrealism to the Present (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006 and Kathleen Stewart, Ordinary Affects (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2007
Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Negrini, Stefano
The sagittal plane measures have a relevant role both in Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and in Hyperkyphosis (HK) management. Nevertheless, clinical tools for everyday use are scarce and not adequately studied. To assess the repeatability of different methods for the collection of the sagittal profile of patients with spinal deformities during everyday clinics. We performed 4 different studies in 4 different populations of AIS and HK patients. In the first study we reported the normative data and measurement error of the plumbline measures in a general population of 180 adolescents. In the second study we compared the sagittal distances from the plumbline of C7, T12, L3, and Sagittal Index (SI = C7+L3) with the measures of the Video Rasterstereography at the same levels and the angles of kyphosis and lordosis in 100 AIS patients. In the third study we evaluated the intra and inter-rater repeatability and the measurement error of kyphosis and lordosis angles measured with the Inclimed in 100 AIS patients. In the last study we evaluated the repeatability of the sagittal distances from the plumbline, by using a 1 mm change instead of 5 mm in a population of 40 patients. repeatability has been evaluated according to Bland and Altman, to identify the limits of variation that are clinically significant. Results. Study 1: the normative data were: females: 34 ± 11 mm for C7; 34 ± 15 mm for L3, males: 34 ± 10 mm for C7; 48 ± 10 mm for L3;. Study 2: a coefficient of correlation was calculated in order to compare measures. Study 3: the k value for Inclimed varied from fair to good. Study 4: the repeatability was fair for this measure. Some clinical instruments are now available for sagittal plane assessment in AIS and hyperkyphosis. The results of the present study report the limits during measurements in a clinical setting of parameters that are routinely collected by some clinicians.
Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... repercussions. Moreover, family mobility does not simply happen, rather the successful performance of everyday mobility is a creative process that requires labour, skill and knowledge (Vannini 2012). It is proposed that families cope with everyday life through the on-going making and performance of mobility...
Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. Conclusion This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision. PMID:20438627
Palmer Victoria J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. Conclusion This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision.
Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
The approach of language psychology is grounded in the persons communicating; where as the approach of discursive psychology is grounded in social interaction. There is a lack of scientific knowledge on the social/communicative/interactional challenges of communication difficulties and brain injury...... in everyday life. A sense-making-in-practice approach may help form a new discourse. How may a new analytical approach be designed? May ‘communication’ be described as ‘participation abilities’, using the framework from language psychology combined with discursive psychology and the conventions...... of ethnomethodology? I draw on Roy Harris’ integrational linguistics’ approach (1998; 2009) to communication and communication abilities as I investigate how agreement on a micro-level is accomplished through participation and initiatives in interactions (Goodwin, 2003). I examine excerpts from a study I have been...
The next generation science standards , currently under development by Achieve and based on the NRC's new Science Framework for K-12 Science Education , will combine science content with the practices of science. This coupling highlights the importance of engaging prospective elementary teachers in the practices of science as they learn content during their undergraduate science course experiences. The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum  was designed to provide that engagement in discussion and laboratory based classroom settings of 36 or fewer students. However, because of economic and staffing issues, many colleges and universities teach courses populated with prospective elementary teachers in large, lecture-style settings. Over the last several years I have worked with a team of science educators to develop courses for large class settings that still aim to engage students in the practices of science. In this talk I will describe how we have adapted critical features of the original PET curriculum in the design of two new courses: Learning Physical Science (LEPS) and Learning Physics (LEP).[4pt]  http://www.nextgenscience.org[0pt]  http://www7.nationalacademies.org[0pt]  It's About Time (2007), NY
Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth
Nurses' patient education is important for building patients' knowledge, understanding, and preparedness for self-management. The aim of this study was to explore the conditions for nurses' patient education work by focusing on managers' discourses about patient education provided by nurses. In 2012, data were derived from three focus group interviews with primary care managers. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. The discursive practice comprised a discourse order of economic, medical, organizational, and didactic discourses. The economic discourse was the predominant one to which the organization had to adjust. The medical discourse was self-evident and unquestioned. Managers reorganized patient education routines and structures, generally due to economic constraints. Nurses' pedagogical competence development was unclear, and practice-based experiences of patient education were considered very important, whereas theoretical pedagogical knowledge was considered less important. Managers' support for nurses' practical- and theoretical-based pedagogical competence development needs to be strengthened.
This article explores young people's home literacy practices drawing on an ethnographic study of writing in the home of a British Asian family living in northern England. The theoretical framework comes from the New Literacy Studies, and aesthetic and literary theory. It applies an ethnographic methodology together with an engaged approach to…
Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Marín, Francisco; Sanmartín Fernandez, Marcelo
Registries and non-interventional studies offer relevant and complementary information to clinical trials, since they have a high external validity. Areas covered: The information regarding the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin, or rivaroxaban alone in clinical practice was reviewed in this manuscript. For this purpose, a search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed. The MEDLINE and EMBASE search included both medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords including: atrial fibrillation (AF) OR warfarin OR clinical practice OR ROCKET AF AND rivaroxaban. Case reports were not considered. Expert commentary: In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was at least as effective as warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF at high risk of stroke, but, importantly, with a lesser risk of intracranial, critical and fatal bleedings. A number of observational comparative and non-comparative studies, with more than 60,000 patients included treated with rivaroxaban, have analyzed the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in real-life patients with AF in different clinical settings. These studies have shown that in clinical practice, rates of stroke and major bleeding were consistently lower than those reported in ROCKET AF, likely due to the lower thromboembolic and bleeding risk observed in these patients.
Moyer, Eileen; Igonya, Emmy Kageha; Both, Rosalijn; Cherutich, Peter; Hardon, Anita
Disclosure of HIV status is routinely promoted as a public health measure to prevent transmission and enhance treatment adherence support. While studies show a range of positive and negative outcomes associated with disclosure, it has also been documented that disclosing is a challenging and ongoing process. This article aims to describe the role of health-care workers in Central and Nairobi provinces in Kenya in facilitating disclosure in the contexts of voluntary counselling and testing and provider-initiated testing and counselling and includes a discussion on how participants perceive and experience disclosure as a result. We draw on in-depth qualitative research carried out in 2008-2009 among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the health workers who provide care to them. Our findings suggest that in everyday practice, there are three models of disclosure at work: (1) voluntary-consented disclosure, in alignment with international guidelines; (2) involuntary, non-consensual disclosure, which may be either intentional or accidental; and (3) obligatory disclosure, which occurs when PLHIV are forced to disclose to access services at health facilities. Health-care workers were often caught between the three models and struggled with the competing demands of promoting prevention, adherence, and confidentiality. Findings indicate that as national and global policies shift to normalize HIV testing as routine in a range of clinical settings, greater effort must be made to define suitable best practices that balance the human rights and the public health perspectives in relation to disclosure.
Jong, E.B.P. de
The practice of everyday life in Tana Toraja (South Sulawesi, Indonesia) is structured by a series of public events, of which funerals are the most important. Even after Indonesia was hit by an economic crisis in the late 1990s, thousands of extravagant funeral ceremonies, requiring huge
Hernandez, Elein; Fawcett, Anne; Brouwer, Emily; Rau, Jeff
Simple Summary Veterinarians have an ethical obligation to provide good care for the animals that they see in practice. However, at times, there may be conflicts between the interests of animal caregivers or owners, the interests of veterinarians and the interests of animals. We provide an overview of why and how veterinary ethics is taught to veterinary students, as well as providing a context for thinking about veterinary ethical challenges and animal welfare issues. We argue that veterinarians are ethically obliged to speak up and ask questions when problems arise or are seen and provide a series of clinical case examples in which there is scope for veterinarians to improve animal welfare by ‘speaking up’. Abstract Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed—along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct—to address animal welfare issues. Insufficiently mature ethical reasoning or a lack of veterinary ethical sensitivity can lead to an inability or difficulty in speaking up about concerns with clients and ultimately, failure in their duty of care to animals, leading to poor animal welfare outcomes. A number of examples are provided to illustrate this point. Ensuring that robust ethical frameworks are employed will ultimately help veterinarians to “speak up” to address animal welfare concerns and prevent future harms. PMID:29361786
This guide first presents the objectives, methods and limitations of the In Vivo Dosimetry in external radiotherapy. Then, it describes the practical implementation of dosimetry with semiconductors (human needs, receipt tests, in vivo use, system quality control, semiconductor diodes). It also describes other available or currently being developed techniques (In vivo dosimetry using radio-thermoluminescent, MOSFET detectors or optically simulated luminescence). Finally, it present substitution methods when conventional In vivo dosimetry is not technically possible: transit dosimetry (with high energy imagery), global control of the treatment process
Jensen, Charlotte Louise; Remmen, Arne
and the aspect of consumers being practitioners is an interesting subject to investigate further in relation to Geels’ Multi Level Perspective (MLP) on technological transitions. As the role of user practices in system change seems to be neglected in the MLP of transitions (Genus and Coles, 2008), analyzing...... constitute the meso-level in the MLP framework. This may contribute to clarification of the contribution and interaction of various groups at different analytical levels and thus contribute to the operationalization of the MLP framework, which are requested by some critics (Cole and Genus, 2008)....
Philipp M. Keune
Full Text Available Past research has shown that mindfulness meditation is useful for the attenuation of psychological and physical suffering in clinical populations. In structured mindfulness-based interventions, patients engage in meditation exercises to refine their attentional skills and to learn to purposefully relate to the present moment experience in a non-judgemental manner. Following the development of such interventions, mindfulness has also received considerable attention in academic psychology, where it has been incorporated in the self-determination theory (SDT. According to SDT, the cultivation of mindfulness may warrant effective need gratification and consequently yield enhanced well-being in healthy individuals. In this context, in the current study, we examined the association between mindfulness meditation, self-reported trait mindfulness and their predictive value for psychological well-being in a non-clinical sample. Individuals who engaged in mindfulness meditation regularly (N = 30 were compared to individuals without meditation experience (N = 30 on various scales which assessed trait mindfulness and psychological well-being. Meditators reported higher emotional well-being, which was predicted by frequency and duration of practice. Especially those practitioners, who made efforts to implement mindfulness practice in activities of everyday life showed enhanced emotional adjustment. In an explorative analysis, mindfulness was identified as a putative partial mediator of the relationship between meditation practice and well-being. Despite methodological constraints, results of the current study suggest that mindfulness meditation, in a non-clinical context, is associated with increased psychological well-being, and as such worth to be explored in more detail by future research. The study and its results might be relevant for the clinical sector as well, since they provide some information on how individuals with e.g., subclinical residual
Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses changes in certain dress and clothing practices and their effects on conflict within oneself and others. In this context, the paper analyzes certain conflict situations faced by the Goranci females in Belgrade. This conflict was brought about by the changes that have occurred in the females clothing during the second half of 20th and the first decade of 21st century. The focus is placed on changes that were initiated by external factors - legislation, migration and fashion trends. Accepting novelties in dress and clothing was not always simple and easy, especially if they implied the elimination of those garments implying a certain symbolic significance within the Goranci community and female subculture. Besides, changes in clothing imply and initiate changes in other spheres of life, especially in the sphere of (self identification, on several levels at the same time (gender, religious, ethnic, etc.. The initiation of the clothing changes impacted the women in such a way to become somewhat at odds with themselves, to feel discomfort because of the fear that the (non acceptance of the novelty could cause conflicts with some family members and relatives. A reconciliation with oneself and others imply that a women accepts a new way of dressing, but also the rest of whatever this may imply. Such reconciliation - assessed in this way - is not an end in itself. It is a process that involves several aspects simultaneously, and clothing is just one among them. In addition, a reconciliation on a personal level does not imply in itself reconciliation with others, and vice versa. Conflicts due to clothing do not represent an exception in this respect, but proved to be indicative for understanding complex socio-cultural processes such as reconciliation.
Sativex® (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain), a cannabinoid oromucosal spray containing a 1:1 ratio of 9-δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, has been licensed in Germany since July 2011 as add-on therapy for moderate-to-severe multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment-resistant spasticity symptoms. The 'MOVE 2' study evaluated clinical outcomes, treatment satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) and provision of care in MS patients with spasticity receiving Sativex in everyday clinical practice. Data from 300 patients were collected from 42 specialized MS centers across Germany and were available for this analysis. Assessments, including the MS spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale, modified Ashworth scale, patients' and physicians' clinical impressions, and QoL scales were rated at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after starting treatment with Sativex. Sativex provided relief of MS-related spasticity in the majority of patients who were previously resistant to treatment. In addition, clear improvements were noted in MS spasticity-associated symptoms (e.g., sleep quality, bladder function and mobility), activities of daily living and QoL. Sativex was generally well tolerated. The majority of patients (84%) reported no adverse events, and there was only a limited risk of serious adverse reactions. Furthermore, based on data from Sativex clinical trials, a Markov model-based analysis has shown that Sativex is a cost-effective treatment option for patients with MS spasticity in Germany.
, environmental psychology or architectural theory, have been theoretically and conceptually challenging this conventional notion of indoor comfort being controlled by a building. What these are mainly concerned with are aspects of sustainability in terms of energy costs, and applicability in terms of people...
Woods, A.L.; Miller, P.K.; Sloane, C.
Patient obesity is increasingly placing significant and multifaceted strain upon medical imaging departments, and professionals, in (particularly Western) healthcare systems. The majority of obesity-related studies in radiology are, however, primarily focused only upon the technical business of collecting diagnostically-efficacious images. This study, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), qualitatively explores the everyday clinical experiences of eight expert UK diagnosticians working in plain radiography. Focus herein falls particularly upon (a) problems with patient positioning during examination, and (b) challenges arising around available equipment. In line with extant research, participants reported that difficulties with positioning obese patients could have negative impacts on image quality, and that insufficient table weight limits and widths, and inadequate detector sizes, can adversely affect examination. They also raised some more novel issues, such as how the impact of available gown sizes upon a patient's sense of dignity can cause practical and ethical dilemmas for a clinician in situ. The issue of how one might ‘train’ experience in positioning patients without bony landmarks as a reference point was also made salient, with strong implications for undergraduate radiography curricula. It is finally highlighted how the participating radiographers themselves seldom conceptualised any given problem as a purely ‘technical’ one, instead recurrently recognising the interlinking of material, socio-economic and moral matters in real healthcare contexts. By better understanding such nuance and complexity as lived by real radiographers, it is contended, a more context-sensitive and flexible path to effective training and guideline-production can be mapped. - Highlights: • Difficulties with positioning obese patients can have negative impacts on image quality. • Positioning patients without bony landmarks as a reference point is
Soto-Lafontaine, Melisa; Dondorp, Wybo; Provoost, Veerle; de Wert, Guido
How do professionals working in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) reflect upon their decision making with regard to ethical challenges arising in everyday practice? Two focus group discussions were held with staff of reproductive genetic clinics: one in Utrecht (The Netherlands) with PGD-professionals from Dutch PGD-centres and one in Prague (Czech Republic) with PGD-professionals working in centres in different European countries. Both meetings consisted of two parts, exploring participants' views regarding (1) treatment requests for conditions that may not fulfill traditional indications criteria for PGD, and (2) treatment and transfer requests involving welfare-of-the-child considerations. There was general support for the view that people who come for PGD will have their own good reasons to consider the condition they wish to avoid as serious. But whereas PGD-professionals in the international group tended to stress the applicants' legal right to eventually have the treatment they want (whatever the views of the professional), participants in the Dutch group sketched a picture of shared decision-making, where professionals would go ahead with treatment in cases where they are able to understand the reasonableness of the request in the light of the couple's reproductive history or family experience. In the international focus group there was little support for guidance stating that welfare-of-the child considerations should be taken into account. This was different in the Dutch focus group, where shared decision-making also had the role of reassuring professionals that applicants had adequately considered possible implications for the welfare of the child.
Sadoul, Nicolas; Defaye, Pascal; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bizeau, Olivier; Dupuis, Jean-Marc; Blangy, Hugues; Delarche, Nicolas; Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Lazarus, Arnaud
Defibrillation testing (DT) is usually performed during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to determine the DT procedures used in everyday practice, to compare the characteristics of patients with or without DT, and to compare severe adverse events in these two populations during implantation and follow-up. The LEADER registry enrolled 904 patients included for primo-implantation of a single (n=261), dual (n=230) or triple (n=429) defibrillation system in 42 French centres. Baseline characteristics of patients (62.0 ± 13.5 years; 88% men; primary indication 62%) who underwent ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction (VF induction group, n=810) and those who did not (untested group, n=94, representing 10.4% of the entire study population) revealed that the untested group were older (P<0.01), had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a wider QRS complex and a higher New York Heart Association class and were more often implanted for primary prevention (P<0.001 for all). The main reason given for not performing ICD testing was poor haemodynamic condition (59/94). At 1 year, the cumulative survival rate was 95% in tested patients and 85% in untested patients (P<0.001), mainly because of heart failure deaths. There was one sudden cardiac death in the VF induction group and none in the untested group (P=1.000). In this study, more than 10% of ICD patients were implanted without VF induction. Untested patients appeared to be sicker than tested patients, with a more severe long-term outcome, but without any difference in mortality due to arrhythmic events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
How does mathematics impact everyday events? The purpose of this book is to show a range of examples where mathematics can be seen at work in everyday life. From money (APR, mortgage repayments, personal finance), simple first and second order ODEs, sport and games (tennis, rugby, athletics, darts, tournament design, soccer, snooker), business (stock control, linear programming, check digits, promotion policies, investment), the social sciences (voting methods, Simpson’s Paradox, drug testing, measurements of inequality) to TV game shows and even gambling (lotteries, roulette, poker, horse racing), the mathematics behind commonplace events is explored. Fully worked examples illustrate the ideas discussed and each chapter ends with a collection of exercises. Everyday Mathematics supports other first year modules by giving students extra practice in working with calculus, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry and probability. Secondary/high school level mathematics is all that is required for students to und...
Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier
of the architectural work from A to Z and who is in control of all construction details. However, as a result of the accelerated technological development that arose with the industrial revolution, the process of realization and the number of parties involved has radically changed. This causes a technical bias where...... consciousness, and (construction) technique. 1 Conclusions In addressing the … As st formulated by Lefebvre: ‘Why should the study of the banal be banal? Are not the surreal, the extraordinary, the surprising, even the magical, also part of the real? Why wouldn’t the concept of everydayness reveal...
'If Caitlin Moran's How To Be A Womanis the fun-filled manual for female survival in the 21st century, everyday sexism is its more politicised sister' (Independent on Sunday). After experiencing a series of escalating sexist incidents, Laura Bates started theeveryday sexism projectand has gone on to write 'a pioneering analysis of modern day misogyny' (Telegraph). After an astounding response from the wide range of stories that came pouring in from all over the world, the project quickly became one of the biggest social media success stories of the internet. From being harassed and wolf-whistled at on the street, to discrimination in the workplace and serious sexual assault, it is clear that sexism had become normalised. But Bates inspires women to lead a real change and writes this 'extremely powerful book that could, and should, win hearts and minds right across the spectrum' (Financial Times). Often shocking, sometimes amusing and always poignant, everyday sexism is a protest against inequality and a manif...
Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund
acknowledged. Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014) combined with interviews with bereaved parents, we present some reflections on how these practices of commemoration, meaning...... while moving on (Walter, 1999) articulated through communicational practices resembling everyday parental activities such as playing with the child, reading bedtime stories etc., the purpose of which are to keep the dead child as a part of the parents’ and family’s continuing life....
Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...
Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil
This chapter demonstrates how everyday practices among parents who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means, both established media and materialities occasionally functioning as media in order to create meaning-making relations to the dead child, the bereaved...... as well as to the surrounding world. Based on an in-depth interview with a mother to a dead child combined with 8 years of observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles, this chapter explains how these are articulated through everyday media use....... The chapter focuses on the cross media connection between offline and online activities and demonstrates how the loss of a child initiates processes which are not about letting go and moving on but rather keeping hold while moving on articulated through communicational practices of keeping a sense of presence...
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are important participants in workplace initiatives on HIV/AIDS as they collaborate with international organizations to globally promote various policies and guidelines. To date, MNCs have enacted the majority of such initiatives in North America, Europe and South Africa, but we have little information on how MNCs elsewhere, especially in Japan, have responded to the issue of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. This study examines the actual on the ground situation of HIV/AIDS management in Japanese MNCs, specifically investigating everyday corporate practices in the context of internal interactions and relationships and the resulting practices and outlook concerning HIV/AIDS. It is based on a secondary analysis of ethnographic case studies conducted in 10 Japanese-affiliated companies in northern Thailand. Japanese managers, Thai managers and ordinary Thai workers all considered HIV/AIDS to be "irrelevant" to their company and/or themselves. HIV/AIDS measures in the companies were limited to provision of information. This perception and management of HIV/AIDS developed from their everyday interactions governed by the logic of relationships in the companies. In these interactions, they categorized others based on their ascriptive status, primarily based on class, ethnicity and nationality. They sought scapegoat groups that were lower than them in the class- and ethnicity/nationality-based hierarchical system, and cast the risk of HIV infection upon the scapegoat groups, thus reducing their own sense of risk. The paper shows that the relational logic, not ideals or principles, influences their views of and actions concerning HIV/AIDS management in the companies. This is why Japanese companies are unable to deal with HIV/AIDS in terms of international policies and guidelines that are based on the logic of human rights and the logic of business principles. The results suggest a need for international policymakers to pay more attention to
2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... to the contingent and dynamic environment in which everyday life is lived. References: Holdsworth, C. (2013) Family and Intimate Mobilities, Palgrave Macmillan, New York Jensen, O.B. (2013) Staging Mobilities, Routledge, London & New York Morgan, D.H. (2011) Rethinking family practices, Palgrave Macmillan Urry, J...
McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman
This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which
everyday life. Analysing transitions from the children’s perspective produces knowledge about how children actively deal with and arrange their conditions as they move between different communities and practices, as well as the struggles and possibilities involved, which are not always visible to adult......This chapter analyses children’s everyday transitions across home and the day-care institution, as well as between different activities and communities. Employing a cultural-historical approach, historical and socio-structural conditions for everyday life are analysed on the basis of subjective...... meanings and experiences of action possibilities (Chaiklin, Hedegaard, & Jensen, 1999). Employing the concept of conduct of everyday life (Dreier, 2008, 2011; Holzkamp, 2013; Højholt & Kousholt, 2017), this chapter analyses the active, creative and coordinating processes involved in leading a compound...
Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart
the gradual disappearance of media from personal consciousness in a digital age. If ceaselessness is a defining characteristic of the current era, our analysis reveals that the use of smartphone cameras is indicative of people affectively and self-consciously deploying the technology to try to arrest......User-based research into the lived experiences associated with smartphone camera practices – in particular, the taking, storing, curating, and sharing of personal imagery in the digital media sphere – remains scarce, especially in contrast to their increasing ubiquity. Accordingly, this article...
Galløe, Anders M; Thuesen, Leif; Kelbaek, Henning
Approval of drug-eluting coronary stents was based on results of relatively small trials of selected patients; however, in routine practice, stents are used in a broader spectrum of patients.......Approval of drug-eluting coronary stents was based on results of relatively small trials of selected patients; however, in routine practice, stents are used in a broader spectrum of patients....
This article looks at fathering practices in Denmark, using the findings from a research project on everyday family life in Denmark. It takes a social psychological perspective and employs discursive psychology and theories about reflexive modernisation. It shows how fathers orient towards intima...
Riel, E. van; Hubers, A.J.; Witkamp, A.J.; Dulmen, S. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.
Objective: The referral process for genetic counselling in breast cancer patients may be compromised by patient-related factors, like patient’s age, referral initiative or cancer history. This study aimed to characterize this referral process in daily clinical practice. Methods: During genetic
This article explores the practices and pedagogies of six literacy teacher educators with a critical stance. In this qualitative research study, three semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant over a three-year period. They were able to negotiate a critical stance into their teacher education courses in several ways: using an…
In most rural and township English additional language classrooms, everyday language discursive practices of bi/multilingual students are underutilised. This study reports on how grade 4 emergent isiZulu-English bilingual children used their everyday language resources as a tool for epistemic access. Drawing on ...
Booth, L.; Henwood, S.; Miller, P.K.
Introduction: This paper outlines findings from a broader, two-year project investigating the role of Consultant Radiographers (CRs) in the UK, focussing specifically on the leadership aspect of that role. Methods: Using a qualitative-thematic approach, the leadership-related experiences of a purposive sample of six participating CRs are explored, alongside the systems through which they evaluated how successful they had been as leaders. Results: It is evidenced that many of the ways in which participants describe their own leadership practice, particularly in the intra-team domain, is consistent with the precepts of the Transformational Leadership Model. For example, they highlight how they have asserted positive influence and encouraged collective action and decision-making. However, the experiential focus of the analysis reveals that in specific examples of practice, the transformational approach was not always seen as the most useful route to a productive outcome given constrictions on time and other resources within real professional environments. More ‘direct’ managerial approaches were sometimes deemed necessary, and at others leadership was reduced to simply ‘solving other people's problems'. It was also found that the manner in which participants evaluated their own success as leaders was a practical concern, based in part upon having satisfied ‘hard’ institutional goals, but also on the more personal business of having affirmatively ‘surprised’ oneself, or a general sense of feeling trusted by colleagues. Conclusion: These findings may help support CRs in the business of real leadership, not least through better understanding how even apparently mundane outcomes can have significant impacts on professional self-efficacy. - Highlights: • CRs report a rich variety of diverse tasks emerging from their leadership roles. • The leadership role is both inward and outward facing. • Transformational leadership strategies are often
Booth, L; Henwood, S; Miller, P K
This paper outlines findings from a broader, two-year project investigating the role of Consultant Radiographers (CRs) in the UK, focussing specifically on the leadership aspect of that role. Using a qualitative-thematic approach, the leadership-related experiences of a purposive sample of six participating CRs are explored, alongside the systems through which they evaluated how successful they had been as leaders. It is evidenced that many of the ways in which participants describe their own leadership practice, particularly in the intra-team domain, is consistent with the precepts of the Transformational Leadership Model. For example, they highlight how they have asserted positive influence and encouraged collective action and decision-making. However, the experiential focus of the analysis reveals that in specific examples of practice, the transformational approach was not always seen as the most useful route to a productive outcome given constrictions on time and other resources within real professional environments. More 'direct' managerial approaches were sometimes deemed necessary, and at others leadership was reduced to simply 'solving other people's problems'. It was also found that the manner in which participants evaluated their own success as leaders was a practical concern, based in part upon having satisfied 'hard' institutional goals, but also on the more personal business of having affirmatively 'surprised' oneself, or a general sense of feeling trusted by colleagues. These findings may help support CRs in the business of real leadership, not least through better understanding how even apparently mundane outcomes can have significant impacts on professional self-efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Hoogen, Sharayke C T A; van de Pol, Alma C; Meijer, Yolanda; Toet, Jaap; van Klei, Céline; de Wit, Niek J
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy among infants. No data are available on the health care burden of suspected CMA in general practice. This study was conducted to evaluate the burden of suspected CMA in general practice (GP): (a) prevalence, (b) presenting symptoms, (c) diagnostic process, (d) guideline adherence, and (e) dietary measures. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in four Julius Healthcare Centers (JHCs). These JHCs form the core primary care academic network of the department of general practice of the University Medical Center of Utrecht. Electronic records of the first year of infants born May 2009 - April 2010 registered in the JHCs were screened for possible CMA suspicion. Preventive child healthcare (PCH) records were reviewed for additional information. Clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies and dietary measures were extracted. Of 804 infants evaluated, 55 presented with symptoms fitting the suspicion of CMA (prevalence of 7%). Presenting complaints involved the skin (71%); the gastrointestinal tract (60%); the respiratory tract (13%) or other symptoms (36%) and 23 infants presented with symptoms of two or more organ systems. In 31 children (56%) a food challenge was performed (n = 28 open and n = 3 double-blind). Open challenge test results were difficult to interpret due to inadequate implementation or reporting. None had confirmed CMA after an adequate challenge test. Long term milk substitute formulas were prescribed in 39 (71%) infants. On a yearly basis seven percent of children visit their GP for suspected CMA. A positive CMA diagnosis was rarely established after adequate implementation and reporting of diagnostics, yet long term dietary measures were prescribed in >70% of patients. There is definitely need for improvement of diagnosing CMA in primary care.
Brake, Jens; Istler, Katharina; Kisser, Thomas
project is positioned in every-day school-life, the presentation is about practical experiences and given feedback by pupils (class 10 and primary school), teachers (gymnasia and primary school), partners and people. This way, the presentation may also give hints, what are determinants for success and how to overcome barriers in every-day school life and practice. In the future, we are going to found a company leaded by the pupils. Younger classes can book the whole equipment together with tutors. This will lead to the economic aspect of sustainability.
Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund
). “Logging On and Letting Out: Using Online Social Networks to Grieve and to Mourn”, in: Bulleting of Science, Technology & Society 30 Christensen, D.R. & Sandvik, K. (2014). “The use of media in child bereavement”, in The New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, special issue, Christensen, D.R. & Gotved, S......Ubiquitous media is not just a matter of (digital) media being everywhere and embedded in various objects (clothing, household hardware, buildings…). Using the practices of bereavement and commemoration as displayed by parents on children’s graves and online memorial sites as a case, this paper...... as they materialize on children’s graves, it is the accommodation and decoration of the graves themselves that function as media with their variety of physical objects as ritual and relational tools for communication. Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online...
This paper explores the sociomateriality of creativity in everyday life. Whilst creativity research has traditionally been concerned with the intellectual and individual skills promoting creativity, such as the ability to apply divergent thinking, this author anchors creativity in social practice...
Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Poulain, Cécile; Molto, Anna; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Lafon, Cécile; Farrenq, Valérie; Ferkal, Salah; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Ghaleh, Bijan; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Fautrel, B; Dougados, Maxime; Claudepierre, Pascal
To determine the frequency of and factors associated with early tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) antagonist therapy in everyday clinical practice in patients with suspected axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA). We used data from the prospective observational study in the French Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR; Outcome of Recent Undifferentiated Spondylarthropathies) cohort of 708 patients with recent-onset (50 (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.24-2.87, P = 0.003), current or past disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.22-3.59, P = 0.008), systemic corticosteroid use (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.43-4.34, P = 0.002), and mild to severe radiographic hip abnormalities (OR 9.43, 95% CI 2.11-42.09, P = 0.003). After adjustment on these factors, Achilles enthesis hypervascularization by power Doppler and number of work days missed were associated with TNFα antagonist therapy. In the DESIR cohort, approximately one-fourth of patients with recent IBP suggestive of axial SpA were under anti-TNFα therapy after 1 year of followup. All factors associated with this early initiation reflected higher disease activity, refractoriness, or severity, which suggests compliance of French rheumatologists with current treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
life traditions such as Chicago sociology, phenomenology, American pragmatism, symbolic interactionism, existentialism and critical everyday life sociologies, but also to the later developments by Erving Goffman, French everyday life thinkers, the ethnomethodologists, conversation analysts...... and the absurdists. Finally, a section deals with the most recent approaches such as the specifically Scandinavian everyday life perspectives, the sociology of emotions, social semiotics, cultural studies and postmodern interpretive interactionism. The chapters all accessibly introduce the reader to the ‘core...
Gerety, Emma-Louise; Bearcroft, Philip Wp
To determine whether a single L1 density threshold can be used to screen all patients undergoing CT at a busy tertiary referral centre for those at risk of osteoporosis. 200 patients, who had been randomly selected for an audit of CT reporting of incidental vertebral fractures, had their L1 density measured on 864 routine CT examinations. These had been performed with a variety of kVp and intravenous (i.v.) contrast protocols, reflecting the wide range of imaging indications. L1 density measured on thick axial, thin axial or sagittal images had an excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (0.996). For the same patients imaged twice within 6 months, there was mean intraexamination L1 density difference of 27.5 HU. Variability due to i.v. contrast medium administration resulted in a mean difference of 24.5 HU. Mean difference due to acquisition kVp was 24.1 HU. Once matched for sex, age, kVp and i.v. contrast, there was a significant difference between the L1 density in patients with vertebral fractures compared to those without fractures (mean 30.19 HU). There is significant variability in the L1 vertebral body CT density due to differences in acquisition variables such as kVp and timing post-i.v. contrast medium. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies suggested that L1 CT density could be used to screen for osteoporosis. The current study cautions that it is not possible to define a single L1 density threshold for screening, due to the number of variables within a wide range of scanning protocols for different imaging indications in everyday practice.
De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Orsolini, Laura; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Serroni, Nicola; De Lauretis, Ida; Girinelli, Gabriella; Mazza, Monica; Valchera, Alessandro; Carano, Alessandro; Vellante, Federica; Matarazzo, Ilaria; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
Agomelatine is a newer antidepressant but, to date, no studies have been carried out investigating its effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment. The present study aimed (i) to investigate the effects of agomelatine treatment on CRP levels in a sample of patients with MDD and (ii) to investigate if CRP variations were correlated with clinical improvement in such patients. 30 adult outpatients (12 males, 18 females) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of MDD were recruited in "real-world," everyday clinical practice and treated with a flexible dose of agomelatine for 12 weeks. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) were used to evaluate depressive symptoms and anhedonia, respectively. Moreover, serum CRP was measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Agomelatine was effective in the treatment of MDD, with a significant reduction in HAM-D and SHAPS scores from baseline to endpoint. CRP levels were reduced in the whole sample, with remitters showing a significant difference in CRP levels after 12 weeks of agomelatine. A multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed that higher CRP level variation was associated with higher baseline HAM-D scores, controlling for age, gender, smoking, BMI, and agomelatine dose. Agomelatine's antidepressant properties were associated with a reduction in circulating CRP levels in MDD patients who achieved remission after 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, more prominent CRP level variation was associated with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline.
Jensen, Ole B.
with the ambition of showing a vocabulary that makes the macro-societal conditions for contemporary mobility comprehensible from the vantage point of the ‘little practices' of everyday life. The exploration of everyday life mobility using Goffman as guide makes us see that waiting in line for the bus, riding...... of the meaning of contemporary mobility. In this chapter the thesis is that by exploring contemporary mobility practices in an everyday life context applying theories and concepts coined by Erving Goffman a much richer sociological vocabulary emerges. The chapter contains a re-reading of Goffman...... by and re-producing culture and social norms. Goffman's concepts provide us with a rich vocabulary describing how the everyday life mobility in the contemporary city is regulated formally and informally. Clearly Goffman's immediate applicability is more relevant in ‘micro mobility' studies than...
Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva
Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday...... lives we god the opportunity of looking into and being part of during the project Senior Interaction. project Senior Interaction has largely focused on understanding seniors' everyday lives. The seniors, in collaboration, have created a shared understanding of what it means to live a life as a senior...
, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...
Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People?s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People...
Mahnke, Martina; Schwartz, Sander Andreas
Technology has not only become an integral part of people’s lives but also of people’s everyday struggles. Struggles with technology are complex in nature; we tend to not only struggle with their basic functions but also with how they make us feel. During the course of our life we tend to master...... and struggle with technology in different ways. This struggle has been studied in relation to media literacy (Livingstone, 2004), to domestication theory (Silverstone et al. 1992), or in everyday life (Bakardjieva, 2005). This work enhances these lines of studies by exploring everyday struggles with technology...... from a life stage (Erikson, 1959) point of view. In particular, we explore what are common struggles people have with technology and what are distinct struggles in relation to life stages. In conclusion, we will present our findings by outlining what we call ‘technological biographies’. Those...
Favell, Adrian; Recchi, Ettore; Solgaard Jensen, Janne
contextual and individual conditions do these experiences promote a higher sensitivity to ‘Europe’ – rather than the ‘local’ or the ‘global’ – as an identity catalyst? Which social groups are more prone to adopt a European mindset in the wake of the Europeanisation of everyday life? In addressing...... of nation states and their collective identities. Specifically, the project intends to: 1) map out individuals’ cross-border practices as an effect of European integration and globalisation; 2) assess the impact of these practices on collective identifications (also controlling for the inverse causal...... process). Which cross-border practices are more likely to foster some form of identification with the EU – e.g., contacts with foreign friends and/or unwanted foreigners, periods of labour mobility abroad, business and tourist travel, or consumer relations with international companies? Under which...
What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...
The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their eve...
This paper explores the link between formal environmental knowledge encapsulated in the University of Cambridge International Examination Curriculum and learners' ability to translate this knowledge into everyday practices in Lesotho. The paper reports on research undertaken in three secondary schools in Lesotho ...
Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette
situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i.......e. collective intoxication) is one way the parents' dining room is transformed creatively into a space for teenage partying. Hence, the social logic of a party is to consume alcohol collectively as it symbolises commitment to both the party and to the specific group of friends. Finally, attention is drawn...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life. ...
Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124
Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
and again they always come as a surprise and with a deep feeling of fulfillment. One of such moments arrived in the middle of an intense design research project where we were a group of colleagues working for the Sony Ericsson company to educate their UX team in codesign approaches to user research....... Together with a small network of mobile phone users we had explored the everyday transition going to work and returning back home. We had played design games with visual materials gathered through our participation in these transitions and together we had enacted a small series of fictional video stories...... was no longer a blind search for openings in the company product strategy (or for that sake in the mundaneness of established user practices), but instead a completely open and contingent landscape unfolding in front of us. It is such moments of encountering the possible that I will address in the following...
and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...
After giving a definition of risk which is often used in radiation protection the preconditions planned to be applied in determining various health risks are dealt with. Dangers in everyday life are caused both by the general behaviour of humans, by occupational activity, by diseases and by the measures taken for examination and treatment. These health risks are referred to in the statistics and calculations presented. They are of a generally informative character; they show, however, that several kinds of diseases and death causes are overestimated, while others are underestimated. In some cases, the risk values given can significantly differ from average values due to individual factors. (orig.) [de
Iwazume, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Itho, Noriko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Fujishiro, Hiroko; Sugeno, Michio
The aim of this study is to provide all people, from small children to aged persons, with a computational environment for everyday language communication. In order to achieve this, we propose a framework for a language-based operating system. In this paper, we explain our approach to dealing with the meaning of language, the architecture of the language operating system and its components. In particular, we describe the notion of language protocol and its resource representation (i.e., semiotic base), compared to the other protocols and their resource representations. We argue that by processing meaning of language rather than processing information, we attempt to provide a more human-like computer system and an intelligent computational environment to all people.
, business, and society. The study addresses the concern that vision projects do not produce sufficient navigational innovation maps, and seeks to improve their quality by modelling a new methodological framework. The study was conducted as a series of four research cycles which modelled and experimented......The exploration of radical innovation has long been regarded as fundamental to business growth. In the 21st century, modern organisations increasingly seek to combine business innovation with the broader goal to confront social and environmental challenges. Vision projects are related phenomena...... which explore and map radical innovation opportunities within everyday activities. The aim of a vision project is to produce an innovation map that can empower an organisation to navigate between potential innovation opportunities and pro‐actively confront modern challenges for the benefit of people...
Jensen, Ole B.
Contemporary social life is marked by increasing levels of physical movement of people, goods and symbols. Within this context much theoretical activity points at notions of globalisation and the network society (e.g. Castells 1996). Such macro-theoretical interpretations capture only parts...... the subway, biking to work or the freeway commute are by no means neither just instrumental practices of getting from A to B, nor are they trivial acts of physical displacement. Goffman's insights into the ‘little practices' of social life substantiates that contemporary everyday life mobility is produced...... by and re-producing culture and social norms. Goffman's concepts provide us with a rich vocabulary describing how the everyday life mobility in the contemporary city is regulated formally and informally. Clearly Goffman's immediate applicability is more relevant in ‘micro mobility' studies than...
Wong, Pui Ling; Fleer, Marilyn
This article draws on a cultural-historical theorization of child development alongside the Chinese concept of learning in order to study children's development in the Hong Kong Australian community. In particular, it aims to understand in detail how a 9-year-old child develops a learning motive under highly structured family practices. The data…
Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....
Groves, Julian M; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton
We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of 're-enchantment' in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as 'Christian social workers' in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a 're-enchantment' in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice.
Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt; Røn Larsen, Maja
The article presents findings from a practice research project dealing with the everyday life of 0–2 year olds across family and different day-care settings. From a critical psychological perspective, it explores three related issues: Young children's conduct of everyday life in and across...... different institutional settings; professional pedagogical work related to supporting children's conduct of everyday life, and finally, the restricted political and bureaucratic conditions for exactly these forms of pedagogical practice. The article addresses the theoretical challenge of understanding...... children through their conduct of everyday life in the field of tension between being someone who is dependent on others, being taken care of and arranged for – and, at the same time, someone who is actively participating, arranging and contributing to the reproduction and change of the collective life...
Marilyn B Lee
Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.
The Effectiveness of Parent Training as a Treatment for Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Trial of the New Forest Parenting Program in Everyday Clinical Practice
Daley, David; Frydenberg, Morten; Rask, Charlotte U; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Thomsen, Per H
Background Parent training is recommended as the first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is an evidence-based parenting program developed specifically to target preschool ADHD. Objective The objective of this trial is to investigate whether the NFPP can be effectively delivered for children referred through official community pathways in everyday clinical practice. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled parallel arm trial design is employed. There are two treatment arms, NFPP and treatment as usual. NFPP consists of eight individually delivered parenting sessions, where the child attends during three of the sessions. Outcomes are examined at three time points (T1, T2, T3): T1 (baseline), T2 (week 12, post intervention), and T3 (6 month follow/up). 140 children between the ages of 3-7, with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD, informed by the Development and Well Being Assessment, and recruited from three child and adolescent psychiatry departments in Denmark will take part. Randomization is on a 1:1 basis, stratified for age and gender. Results The primary endpoint is change in ADHD symptoms as measured by the Preschool ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) by T2. Secondary outcome measures include: effects on this measure at T3 and T2 and T3 measures of teacher reported Preschool ADHD-RS scores, parent and teacher rated scores on the Strength & Difficulties Questionnaire, direct observation of ADHD behaviors during Child’s Solo Play, observation of parent-child interaction, parent sense of competence, and family stress. Results will be reported using the standards set out in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement for Randomized Controlled Trials of nonpharmacological treatments. Conclusions The trial will provide evidence as to whether NFPP is a more effective treatment for preschool ADHD than the treatment usually offered in everyday clinical practice. Trial
de Bont, Antoinette; Bal, Roland
Information systems can play a key role in care innovations including task redesign and shared care. Many demonstration projects have presented evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness and high levels of patient satisfaction. Yet these same projects often fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. The aim of the paper is to gain insight into a common paradox that a technology can meet the criteria for success set out at the start of the project yet fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. We evaluated a telecare service set up to reduce the workload of ophthalmologists. In this project, optometrists in 10 optical shops made digital images to detect patients with glaucoma which were further assessed by trained technicians in the hospital. Over a period of three years, we conducted interviews with the project team and the users about the workability of the system and its integration in practice. Beside the interviews, we analyzed record data to measure the quality of the images. We compared the qualitative accounts with these measurements. According to our measurements, the quality of the images was at least satisfactory in 90% of the cases, i.e. the images could be used to screen the patients--reducing the workload of the ophthalmologist considerably. However, both the ophthalmologist and the optometrists became increasingly dissatisfied respectively with the perceived quality of the pictures and the perceived workload.Through a detailed analysis of how the professionals discussed the quality of the pictures, we re-constructed how the notion of quality of the images and being a good professional were constructed and linked. The IT system transformed into a quality system and, at the same time, transformed the notions of being a good professional. While a continuous dialogue about the quality of the pictures became an emblem for the quality of care, this dialogue was hindered by the system and the way the care process was structured. To
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information systems can play a key role in care innovations including task redesign and shared care. Many demonstration projects have presented evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness and high levels of patient satisfaction. Yet these same projects often fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. The aim of the paper is to gain insight into a common paradox that a technology can meet the criteria for success set out at the start of the project yet fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. Methods We evaluated a telecare service set up to reduce the workload of ophthalmologists. In this project, optometrists in 10 optical shops made digital images to detect patients with glaucoma which were further assessed by trained technicians in the hospital. Over a period of three years, we conducted interviews with the project team and the users about the workability of the system and its integration in practice. Beside the interviews, we analyzed record data to measure the quality of the images. We compared the qualitative accounts with these measurements. Results According to our measurements, the quality of the images was at least satisfactory in 90% of the cases, i.e. the images could be used to screen the patients – reducing the workload of the ophthalmologist considerably. However, both the ophthalmologist and the optometrists became increasingly dissatisfied respectively with the perceived quality of the pictures and the perceived workload. Through a detailed analysis of how the professionals discussed the quality of the pictures, we re-constructed how the notion of quality of the images and being a good professional were constructed and linked. The IT system transformed into a quality system and, at the same time, transformed the notions of being a good professional. While a continuous dialogue about the quality of the pictures became an emblem for the quality of care, this dialogue was hindered by the
This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises...... in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however, seldom highlighted by researchers working explicitly on creativity. The premise of the present paper is that a focus on everyday life can help us understand creative processes in broader terms. I “creative pathways” may serve as a useful term for researchers...... interested in the simultaneous development of persons and social practices. Pathways are created in ordinary life; their formation may involve creativity and the improvisational co-creation of opportunities for action. Studying pathways may therefore direct creativity researchers toward the potentials...
Full Text Available In this paper we present some results from our research on technological media convergence and everyday life. The results suggest that new changes would be happening on the space-temporal dimension of daily experience on people and in the way in which those give stability, structure and meaning to the intersubjective world, as a consequence of uses, appropriations and meanings about smartphones. We propose the concept of enriched everyday life or hyper everyday life in order to explain what we consider one of the principal transformations in daily life to people in the contemporary world related to the incorporation of smartphones.
Full Text Available Since 2010, @matthewalking (Bissen, 2013 has published real-time public texts of walks in the city. This text-based Twitter feed has developed a narrative of a particular everyday life and developed a space of interface with others that represents a centering of perspective within an urban landscape. Walking the city provides a spatial, tactile, social, and embodied knowledge of the environment as each of us emerges into a space, orients ourselves, and determines a path that is highly localized, but is in connection with distant spaces and cultures. According to Ben Jacks in “Walking the City: Manhattan Projects,” “for urban dwellers and designers, walking is a fundamental tool for laying claim to, understanding, and shaping a livable city. Walking yields bodily knowing, recovers place memory, creates narrative, prioritizes human scale, and reconnects people to places” (75. @matthewalking’s walks, at times for as long as 5 hours, attempt to center an experience of an urban existence in a spatial narrative of the city that at once prioritizes a connection to place, but also is projected outward into a mediated relationship with others. The project is a series of unbounded walks, or dérives (drift, through the city that are logged on Twitter and traced to create an archive map of a set of particular urban experiences. The dérive concept as outlined in “The Theory of the Dérive,” by Guy Debord is when “one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there” (62.
Carlos Eduardo Ferraço
Full Text Available This article aims at questioning school everyday life in images, based on intercessors and concepts from Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of Difference. It is based on data-image-graffiti produced during investigations developed by us with public schools’ everyday life in the city of Vitória, ES, Brazil. The text claims that, in order to speak about school everyday life in images to favor the sudden, the production of meaning and the multiplicity of knowledge, it is necessary to invest in another research attitude - one that considers chaos, chance and permanent openness and complexity of school everyday life as forces to constitute an immanence plane and create concepts. The article affirms the idea of impossibility of choosing images that would be considered the most representative to speak about events in the schools.
Jangland, Eva; Nyberg, Berit; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia
Surgical care plays an important role in the acute hospital's delivery of safe, high-quality patient care. Although demands for effectiveness are high in surgical wards quality of care and patient safety must also be secured. It is therefore necessary to identify the challenges and barriers linked to quality of care and patient safety with a focus on this specific setting. To explore situations and processes that support or hinder good safe patient care on the surgical ward. This qualitative study was based on a strategic sample of 10 department and ward leaders in three hospitals and six surgical wards in Sweden. Repeated reflective interviews were analysed using systematic text condensation. Four themes described the leaders' view of a complex healthcare setting that demands effectiveness and efficiency in moving patients quickly through the healthcare system. Quality of care and patient safety were often hampered factors such as a shift of care level, with critically ill patients cared for without reorganisation of nurses' competencies on the surgical ward. There is a gap between what is described in written documents and what is or can be performed in clinical practice to achieve good care and safe care on the surgical ward. A shift in levels of care on the surgical ward without reallocation of the necessary competencies at the patient's bedside show consequences for quality of care and patient safety. This means that surgical wards should consider reviewing their organisation and implementing more advanced nursing roles in direct patient care on all shifts. The ethical issues and the moral stress on nurses who lack the resources and competence to deliver good care according to professional values need to be made more explicit as a part of the patient safety agenda in the surgical ward. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available In this research, we focus on young people and their daily lives, bringing elements discussing leisure, family, education and work. Research conducted with a group of young skaters in a public track skating in the city of Porto Alegre - RS. In a total nine months of direct observation, each reported in Field Diaries. We seek to understand how the leisure of young people who gave the practice of skateboarding, was related to other aspects of their daily lives. After completing the work, we consider that - to remain in practice the skateboard - young people needed to reconcile the charges of their families, in addition to labels and stereotypes imposed from "outside" the universe of practitioners of this sport. We noticed also that young people go through all this in order to keep their "projects" on the skateboard.
Hunt, Sarah; Holmes, Cindy
This article is a joint exploration of what decolonization looks like in everyday interactions within our partnerships, families, and friendships on unceded Coast Salish territories. Stories from the authors--two cisgender queer women, one of whom is Indigenous and one of whom is a White settler--highlight intimate practices of allyship and decolonization that are often made invisible when activism is seen as only taking place in "public" spaces such as community coalitions. The tensions and possibilities within these intimate geographies of allyship comprise a decolonial queer praxis that is materialized in the spatial relations of our homes and families.
... t hold up under the weight of a power wheelchair.) Treated hard- woods and manufactured materials like PakkaWood cost more but add durability. Most houses weren’t built with wheel- chair ... widened to allow passage of power wheelchairs, which average 28 inches in width. In ...
Trasmundi, Sarah Bro; Linell, Per
performance in emergency medicine. We show how sense-making and insights are accomplished by medical teams when they integrate cultural expertise, professional skills, inter-bodily dynamics, material constraints and affordances within the environment, i.e. when local co-action is embedded in socio...... of sense-making, problem-solving and task performance in naturalistic contexts. Second, it presents a promising method for the analysis of cognitive activities, Cognitive Event Analysis (CEA), with which we investigate real-life medical interactions, especially the emergence of insights in procedural task...
Chavez Flores, A.T.
Researchers have argued that one process to achieve a succesful KM initiative is the creation of a culture that values the transfer and creation of knowledge. Therefore, it’s neccesary for organizations to set up mechanisms by which new ideas may be shared in order to produce innovative changes
This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....
Full Text Available The present essay shows the new genres of the seventeenth century Dutch painting (portrait, landscape and genre painting, viewed as painting of everyday life, as an alternative proposition to the historical painting then dominant in the academic categorization. What used to be marginal, peripheral and of secondary importance became the main motif in the majority of Dutch painting. Minor genres came to prominence and acquired autonomous status. The interest in the elements of everyday life could be traced in European art earlier but it was the seventeenth century Dutch artists that ultimately led “low” and realistic subject themes to come into their own commercially and artistically. Occasionally, even religious themes were presented as genre scenes, thus introducing to the presented images an air of ambivalence. In the works of Dutch painters, the uniqueness of high subject themes was opposed by pictures of everyday life and the repetitiveness of everyday domestic activities, not shunning, however, the allegorical potential contained in some of the depictions.
Bloome, David; Beauchemin, Faythe
We explore how the languaging of everyday life in classrooms promulgates conceptions of personhood. We use the term "languaging" to argue for a shift from conceptions of language as a noun to languaging as a verb, a view of language as inseparable from and constitutive of the actions and reactions of people in response to each other. It…
Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.
around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...
Amabile, Teresa M.
Creativity researchers have long paid careful attention to individual creativity, beginning with studies of well-known geniuses, and expanding to personality, biographical, cognitive, and social-psychological studies of individual creative behavior. Little is known, however, about the everyday psychological experience and associated creative…
Butijn, C.A.A.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Casimir, G.J.
In 'The arena of everyday life' nine authors look back and forward at developments in the sociology of consumers and households. Nine chapters show variety in the employed methods, from multivariate analyses of survey data to classical essays. The contributions are organised around four themes. In
Merrill, Nick; Wong, Richmond; Howell, Noura
This workshop seeks to expand our understanding and imaginations regarding the possible roles biosensors (sensors measuring humans) can-and should-play in everyday life. By applying a critical lens to issues of interpretation, representation, and experience around biosensing and biosensors, we ai...... to shape research agendas within DIS, and generate new recommendations for designers working with biosensors or their data....
Full Text Available The question I intend to answer is whether one can speak of a tacit metaphysics, not expressed conceptually, but nevertheless common. If the answer is positive and providing that it is specific to day-to-day life, such metaphysics may be called everyday metaphysics. To this end, I review the meaning of everyday life and its ambivalent character. Next, I present several milestones in the debate on the subject, from authors who have focused on a kind of usual, common or ‘natural’ metaphysics. Lastly, I formulate the idea under consideration, namely that everyday life implies or underlies a certain metaphysics. I note that it is an implicit metaphysics – not expressed formally – and rather free. Embraced in experience with a certain degree of freedom, it is recognisable by means of certain representations active in our mind, by the manner of speaking or of understanding and by the common forms of expression. Its vibrancy, concrete and relaxed character makes it highly evocative of the mental life of an era. It ensures a truly essential difference in our everyday mode of being.
Hermes, J.; Kooijman, J.; Marschall, P.D.; Redmond, S.
This chapter explores what celebrities may do for us when we are not especially aware of them, combining the work Dutch popular culture and everyday media use, using the prerogative of the long-term media researcher who aims to theorize from empirical material. The chapter first introduces and
In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart
Kornerup, Ida; Lind, Unni
’s own perspectives on everyday life. The second aim is reflection on the significance of such children’s perspectives on pedagogical knowledge and practice. Our research on children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization...
The anthology Perspectives on Women´s Everyday Religion approaches women´s religious lives from a multidisciplinary perspective in order to paint as multifaceted a picture of this religious field as possible. The authors represent History of Religions, Social and Cultural Anthropology, Ethnology, Theology and Intellectual History. First part of the book describes negotiations on the extent of women´s calling in the nineteenth and twentieth century Sweden. Part two discusses women´s religious ...
Amabile, Teresa M.
Creativity researchers have long paid careful attention to individual creativity, beginning with studies of well-known geniuses, and expanding to personality, biographical, cognitive, and social-psychological studies of individual creative behavior. Little is known, however, about the everyday psychological experience and associated creative behavior in the life and work of ordinary individuals. Yet evidence is mounting that such individuals can be responsible for important instances of creat...
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento popular e as práticas cotidianas em saúde bucal de usuários de serviços públicos de saúde. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi selecionada a partir de uma amostra estratificada de usuários que procuraram atendimento nas unidades sanitárias da zona urbana de Santa Maria, RS. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada e organizados em conjuntos de categorias descritivas, permitindo sua distribuição em tabela de freqüência. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que predominam usuários entre 21 e 40 anos de idade, do sexo feminino e com padrão socioeconômico baixo. A busca pela saúde e o controle das doenças bucais são atribuídos à responsabilidade individual de realizar a higiene bucal e procurar tratamento dentário. A presença e os benefícios do flúor no creme dental e na água de beber não foram reconhecidos pela população estudada. CONCLUSÕES: Os programas de saúde devem considerar os aspectos relativos ao conhecimento e as práticas em saúde bucal, para viabilizar o processo de capacitação da população e promover a responsabilização coletiva da promoção da saúde em todos os níveis da sociedade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the popular knowledge and everyday practices in oral health of public services' users. METHODS: The target population was selected from a stratified sample and included users seeking medical care in health care units in Santa Maria - RS. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and organized into descriptive categories groups, allowing the distribution in a frequency table. RESULTS: It was verified the predominance of the age group between 21 to 40 years old and females. The socioeconomic pattern is characterized by low schooling and family income. The search for oral diseases control are due to individual awareness of the need of oral hygiene and dental care; fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water and its benefits were not known
Lindsay M. Macdonald
Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.
Røpke, Inge; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke
The environmental implications of information and communication technology (ICT) have been the subject of study since the early 1990s. Although previous research covers energy issues quite extensively, the treatment of the energy impacts of ICT integration in everyday life is still inadequate....... The purpose of this paper is to complement the existing research by applying a perspective from which everyday life takes centre stage. A theoretical framework for describing and analysing the energy impacts of everyday life is outlined, based on a combination of practice theory and time geography...... consumption considerably. The findings do not suggest that the integration of ICT in everyday practices inherently results in a more energy-intensive everyday life. ICTs have a great potential for reducing energy consumption, but the realisation of this depends on the wider economic and political conditions....
Everyday Engineering was written to help future engineers understand what they are going to be doing in their everyday working lives, so that they can do their work more effectively and with a broader social vision. It will also give sociologists deeper insights into the sociotechnical world of engineering. The book consists of ethnographic studies in which the authors, all trained in both engineering and sociology, go into the field as participant-observers. The sites and types of engineering explored include mechanical design in manufacturing industries, instrument design, software debugging, environmental management within companies, and the implementation of a system for separating household waste.The book is organized in three parts. The first part introduces the complexity of technical practices. The second part enters the social and cultural worlds of designers to grasp their practices and motivations. The third part examines the role of writing practices and graphical representation. The epilogue uses...
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
The concept conduct of everyday life has lately been discussed with regards to how children are engaged with participating in the manifold practices that constitute their daily living. They coordinate their actions with others (adults and children) in order to increasingly influence the conditions......, the article shows how the concept is fruitful for investigating how kindergarten children use media technologies for conducting their everyday lives in the mutually shared kindergarten practice. Finally, it argues that the concept needs to be expanded in order to comprehensively grasp the intersubjective...... and material mediatedness of an everyday life with media technologies....
Blown, Eric J.; Bryce, Tom G. K.
The research reported here investigated the everyday and scientific repertoires of children involved in semi-structured, Piagetian interviews carried out to check their understanding of dynamic astronomical concepts like daytime and night-time. It focused on the switching taking place between embedded and disembedded thinking; on the imagery which subjects referred to in their verbal dialogue and their descriptions of drawings and play-dough models of the Earth, Sun and Moon; and it examined the prevalence and character of animism and figurative speech in children's thinking. Five hundred and thirty-nine children (aged 3-18) from Wairarapa in New Zealand (171 boys and 185 girls) and Changchun in China (99 boys and 84 girls) took part in the study. Modified ordinal scales for the relevant concept categories were used to classify children's responses and data from each age group (with numbers balanced as closely as practicable by culture and gender) analysed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests (at an alpha level of 0.05). Although, in general, there was consistency of dynamic concepts within and across media and their associated modalities in keeping with the theory of conceptual coherence (see Blown and Bryce 2010; Bryce and Blown 2016), there were several cases of inter-modal and intra-modal switching in both cultures. Qualitative data from the interview protocols revealed how children switch between everyday and scientific language (in both directions) and use imagery in response to questioning. The research indicates that children's grasp of scientific ideas in this field may ordinarily be under-estimated if one only goes by formal scientific expression and vocabulary.
The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number of ex...... of examples of parents experience with school-home relations and discuss methodological challenges in researching everyday life practices and discuss how emotionwork – and management are connected to social differentierings processes in education......The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number...
Full Text Available This study explores high school girls’ Instagram aesthetic practices based on the affordance theory. We conduct in-depth interviews and photo analyses of 10 subjects to reveal how these girls interact with the app’s interface, and what strategic practices they have developed to interact with the affordances preset by Instagram. The findings demonstrate that Instagram has become a realm for everyday aesthetics due to its design priority on photos. These high school girls navigate in plural art worlds as they share their reframed photos with a variety of social groups, of which each has its own discrete aesthetic convention. This indicates that Instagram’s interface design has successfully associated itself with taste and beauty, eliciting these girls to collect more reframing apps in order to achieve their own distinction. As a result, aesthetics takes shape in everyday life, but they take their own aestheticized life as the real one.
Røn Larsen, Maja; Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt
. Haavind, H. (2011). Loving and caring for small children: Contested issues for everyday practices. Nordic Psychology, 63(2), 24-48. Lave, J. (2011). Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice: The Universtity of Chicago Press. Osterkamp, U., & Schraube, E. (Eds.). (2013, in press). Psychology from...... their societal settings. Furthermore, we conduct interviews with the adults in the child’s various societal settings. We work within a theoretical framework developed in German-Danish critical psychology, as well as the ethnographic tradition deriving from Jean Lave (Dreier, 2008; Holzkamp, 2013, in press; Lave...... the specific meanings of these societal arrangements and how the youngest children develop their conduct of everyday life in the transitions across home and institutional arrangements as nursery or day care (Haavind, 2011). Discussion Theme: Debates on the social-historical condition of Psychology...
Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.
Felde, Lina Hoel
Medically, compliance refers to the extent to which a patient's response to medical advice coincides with doctors' orders. Rather than this absolute standard, this article treats compliance as an institutionally available discourse continually figured in practice. The aim of this article...... give-and-take. This elasticity of compliance reveals a reflexive critique of medical compliance as a moral standard and leads us to discuss how people are adequately compliant in everyday moral contexts....
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.
The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…
Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious—even liberating—book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization. The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time. In this entertaining and insightful analysis, cognitive scientist Don Norman hails excellence of design as the most important key to regaining the competitive e...
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
The conduct of everyday life concept has been enormously fruitful for theorizing how persons come to live their lives across diverse social contexts as participants in and contributors to social practices. However, social practice research still needs to investigate in a more detailed manner...... the relevance of material artifacts for conducting one’s everyday life. Everyday artifacts such as media technologies heavily shape the concrete socio-material arrangements in specific practices, hence co-constituting the scope of imaginable action possibilities. The presentation builds on insights drawn from...... a four-month researcher participation in a kindergarten practice. It argues that the relevance of media technologies can only be investigated in relation to the various perspectives of the other practice participants. The main focus is put on the children’s perspectives, as it is their conduct...
Felde, Lina Hoel
Medically, compliance refers to the extent to which a patient's response to medical advice coincides with doctors' orders. Rather than this absolute standard, this article treats compliance as an institutionally available discourse continually figured in practice. The aim of this article...... is to describe people's everyday elasticity of compliance in shifting contexts in everyday life. The empirical material presented, based on interviews with people with elevated cholesterol, suggests that people with symptomless diseases can be perceived to be living in a virtual 'temporal limbo', living 'here...... and now' in the present from one episode to the next. Present-bound conditions create, from moment to moment, a temporal limbo that challenges and conditions the participants' constructions of compliance. Using three contexts as examples, this article empirically demonstrates how people with a symptomless...
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This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.
John Dewey is frequently mentioned as an important forerunner of everyday aesthetics. In this article, I attempt to provide an updated view of Dewey’s place within everyday aesthetics by drawing attention to aspects in Dewey’s own work and in contemporary interpretations of his philosophy that have not been thoroughly discussed in the context of everyday aesthetics. In the first part, I offer a reading of Dewey’s notion of aesthetic experience that unties its content through noting the impo...
Review: Julia Ahrens (2009. Going Online, Doing Gender. Alltagspraktiken rund um das Internet in Deutschland und Australien [Going Online, Doing Gender. Everyday Practices around the Internet in Germany and Australia
Full Text Available The Internet can be integrated into domestic life in various ways. This interesting study analyzes, primarily on the basis of problem-centered interviews and a qualitative content analysis (MAYRING, the (active mode of picking up this medium and its integration into daily life. In the center of this study are the effects of Internet use and forms of communication, divided into temporal, spatial, contextual and social dimensions. In particular, this study focuses on the effects of Internet usage in the field of partner relationships with respect to gender relations. The question is raised as to the extent to which structures of inequality in the field of "going online" are reproduced. On the basis of the analysis of 12 couples, the integration processes in two countries (Germany and Australia, which differ somewhat in terms of diffusion level are compared. The author argues that qualitatively oriented observation alone can bring the processes of communication and interaction in domestic (everyday life into view—as shown by this study, even if "only" a more exploratory alignment is evident. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102177
Brédart, Serge; Young, A. W.
INTRODUCTION: A sample of everyday difficulties was collected, encompassing errors and unusual experiences participants had encountered when recognising their own faces in everyday life, with the aim of characterising similarities and differences between the reported difficulties and the major forms of self-recognition impairments described in the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric literatures (prosopagnosia, mirrored-self misidentification, and Capgras delusion). METHOD: A total of 70 p...
Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Tang, Chaoying; Cao, Guikang; Hou, Yuling; Qiu, Jiang
Although creativity is commonly considered to be a cornerstone of human progress and vital to all realms of our lives, its neural basis remains elusive, partly due to the different tasks and measurement methods applied in research. In particular, the neural correlates of everyday creativity that can be experienced by everyone, to some extent, are still unexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the brain structure underlying individual differences in everyday creativity, as measured by the Creative Behavioral Inventory (CBI) (N=163). The results revealed that more creative activities were significantly and positively associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the regional premotor cortex (PMC), which is a motor planning area involved in the creation and selection of novel actions and inhibition. In addition, the gray volume of the PMC had a significant positive relationship with creative achievement and Art scores, which supports the notion that training and practice may induce changes in brain structures. These results indicate that everyday creativity is linked to the PMC and that PMC volume can predict creative achievement, supporting the view that motor planning may play a crucial role in creative behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This introduction focuses on the relevance of certainty and uncertainty in sociallife. We will firstly underscore the structuring role of certainties as it was outlinedby the phenomenological approach to the life-world in the first half of the XXcentury. Drawing on the bottom-up perspective advanced by the interactionistturn in social sciences, we then consider how people routinely (reconstruct thesecertainties in ordinary life through their everyday mundane practices. To empiricallyillustrate how certainties are - at the same time - presupposed and constituted ineveryday communication, we analyze two examples of child/adult interaction. Byilluminating some consequences of building upon unquestionable certainties, weraise the issue of uncertainty as a relevant modality in and for everyday life. In thediscussion we contend that far from being proper to the philosopher’s attitude asformer phenomenology put it, uncertainty and doubt are – or at least may be - thetools for everyday rational and ethical thinking. Finally we present the articles collectedin this issue that represents a collective effort to explore the territories ofcertainty and uncertainty and the relevance the management of epistemics has insocial interaction.
Full Text Available Everyday group life is generally neglected in the study of the ongoing shifts affecting voluntary associations. This paper is grounded on a comparative ethnography of three Milanese associations affected by transformations in forms of voluntary participation, repertoires of action, and in their relations with public institutions. The study focuses on group styles and settings to ascertain the role played by everyday group life in shaping the implications of these transformations for the production of inclusive outcomes by the observed associations. The author introduces three different results produced by the studied associations and account for them with the same overall argument, which focus on practices and spaces shaping everyday group life. The main findings illustrate that everyday group life works both as a filter through which transformations produce consequences and also as a site of autonomous elaboration through which associations’ outcomes are made and unmade.
This paper analyzes the practice and meaning of good parenthood in contemporary family life. It focusing on the so-°©‐called reconstituted families, parenting post divorce. The paper explores practices and narratives of sharing parental responsibility in everyday life among parents who do not live...
Benner's account of meaning and embodiment in nursing depends on a theory which she has never fully articulated, although she makes numerous allusions to it. Behind the background of shared meanings hovers something called 'culture', which provides each individual with meaning, determines what counts as real for her, and actively hands down interpretation-laden practices. This view is based, Benner claims, on the Heideggerian assumption that the meaning and organization of a culture precedes individual meaning-giving activity. I explore Benner's implicit view of culture, drawing on her published work over 15 years, and offer an appraisal of it. In doing so, I attempt to make sense of some rather strange remarks Benner has recently made about 'remnants' of Cartesian and Kantian thinking being found in the everyday understandings of people with asthma. The concept of culture is developed with reference to both Benner's own work and that of the anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, whose work she frequently cites. Having identified the principal tenets of what we might conveniently call the Benner-Geertz theory, I proceed to interrogate the theory, using the recent anthropological literature -- and, in particular, materialist attacks on the idea of culture as a system of meanings -- in order to cast doubt on it. I also review, very briefly, an alternative way of understanding 'culture', which is not vulnerable to the same criticisms. Benner's implicit theory of culture is revealed, somewhat ironically, as an inverted form of Cartesian dualism. Its intellectual provenance is not Heidegger, who appears to reject it, but the sort of American sociology associated with Talcott Parsons. As a corollary, it is suggested that Benner's 'remnants' analogy cannot be justified, and that the idea of Cartesian and Kantian concepts permeating Western culture, infecting both the providers and receivers of health care, is a myth.
Scholars often distinguish everyday creativity and creativity in more formal domains, such as the arts. However, everyday creativity has been rather neglected in research. This paper compares artistic and everyday creativity. Three studies examine the content of behavior in artistic and everyday creativity, as well as similarities and differences…
The "Everyday Learning" series has been developed to focus attention on the everyday ways in which children can be supported in their growth and development. It is for all those who are involved in children's development and learning, including early childhood professionals in all children's services, parents, grandparents and others with an…
Thomassen, Anja Overgaard; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl
This chapter discusses how leaders help one another develop their ability to lead in everyday situations through collaborative work in learning groups, focusing on the interaction between theory and practice. The theme is how the understanding of course assignments and approaches changes during...... leaders’ participation in a module on personal leadership development, which is part of a master’s degree in public governance. The analytic framework concentrates on the work in learning groups as an integrated part of this module, and particularly on the development of learning relationships by viewing...
Intervention is a key concept in the technology of psychology and it plays a decisive role in evidence-based research. But analyses of this concept are remarkably sparse. Based on a critical analysis of the conception of intervention in the American Psychological Association’s guidelines...... for evidence-based research and practice, I argue that, while psychological interventions are primarily meant to work in people’s everyday lives, how interventions do so is barely addressed and poorly captured. Evidence-based research, as currently conceived, is an obstacle to overcome this shortcoming...
Full Text Available Although totally overlooked by mainstream aesthetic theory, various paths were nevertheless left open for addressing everyday aesthetics, a natural yet surprisingly controversial topic. Why they were never taken until recently, when the theme of everyday aesthetics is now becoming fashionable, can be explained not only by the obvious fact of philosophical aesthetics’ restrictive focal point on art but, among other reasons, by a kind of fetishism that demands an object of recognized value for legitimating an aesthetic inquiry. This new popularity entails, however, certain theoretical risks such as clinging to traditional art-centric and beauty-centric categories to explain the everyday and borrowing their concepts uncritically. In this paper I will examine some of these paths and risks with special emphasis on current events which exude aesthetics throughout their pores and require attention from this discipline.
Vestbo, Michelle; Helms, Niels Henrik; Dræbel, Tania Aase
Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand...... of participating in study life. Inspired by sociological phenomenological approach, the study uses participant observations, interviews and a workshop to explore the life-worlds of daily living of students who train to become professionals of social education or nutrition and health education. The study...... contributes to knowledge about how students attempt to turn their everyday life into a study life and which interruptions of the common-sense of their everyday-life this creates. The study gives insight into how the students in order to make sense of the experienced interruptions seek to establish social...
Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina
between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants' taste preferences in the educational setting. CONCLUSION: Dietary education......BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study...... diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection...
Heuman, Amy N.
Courses: Intercultural Communication, Interracial Communication, Gender and Communication, Introduction to Communication Course (within a unit on culture), and any courses encouraging critical analyses of power. Objectives: This activity will: illuminate the ways in which everyday performances of privilege and resulting oppressions connect with…
Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…
Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.
The project “Audio Satellites – overhearing everyday life” consists of a number of mobile listening devices (audio satellites) from which sound is distributed in real time to a server and made available for listening and mixing through a web interface. The audio satellites can either be carried...
Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan
The ballpoint pen is an ideal example of simple engineering that we use everyday. But is it really so simple? The ballpoint pen is a remarkable combination of technology and science. Its operation uses several scientific principles related to chemistry and physics, such as properties of liquids and simple machines. They represent significant…
This position paper presents the concept of a tangible and modular interconnected “platform” for interactive digital artworks in everyday environments. Furthermore it presents a proposal for the study of human-human interaction through the use of digital systems embedded in these platforms. Final...
Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great…
Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia
In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…
This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…
Jensen, Lasse Meinert
While there has been repeated calls for Personality Psychology to study persons' behavior in real situations (for instance, Funder, 2001; Baumeister, Funder & Vohs, 2005), what persons actually do in their everyday lives is still a neglected area of research in Personality Psychology. But studying...
Full Text Available This article reviews current debates on epistemic habits of critique and affirmation, specifically focusing on approaches which combine criticality with ways to encourage unfoldings of alternative futurities, figurations and worlding practices. Embedded in a process of critical self-reflection regarding epistemic habits, the article discusses disidentification (Butler 1993, Muñoz 1999, cruel optimism (Berlant 2011, and everyday utopianism (Cooper 2014 understood as examples of such habits. The article explores how feminisms, unfolding within academia, and thus institutionally embedded in the logics of global capitalism, neoliberalism and particular nation-state politics, on the one the hand, are bound to a performance of cruel optimism, glossing over dilemmas and contradictions, and, on the other hand, perhaps enabled to enact messy kinds of everyday utopianism. Finally, the article reflects upon possibilities for changing one’s epistemic habits, suggesting a couple of changes: to systematically integrate reflections on changing conditions of academic knowledge production, as well as on geopolitical grammars. These issues are addressed as being interwoven with and mixed up in the epistemic practices that are produced by messy links with both feminist activist resistance and institutionalized and professionalized academic feminisms.
Petersen, Lars Kjerulf
This paper investigates how urban greenspace is integrated in everyday practices of urban populations. What are the social functions that green areas serve, and how do people interact with the materiality of urban greenspace – its bio-physical structures and its nature and landscape. The paper...... that urban green areas are beneficial for human health. These studies do, however, not go into a broader understanding of the social significance of urban greenspace and its significance in people’s lives. The social functions of urban green areas are not limited to whatever good effects they have on public...... reports from a recent empirical study in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark, and it seeks to unfold and qualify concepts of lifestyle and practice, i.e. concepts by which sociological studies can capture and understand patterns of actions in people’s daily lives and life courses. A number of studies show...
Mirroring everyday clinical practice in clinical trial design: a new concept to improve the external validity of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials in the pharmacological treatment of major depression
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials constitute the gold standard in clinical research when testing the efficacy of new psychopharmacological interventions in the treatment of major depression. However, the blinded use of placebo has been found to influence clinical trial outcomes and may bias patient selection. Discussion To improve clinical trial design in major depression so as to reflect clinical practice more closely we propose to present patients with a balanced view of the benefits of study participation irrespective of their assignment to placebo or active treatment. In addition every participant should be given the option to finally receive the active medication. A research agenda is outlined to evaluate the impact of the proposed changes on the efficacy of the drug to be evaluated and on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the enrollment fraction with regard to its representativeness of the eligible population. Summary We propose a list of measures to be taken to improve the external validity of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in major depression. The recommended changes to clinical trial design may also be relevant for other psychiatric as well as medical disorders in which expectations regarding treatment outcome may affect the outcome itself.
Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
The gap between the awareness and understanding of healthful eating on the one hand and actual eating practices on the other has been addressed in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we consider it from an everyday life perspective. Using discourse analysis, we analyse how Dutch consumers
The everyday life as a platform for health practices as well as the citizens’ perceptions of health and healthy aging has traditionally not been the core part of health promotion strategies. The project focuses on a groups of citizens and how they interpret and interact with health information...
This article examines everyday musical practices and their connections to young children's learning and development, in and through music. It begins with a discussion of music learning in early childhood as a form of participation and levels of intention in learning. Next, conceptions of child that have dominated early childhood music education…
Narayan, Nilesh Anish
The main purpose of this study is to assess the construct validity of Australian eighth grade mathematics teachers' perceptions towards their career satisfaction, their teaching practice and the everyday challenges encountered in schools. The data were utilised from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study where a total of 802…
This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in…
Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Hikida, Michiko; Durán, Leah
This article draws on qualitative data from two Spanish-English dual language elementary classrooms to explore how teachers in these classrooms made sense of the everyday practice of bilingualism. Methodologically, this study relied on participant observation, video recording, and semi-structured interviews. Conceptually, this article draws on the…
Littlejohn, Allison; Milligan, Colin; Fontana, Rosa Pia; Margaryan, Anoush
Professional learning is a critical component of ongoing improvement and innovation and the adoption of new practices in the workplace. Professional learning is often achieved through learning embedded in everyday work tasks. However, little is known about how professionals self-regulate their learning through regular work activities. This paper…
Marchal, Jan Pieter; van Oers, Hedy A.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Haverman, Lotte
Background: To provide targeted support to parents of children with DS, knowledge of their distress and everyday problems is crucial. For this purpose, psychosocial screening instruments can be a valuable addition to routine clinical practice. Aims: To determine differences on a psychosocial
Across the world, existing research indicates that many women respond with silence to marital abuse. This article offers an ethnographic investigation of the social and psychic forces behind Vietnamese women’s silencing of violence and a theoretical exploration of how the psychoanalytic concept...... of fantasy—understood as unconscious or subconscious mental processes—may contribute to the analysis of everyday violence and psychic distress. Distinguishing between what I term deliberate and subconscious silence, I explore the role that fantasy plays when Vietnamese women silently endure intimate partner...... violence. Closer ethnographic attention to the fantasy-constructions that sustain day-to-day lives can, I argue, strengthen the capacity of anthropology to comprehend how systems of everyday violence are upheld and rendered socially invisible....
Verdezoto, Nervo; Nunes, Francisco; Grönvall, Erik
and mediate the relationship between patients (and caregivers) and the condition. However, these technologies often disregard the complexity of the settings in which they are used and fail to become integrated in everyday life. In this workshop we will discuss how to design self-care technologies......Managing chronic conditions can be challenging. People in such conditions, and the people around them, have to: deal with symptoms, adapt to the resulting disability, manage emotions, and change habits to keep the condition under control. Self-care technologies have the potential to support self-care...... that are in harmony with people's everyday life. Therefore, we invite designers, researchers and practitioners to participate in a full-day workshop in which we will reflect on each other's work, and do a design exercise with patients and caregivers....
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg
In this paper I propose a method for analyzing everyday people's experiences with IT-security. I furthermore report how I applied the method. The proposal is motivated by work of other researchers and their efforts to get beyond secure behavior, and to get an insight in secure or insecure...... experiences that everyday users of technology encounter. The background for introducing this method is a project under the heading of IT Security for Citizens, which bridges between research competencies in HCI and security. In this project we develop methods and concepts to analyze digital signature systems...... and security sensible systems in a broad sense, from the point of view of contemporary CHI. The project includes literature studies of usable security, as well as empirical investigations and design work. This paper reports on my method to target user experiences of and with security technology....
This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.
Puškareva Natal`ja L.
Full Text Available This research focuses on some of the new and distinctive patterns of scientific discourse with special reference to the differences between ethnological research of ordinary life and history of everyday life as a part of "new social history". The author try to show the changing paradigms in humanities, reorganization of its problematic, new sociological (ethnometodological, interdisciplinary methods which were adopted in modern ethnology, as well as in the social history as a whole.
Cooper, Rachel A.; Benge, Jared; Lantrip, Crystal; Soileau, Michael J.
This brief report describes caregiver ratings on the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scale, a psychometrically robust measure of cognitively driven daily activities that was initially designed for other neurodegenerative conditions, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In 49 individuals with PD, those with suspected PD dementia had more difficulties across ECog domains than those with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed that act...
Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…
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The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions.
Villumsen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Ole Steen
and social services. This article focuses on the mono-professional pedagogical identification of children at risk as well as on the underlying process of professional reasoning. Interviews with day care staff are analysed and the findings give reason to assume that central aspects of the children at risk...... and their life circumstances become invisible in the everyday life of day care. Due to defensive routines as well as an organizational culture that frames and creates a non-explicitly structured practice using intuitive processes, the problems of children at risk become invisible in the everyday life of day care...
Full Text Available With the current saturation of digital devices in contemporary society, the boundaries between humans and machines have become increasingly blurred. This digitalization of everyday life both obscures and reminds us of the fact that identity, agency and power cannot be attributed to the individual or the machine alone: rather, they are the outcome of interactions and negotiations within a network of actors. Social media, such as Facebook, blogs, Twitter and YouTube, show clearly that the ‘meaning’ or ‘effect’ of digital technologies is formed through the practices in which they are used and the social relations and institutions that develop around them. This article presents views expressed during a panel discussion on the implications of social media for everyday life, politics and human agency at the Aboagora Symposium, held on 14th August 2013. The panel was organized as a dialogue between the participants and the discussion was structured around three questions, presented below. The participants in the panel were; Professor André Jansson (Karlstad University, Professor Susanna Paasonen (University of Turku and adjunct Professor Johanna Sumiala (University of Helsinki. The panel was chaired by Professor Mia Lövheim (Uppsala University.
Hoyt, Lindsay T; Zeiders, Katharine H; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Adam, Emma K
Cortisol, the major physiological end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is usually associated with stress and negative affect. However, a new body of research highlights the complex, adaptive significance of elevated cortisol within individuals in everyday life. Whereas most studies do not have the power to test the dynamic transactions between cortisol and affect within a person throughout the entire waking day, we employed an intensive study protocol analyzing hourly diary reports of affect in relation to hourly salivary cortisol samples among 24 healthy adults from morning to bedtime, across 2 consecutive weekdays (N = 862 total samples). Utilizing multileveling modeling and focusing on within-person effects, we examined whether momentary increases in cortisol could be mood protective, or energy enhancing, in everyday life, supporting the cortisol boost hypothesis. Results revealed no significant associations between cortisol and current affective state; however, within-person increases in cortisol were significantly associated with subsequent rises in activeness, alertness, and relaxation, and trend-level reductions in stress and nervousness. This study adds to growing evidence that cortisol plays a positive role in regulating affect in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Citizenship involves being able to speak and be heard as a member of the community. This can be a formal right (e.g., a right to vote. It can also be something experienced in everyday life. However, the criteria for being judged a fellow member of the community are multiple and accorded different weights by different people. Thus, although one may self-define alongside one’s fellows, the degree to which these others reciprocate depends on the weight they give to various membership criteria. This suggests we approach everyday community membership in terms of an identity claims-making process in which first, an individual claims membership through invoking certain criteria of belonging, and second, others evaluate that claim. Pursuing this logic we report three experiments investigating the reception of such identity-claims. Study 1 showed that in Scotland a claim to membership of the national ingroup was accepted more if couched in terms of place of birth and ancestry rather than just in terms of one’s subjective identification. Studies 2 and 3 showed that this differential acceptance mattered for the claimant’s ability to be heard as a community member. We discuss the implications of these studies for the conceptualization of community membership and the realization of everyday citizenship rights.
Full Text Available Freed from the bonds of traditional gendered norms, responsibilities and obligations, it has been argued that negotiation is a key concept for understanding how modern couples organize their common life together. Interviews with Swedish couples cause us to question this assumption. In this article we argue that negotiations are relatively unusual in couple relationships. We found that couples seldom experience the reason, room space or need to negotiate. This can in part be understood from the perspective of seeing everyday life as a matter of practical coordination, i.e. as something we strive to master rather than something we try to change or critically reflect upon. We found that routines and rituals were a guiding force in how couples organize their everyday lives. “Doing gender”, “doing couple”, external circumstances and agreement were all central aspects in making the everyday lives of the couples we interviewed work.
Nursing practices at psychiatric hospitals have changed significantly over the last decades. In this paper, everyday nursing practices were interpreted in light of these institutional changes. The objective was to examine how mental health nurses' production of clinical knowledge was influenced b...... knowledge influenced processes of clinical decision-making among the nurses as the game added to a distorted widening of a 'fictional distance' between patients and the representations produced by the nurses....... by the particular social relations on hospital wards. Empirical data stemming from an extended fieldwork at two Danish psychiatric hospital wards were interpreted using interactionistic theory and the metaphor: 'the game of clinical knowledge'. The results indicated that the nurses' production of clinical knowledge......Nursing practices at psychiatric hospitals have changed significantly over the last decades. In this paper, everyday nursing practices were interpreted in light of these institutional changes. The objective was to examine how mental health nurses' production of clinical knowledge was influenced...
Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus
There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens.
Full Text Available Aud Moe,1,2 Hildfrid V Brataas1,2 1Faculty of Health Science, Nord University, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, 2Center of Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway Background: When functional impairment occurs, assistance to achieve self-help can lead to qualitatively more active everyday life for recipients and better use of community resources. Home-based everyday rehabilitation is a new interdisciplinary service for people living at home. Rehabilitation involves meeting the need for interprofessional services, interdisciplinary collaboration, and coordination of services. Everyday rehabilitation is a service that requires close interdisciplinary cooperation. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about employees' experiences with establishing a new multidisciplinary team and developing a team-based work model. Method: The study had a qualitative design using two focus group interviews with a newly established rehabilitation team. The sample consisted of an occupational therapist, two care workers with further education in rehabilitation, a nurse, a physiotherapist, and a project leader. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results: The data highlight three phases: a planning phase (ten meetings over half a year, a startup phase of trials of interdisciplinary everyday rehabilitation in practice (2 months, and a third period specifying and implementing an everyday rehabilitation model (6 months. During these phases, three themes emerged: 1 team creation and design of the service, 2 targeted practical trials, and 3 equality of team members and combining interdisciplinary methods. Conclusion: The team provided information about three processes: developing work routines and a revised team-based flow chart, developing team cooperation with integrated trans- and interdisciplinary collaboration, and working with external exchange. There is more need for secure network solutions. Keywords: everyday rehabilitation
Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice. Introduction Patients and ward staff describe psychiatric inpatient care as demanding, characterized by unpredictable events, yet research on interprofessional teams perspectives of everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care lacks. Aim This study aims to explore everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care, as reported by staff in interprofessional teams. Method A grounded theory design was used and 36 participants were interviewed. Results The analysis resulted in a process-oriented core category From ideals to resignation. Related to this core category were three further categories: Knowing where to go, Walking a path of obstacles and Shifting focus from the patient's best
Bonderup Dohn, Niels
perspectives. Based on a literature review, the educational modes of education are defined as discrete entities (formal, non-formal, and informal education), whereas formality at the psychological level is defined in terms of attributes of formality and informality along a continuum (formal - informal learning......The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis...... of relevant literature revealed two fundamentally different interpretations of informal learning. The one describes formality of education at the organizational level, while the second describes formality of learning at the psychological level. This article presents a conceptual reconciling of these two...
Thøgersen, John; Jørgensen, Anne-Katrine; Sandager, Sara
” and conventional alternatives are available? Does it make them deliberate more or do they just develop another, simple choice heuristic? Based on observation and follow-up interviews of consumers at the milk counter in two supermarkets which stock both organic (a “green” attribute) and conventional milk......One of the techniques marketers use to convert low-involvement products into high-involvement ones is adding an important product feature. A case in point is the common practice of adding a “green” or environmentally friendly product feature to an everyday product, something which is often assumed...... to elevate consumer involvement in the choice of the product. However, there is a lack of research investigating whether adding such a “green” product attribute actually makes any difference to how consumers make choices. Does the way in which consumers make decisions about groceries change when both “green...
Tvistholm, Nina; Munch, Lene; Kjærgaard Danielsen, Anne
a negative impact on physical and mental well-being as well as the social life of older people. The review also showed that older people had individual and personal strategies, based on their own beliefs. Relevance to clinical practice Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the experiences of living......Aims and objectives To explore and summarise best evidence of how constipation affects the daily living of older people from their own perspective. Furthermore, to assess how interventions aimed at treating constipation in older people affect patient-reported outcome such as quality of life....... Background Constipation is a common and overlooked problem with an impact on everyday life, especially among older people. Older people seem to have individual preconceptions on constipation which can influence the strategies used to prevent and treat constipation. Design A systematic review, integrating...
Velickovic, Zoran; Jankovic, Dragan; Perovic, Miodrag; Tiodorovic, Branislav; Miljkovic, Predrag; Rancic, Natasa; Spasic, Mihajlo
Vaccination is the fastest, most efficient and the cheapest measure to prevent communicable diseases. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the results of primary vaccination as well as the first revaccination by DPT,OPV and MMR vaccines. Descriptive epidemiological study was used. The investigation was done in the Primary Health Center in Nis and it involved all the children who were born in 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2007. A total number of 1863 vaccination records were examened. In the sample of examened records of children who were born in 2000 and 2001, there were 155 children (12.05%) who were vaccinated with different vaccines and according to the different vaccination schedules. The number of childern born in 2006 and 2007 was slightly higher and it was (14.70%). In the first group (children who were born in 2000 and 2001) there were 43 children (4.51%) who were not vaccinated (3 children haven't been vaccinated by DPT, and other 40 haven't been vaccinated by MMR). Similar situation was in the second group (children who were born in 2006 and 2007) in which 37 children (4.03%) haven't been vaccinated at all (3 of them by DPT and other 34 by MMR). In both observed groups DPT vaccine immunization started out late. 48.25% of children from the first group haven't been vaccinated with the first dose of DPT on time. 58.53% of children born in 2006 and 2007 haven't been vaccinated with the first dose of DPT on time. The first re-vaccination by DPT was also late in children born 2000 and 2001 (16.6% vs 45.36%). It was also delayed the first revaccination by MMR (10.3% vs 22.53%). To achieve the expected effects should be vaccinated at least 95% of planned persons but also make timely vaccinations. While the main goal of immunization is to prevent illness and death, the overriding concern of any public health intervention must be "Primum non nocere". A small number of post-vaccinal reactions is registered, and there haven't been registered cases of adverse events following immunization or serious reactions that would be contraindications for further immunization.
ambition of the article is to consider what democratic collaboration and coexistence entails and how it might be supported conceptually and analytically by the notion of conflicts as heuristics for social inquiry and by the notion of power as a capacity for action and social participation....
The introductory Chapter raised the intriguing question: "how are we to understand the continued survival and apparent social functioning of rural people amidst officially acknowledged absolute poverty?" The question had a rhetorical function and in seeking to answer it I took the view that rural people construct their livelihoods in ways that are largely invisible to policy makers. This book is about the creativity of ordinary rural people. It seeks to unravel the diverse ways in which such ...
Terzieva, Olivera; Petrovski, Mihajlo; Maksimov, Zlatko; Markoska, Aleksandra
produce a severe illness or even become fatal. Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents useful in numerous bacterial infections. Increasingly we're seeing the inappropriate use of antibiotics. The purpose of this our study was to determine which are the most commonly used antibiotics and who are the most frequently antibiotic treated diseases. Materials and methods: For the realization of our purpose in our study were included 20 dental clinics. We registered the total number...
Hartmann, Elizabeth S.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 states that individualized education program (IEP) teams are composed of members with distinct identities, roles, expertise, and histories. Although team members must work together to implement educational and related services for learners with special needs, little is known about…
The introductory Chapter raised the intriguing question: "how are we to understand the continued survival and apparent social functioning of rural people amidst officially acknowledged absolute poverty?" The question had a rhetorical function and in seeking to answer it I took the view that rural
Elverdam, Beth; Hoel Felde, Lina Klara
phones; chemicals in a nursery; elevated cholesterol was combined to analyse the concept of risk in everyday life. In-depth qualitative interviews with 46 people made it possible to analyse a general perception of risk in everyday life. Interviews were analysed using a phenomenological thematical content...... analysis. Results: Although risk is communicated in the media and by health personnel, and thus has a general presence in society, participants in everyday life place risk at the periphery of life. Risk is not part of their everyday reflections. When risk manifests itself in everyday life, it is reflected...
Full Text Available This brief article discusses the notion of Identity Construction through everyday talk among interlocutors. In particular, this article discusses how I construct and co-construct my identities as a graduate student as I communicate with others. The re-search data used in this article was analysed through the framework of expert-novice constitution, co-construction, and legitimate peripheral participation. The data show their relevance to the notions of expert-novice, co-construction, and legitimate peripheral participation where the interlocutors are actively negotiating their identities as they try to claim their right to speak.
Egmose, Jonas; Gleerup, Janne; Nielsen, Birger Steen
Inspired by contemporary work life studies on making sense at work this paper elaborates on using Critical Utopian Action Research as methodology for enabling shared learning spaces in which citizens and professionals can conjoin around discussions of deeper human aspirations enabled through...... synergies between civil engagement and organisational capabilities. The paper reports on experiences with enabling free spaces in the contexts of everyday life, where broader human concerns and aspirations can be addressed, as in the context of work life, where organisational responses on these orientations...
Martin, Keith M
Cryptography is a vital technology that underpins the security of information in computer networks. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the role that cryptography plays in providing information security for technologies such as the Internet, mobile phones, payment cards, and wireless local area networks. Focusing on the fundamental principles that ground modern cryptography as they arise in modern applications, it avoids both an over-reliance on transient currenttechnologies and over-whelming theoretical research.Everyday Cryptography is a self-contained and widely accessible in
The paper.. discusses the impact of nuclear technology in research and everyday life covering the following issues: miniaturization of memory devices, neutron radiography in material science, nuclear reactions in the universe, sterilization of food, medical applies, cosmetics and packaging materials using beta and gamma radiation, neutron imaging for radioactive waste analysis, microbial transformation of uranium (geobacter uraniireducens), nuclear technology knowledge preservation, spacecrafts voyager 1 and 2, future fusion power plants, prompt gamma activation analysis in archeology, radiation protection and radioecology and nuclear medicine (radiotherapy).
Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase
When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...
Proposed is a psychology of pain that focusses on normal psychological reactions to pain. A normal psychology of pain seeks to explain what normal people (those who would not meet any criteria for any psychological disorder) do when faced with pain. Herein, we focus on everyday pain defined as pain that is clinically unimportant that arises from normal everyday activity. Pain functions to interrupt current concerns and promote problem solving typically in the form of escape, pain management, or request for assistance. A model of analgesic problem solving is described. Focussing on pain as an interruption leads us to think about the purpose of analgesics in repairing attention and returning function. New endpoints for analgesic performance are offered. Similarly, a focus on pain as a motivation for analgesia demands that we understand how people self-medicate its relative success, and what influences patterns of self-medication. Finally, the problem of pain in children and adolescents, including self-medication in youth, is discussed. Although there is limited small-scale research on young people and their knowledge about analgesics, very little is known about their beliefs, attitudes to analgesics and their self-medication behaviour. Adolescents in most societies are left largely unguided. There is little child-specific communication about how to manage pain. Most children rely on parental knowledge, although increasingly the internet is becoming a source of advice for young people learning about analgesics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brédart, Serge; Young, Andrew W
A sample of everyday difficulties was collected, encompassing errors and unusual experiences participants had encountered when recognising their own faces in everyday life, with the aim of characterising similarities and differences between the reported difficulties and the major forms of self-recognition impairments described in the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric literatures (prosopagnosia, mirrored-self misidentification, and Capgras delusion). A total of 70 participants recalled experiences from memory. Incidents (n = 51) were recorded on questionnaire sheets that were filled out at home. Reports of three categories of incidents were analysed: misidentifications (the participant misidentified her/his own face as being that of another familiar person; n = 5), recognition failures (the participant judged that his/her own face was that of an unfamiliar person; n = 20) and perception of unusual aspects (the participant confidently recognised his/her own face but found that the seen face did not fit well the representation she/he had of his/her own face; n = 26). In the reported incidents, experiences showing some similarities to those of patients with prosopagnosia, Capgras delusion or mirrored-self misidentification were noted. However, across the whole study, no incident involved a failure of reality testing; in contrast to pathological forms of error, in all of the reported incidents from our study the participant realised that a mistake had been made. The importance of decision processes in pathological forms of own-face misrecognition is discussed.
The Everyday Learning Series has been developed to focus attention on the every day life experiences of early childhood and to offer insight about how parents and carers can make the most of these experiences. Having a new baby is wonderful and exciting and one of the most trying times in a parent's life. So it is no wonder that anyone caring for…
aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts......In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...
aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts...... influence the environment in the long run. The paper points to the need for further studies of the long term interplay between new technologies, everyday life and the environment....
Anu Marjaana Besson
Full Text Available This multidisciplinary study enforces a suggested link between everyday aesthetic experiences and restoration. The studied phenomenon is staycation, a short-term holiday spent at home or at one’s home region, to identify how people use a (culturally familiar environment for everyday aesthetic enjoyment and how that influences restoration. This focus minimises the potential effect of long-distance travel, novelty and escapism to restoration. Staycation has not been studied before from the perspective of everyday aesthetics and restoration. I explore staycation through a lens of qualitative media analysis; history and empirical research of holiday-making; and theories in everyday aesthetics.
as a communicative activity in everyday life. Method. This is a text-based argument which pulls together different sources for developing and discussing the contention. Analysis. I will start out with some brief reflections on digital media and communicative interaction. From there I will look into some steps...... already made toward understanding knowledge organization as an everyday activity, before providing some examples of how the organization of knowledge in digital media can be understood as genre-based communication in everyday life. Results. Due to the saturation of digital media in everyday life, genre...
Vestbo, Michelle; Helms, Niels Henrik; Dræbel, Tania Aase
Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand...... of participating in study life. Inspired by sociological phenomenological approach, the study uses participant observations, interviews and a workshop to explore the life-worlds of daily living of students who train to become professionals of social education or nutrition and health education. The study...... and epistemic machines. In this panel, we will unfold three subprojects representing different educational contexts and research approaches: Lived experiences of clinical training Vibeke Østergaard Steenfeldt Within the framework of life world phenomenology, this study examines nursing students’ lived...
Thorhauge, Anne Mette; Karlsen, Faltin; Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard
The concept of ”video game addiction” has gradually replaced the depiction of violence in video games as a key issue of concern among parents and professionals. The concept refers to situations where (predominantly) young (predominantly) men neglect other activities in their everyday lives in order...... to play video games. As follows from the term ”addiction” the public common sense as well as a considerable part of research draw heavy parallels to alcohol abuse or psychological disorders applying either a neurophysiological or a clinical psychological approach to the issue (e.g. Gentile 2009). Typical...... as alternative perspectives on problem gaming and the individual presentations in the panel will take a range of perspectives on this issue: Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen will initiate the panel with a critical discussion of existing measures of video game addiction. Nielsen will track the historical roots...
CHADDOCK, LAURA; NEIDER, MARK B.; VOSS, MICHELLE W.; GASPAR, JOHN G.; KRAMER, ARTHUR F.
Purpose Cognitive enhancements are associated with sport training. We extended the sport-cognition literature by using a realistic street crossing task to examine the multitasking and processing speed abilities of collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Methods Pedestrians navigated trafficked roads by walking on a treadmill in a virtual world, a challenge that requires the quick and simultaneous processing of multiple streams of information. Results Athletes had higher street crossing success rates than nonathletes, as reflected by fewer collisions with moving vehicles. Athletes also showed faster processing speed on a computer-based test of simple reaction time, and shorter reaction times were associated with higher street crossing success rates. Conclusions The results suggest that participation in athletics relates to superior street crossing multitasking abilities and that athlete and nonathlete differences in processing speed may underlie this difference. We suggest that cognitive skills trained in sport may transfer to performance on everyday fast-paced multitasking abilities. PMID:21407125
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup
survey and focus groups with users of a Danish Internet-based carbon calculator developed in 2009, the year of the Climate Summit in Copenhagen, when climate change was prominent on the political agenda. The article concludes that the subject website primarily attracts people already interested...... suggests designing Internet-based carbon calculators that actively engage users in collective actions instead of primarily presenting individualistic interventions. Finally, we show that users are different with respect to which of their everyday practices......The number of Internet-based carbon calculators that estimate personal carbon footprints has been growing in recent years. This article discusses the roles that these calculators can play in changing everyday practices and how users evaluate them. The study builds on results from a questionnaire...
Presently, one of the fastest growing fields of consumption is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The integration of ICT in social practices is part of wide-ranging transition processes constructing new ‘normal standards’ in everyday life, and these changes have large en...... environmental impacts. The paper explores the ongoing processes in order to discuss whether they can be managed so as to better integrate environmental considerations.......Presently, one of the fastest growing fields of consumption is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The integration of ICT in social practices is part of wide-ranging transition processes constructing new ‘normal standards’ in everyday life, and these changes have large...
This article focuses on the everyday life of Danish children across different social practices and explores what this outset can tell us about the life of children and families. Building on the critique of classical approaches in developmental psychology (e.g. Burman 1994; James, Jenks, & Prout...... 1998) and family research (e.g. Leira 1993; Thorne & Yalom 1982) the article puts forward a decentred approach to family life. The aim is to show how the institutional context and family context sets conditions for each other - and that interplay sets conditions for the development of the children....... The article argues that the social practice in which the children participate outside the family, in important ways shapes the life of children as well as their parents. The parents' insight and knowledge of their children's everyday life in early childhood institution and the co-operation between parents...
Ward, Richard; Campbell, Sarah; Keady, John
This paper makes a contribution to an emerging debate on dementia and citizenship through a focus on the everyday experiences of women living with dementia and in receipt of care. In particular, a link is drawn between hairdressing and citizenship in the context of dementia care. Informed by a wider debate over the importance of an emplaced, embodied and performative approach to citizenship, the authors highlight the way that intersecting forms of resistance unfold in the salon. The Hair and Care project, as the name implies, focused upon hair care and styling in the context of a wider consideration of appearance and how it is managed and what it means for people living with dementia. With a focus upon the routine, mundane and thereby often unproblematised aspects of everyday life in/with care, the discussion draws together two key ideas concerned with the interplay of power and resistance: Essed's (1991) theory of 'everyday discrimination' and Scott's (1985) notion of 'everyday resistance'. The findings illuminate the creative and collective forms of agency exercised by older women living with dementia, in the context of their relationships with one another and with the hairdressers whose services and support inspire their loyalty and patronage. Findings from the study point to the link between (inter-)personal practices of appearance management and a wider set of social conditions that are manifest in the on-going struggle over time, space and bodies in dementia care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Racine, Eric
"Everyday ethics" is a term that has been used in the clinical and ethics literature for decades to designate normatively important and pervasive issues in healthcare. In spite of its importance, the term has not been reviewed and analyzed carefully. We undertook a literature review to understand how the term has been employed and defined, finding that it is often contrasted to "dramatic ethics." We identified the core attributes most commonly associated with everyday ethics. We then propose an integrative model of everyday ethics that builds on the contribution of different ethical theories. This model proposes that the function of everyday ethics is to serve as an integrative concept that (1) helps to detect current blind spots in bioethics (that is, shifts the focus from dramatic ethics) and (2) mobilizes moral agents to address these shortcomings of ethical insight. This novel integrative model has theoretical, methodological, practical, and pedagogical implications, which we explore. Because of the pivotal role that moral experience plays in this integrative model, the model could help to bridge empirical ethics research with more conceptual and normative work. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Krejsler, John B.; Kryger, Niels
are staged ever more as pedagogical and educational relations, practices of learning undergo transformations. The concept of everyday life is changing as daily routines and associated practices of learning are being transformed through processes caused by virtualization (social media, cell phones, lap...... (Side 112-122) (Ida W. Winther, Aarhus University) The impracticality of practical knowledge and lived experience in educational research (Side 124-139) (Thomas S. Popkewitz, University of Wisconsin-Madison) Waiting for change - Enduring educational outcomes (Meenakshi Thapan, University of Delhi)...
Pink, S.; Leder Mackley, K.
In this article we explore the relationship between arts practice and digital-visual-sensory ethnography by suggesting how insights from art therapy and art historical accounts of the neurosciences can inform ethnographic ways of knowing. We argue that such insights offer new ways to respond to methodological challenges related to the ongoingness and unstoppable flow of everyday life. © 2014 International Visual Sociology Association.
Nazzi, Elena; Sokoler, Tomas
more visible by augmenting everyday artefacts to communicate the ongoing activity they are used for. We engaged a local community of seniors in a living lab to explore the possibilities of twitterIDo in real life situations. This paper presents a series of interactive prototypes of everyday artefacts...
In this paper, I explore the concept conduct of everyday life, namely routines and real life, as they are confronted with empirical observations. The observations are from a study of changes in the conduct of everyday life for individuals who attended a patient education course. The course was a ...... analysis to perceive all conduct of everyday life as having profound personal meaning and to analyse the individuals' concerns in relation to their social selfunderstanding and localisation at a certain time.......In this paper, I explore the concept conduct of everyday life, namely routines and real life, as they are confronted with empirical observations. The observations are from a study of changes in the conduct of everyday life for individuals who attended a patient education course. The course...... was a part of their treatment after a hospitalisation with depression in a psychiatric ward. I use analysis of the main individual, Steven’s, conduct of everyday life and illustrate my points with models of conduct of everyday life made using beads. The conceptualisation of conduct of everyday life...
Clare AM Sutherland
Full Text Available People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers’ faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1,000 highly varying ‘ambient image’ face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.
This article draws on materials from ethnographic and participatory research on everyday eating practices in Berlin kindergartens. It argues that agency is not always a-priori located in the human subject. Agency can be translated and distributed over relational networks that include people and
Mariana Moraes Salles
Full Text Available The present study aims at identifying how the everyday life concept is used in the Occupational Therapy field in the English language literature and at making considerations in relation to the Brazilian literature on the subject. A systematic review of the international literature on the everyday life concept in the Occupational Therapy field was carried out and, from the results of this phase, reflections about the differences and similarities noticed in the use of this concept in the field of occupational therapy in Brazil are presented. Twenty articles selected from the CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel database were elected for analysis. This analysis found that English speaking authors, on the issue of everyday life rupture, focus on the assistance needed to help individuals to be able to perform their former occupations in an autonomous way. Besides, the way people live their everyday lives is an element that constitutes the person’s identity; people become what they are from their occupations. Everyday life is described in occupational terms; it is understood by the meaningful things people do in their lives. It is pointed out that, as opposed to the national literature, the international literature does not focus on the connection between everyday life and the social-political-cultural context. Thus, we discuss that the understanding about the contextualized everyday life is shared with Brazilian occupational therapists, and it has the potential to be presented as a construct on which the Brazilian contemporary occupational therapy identity is built.
Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Seventy-two items generated from patient interviews and mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domestic life chapter were administered to 1128 adults representative of the Dutch population. The partial credit model was fitted to the item responses and evaluated with respect to its assumptions, model fit, and differential item functioning (DIF). Measurement performance of a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm was compared with the SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF-10). A final bank of 41 items was developed. All items demonstrated acceptable fit to the partial credit model and measurement invariance across age, sex, and educational level. Five- and ten-item CAT simulations were shown to have high measurement precision, which exceeded that of SF-36 physical functioning scale across the physical function continuum. Floor effects were absent for a 10-item empirical CAT simulation, and ceiling effects were low (13.5%) compared with SF-36 physical functioning (38.1%). CAT also discriminated better than SF-36 physical functioning between age groups, number of chronic conditions, and respondents with or without rheumatic conditions. The Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank will hopefully prove a useful instrument for assessing everyday activity limitations. T-scores obtained using derived measures can be used to benchmark physical function outcomes against the general Dutch adult population.
Full Text Available Stress is an inevitable part of life. Knowing the ways of coping with stress are necessary to preserve our mental and physical health and to maintain good social and/or occupational functioning in daily life activities. Different ways of coping with stress have been developed throughout history. Various type of therapies offer quite effective remedies for coping with stress in everyday life. Among psychotherapeutic treatments cognitive behavioral therapy which involves teaching stressful individuals to develop coping strategies have yielded very promising results. It is helpful to determine first whether stress source can be changed, several therapeutic approaches may then be used. Lazarus and Folkman have identified two major approaches for coping with stress so-called "problem-focused" and "emotion-focused". In "problem-focused" approaches targets are acquiring time management, self-monitoring, problem-solving skills, while in "emotion-focused" approaches, through ways of accepting or rejecting of stress associated negative emotions, or reconciling with these emotions, the target is learning how to keep emotions under control. "Problem-focused" and "emotion-focused" approaches may independently be used effectively in appropriate cases, their simultaneous practice may increase chances of successful treatment. Apart from this methods, psychodynamic therapy may be indicated in some cases. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 133-140
Barnish, Maxwell S; Whibley, Daniel; Horton, Simon M C; Butterfint, Zoe R; Deane, Katherine H O
Communication is fundamental to human interaction and the development and maintenance of human relationships and is frequently affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, research and clinical practice have both tended to focus on impairment rather than participation aspects of communicative deficit in PD. In contrast, people with PD have reported that it is these participation aspects of communication that are of greatest concern to them rather than physical speech impairment. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the association between cognitive status and/or intelligibility and everyday communication in PD. Five online databases were systematically searched in May 2015 (Medline Ovid, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO and CINAHL) and supplementary searches were also conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated retrieved records for inclusion and then performed data extraction and quality assessment using standardised forms. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were English-language original peer-reviewed research articles, book chapters or doctoral theses investigating the associations between at least one of cognitive status and level of intelligibility impairment and an everyday communication outcome in human participants with PD. 4816 unique records were identified through database searches with 16 additional records identified through supplementary searches. 41 articles were suitable for full-text screening and 15 articles (12 studies) met the eligibility criteria. 10 studies assessed the role of cognitive status and 9 found that participants with greater cognitive impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties. 4 studies assessed the role of intelligibility and all found that participants with greater intelligibility impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties, although effects were often weak and not consistent. Both cognitive status and intelligibility may be associated with everyday communicative
Full Text Available In Italy, the economic crisis of the last years has been characterized by recession, deflation, and unemployment. In addition to its broader effect on society, the crisis has deeply affected Italians’!everyday practices, their views, and their future goals. This is particularly true for young people, who can no longer rely on rising expectations. The paper presents the preliminary results of a qualitative study aimed at understanding how young people perceive and handle their everyday life in a social and working context so heavily influenced by income uncertainty, job insecurity, and a general lack of confidence in the future. Face-to-face in-depth interviews have been conducted in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy.
Veen, M; Gremmen, B; te Molder, H; van Woerkum, C
To understand prospective users' reactions to emergent technologies, it is crucial to examine the interactional contexts within which these reactions take place as people's reactions are shaped by issues that are not necessarily related to science or technology. These issues are often overshadowed or remain blind spots when descriptions or scenarios of proposed technologies are thematized as being the core objects of reference. We therefore recommend also studying prospective users' everyday-life practices in their own right, and in naturalistic settings. Insight into the social actions people accomplish in their everyday talk, such as establishing a particular identity, can help innovators translate prospective users' concerns into relevant technology characteristics. We propose discursive psychology as an analytic tool to do this and show its merit with a few illustrative examples.
van der Leeuw, Guusje; Leveille, Suzanne G; Jones, Richard N; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; McLean, Robert; Kiely, Dan K; Gagnon, Margaret; Milberg, William P
There is a need for validated measures of attention for use in longitudinal studies of older populations. We studied 249 participants aged 80 to 101 years using the population-based MOBILIZE Boston Study. Four subscales of the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA) were included, measuring attention switching, selective, sustained and divided attention and a neuropsychological battery including validated measures of multiple cognitive domains measuring attention, executive function and memory. The TEA previously has not been validated in persons aged 80 and older. Among participants who completed the TEA, scores on other attentional measures strongly with TEA domains (R=.60-.70). Proportions of participants with incomplete TEA subscales ranged from 8% (selective attention) to 19% (attentional switching). Reasons for not completing TEA tests included failure to comprehend test instructions despite repetition and practice. These results demonstrate the challenges and potential value of the Test of Everyday Attention in studies of very old populations.
Hansen, Bodil Winther; Pedersen, Helle Andrea
Creative activities have traditionally been used in psychiatric occupational therapy. However, there is a lack of research on how creative activities influence everyday life; especially with a learning perspective. The aim of the study is to develop and qualify the use of creative activities...... and engagement in social contexts as well as abilities to problem solve and plan/follow procedures and structures.Conclusion:The study shows that the use of creative activities as part of psychiatric rehabilitation has potential to give general transfer of competences into coping with daily tasks. The results...... offer a learning perspective on developing and qualifying the use of creative activities.Application to Practice:Implementing the use of creative activities has a potential to qualify and expand occupational therapy rehabilitation regarding coping with everyday life.References:(1) Wahlgren, B. & Aarkrog...
Obstáculos didáticos no cotidiano da prática pedagógica do enfermeiro professor Obstáculos didácticos en el cotidiano de la práctica pedagógica del enfermero profesor Educational obstacles in the everyday living of the nurse teacher's pedagogical practice
Malvina Thaís Pacheco Rodrigues
Full Text Available A docência universitária emerge como uma temática freqüentemente discutida no cenário educacional. Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar os obstáculos didáticos emergentes no cotidiano da prática pedagógica do enfermeiro professor do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem da UESPI, com o intuito de subsidiar a elaboração de propostas de superação desses obstáculos. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-interpretativo de abordagem qualitativa tendo como instrumentos de coleta de dados questionário e entrevista semi-estruturada e a análise dos dados a partir da análise de conteúdo. Pelas análises, evidencia-se que os obstáculos didáticos estão relacionados à pessoa do professor, aos alunos e à instituição. Assim, é proposto a implantação de um programa de formação continuada na perspectiva da ação-reflexão-ação como forma de superação dos obstáculos.La docencia universitaria surge como una temática frecuentemente discutida en el escenario educacional. Este artículo objetiva investigar los obstáculos didácticos en el cotidiano de la práctica pedagógica del enfermero profesor del Curso de Graduación en Enfermería de UESPI, deseando subsidiar la elaboración de propuestas de superación de estos obstáculos. Es un estudio descriptivo-interpretativo de abordaje cualitativo, con colecta de datos, cuestionario y entrevista semiestructurada y el análisis de datos por medio del análisis de contenido. En acuerdo con los análisis, tornase claro que los obstáculos didácticos están relacionados con el profesor, con los alumnos y con la institución. Por lo tanto, es propuesto el establecimiento de un programa de formación continuada en la perspectiva de acción-reacción-acción como forma de superación de los obstáculos.University teaching emerges as a theme frequently discussed in the educational scene. This article aims to investigate the educational obstacles emerging in the everyday living of the
Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher
The goal of the present research was to examine the potential of a learner-oriented approach to improving older adults' performance in tasks that are similar to real-life situations that require strategic deployment of cognitive resources. A crucial element of this approach involves encouraging older adults to explicitly analyze tasks to consider how to adapt trained skills to a new task context. In an earlier study, a specialist-directed intervention produced training gains and transfer to some untrained memory tasks. In the present study, older adults received a manual instructing them about principles of task analysis, two memory strategies, and strategy adaptation. Self-guided strategy-adaption training involved practicing some memory tasks as well as instructions on how the trained skills could be applied to new tasks that were not practiced. The criterion tasks involved practice tasks, non-practiced tasks that were discussed in the manual, and transfer tasks that were never mentioned in the manual. Two of the tests were from the Everyday Cognition Battery (inductive reasoning and working memory). As compared to a waiting-list control group, older adults assigned to self-guided strategy-adaption training showed memory improvements on tasks that were practiced or discussed during training. Most important, the learner-oriented approach produced transfer to the everyday tasks. Our findings show the potential of instructing task appraisal processes as a basis for fostering transfer, including improving older adults' performance in simulated everyday tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J
The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Rosén Rasmussen, Lisa
In this paper, I explore how the interview based memories of three generations of former pupils offer complex and very textural impressions of how everyday life at school has been played out. It forms an understanding of the continuities and discontinuities in the processes of everyday life...... at school across time and of the pupils' incessant enfolding into the universe of the school. Through the spoken memories of the former school pupils the often implicit experiences with the quivering motions and fragmented texture of everyday school life become vivid. By following the former pupil......'s memories of physical and emotional movements across and within space we are given a chance to sense the dynamics, the simultaneous regularity and unpredictability of everyday school life. It offers a chance to sense some of the intensities that makes up the specificity of the complex universe of the school...
The aim of this paper is to explore how food can be analysed in terms of signs and codes of everyday life, and especially how food can be used to express ethical concerns. The paper investigates the potential of a semiotic conceptual analysis: How can the semiotic approach be used to analyse...... expressions of ethics and food ethics in everyday life? The intention is to explore from a theoretical point of view and with constructed cases, how semiotics can be used to analyse the role of food as an expression of ethics in everyday life among families, friends and colleagues: How do foodstuffs function...... as signs of ethics in everyday life? How is food used to send signals about care and concern? How are the signs of food ethics perceived? It is concluded that analysing ethical considerations with respect to food with the help of the semiotic model can show us perspectives that otherwise would be difficult...
Tabuenca, Bernardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus
Tabuenca, B., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2012, 16-18 October). Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies. Presentation at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012, Helsinki, Finland.
on a German version of Critical Psychology and discusses how to understand social pedagogy in relation to the support of children’s conduct of everyday life. In general parents coordinate their children´s everyday lives, but for the case of children in out-of-home care, the responsibility of care...... and leisure time. The paper contributes to discussions of how to define and understand social pedagogy and argues that a central focus in social pedagogy should be to create possibilities of participation in society and to support children´s agency in their everyday life across different contexts. The paper...... concludes that for children in out-of-home care their possibilities of learning how to conduct their everyday lives are closely related to the ways professionals cooperate across contexts and that puts inter-professional cooperation at the core of social pedagogy....
Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Castro-Martinez, Elena
Science policy increasingly focuses on maximising societal benefits from science and technology investments, but often reduces those benefits to activities involving codifying and selling knowledge, thereby idealising best practice academic behaviours around entrepreneurial superstars. This paper
Patients are increasingly involved in health informatics research. Researchers are always aware of the ethical dimensions of their research, but studies in the field with patients--especially among the frail, elderly, cognitively impaired--present specific additional 'everyday moral dilemmas'. Reflecting on experiences of a hospital study of patients with dementia, this paper draws attention on the type and constant presence of this situated ethics, the immediacy of decision-making, and the importance of everyday ethics for health informatics.
In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed by...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....
In this paper I discuss the challenges of teaching science concepts and discourse in preschool in light of the study conducted by Kristina Andersson and Annica Gullberg. I then suggest a complementary approach to teaching science at this level from the perspective of social construction of knowledge based on Vygotsky's theory (1934/1987). In addition, I highlight the importance of the relational aspect of knowing using feminist standpoint theory (Harding 2004). I also draw from feminist research on preservice elementary teachers' learning of science to further underscore the connection between learning content and everyday experiences. Combining these research strands I propose that science needs to be grounded in everyday experiences. In this regard, the idea is similar to the choices made by the teachers in the study conducted by Andersson and Gullberg but I also suggest that the everyday experiences chosen for teaching purposes be framed appropriately. In and of itself, the complexity of everyday experiences can be impediment for learning as these researchers have demonstrated. Such complexities point to the need for framing of everyday experiences (Goffman 1974) so that children can do science and construct meaning from their actions. In the conclusion of my discussion of science and its discourse in preschool settings, I provide examples of everyday experiences and their framings that have the potential for engaging children and their teachers in science.
Full Text Available The article attempts to find an adequate interpretation of the concept of everyday life that can be applied to school realities. Recognition of the map of terms, among which the category of the everyday locates, and further clarification of its semantic field with simultaneous presentation of one’s own, individual way to understand it, constitute an outline of considerations brought up in the text. The category of the everyday (redefined by the school contexts has been shown against such a background.In the proposed interpretation, on the one hand, the school everyday life takes the form of simple student activities and performed obligations in a well-known, safe environment and space, transparent relationships and reasonable personal aspirations. On the other hand, it is associated with challenges and difficult to overcome adversity in the fluid world of the school life that is so commonly defined by the dependency and power relations.One of the most important aspects in the presented text, namely the instability, has become an important and intriguing motive of reflection on everyday life. It turns out that improvisation and stopgap as well as repeatability and predictability are daily life inherent attributes. Paradoxically, you can consciously experience everyday life only when it becomes extraordinary.
Wallin, Viktoria; Carlander, Ida; Sandman, Per-Olof; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Håkanson, Cecilia
To explore partners' experiences of everyday life in caring for a dying person with eating deficiencies at home. When a dying person receives care at home, eating deficiencies can influence everyday life for family members, who often take responsibility for the provision of food and meals. The literature reveals this to be emotionally stressful. Partners of dying persons are challenged both as caregivers and as partners who will soon lose their life companion. There is a need for studies that provide enhanced understanding about the influence of dying persons' eating deficiencies on their partners, from the perspective of everyday life. A qualitative design was chosen to obtain experience-based knowledge of relevance for the clinical context of palliative home care. Nine people were purposefully selected and interviewed three-six months after the death of their partner. Data collection and analysis were guided by an interpretive descriptive method. The partners described experiences of how eating deficiencies brought about changes in the participants' everyday lives. Two patterns of experiences were identified: the challenge of doing the best for their dying partner around matters involving food and mealtimes, and experiences of striving to maintain ordinariness, including holding on to social values around food, despite experiences of unfamiliarity when the dying partners' habits were changed. Living close to a person who has eating deficiencies at the end of life is challenging, both from a caring perspective and for personal well-being. The findings can assist palliative home care teams and other healthcare professionals to give support that goes beyond giving practical advice about food. Initiating talk about the current situation around food and meals at home, by posing questions and opening the way for conversations, is suggested. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Darzentas, Dimitrios; Hazzard, Adrian; Brown, Michael; Flintham, Martin; Benford, Steve
We address how, framed by the Internet of Things, digitally-enabled physical objects may acquire rich digital records throughout their lifetimes, and how these might enhance their value, meaning and utility. We reflect on emerging findings from two case studies, one focusing on wargaming miniatures and the other on an augmented guitar, that engage communities of practice in capturing and utilising rich digital records of things. We articulate an agenda for future research in terms of four key...
Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas
This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses......’s moves using board indications, vocalisations, gaze, head movements, and smiles. The analysed practice creates opportunities for teaching and possibly also for learning how to use a communication aid....
Carl F. Dons.
Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to answer the following research question: How can we prepare student teachers to deal with pupils who have a wide range of day-to-day experiences of the digital world? This question arises out of the understanding that today's student-teacher training is inadequately equipped to realize the potential for learning found in the way that digital technology is now an integral part of the social and cultural practices of children and young people. Based on theory and practice from research and development activities in primary and lower secondary school, the article points out some perspectives connected to the technology culture of children and young people that may have importance for the professional training of student teachers. The article concludes by summarizing some findings from a research project in general teacher education, where it is argued that student teachers can be qualified to cope with the way children and young people use technology by teaching them to adopt solutions based on personal publishing. In many ways the article deals with classical issues in the education field; how the relations between cognition, learning, technology and fellow-citizenship raise practical issues connected to teaching and learning (Dewey, 1915; 1938; 1958.
Full Text Available The paper is based on the experiences of a fieldwork researcher. Two studies of everyday life are compared. In spite of the differences in theoretical frameworks and methodologies, important similarities are identified, leading to identical basic results. These similarities are to be found in the (exclusive dependence of the everyday survival on political survival, of everyday life on political life, of coping on political developments. The similarity is proved by pointing to the shared broader socio-historical framework in which both studies have been located, and to the uniqueness of the environment/area in which both have taken place. This leads to the final conclusion on the relation between the character of everyday life and the collective character/mentality, where the key mediator is political life and the character shaped within its domain. In a culture basically structured as a warrior culture, in the circumstances of huge civilizational changes at the global world scene, the local political mentality assumes specific features, somewhat modified in comparison with the traditional ethos. These features in turn directly shape the everyday, particularly of ordinary people, beyond the centers of power and global decision-making.
Montgomery, Catharine; Fisk, John E
Recent research suggests that not only does the use of recreational drugs impact on working memory functioning, but more ;everyday' aspects of memory (e.g. remembering to do something in the future) are also affected. Forty-three ecstasy-polydrug users and 51 non-ecstasy users were recruited from a university population. Each participant completed the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Of these, 28 ecstasy-polydrug users and 35 non-ecstasy users completed the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ). In addition, an objective measure of cognitive failures (the CFQ-for-others) was completed by friends of participants. With the exception of the CFQ-for-others, in each regression equation, cannabis emerged as the only significant predictor of everyday and prospective memory deficits. Significant correlations were found between the different indicators of everyday memory and various measures of illicit drug use. Cannabis featured prominently in this respect. The present study provides further support for cannabis related deficits in aspects of everyday memory functioning. Ecstasy may aLso be associated with cognitive slips, but not to the same extent as cannabis.
Bergström, Aileen; Guidetti, Susanne; Tham, Kerstin; Eriksson, Gunilla
Within occupational therapy, it is assumed that individuals are satisfied when participating in everyday occupations that they want to do. However, there is little empirical evidence to show this. The aim of this study is to explore and describe the relation between satisfaction and participation in everyday occupations in a Swedish cohort, 5 years post stroke. Sixty-nine persons responded to the Occupational Gaps Questionnaire (OGQ). The questionnaire measures subjective restrictions in participation, i.e. the discrepancy between doing and wanting to do 30 different occupations in everyday life, and satisfaction per activity. Results were analysed with McNemar/chi-square. Seventy percent of the persons perceived participation restrictions. Individuals that did not perceive restrictions in their participation had a significantly higher level of satisfaction (p = .002) compared to those that had restrictions. Participants that performed activities that they wanted to do report between 79 and 100% satisfaction per activity. In this cohort, there was a significant association between satisfaction and participating in everyday occupations one wants to do, showing that satisfaction is an important aspect of participation and substantiates a basic assumption within occupational therapy. The complexity of measuring satisfaction and participation in everyday occupations is discussed.
dasNair, Roshan; Griffiths, Holly; Clarke, Sara; Methley, Abigail; Kneebone, Ian; Topcu, Gogem
Everyday memory is one of the most affected cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Assessing everyday memory problems is crucial for monitoring the impact of memory deficits on individuals' day-to-day lives and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the research literature on everyday memory measures used with people with MS, describe the types of measures used, and summarise their psychometric properties. Empirical studies of cognitive function in MS using standardised everyday memory measures were included. Online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Embase) and Google Scholar were searched. Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 12 measures were identified, with varied uses and administration methods. The majority of papers did not report any psychometric properties for MS populations. The few papers that did, reported that the measures have good reliability and appear to have good face, concurrent, and ecological validity, but these need to be evaluated further. This review presents researchers and clinicians with an overview of the various everyday memory measures used in studies with people with MS, to help them choose the appropriate measure for their evaluations.
Carter, Simon; Green, Judith; Thorogood, Nicki
Using the electric toothbrush as an example, this article examines the growing acceptability of domestic health technologies that blur the traditional boundaries between health, aesthetics and consumption. By using empirical material from individual and household interviews about people's oral health practices, this research explores the relationships between an everyday artefact, its users and their environments. It investigates the ways in which oral health technologies do, or do not, become domesticated in the home environment. We conclude that the domestication of oral health technologies is not inevitable, with the electric toothbrush often becoming an 'unstable object' in the domestic setting.
Austin, S.F.; Sumbundu, A.D.; Lykke, J.
Panic disorder is a common and debilitating disorder that has a prevalence rate of 3-5% in the general population. Cognitive-behavioural interventions have been shown to be an efficacious treatment for panic, although a limited number of studies have examined the effectiveness of such interventions...... of significant clinical change displayed and resources required to carry out the intervention. A small sample of GP-referred patients displaying panic symptoms completed a 2-week intensive cognitive-behavioural intervention. Results collected post-intervention revealed significant clinical reductions in panic...... of implementing effective treatments in everyday clinical practice and developing a stepped care approach to treating panic symptoms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Carter, Simon; Green, Judith; Thorogood, Nicki
Using the electric toothbrush as an example, this article examines the growing acceptability of domestic health technologies that blur the traditional boundaries between health, aesthetics and consumption. By using empirical material from individual and household interviews about people's oral health practices, this research explores the relationships between an everyday artefact, its users and their environments. It investigates the ways in which oral health technologies do, or do not, become domesticated in the home environment. We conclude that the domestication of oral health technologies is not inevitable, with the electric toothbrush often becoming an ‘unstable object' in the domestic setting. PMID:24260016
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Pouliot, Vincent
How does power work in practice? Much of the “stuff” that state agents and other international actors do, on an everyday basis, remains impenetrable to existing IR theory. This is unfortunate, as the everyday performance of international practices actually helps shape world policy outcomes....... In this article we develop a framework to grasp the concrete workings of power in international politics. The notion of “emergent power” bridges two different understandings of power: as capability or relation. Emergent power refers to the generation and deployment of endogenous resources – social skills...
Henriksen, Nina; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug
the effect of the layered meanings in the montage alongside their multi-medium and self-referential expression. The discussion is centred on the aesthetic practices that are invited by Bro's book montage. The article considers how the juxtaposition of images and texts are experienced and co......-created by the reader. It points to the effect of the aesthetics of disguise and carnival implicit in the visual-verbal montage and argues that these generate a third meaning. This meaning is associated with the breast cancer experience but is not directly discernible in the montage. The article concludes by discussing...
Rothuizen, Jan Jaap
You have to know a bit of history in order to understand that the term social pedagogy can have different meanings. This article presents social pedagogy first and foremost as an approach that focuses on the other person’s possibilities to decide, to be an actor and to be a participant. When you...... practice a social pedagogical approach, you have to think because you will often find yourself in situations with no fixed recipe for what to do. The social pedagogy occurs in tension fields. Therefore, social pedagogical work is in constant development....
Reblin, Maija; Heyman, Richard E; Ellington, Lee; Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Vadaparampil, Susan T
Relationship behaviors contribute to compromised health or resilience. Everyday communication between intimate partners represents the vast majority of their interactions. When intimate partners take on new roles as patients and caregivers, everyday communication takes on a new and important role in managing both the transition and the adaptation to the change in health status. However, everyday communication and its relation to health has been little studied, likely due to barriers in collecting and processing this kind of data. The goal of this paper is to describe deterrents to capturing naturalistic, day-in-the-life communication data and share how technological advances have helped surmount them. We provide examples from a current study and describe how we anticipate technology will further change research capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Micheli Rezende Ferreira Cruz
Full Text Available Objective: to understand the everyday of people experiencing the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Methods: this is a qualitative research, based on Heideggerian phenomenology. 14 deponents participated in hemodialysis and registered on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Phenomenological interview with the research question: How is the experience awaiting the kidney transplant? Color marking technique for analyzing demarcating lines that show similarity, of these, emerged the essential structures that enabled the units of meaning. Results: changing lifestyles, imposing a routine and rigidity of treatment signaling everyday stress and exhaustion of hemodialysis being. Emerging from the modes of gossip, curiosity, and bureaucracy, unfolding-inauthentic and impersonal regarding their care. Conclusion: hemodialysis dependence and awaiting kidney transplantation transfer care for family/professional caregivers. To understand the everyday marked by impositions and restrictions, the reflection about how professional health interaction/being-care becomes important.
Reif, Frederick; Larkin, Jill H.
An analysis and comparison of everyday life and the domain of science reveals significant differences in their goals and in the cognitive means used to attain these goals. Students' lack of awareness of these differences can lead to pervasive learning difficulties in their study of science. Thus many students (a) have erroneous conceptions of scientific goals, (b) import goals and ways of thinking which are effective in everyday life but inadequate in science, and (c) devise ways of thinking ill suited to science. Additional complications arise because science taught in schools often differs both from actual science and from everyday life. Students' learning difficulties are thus increased because scientific goals are distorted and scientific ways of thinking are inadequately taught. The preceding analysis suggests some empirical investigations and instructional improvements.
Full Text Available The reader looks at the meaning of (everyday photographs for ethnography and cultural studies. It deals with the methodological implications of both the photograph as a research object and the taking of photographs as a research method. Some contributions describe selected methods—for example, photo archiving or photo interpretation. Most chapters reconstruct photo practices in everyday life (i.e. the work of photo studios in department stores or sanatoriums or present the results of photo analyses (e.g., family photo albums, photo collections of companies, or photo contributions of magazine readers. The book covers a whole conference and delivers 21 exciting, but fairly heterogeneous chapters; it would have benefited from a tighter structure. The focus is on the 20th and 19th centuries and ample photo material is provided. One thing this book, the first volume of a series on visual culture, does not do is build a bridge to the era of digital photography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703181
Government regulation of health professionals is believed to ensure the efficacy and expertise of practitioners for and on behalf of patients. Certification and licensing are two common means to do so, legalizing a physician to practice medicine. However, ethnography from Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) suggests that in corrupt socioeconomic environments, certification and licensing can alternatively produce a trade in legitimacy. Drawing on participant observations during 15 months of fieldwork with 25 medical acupuncturists in private practice in HCMC, southern Vietnam, and their patients, I argue that everyday practices of corruption and the importance of personal networks meant that legality, efficacy, and expertise separated. Certificates and licenses did not unproblematically validate expertise and efficacy. Consequently, compliance and enforcement of regulations as solutions to inadequate medical care may not achieve the effects intended. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.
Fernandez, Oscar E
Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia
Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel
of public connection into four dimensions that emphasize people’s lived experiences: inclusiveness, engagement, relevance, and constructiveness. Situating these in an everyday life framework, this article advances a user-based perspective that considers the role of news for people in digital societies......News has traditionally served as a common ground, enabling people to connect to others and engage with the public issues they encounter in everyday life. This article revisits these theoretical debates about mediated public connection within the context of a digitalized news media landscape. While...
Discussing Faiciuc's paper, I first tackle the problem of fallacies in deductive reasoning showing how, in a possible world theory, non correct forms of reasoning can be useful strategies for discovery, providing these strategies remain at a hypothesis level. Secondly, everyday reasoning and its specificity in comparison to logical-normative one are analyzed. This topic stresses the notion of interpretation and, in this context, the role of the community and of cultural canons shared by the subject. From this point of view, reasoning does not occur, only, in the brain of a person but in everyday exchanges occurring between individuals and the history of their community.
Dalgaard, Lea Gulstav; Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo
management involves more than just specific illness-related strategies and should take into account the broad set of activities conforming people’s everyday life. This study investigates how older adults manage their medication in everyday life. To inform the design of pervasive healthcare medication...... management systems (PHMMS), the study calls for attention to medication-specific particularities that account for: according to need medication, the heterogeneous care network, the substitute medication, the medication informational order, the shared responsibility and the adjustment of medication intake...
Full Text Available Despite the high penetration of the private sector in mobile devices, only few applications and services based on mobile technologies are used, and those are rather trivial. This article suggests an approach for the identification of alternatives for the support of processes of everyday life by establishing services based on mobile applications, mobile devices and infrastructures for mobile dispositions. Therefore, a framework for the identification, as well as criteria for the analysis of potential fields of application is discussed. Exemplary benchmarks for selected basic processes in private everyday life visualise the suggested framework, which can be adapted for individual methodical analyses.
Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Swain, Akshya
Sensors were developed to detect and quantify structures and functions of human body as well as to gather information from the environment in order to optimize the efficiency, cost-effectiveness and quality of healthcare services as well as to improve health and quality of life. This book offers an up-to-date overview of the concepts, modeling, technical and technological details and practical applications of different types of sensors. It also discusses the trends for the next generation of sensors and systems for healthcare settings. It is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the field of healthcare technologies, as well as academics and industry professionals involved in developing sensing systems for human body structures and functions, and for monitoring activities and health.
Baxter, Leslie; Egbert, Nichole; Ho, Evelyn
The authors examined college students' day-to-day health communication experiences. A convenience sample of 109 midwestern university students participated in the study. The participants completed health communication diaries for 2 weeks, generating 2,185 records. Frequent health topics included nutrition and diet, minor health concerns, risky health practices, and body fitness. Approximately 27% of health communication experiences involved the proactive seeking of health-related information or advice. Interpersonal venues (face-to-face, telephone, and e-mail) were evident in about 75% of the records, which were dominated by exchanges with friends and family members. The authors found modest interactions of topic, channel, and purpose. Congruent with the uses and gratifications theory, the authors found that satisfaction with and perceived impact of health communication experiences varied by topic, channel, relationship, and purpose.
Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Ahrenberg, Lars
Science education research suggests that our everyday intuitions of motion and interaction of physical objects fit well with how physicists use the term "momentum". Corpus linguistics provides an easily accessible approach to study language in different domains, including everyday language. Analysis of language samples from English text corpora reveals a trend of increasing metaphorical use of "momentum" in non-science domains, and through conceptual metaphor analysis, we show that the use of the word in everyday language, as opposed to for instance "force", is largely adequate from a physics point of view. In addition, "momentum" has recently been borrowed into Swedish as a metaphor in domains such as sports, politics and finance, with meanings similar to those in physics. As an implication for educational practice, we find support for the suggestion to introduce the term "momentum" to English-speaking pupils at an earlier age than what is typically done in the educational system today, thereby capitalising on their intuitions and experiences of everyday language. For Swedish-speaking pupils, and possibly also relevant to other languages, the parallel between "momentum" and the corresponding physics term in the students' mother tongue could be made explicit..
for this approach is the concept of social practice as presented by (among others) Dreier, Lave, Axel and Juul Jensen, and a critical psychological understanding of subjectivity (Holzkamp, Dreier). By focusing on teachers’ conduct of everyday teaching, the paper provides possibilities to learn about what it means...... of what else goes on in everyday school life. The analysis to be presented is based on participant observations in two Danish schools, and on interviews with four teachers over a period of two years....
Shaun K. Kane
Full Text Available Introduction. The accessibility of Websites to people with disabilities is a problem that affects millions of people. Current accessibility initiatives generally target large government or commercial sites. A rapidly growing segment of online content is created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible, thereby excluding users with disabilities. Method. Activity theory is used to provide a model of the activities of non-professional, 'end-user' designers. Drawing from the author's experiences with technology learners, a holistic model of end-user Web design is produced. Analysis. The activity model is divided into three components. The activities of end-user designers, tool designers and Website consumers are examined. Potential barriers to the adoption of accessibility practices are identified. Results. Barriers to accessibility can occur within individual activity systems, or may be caused by interactions between systems. The accessibility of this content cannot be addressed by a single party, but requires collaboration between the designer and toolmaker. End-user designers work within a complex social environment and may face uncertainty regarding their roles as designers that affects their awareness of accessibility. Conclusion. . Increasing the accessibility of user-produced content may require a holistic approach. An activity model may be helpful in producing tools and educational materials
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn
This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...... communication theories that ask, in addition, what communication ought to be, and what it could be, taking the relationship between communication and justice as a case in point. The final section returns to empirical conceptualizations of different institutions, practices and discourses of communication...
John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.
Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…
Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Bell, Philip
This project analyses the prevalence and social construction of science in the everyday activities of multicultural, multilingual children in one urban community. Using cross-setting ethnographic fieldwork (i.e. home, museum, school, community), we developed an ecologically grounded interview protocol and analytical scheme for gauging students'…
Ünlü Yücesoy, E.
This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main
Living an everyday life among other people entails evaluating their behavior according to our own ideas about what is right and wrong – good or bad. And living according to our own ethics in a mobile risk society entails ambivalences and opens up the issue of responsibility. This article discusses...
Hamstra, Melvyn R. W.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Veldstra, Janet L.
Uncertainty is an inherent aspect of everyday life. However, faced with uncertainty, some individuals take risks more eagerly than others. Regulatory focus theory may explain such differences because risky behavior may arise naturally from the eagerness of promotion focused individuals, while safe
This article investigates a corpus of herbalist pamphlets – fairly common, everyday texts found in (South) African cities – which promote the services of traditional healers and promise solutions to a plethora of ailments and life problems. The article's multi-pronged approach brings feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA), ...
Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) and semi-structured interviews, we examined how people experience and use music in everyday life in potentially beneficial ways to enhance subjective wellbeing. In contrast to previous research where music's self-regulatory role has been highlighted primarily in the context ...
Samsung introduced last year a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of Nokia mobile phone TV commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone, its digital camera...
Takeuchi, T.; Duszkiewicz, A.J.; Sonneborn, A.; Spooner, P.A.; Yamasaki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Smith, C.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Deisseroth, K.; Greene, R.W.; Morris, R.G.
The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the
Sotardi, Valerie A.
Elementary school students are confronted with a variety of everyday challenges ranging from comprehension obstacles to interpersonal conflict. Learning to cope effectively with moments of tension is an important part of a child's education because adaptation to stress is likely to influence academic and developmental success. However,…
The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…
Sullivan, Joseph F.
This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…
Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas
an integration of the rehab activities with the everyday activities of senior citizens. We expect that our articulation of the emerging ReHandle design space will be informative and inspirational for the interaction design and HCI community exploring the role of digital technology for successful rehabilitation...... of senior citizens....
Tabuenca, Bernardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus
Tabuenca, B., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2012). Everyday patterns in lifelong learners to build personal learning ecologies. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 86-93). October, 16-18, 2012, Helsinki,
Dec 16, 2016 ... become more accessible and that exposure to music in everyday contexts has significantly in- creased over the past decades, particularly through the introduction of personal stereos and the greater presence of sound reproduction technology. This enables people to carry their personal music libraries with ...
This thesis presents societal preconditions for Personalized Nutrition Advice (PNA) that result from an everyday-life perspective on this innovative approach. Generally, PNA is regarded as promising, because it provides users with highly specific information on individual health risks and benefits
McNamara, John K.; Wong, Bernice
This study compared students with (n=20) and without (n=40) learning disabilities (LD) on their recall of academic information and information encountered in their everyday lives. Students with LD performed poorly on both types of recall, suggesting that they may have problems with retrieval and working memory. The availability of cues…
This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…
The document includes 8 lectures presented at the National Seminar on Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt) between 28-29 June 1994 in Cairo. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture
Wenche M. Rønning
Full Text Available This study was motivated by a concern for how older adults adjust to their digital everyday life. Theories of motivation and self-efficacy are applied in order to understand how older adults master and adjust to the rapid development into a paper-free, online world. A sample of eighteen older adults (62-90 years were interviewed about the reasons and motivations underlying their ICT usage, and how this affects their perception of mastering their everyday life. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for this purpose. The data were analyzed using an inductive coding procedure involving descriptive and interpretive phases based on the theoretical assumptions about motivation and mastery. Three overarching categories were evident in the data material; Challenges, Connectedness and Expanding. The first category describes new challenges mastering everyday life activities, and how this brings about feelings of pressure, barriers, and fear. The other two categories give a more positive picture of how older adults perceive the new developments. Internet and social media is perceived as positive because it enables them to stay connected to family, old and new friends. It also enables them to cultivate and expand leisure and hobby activities in new ways. Based on the findings we underscore the necessity of devising strategies that will prevent older people from being marginalized in relation to the digital everyday life.
BLOMERT, L; KEAN, ML; KOSTER, C; SCHOKKER, J
The Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT) is designed to measure, first, the level of verbal communicative abilities of aphasic patients and, second, changes in these abilities over time. The level of communicative effectiveness is determined by the adequacy of bringing a message across.
Brosnan, Caragh; Cribb, Alan; Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare
The ethical issues neuroscience raises are subject to increasing attention, exemplified in the emergence of the discipline neuroethics. While the moral implications of neurotechnological developments are often discussed, less is known about how ethics intersects with everyday work in neuroscience and how scientists themselves perceive the ethics of their research. Drawing on observation and interviews with members of one UK group conducting neuroscience research at both the laboratory bench and in the clinic, this article examines what ethics meant to these researchers and delineates four specific types of ethics that shaped their day-to-day work: regulatory, professional, personal and tangible. While the first three categories are similar to those identified elsewhere in sociological work on scientific and clinical ethics, the notion of 'tangible ethics' emerged by attending to everyday practice, in which these scientists' discursive distinctions between right and wrong were sometimes challenged. The findings shed light on how ethical positions produce and are, in turn, produced by scientific practice. Informing sociological understandings of neuroscience, they also throw the category of neuroscience and its ethical specificity into question, given that members of this group did not experience their work as raising issues that were distinctly neuro-ethical. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Herceptin (Trastuzumab is a widely used and effective drug for the treatment of Her2+ breast cancer but its cardiotoxic side effects require regular monitoring by echocardiography. A 10% reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction can lead to suspension of treatment and therefore has significant implications for patient prognosis in terms of cardiac and cancer outcomes. Assessment of LV function by conventional 2D biplane method of discs (2DEF has limitations in accuracy and reproducibility. Global longitudinal strain (GLS is becoming more widely available and user friendly. It has been shown to demonstrate myocardial damage earlier in treatment than 2DEF, allowing the option of pharmacological intervention at a pre-clinical stage and preventing the interruption of Herceptin. This study compares the reproducibility of GLS with that of 2DEF in a routine clinical environment. Fifty echocardiograms performed on female patients undergoing Herceptin treatment were used to measure both 2DEF and GLS within the recommended standard appointment time of 40 min. The data were re-measured (blind by the same operator a minimum of 14 days later to determine intra-operator variation. These data were also measured by a second operator (blind, to assess inter-operator variation. Analysis by direct comparison, intra-class correlation (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV and Bland–Altman plots demonstrated that GLS is a more reproducible measurement than 2DEF. This is important to prevent clinical decisions being erroneously based on variation in operator measurement. The investigation also shows that with advances in machine software this is a practical addition to routine assessment rather than merely a research tool.
Kraus, Nina; White-Schwoch, Travis
Sound is an invisible but powerful force that is central to everyday life. Studies in the neurobiology of everyday communication seek to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying sound processing, their stability, their plasticity, and their links to language abilities and disabilities. This sound processing lies at the nexus of cognitive, sensorimotor, and reward networks. Music provides a powerful experimental model to understand these biological foundations of communication, especially with regard to auditory learning. We review studies of music training that employ a biological approach to reveal the integrity of sound processing in the brain, the bearing these mechanisms have on everyday communication, and how these processes are shaped by experience. Together, these experiments illustrate that music works in synergistic partnerships with language skills and the ability to make sense of speech in complex, everyday listening environments. The active, repeated engagement with sound demanded by music making augments the neural processing of speech, eventually cascading to listening and language. This generalization from music to everyday communications illustrates both that these auditory brain mechanisms have a profound potential for plasticity and that sound processing is biologically intertwined with listening and language skills. A new wave of studies has pushed neuroscience beyond the traditional laboratory by revealing the effects of community music training in underserved populations. These community-based studies reinforce laboratory work highlight how the auditory system achieves a remarkable balance between stability and flexibility in processing speech. Moreover, these community studies have the potential to inform health care, education, and social policy by lending a neurobiological perspective to their efficacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.
The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.
The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement
Differentiation in School Practice is an ongoing research project currently being carried out in UCC’s research department by myself and my coworker Christina Jørgensen. The project includes a field study of everyday life in a Danish 5th grade classroom with the aim to observe, describe and analyze...
In this article, the author challenges the implicit assumptions of tests as a neutral tool for measuring the individual’s learning achievement. Instead, testing is explored as a social practice which becomes part of children’s conduct of everyday life. The theoretical foundation for the analysis...... class at a low socio-economic school in Denmark....
Full Text Available The article examines the significance of informal economic practices, e.g. street vending and informal commerce, for young merchants from Ettadhamen, a neighborhood situated in the northwestern periphery of the Greater Tunis area. It further addresses cross-border trade in the Tunisian-Libyan and Tunisian-Algerian border regions in which some of these merchants are indirectly involved. Peripheralization therefore does not imply complete socio-spatial exclusion. Peripheries rather offer important, albeit limited possibilities, to acquire resources through practices that are situated in the interstices between legality and illegality. As these possibilities often avoid state regulation and control, the article also addresses the ambivalent nature of the state-society relations that shapes everyday encounters between inhabitants and state agents, especially the police.
The teaching and learning spaces at universities are in transformation. With the incorporation of electronic technologies like ipads, smart boards and electronic platforms like “moodle” new digital spaces are emerging in educational practices. These technological spaces are not only useful tools...... expanding human activities, they are also powerful socio-political “forms of life” (Langdon Winner) transforming fundamentally the practice of teaching and learning as well as the students’ conduct of everyday life. The paper explores the meaning of digital learning spaces at universities (especially......, the paper examines the contradictory forms of participation materialized in digital learning spaces and explores how they might relate to the development of expansive learning....
M. V. Naumenko
The author analyzes the possible negative consequences of widespread use of artificial concepts in sociology, advantages and disadvantages of the use of natural (everyday concepts in sociology, propose a resolve the situation of naive reading of everyday concepts.
Hybholt, Lisbeth; Mørck, Line Lerche
This paper theoretically and empirically explores critical psychological conceptualisations of conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding. The analysis of conduct of everyday life for people who have been hospitalized with depression shows experiences of doubleness. We understand...
Lamerichs, J.M.W.J.; Koelen, M.; Te Molder, H.F.M.
Adopting principles applied in discursive psychology and translated to suit the practice of participatory health education, we describe in this article the five steps of the discursive action method (DAM). With this method, adolescents are stimulated to explore their own everyday conversations to
Lamerichs, J.M.W.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Molder, te H.F.M.
Adopting principles applied in discursive psychology and translated to suit the practice of participatory health education, we describe in this article the five steps of the discursive action method (DAM). With this method, adolescents are stimulated to explore their own everyday conversations to
Chen, Feiyan; Fleer, Marilyn
Many studies have identified the positive "link" between imaginary play and emotion regulation in laboratory settings. However, little is known about "how" play and emotion regulation are related in everyday practice. This article examines how families use play as a tool to support young children's emotion regulation in…
Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3...
Full Text Available The article introduces itself in the reflection about how we relate to the objects of our immediate everyday lives. Through narrative reflection and the essay. It especially affects the processing capacity of the human being faced with their everyday environment, which is usually perceived without reflection, to generate new narratives of artistic relationships and aesthetics with them through the composition of new looks of re-signification and transfiguration of meanings. Looks that finally become, in the construction of a new educational and artistic narrative that allows us to rethink our daily lives from an artistic perspective, building a model of self-study, an aesthetic experience that becomes an educational artistic experience and that affects the auto identity transformation in building new worlds and enriching relationships with our objects.
Thoma, Myriam V; Ryf, Stefan; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M
Music is a stimulus capable of triggering an array of basic and complex emotions. We investigated whether and how individuals employ music to induce specific emotional states in everyday situations for the purpose of emotion regulation. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether specific emotion-regulation styles influence music selection in specific situations. Participants indicated how likely it would be that they would want to listen to various pieces of music (which are known to elicit specific emotions) in various emotional situations. Data analyses by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed a clear preference for pieces of music that were emotionally congruent with an emotional situation. In addition, we found that specific emotion-regulation styles might influence the selection of pieces of music characterised by specific emotions. Our findings demonstrate emotion-congruent music selection and highlight the important role of specific emotion-regulation styles in the selection of music in everyday situations.
and mediate the relationship between patients (and caregivers) and the condition. However, these technologies often disregard the complexity of the settings in which they are used and fail to become integrated in everyday life. In this workshop we will discuss how to design self-care technologies......Managing chronic conditions can be challenging. People in such conditions, and the people around them, have to: deal with symptoms, adapt to the resulting disability, manage emotions, and change habits to keep the condition under control. Self-care technologies have the potential to support self-care...... that are in harmony with people's everyday life. Therefore, we invite designers, researchers and practitioners to participate in a full-day workshop in which we will reflect on each other's work, and do a design exercise with patients and caregivers....
Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...
Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen
When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...... emphasis on both the physical construction and mental construing of architecture. With this dual perspective Frascari established a discourse in tectonic thinking which brings the tectonic expression beyond structural genius into socio-cultural realms of storytelling, myth and ritual. However, in everyday...... architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing...
expressions constitute a central knowledge source for learning about the children’s perspectives. The aim is to raise a theoretical discussion about how the concept ‘conduct of life’ is related to the concept ‘first person perspective’ by a third concept ‘subjective situation’ [befindlichkeit, Osterkamp......The paper discusses methodological issues in relation to researching young (0-4 year) children’s first person’s perspectives. Drawing on a recent Danish study of children’s compound everyday life across day care contexts and family life, I argue that focusing on the children’s gazes and bodily......-Holzkamp 1991]. This theoretical juxtaposition contributes by linking children’s experiences and emotional feelings to concrete social situations in everyday life. These theoretical discussions contribute to methodological considerations in relation to doing situated analysis of preverbal children’s first...
This paper has both a theoretical and a practical idea and content. The theoretical aim is to use and develop practice theory from Schatzki, Reckwitz and Warde to be more applicable in understanding everyday routines. The theoretical development will focus on how routines exist in close...... as understanding reasons for both similarities and differences....
so, in what direction? In addressing this question, we focus specifically on small- scale corruption, such as bribery exchanges in everyday...parents have a positive view of bribery as it allows them to navigate the inflexible higher educational system, receive the treatment that they want, and...avoid the burdensome requirements of an outdated curriculum. She also describes similar attitudes among Belarusian parents in relation to bribery in
Maestri, Leah Adriana
Repair is typically seen in design as the restoration of broken objects to their original state. Repair by non-experts, or everyday repair, can often lead to novel forms of repair resulting in the creative repurposing of objects that are often unforeseen by designers. Using a grounded theory approach, this study describes key aspects of repair including: the techniques non-experts employ for repairing their objects; the motivations that prompt acts of repair; and the outcomes that result fr...
The ability of static friction to accelerate systems does not usually get the attention it deserves in introductory physics. Everyday human contexts abound in our grasp of objects to move them, in our being moved as passengers, and in our own locomotion. Student laboratory, classroom and homework activities have been developed which enable students to explore the vital role of static friction in various biomechanical contexts. Examples will be demonstrated.
Boal-Palheiros, Graça; Mito, Hiromichi
Extensive research has shown the numerous benefits of singing and overall engagement in music for the intellectual, social, personal and musical development of children and young people (Hallam, 2010; Welch et al, 2010). Previous studies on singing in everyday life and at school suggest that young people actively engage in singing in and out of school. Although they enjoy it in both contexts, some adolescents dislike singing at school because they feel uncomfortable when being exposed and str...
Chanzanagh, Hamid Ebadollahi; Piri, Akbar; Garjan, Elham Abbaszadeh
Like the disabled in other cultures, Iranian disabled confront numerous difficulties in their everyday life. They are constantly rejected in different fields of social life by Iranian culture, and as a result Iranian disabled find themselves in an inappropriate cultural /social circumstance. This research is focused on Iranian disabled and host culture in one of northern Iranian provinces, Gilan (Rasht city) to explain living experiences of Iranian disabled as abandoned individuals in Iranian...
Williger, Bettina; Lang, Frieder R.
Background and Objective: We investigated usage of and satisfaction with hearing aid devices in everyday life among older adults with hearing loss. Our research further advances the role of hearing contexts for hearing aid use and satisfaction. A central assumption was that hearing aid owners adapt the usage of the hearing aid devices to contextual demands of hearing depending on their personal resources. Methods: In a sample of 158 hearing aid owners aged 50-88 years, we examined proactive h...
Given, Lisa M.
This study explored information-seeking behavior of mature undergraduates at a Canadian university based on the study of everyday life information seeking (ELIS). Findings include the role of social and cultural capital, ways that everyday and academic contexts inform one another, and the importance of not separating the everyday from other life…
Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald
A widespread assumption in research and clinical practice is that cognitive reappraisal is a healthy and successful emotion regulation strategy, while expressive suppression is ineffective and has non-favourable consequences (e.g., decreased positive affect, higher physiological arousal). However, little is known about the consequences of reappraisal and expressive suppression for everyday affect. We investigated affective consequences of habitual reappraisal and expressive suppression in undergraduates (n=87), and sampled affect characteristics for 24h. Moreover, we quantified affective recovery from viewing an aversive video fragment. Habitual reappraisal was associated with lowered emotional arousal (but not valence), both in terms of diurnal affect levels and positive and negative responses to the emotional provocation task. This pattern contravenes the popular assumption that reappraisal has generally favourable consequences. Additionally, in contrast to the alleged non-favourable consequences of habitual expressive suppression, the current study failed to find a relation between expressive suppression, diurnal affect levels and affective recovery. This suggests that the detrimental effects of expressive suppression are limited in duration. Collectively, our results emphasise that the everyday consequences of emotion regulation for affect merits systematic research, for instance by using more naturalistic and prolonged interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yalin; Yanke, Jill; Campbell, Jamie I D
The role of language in memory for arithmetic facts remains controversial. Here, we examined transfer of memory training for evidence that bilinguals may acquire language-specific memory stores for everyday arithmetic facts. Chinese-English bilingual adults (n = 32) were trained on different subsets of simple addition and multiplication problems. Each operation was trained in one language or the other. The subsequent test phase included all problems with addition and multiplication alternating across trials in two blocks, one in each language. Averaging over training language, the response time (RT) gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems were greater in the trained language than in the untrained language. Subsequent analysis showed that English training produced larger RT gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems in English at test relative to the untrained Chinese language. In contrast, there was no evidence with Chinese training that problem-specific RT gains differed between Chinese and the untrained English language. We propose that training in Chinese promoted a translation strategy for English arithmetic (particularly multiplication) that produced strong cross-language generalization of practice, whereas training in English strengthened relatively weak, English-language arithmetic memories and produced little generalization to Chinese (i.e., English training did not induce an English translation strategy for Chinese language trials). The results support the existence of language-specific strengthening of memory for everyday arithmetic facts.
Sivertsen, Marianne; Normann, Britt
People with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) are often young and need long-term follow-up as many suffer complex motor, sensory, perceptual and cognitive impairments. This paper aims to introduce phenomenological notions of embodiment and self as a framework to help understand how people with sTBI experience reorientation to everyday life, and to inform clinical practice in neurological physiotherapy. The impairments caused by the sTBI may lead to a sense of alienation of one's own body and changes in operative intentionality and in turn disrupt the reorganization of self, identity, everyday life and integration/co-construction of meaning with others. Applying a first-person conception of the body may extend insights into the importance of an adapted and individualized approach to strengthen the sensory, perceptual and motor body functions, which underpin the pre-reflective and reflective aspects of the self. It seems important to integrate these aspects, while also paying attention to optimizing co-construction of meaning for the person with sTBI in the treatment context. This requires understanding the patient as an experiencing and expressive body, a lived body (body-as-subject) and not just the body-as-object as is favored in more traditional frameworks of physiotherapy.
Arntzen, Cathrine; Elstad, Ingunn
The aim of this study is to explore apraxia as a phenomenon in everyday activities, as experienced by a group of stroke patients. Some consequences for clinical practice are suggested. In this phenomenological hermeneutical study, six persons with apraxia were followed from 2 to 6 months, from the early phase of stroke rehabilitation. ADL-situations and interactions with therapists were observed and videotaped repeatedly during the rehabilitation trajectory, to provide access to and familiarity with the participant's apractic difficulties over time. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. Interviews and video observations were analyzed together, taking Merleau-Ponty's concept of bodily intentionality as basis for analysis and his phenomenology as the main theoretical perspective of the study. Five types of altered bodily intentionality were described by the participants [ 1 ]: Gap between intention and bodily action [ 2 ], Fragmented awareness in action [ 3 ], Peculiar actions and odd bodies [ 4 ], Intentionality on the loose, and [ 5 ] Fighting against tools. These were recognized as characteristics typical of the apraxia experience. The phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty, and his concept of bodily intentionality in particular, elucidate the way specific apractic difficulties come into being and may thus render apraxia less incomprehensible. The apraxia phenomenon appears as characteristic fragmentations of anticipation inherent in action performance, thereby "slackening" the bodily intentionality. Identifying apractic changes of intentionality may help health professionals to adjust and individualize therapy, and facilitate patients' acting competence in everyday life.
Full Text Available Through a sociological case study this article analyses how, seen from a relational perspective, everyday life for elderly people receiving care in their own homes is lived with dependence on health-care professionals. The health-care professionals’ time and tasks are assigned and allocated in advance so that the elderly people are neither allowed nor able to vary their response in relation to the situation they encounter. The life of the client is also treated as though it were a solid, structured everyday life with minimal private time. Work in the home, for example, household chores and personal care, resembles a disciplining strategy. The client lives under conditions of monitoring and control comparable to conditions of imprisonment. The client is subject to the will of and social intercourse with other people in his own home; he both knows it is necessary and offers resistance to the conditions. In short, the authors argue that the homecare service acts as a disciplining practice in modern society.
Full Text Available A substantial strand in the interpretations of the films of Dušan Makavejev foregrounds the juxtaposition between ordinary life and public perfectionist strivings, and argues that the director takes the side of the former against the latter. A reference to Stanley Cavell, the philosopher to whom we owe some canonical interpretations of Makavejev, appears to be crucial in those readings. However, both Cavell’s and Makavejev’s views on the matters of the everyday are far more complex than the prevailing dichotomous readings suggest. It is my view that the critics who came after Cavell significantly diluted the complexity of his arguments on the everyday, which are not limited only to his writings on Makavejev, but also include his interpretations of Emerson and Wittgenstein. Hence I argue that the more nuanced reading of Cavell’s work – and not just his dwellings on Makavejev – paves the way for the more salient interpretations of the former’s work. Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Dinić, Rastislav. "Perfectionism, Therapy and the Everyday: on Cavell on Makavejev." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 165-175. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.193
Quigley, Muireann; Ayihongbe, Semande
Using the metaphor and actuality of the 'everyday cyborg', this article makes the case that the law is ill-equipped to deal with challenges raised by the linking of the organic, biological person with synthetic, inorganic parts and devices. For instance, should internal medical devices that keep the person alive be viewed as part of the person or mere objects (or something else)? Is damage to neuro-prostheses (eg nervous system integrated limb prostheses) personal injury or damage to property? Who ought to control/own the software in implanted medical devices? And how should the law deal with risks around third-party device access (including that of unauthorised access and hacking)? We argue that satisfactorily answering such questions will likely require a re-analysis of the conceptual and philosophical underpinnings of the law, as well as the law itself. To demonstrate this, we examine the uncharted terrain which everyday cyborgs pose for the law, looking in particular at five areas: (i) medical device regulation, safety, and product liability; (ii) damage to devices and liability; (iii) data and privacy; (iv) security and biohacking; and (v) intellectual property rights. The article highlights how advancing biotechnology continues to reveal, and prompts us to confront, lacunae within the law. Our analysis calls particular attention to law's boundary-work (how the law utilises and incorporates supposed ontological and moral boundaries) and the challenges which everyday cyborgs pose to this.
As a packaged consumer goods company serving mass markets around the world for household and personal hygiene products, laundry detergents and foods, Unilever's business is inextricably linked with consumers' interest in meeting their everyday water needs. Once the basic need for drinking water is met, almost all other "everyday" water needs derive from consumption associated with the type of products Unilever sells. Use of some of these products, such as basic toilet soap, involve "actual" water consumption; others, such as margarine, concern "virtual" water consumption through agricultural production. Global scenarios for water and sanitation present a major challenge to long-term business strategies that assume sustained economic growth particularly in emerging and developing markets. Responsibility for finding and delivering solutions lies with all major actors in society. For companies such as Unilever, a priority is to help break the link between economic development on the one hand, and increased water use and water degradation on the other. Water catchment level perspectives are central to realising this vision. Unilever uses such a framework, building an experience-based model that demonstrates how a "consumer" company can engage in meeting everyday water needs with a sustained positive impact.
Sabo, Samantha; Shaw, Susan; Ingram, Maia; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Carvajal, Scott; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Rosales, Cecilia; Redondo, Flor; Garcia, Gina; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel
Immigration laws that militarize communities may exacerbate ethno-racial health disparities. We aimed to document the prevalence of and ways in which immigration enforcement policy and militarization of the US-Mexico border is experienced as everyday violence. Militarization is defined as the saturation of and pervasive encounters with immigration officials including local police enacting immigration and border enforcement policy with military style tactics and weapons. Data were drawn from a random household sample of US citizen and permanent residents of Mexican descent in the Arizona border region (2006-2008). Qualitative and quantitative data documented the frequency and nature of immigration related profiling, mistreatment and resistance to institutionalized victimization. Participants described living and working in a highly militarized environment, wherein immigration-related profiling and mistreatment were common immigration law enforcement practices. Approximately 25% of respondents described an immigration-related mistreatment episode, of which 62% were personally victimized. Nearly 75% of episodes occurred in a community location rather than at a US port of entry. Participant mistreatment narratives suggest the normalization of immigration-related mistreatment among the population. Given border security remains at the core of immigration reform debates, it is imperative that scholars advance the understanding of the public health impact of such enforcement policies on the daily lives of Mexican-origin US permanent residents, and their non-immigrant US citizen co-ethnics. Immigration policy that sanctions institutional practices of discrimination, such as ethno-racial profiling and mistreatment, are forms of structural racism and everyday violence. Metrics and systems for monitoring immigration and border enforcement policies and institutional practices deleterious to the health of US citizens and residents should be established. Copyright © 2014
To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.
This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of 'drug diversion'--that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Eduardo Cerón Aparicio
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine how the non peri-urban rural space in the Mexico’s central region, which is a highly urbanized context, is organized. Changes taking place within the framework of globalization promote greater openness and flexibilization in the territory, resulting in an increased mobility, which takes a great diversity of forms and expands everyday interaction spaces. In order to study this phenomenon, this article examines the usual movements of rural population, which allow for the definition of ties between rural space and its rural-urban entourage. According to the origin-destination analysis of displacements, the balance of territorial changes is negative as for mobility practices, as well with regard to the interweaving of new interaction networks with their urban environment. Interaction places have remained in the traditional municipal space, even when favorable physical conditions exist for displacement.
Full Text Available Computerization, digitalization and datafication are by far no neutral or self-dependent occurrences. They are, to a large degree, co-determined by heterogeneous actors who reflect about, construct, configure, manipulate or even control media. The contributors to this issue put the spotlight on these actors and investigate how they influence, shape and (reconfigure broader social constellations. Instead of exploring what people do with media, the articles focus on the many ways individuals, civil society initiatives, corporations and social movements act on media. The notion of acting on media denotes the efforts of a wide range of actors to take an active part in the molding of media organizations, infrastructures and technologies that are part of the fabric of everyday life. Therefore, by conceptualizing acting on media as a form of political action, the issue aims to contribute to ongoing discussions on the media practice paradigm.
Marisa Natalia Fassi
Full Text Available This article looks at the way sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina, have dealt with legal marginalization, focusing on their understandings and associated practices of resistance. Sex workers position in law shows the group is on the margins of law, which means that their activity is not considered to be legal but is not illegal either. Since 2000 a group of sex workers started to organize to stop the constant detentions and humiliations by police officers. The organization called AMMAR (Asociación de Mujeres Meretrices Argentinas implied a major shift from an oppression of consciousness to a consciousness of oppression, modifying in this process the terms of their resistance from mere tactics of survival to a struggle for redefinition of their position in law and society. This article firstly explores the idea of margins of law, consciousness, power and resistance, and also describes the regulation of sex work in the city of Córdoba; secondly, it refers to sex workers experiences, perceptions and practices of resistance before the organization in relation to the police, the Judiciary, as well as with other institutions, and relates this experiences with their practices of resistance in that period; thirdly, it explains the process of organization and the way it has influenced their reflective awareness and practices of resistance, it describes as well the heterogeneity of understandings regarding law. Lastly, the Conclusion revisits the outcomes and literature to propose final reflections about dealing with the margins of law in everyday life.
Arto O. Salonen
Full Text Available Finland aims to be a carbon-neutral society by the year 2050. We are interested to know on a general level how sustainable living materializes among Finnish people, what is the structure of a sustainable lifestyle in Finland and how do people reason about their everyday behavior choices in the context of sustainability in order to combat climate change. The data (n = 2052 were collected by questionnaire in April 2017. They were corrected by sex, age and residential area to be representative of the population of Finland (18–79 years old. We applied mixed methods. A principal axis factoring was conducted on the 32 variables with orthogonal rotation (varimax. Six factors explained 65.2% of the variance. The respondents were also able to write why they considered the specific variable to be important for them. We classified 2811 reasonings. According to our results, Finns have become conscious of climate change, but carbon reduction has not become mainstream in their everyday life. Circulation and preventing loss of materials show a promising start to a Finn’s sustainable way of living. Recycling has been automated so that it is part of a Finn’s everyday routine and habits. Finns also favor domestic food and products. They are interested in the origin of materials. Essential reasons for that are supporting the local economy and ensuring a good employment rate for the state. Smart, carbon-free mobility is a challenge. Finns seem to estimate that their personal car use is already at the proper level. On the other hand, even one fifth reported consideration of environmental effects when planning holidays.
Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C
The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.
Jeffrey T. Grabill
Full Text Available Our purpose in writing is two-fold: (1 to introduce this audience to the Writing in Digital Environments (WIDE Research Center, and (2 to make an argument about the importance of understanding and supporting knowledge work for professional and technical communicators. We are particularly interested in what knowledge (writing work looks like in multiple contexts—for instance, in civic organizations as well as in corporate organizations— because contemporary social and community contexts are dependent on high-quality knowledge work. This explains our interest in “everyday life.”
This presentation discusses significant changes in Danish policies on preschool curriculum and their effects on everyday life in kindergarten. This change is often conceptualized as neoliberal governance and consists of an increased focus on learning, documentation and evaluation. Grounded...... – pedagogues’ relation, in the amount of staff time devoted to documentation and management and in an increased focus on children’s learning and performativity. The project is based on a broad range of qualitative research methods, including ethnographic inspired observations and interviews with pedagogues...... and children in 7 different day care facilities....
Højholt, Charlotte; Røn Larsen, Maja
access, influencing and contributing to the collective, social life conditions. In this way, the discussions of the text are dealing with some of the fundamental theoretical debates about persons and their social lives. The discussions in this special issue is anchored in the Nordic, pedagogical...... traditions, and draw on a number of different empirical research projects involved in children's everyday life across different contexts, such as family, child care and school. Additionally the issue investigates different problematics related to children's lives across the so called normal, and the special...
John C. Pruit
Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.
Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen
architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing......When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...
Stensgaard, A; DunnGalvin, A; Nielsen, D
BACKGROUND: Adolescents have the highest risk for food allergy-related fatalities. Our main aim was to investigate the level of risk in everyday social situations as perceived by adolescents/young adults with peanut allergy, their families and their friends. METHODS: The web-based 'Colours Of Risks......' (COR) questionnaire was completed by 70 patients (aged 12-23 years), 103 mothers and fathers, 31 siblings (aged 12-26 years), and 42 friends (aged 12-24 years). COR deals with six main contexts (home, school/university, work, visiting/social activities, special occasions/parties, and vacations), each...
Full Text Available Nana F Hempler,1 Sara Nicic,1 Bettina Ewers,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; 2Nutrition and Food Services Department, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark Background: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion: Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. Keywords: dietary diabetes
Full Text Available Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human–computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.
Sharon Eve Sonenblum
Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to describe how people move about in manual wheelchairs (MWCs during everyday life by evaluating bouts of mobility or continuous periods of movement. Methods. A convenience sample of 28 MWC users was recruited. Participants' everyday mobility was measured using a wheel-mounted accelerometer and seat occupancy switch for 1-2 weeks. Bouts of mobility were recorded and characterized. Results. Across 29,200 bouts, the median bout lasted 21 seconds and traveled 8.6 m at 0.43 m/s. 85% of recorded bouts lasted less than 1 minute and traveled less than 30 meters. Participants' daily wheelchair activity included 90 bouts and 1.6 km over 54 minutes. Average daily occupancy time was 11 hours during which participants wheeled 10 bouts/hour and spent 10% of their time wheeling. Spearman-Brown Prophecy analysis suggested that 7 days were sufficient to achieve a reliability of 0.8 for all bout variables. Conclusions. Short, slow bouts dominate wheelchair usage in a natural environment. Therefore, clinical evaluations and biomechanical research should reflect this by concentrating on initiating movement, maneuvering wheelchairs, and stopping. Bouts of mobility provide greater depth to our understanding of wheelchair use and are a more stable metric (day-to-day than distance or time wheeled.
M. Endy Saputro
Full Text Available This paper aims to give a preliminary draft to formulate an innovative concept in the Qur’anic studies world in the age of post-consumerism Muslim. Recent studies on tug of war between globalization and religion have been identifying salient social transformation in some parts of Muslim world, such as the rise of new (media religious authority, religious commodification trends, varieties of Islamic consumption, the emergence of public Islam and so forth. Apart from these recent scholarships, which successfully grasp the globalization’s influence toward religion (Islam, this paper offers the concept of everyday Qur’an as an alternative basic approach of understanding the cultures of Qur’an in this changing (Muslim world and at the same time, seeking to briefly explain its emerging issues. Some exemplary issues then have analytically discussed to reflect how the proposed theory applied. Thus, everyday Qur’an can contribute the discourse of cultures based technology in the context of Qur’anic Studies.
Bolmsjö, Ingrid Agren; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Sandman, Lars
In this article, a teleological model for analysis of everyday ethical situations in dementia care is used to analyse and clarify perennial ethical problems in nursing home care for persons with dementia. This is done with the aim of describing how such a model could be useful in a concrete care context. The model was developed by Sandman and is based on four aspects: the goal; ethical side-constraints to what can be done to realize such a goal; structural constraints; and nurses' ethical competency. The model contains the following main steps: identifying and describing the normative situation; identifying and describing the different possible alternatives; assessing and evaluating the different alternatives; and deciding on, implementing and evaluating the chosen alternative. Three ethically difficult situations from dementia care were used for the application of the model. The model proved useful for the analysis of nurses' everyday ethical dilemmas and will be further explored to evaluate how well it can serve as a tool to identify and handle problems that arise in nursing care.
Sejunaite, Karolina; Lanza, Claudia; Riepe, Matthias W
Generally we tend to think that memory in daily living is complete and accurate in healthy persons. However, current memory research has revealed inconspicuous memory faults. Rarely omissions and distortions of memory are researched with tasks resembling everyday life. We investigated healthy older control subjects (HC) and patients with depressive disorder (DD). Cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and mood with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). We assessed everyday veridical and distorted memories on showing participants original news and commercials. In most aspects of attention, executive functions, and memory, patients with DD performed worse than HC. Regarding memory content on viewing news or commercials the difference between patients with DD and HC was more pronounced for false memory content than for veridical memory content. Linear regression analysis showed the extent of false memory content being associated with mental flexibility as assessed with the Trail Making Test and mood as assessed with the MADRS for both information obtained on viewing news and commercials. Increase of false memories impedes overall accuracy of memory more than decrease of veridical memories in older persons with depressive disorder. Diminished executive functions and depressive mood partly explain these memory distortions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.
Isquith, Peter K; Gioia, Gerard A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews
Clinical assessment of executive function in preschool-age children is challenging given limited availability of standardized tasks and preschoolers' variable ability to participate in lengthy formal evaluation procedures. Given the benefits of ecological validity of measuring behavior by rating scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) was modified for use with children ages 2 through 5 years to assess executive functions in an everyday context. The scale development process, based on samples of 460 parents and 302 teachers, yielded a single 63-item measure with 5 related, but nonoverlapping, scales, with good internal consistency and temporal stability. Exploratory factor analyses identified 3 consistent factors: Emergent Metacognition, Flexibility, and Inhibitory Self-Control across parent and teacher samples. In a second study with a mixed sample of preschool children with various developmental disorders, parents and teachers rated these preschool children as having greater executive difficulties in most domains than matched controls. Such rating-scale methodology may be a useful complementary tool by which to reliably assess executive functions in preschool children via everyday behaviors in the natural environment.
Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson
To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.
Fields, Deborah Anne
This is a theory-building study taking a wide-angled perspective on youths' development of trajectories of identification across social settings of their everyday lives. I investigated the relationships within and between trajectories of identification across the everyday lives of four youth, studying the conflicts, cohesion, and gaps in their trajectories of identification as they moved across and participated in multiple social settings. I asked how trajectories of identification were built across social settings (i.e. relationships within a trajectory of identification); what kinds of relationships existed between youths' trajectories of identification; and what facilitated the building of trajectories of identification across social settings. To study these questions, I argued for three interrelated lenses on identity: local acting and positioning in practice, the ways one thinks of oneself (self-narratives), and the ways that others think of one (others'-narratives). Using these lenses I shaped a connective ethnography studying four 11-12 year old youth across everyday settings including school, home, hobbies like sports and music, community organizations, and peer groups, following two youth for six months and two youth for one year. I analyzed findings across the four youth. The cases presented in this thesis demonstrate the ways that youth form identities through their travel and not just in a single setting. First, I found that youth build trajectories of identification across social settings and not just in a single setting. As learning is not just within a single mind, so is identity developed beyond a single space. Second, I demonstrated how multiple interacting trajectories of identification within a youth's life may shape each other in inclusive and exclusive ways. Third, throughout the cases I highlighted how traveling artifacts can support building trajectories of identification across social settings, including boundary objects, artifacts created
Malinowsky, Camilla; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise
Everyday technologies (ETs) like microwave ovens and automatic telephone services as well as assistive technologies (ATs) are often used in the performance of everyday activities. As a consequence, the ability to manage technology is important. This pilot study aimed to clarify the applicability of a model for knowledge translation to support healthcare professionals, to support technology use among older adults with dementia and their significant others. An additional aim was to explore the process of translating the model into practice. The applicability of the model (comprising a one-day course, including introduction and provision of tools, followed by interviews during and after a period of practice) was clarified for 11 healthcare professionals using a constant comparative approach. The content of the model gave the participants an eye-opening experience of technology use among persons with dementia. They also described how they had incorporated the model as a new way of thinking which supported and inspired new investigations and collaborations with colleagues and significant others. This study provided an applicable model of how research knowledge about technology use can be translated into clinical practice and be used by healthcare professionals to support the use of technology for persons with dementia.
Beagan, Brenda L
Faced with an increasingly diverse student body, educators in the health professions struggle for ways to foster equality and understand racism. The concept of 'everyday racism' provides an important tool for examining subtle processes that construct a racialised climate in medical schools and other institutions. To examine the ways racism is understood and experienced within one medical school and investigate the micro level interactional processes that may perpetuate inequality. A survey (n = 72) and interviews (n = 25) were conducted with third year students at one Canadian medical school. A second class was surveyed (n = 61) 3 years later and 25 more students were interviewed. Students identified the linguistic advantage enjoyed by some classmates from ethno-cultural minority groups, but were less likely to identify the advantages enjoyed by white students, who may be more readily granted student-doctor status. Students from racialised minority groups experienced marginalisation through segregation, and struggled to respond appropriately to racist jokes and comments from patients and staff. A third (29%) of those who identified as 'minority' group members did not feel they fitted in particularly well at medical school, compared with only 7% of 'non-minority' students (chi2 P = 0.006; t-test P = 0.004). Medical students from racialised minority groups may experience 'everyday racism', mundane daily practices which intentionally or unintentionally convey disregard, disrespect or marginality. Such experiences are particularly difficult to deal with. Educators have a responsibility to counter with sustained antiracism, learning to acknowledge salient differences without reinforcing hierarchies of superiority and inferiority.
Gustafsson, Markus; Kristensson, Jimmie; Holst, Göran; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris
Modern-day health systems are complex, making it difficult to assure continuity of care for older persons with multi-morbidity. One way of intervening in a health system that is leading to fragmented care is by utilising Case Management (CM). CM aims to improve co-ordination of healthcare and social services. To better understand and advance the development of CM, there is a need for additional research that provides rich descriptions of CM in practice. This knowledge is important as there could be unknown mechanisms, contextual or interpersonal, that contribute to the success or failure of a CM intervention. Furthermore, the CM intervention in this study is conducted in the context of the Swedish health system, which prior to this intervention was unfamiliar with this kind of coordinative service. The aim of this study was to explore the everyday work undertaken by case managers within a CM intervention, with a focus on their experiences. The study design was qualitative and inductive, utilising a focused ethnographic approach. Data collection consisted of participant observations with field notes as well as a group interview and individual interviews with nine case managers, conducted in 2012/2013. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. An overarching theme emerged from the data: Challenging current professional identity, with three sub-themes. The sub-themes were 1) Adjusting to familiar work in an unfamiliar role; 2) Striving to improve the health system through a new role; 3) Trust is vital to advocacy. Findings from this study shed some light on the complexity of CM for older persons with multi-morbidity, as seen from the perspective of case managers. The findings illustrate how their everyday work as case managers represents a challenge to their current professional identity. These findings could help to understand and promote the development of CM models aimed at a population of older persons with complex
Who drives domestic institutional change in the face of international economic crisis? For rationalists the answer is powerful self-interested actors who struggle for material gains during an exogenously generated crisis. For economic constructivists it is ideational entrepreneurs who use ideas...... as weapons to establish paths for institutional change during crisis-driven uncertainty. Both approaches are elite-centric and conceive legitimacy as established by command or proclamation. This article establishes why domestic institutional change in response to international economic constraints must...... be legitimated by non-elites and how their everyday actions alter policy paths established in crisis. This is illustrated by re-examining a case frequently associated with punctuated equilibrium theories of crisis and institutional change: interwar Britain. In contrast to conventional explanations, I argue...
In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless. In summary, homelessness is a complex social phenomenon, involving tensions between individuals, families, and social systems, all of which are situated in the larger sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of a specific time and place.
Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD ( N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD.
The dissertation concerns the role of social media in young peoples’ everyday lives and it addresses how social media can be approached from a sociolinguistic and ethnographic perspective. My research is driven by an interest in how the complexity and mobility of linguistic and social resources...... carried out online ethnography by following the adolescents’ activities on Facebook. In the dissertation I pursue the topics of social media and sociolinguistic normativity and social media, semiotic resources and popular culture. Regarding the first thematic direction I find that social network sites...... are not free or unregulated orthographic spaces as depicted in public discourses on youth and social media, that linguistic and social normativity is polycentrically organized and that spoken and written discourse should not be separated in accounts of enregisterment in contemporary societies. Regarding...
Laumann, Daniel; Heusler, Stefan
The magnetic properties of an object and its interaction with an external magnetic field can be described through the magnetic (volume) susceptibility χV, which divides nearly all kinds of matter into diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances. Quantitative measurements of χV are usually technically sophisticated or require the investigation of substances with high values of χV to reveal meaningful results. Here, we show that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects in everyday materials can be measured using only an electronic balance and a neodymium magnet, both of which are within the reach of typical introductory college and high school physics classrooms. The experimental results match related literature values remarkably well.
Full Text Available Sovereignty over the Tokto Islets is heatedly contested between South Korea and Japan. The Korean government and citizenry have responded to this dispute by inserting the islets into their national collective memory in multifarious ways in an attempt to strengthen their nation’s claim to Tokto. The islets are included in the material culture and public memory of the nation in ways that make them part of everyday life for millions of Koreans. Korea’s claim to Tokto is currently taught in schools, presented in museums, found in popular songs, and exploited by businesses for profit. The deeper Tokto becomes entrenched in Korean society, the less likely a compromise can be reached with Japan over the islets.
Juncker, Beth; Balling, Gitte
the dichotomies between high and popular culture, and to value the first over the latter. Art and culture are rarely understood as an independent way to experiences, meaning creation and values in everyday life. In this article, we would argue for an expanded understanding of cultural democracy, which not only......Ever since the earliest forms of mass media, the dichotomy of mass culture/popular arts and high culture/fine art has been a topic of debate. The discussion has focused on the value and use of different art forms and on different notions on and attitudes to the purpose of art. The concept...... of cultural democracy has developed as a way to acknowledge and support a variety of cultural activities. Despite attempts to develop a broader understanding of culture and to acknowledge different ways of participating in and experiencing and valuing art and culture, cultural policy still seems to reproduce...
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin
students’ agency as learning designers. Moreover, the positive impact increases when students as learning designers participate in formative evaluation practices. Traditionally, the Danish school has worked hard to teach students to verbalise their own academic competencies. However, as our everyday...
Kidron, Carol A
Despite the abundant scholarship on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the memoropolitics entailed by testimonial accounts of trauma and genocide, little is known of the everyday experience of trauma survivors and their descendants. Survivor silence is thought to signify only psychological or political repression and the "unspeakability" of traumatic pasts. It is widely accepted that the everyday lives of trauma victims and their descendants entail only the "absence of presence" of the past and the absence of descendant knowledge of that past, while the familial social milieu is thought to foster only the wounds of transmitted PTSD. Contrary to the literature, ethnographic accounts of Holocaust descendants depict the survivor home as embedding the nonpathological presence of the Holocaust past within silent, embodied practices, person-object interaction, and person-person interaction. These silent traces form an experiential matrix of Holocaust presence that sustains familial "lived memory" of the past and transmits tacit knowledge of the past within the everyday private social milieu. The ethnography of silent memory may also provide a tentative model of nontraumatic individual and familial memory work in everyday life.
Full Text Available This study uses observations of team meetings and interviews with 17 primary care professionals in four GP practices in England to generate hypotheses about how “vulnerable family” team meetings might support responses by GPs to maltreatment-related concerns and joint working with other professionals. These meetings are also called “safeguarding meetings”. The study found that vulnerable family meetings were used as a way of monitoring children or young people and their families and supporting risk assessment by information gathering. Four factors facilitated the meetings: meaningful information flow into the meetings from other agencies, systematic ways of identifying cases for discussion, limiting attendance to core members of the primary care team and locating the meeting as part of routine clinical practice. Our results generate hypotheses about a model of care that can be tested for effectiveness in terms of service measures, child and family outcomes, and as a potential mechanism for other professionals to engage and support GPs in their everyday responses to vulnerable and maltreated children. The potential for adverse as well as beneficial effects should be considered from involving professionals outside the core primary care team (e.g., police, children’s social care, education and mental health services.
Warin, Megan; Zivkovic, Tanya; Moore, Vivienne; Ward, Paul R; Jones, Michelle
This paper examines the spatio-temporal disjuncture between 'the future' in public health obesity initiatives and the embodied reality of eating. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in a disadvantaged community in South Australia (August 2012-July 2014), we argue that the future oriented discourses of managing risk employed in obesity prevention programs have limited relevance to the immediacy of poverty, contingencies and survival that mark people's day to day lives. Extending Bourdieu's position that temporality is a central feature of practice, we develop the concept of short horizons to offer a theoretical framework to articulate the tensions between public health imperatives of healthy eating, and local 'tastes of necessity'. Research undertaken at the time of Australia's largest obesity prevention program (OPAL) demonstrates that pre-emptive and risk-based approaches to health can fail to resonate when the future is not within easy reach. Considering the lack of evidence for success of obesity prevention programs, over-reliance on appeals to 'the future' may be a major challenge to the design, operationalisation and success of interventions. Attention to local rather than future horizons reveals a range of innovative strategies around everyday food and eating practices, and these capabilities need to be understood and supported in the delivery of obesity interventions. We argue, therefore, that public health initiatives should be located in the dynamics of a living present, tailored to the particular, localised spatio-temporal perspectives and material circumstances in which people live. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niemi, Tuuli; Johansson, Ulla
Impairment of language ability, aphasia, can cause barriers to communication and hence impact on participation in many life situations. This study aimed to describe and explore how persons with aphasia following stroke experience engaging in everyday occupations. Six persons from Southwest Finland who had aphasia due to stroke one to four years previously were interviewed for the study. A modified form of the empirical phenomenological psychological method was used for data analysis. Three main characteristics of experiences of engaging in everyday occupations were identified: (1) encountering new experiences in everyday occupations, (2) striving to handle everyday occupations and (3) going ahead with life. The participants had experienced an altering life-world. Engagement in occupations affected their perceptions of competence and identity, and experiences of belonging and well-being. It was also through engagement in everyday occupations that they had discovered and learnt to handle changes in their everyday life. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society, but conversely, engagement in meaningful occupations can also contribute to adaptation to disability and life changes. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society. Health care professionals need to determine what clients with aphasia think about their occupations and life situations in spite of difficulties they may have verbalizing their thoughts. Experiences of engaging in meaningful occupations can help clients with aphasia in reconstructing their life stories, thereby contributing to adaptation to disability and life changes.
Coward, Sean W.; Stevens, Catherine J.
In developing a theoretical framework for the field of ecological acoustics, Gaver (1993b) distinguished between the experience of musical listening (perceiving sounds) and everyday listening (perceiving sources of sounds). Within the everyday listening experience, Gaver (1993a) proposed that the frequency of an object results from, and therefore…
Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, Elske S.
Objectives: This exploratory study assessed young Dutch people’s emerging sexual experiences in everyday life, in addition to examine the feasibility of a mixed-methods diary study. Methods: Using one-week diaries, 12- –17-year-olds recorded qualitative reports of their everyday romantic and sexual
Hirvonen, Noora; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena
Introduction: Everyday health information literacy refers to the competencies needed to find relevant information, evaluate its reliability, and use it to make decisions concerning health in everyday life. More evidence is needed of the determinants of health information literacy to better understand how it is acquired and through which mechanisms…
Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design worksh...
This dissertation addresses the question of what it means to remake everyday life in the shadow of disaster. Focusing on the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, in the years after the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, it explores how tsunami survivors have been remaking the everyday
Strange, Michael Stewart
Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...
Kindell, Jacqueline; Sage, Karen; Keady, John; Wilkinson, Ray
Background: Studies to date in semantic dementia have examined communication in clinical or experimental settings. There is a paucity of research describing the everyday interactional skills and difficulties seen in this condition. Aims: To examine the everyday conversation, at home, of an individual with semantic dementia. Methods &…
Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of
Van Houtum, Lieke; Rijken, Mieke; Groenewegen, Petrus
Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of
Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner
This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…
Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda
The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…
Children's motivations to engage in everyday activities draw on their experiences in thinking of oneself and the activities. In theory, these personal and social realities provide the complex foundations of self-concepts. The aim of this project was to define the foundations of children's self-concepts about everyday activities; to focus…
Wilde, Lucy; Oliver, Chris
Everyday executive function (EF) was examined in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), associated with high risk of behaviour disorder, and Down syndrome (DS), associated with relatively low risk of behaviour disorder. Caregivers of 13 children with SMS and 17 with DS rated everyday EF using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive…
for this approach is the concept of social practice as presented by (among others) Dreier, Lave, Axel and Juul Jensen, and a critical psychological understanding of subjectivity (Holzkamp, Dreier). By focusing on teachers’ conduct of everyday teaching, the paper provides possibilities to learn about what it means...... to teach. The main point of the article is that seeing social practice as a condition for teaching is misleading because teaching is a social practice. Instead of believing that teachers must ‘consider social conditions’ in order to teach, we must grasp teaching as a social practice that is inevitably part...... of what else goes on in everyday school life. The analysis to be presented is based on participant observations in two Danish schools, and on interviews with four teachers over a period of two years....
Bundgaard, Karen Marie
, adjacent to which is a shared dining room and kitchen. If the residents choose to, and are capable, they are involved in everyday activities of the unit and eat together with staff. This way of organising meals seems to influence most of the everyday life in the unit by shaping a homely place. It also......Even when frail older people become unable to live on their own and manage everyday activities, they can still experience a variety of meanings within meal-related activities that contribute to quality of life. This article reports research findings that focused on the meal, from preparation...... enables a living community that acts in and enlivens everyday existence. Meals themselves also make it possible to be somebody and be yourself in ordinary life and to make a place for valued occupations, things that give substance to everyday life. In sum, the study found that as an occupation, meals give...
Groth-Marnat, Gary; Baker, Sonya
This study investigated the effectiveness of the WAIS-III Digit Span subtest to predict the everyday attention of 75 participants with heterogeneous neurological conditions who were administered the Digit Span subtest as well as the ecologically valid Test of Everyday Attention. In addition, the more visually oriented Picture Completion subtest along with the verbally loaded National Adult Reading Test were administered. Analysis indicated that, although Digit Span was a weak but statistically significant predictor of attentional ability (accounting for 12.7% of the unique variance). Picture Completion was a somewhat stronger predictor (accounting for 19% of the unique variance). The weak association of Digit Span and the Test of Everyday Attention, along with the finding that Picture Completion was a better predictor of performance on the Test of Everyday Attention, question the clinical utility of using Digit Span as a measure of everyday attention.
Hartmann, Sabrina; Klaschka, Ursula
Everyday products can contain a multitude of harmful substances unnoticed by most consumers, because established risk communication channels reach only part of the society. The question is, whether at least interested and informed consumers are able to use risk communication tools and assess harmful chemicals in products. An online survey investigated the awareness of 1030 consumers on harmful substances in everyday items. Participating consumers' education level, knowledge in chemistry, and motivation were above society's average. Although a large number of responses showed that survey participants were familiar with several aspects of the issue, the results revealed that knowledge in chemistry helped, but was not enough. Many participants assumed that products with an eco-label, natural personal care products, products without hazard pictograms or products produced in the European Union would not contain harmful substances. Most participants indicated to use hazard pictograms, information on the packaging, reports in the media, and environmental and consumer organizations as information sources, while information by authorities and manufacturers were not named frequently and did not receive high confidence. Smartphone applications were not indicated by many participants as information sources. The information sources most trusted were environmental and consumer organizations, hazard pictograms, and lists of ingredients on the containers. The declared confidence in certain risk communication instruments did not always correspond to the use frequencies indicated. Nearly all participants considered legislators as responsible for the reduction of harmful substances in consumer products. Misconceptions about harmful substances in products can be dangerous for the personal health and the environment. The survey indicates that motivation, educational level, and chemical expertise do not automatically provide an appropriate understanding of harmful substances in products
Heron, Kristin E; Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M
A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Participants (N = 127, age M = 19.6 years, BMI M = 25.5) completed five daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, and restricting food intake) and noneating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multilevel models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. These findings elucidate the processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo
Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699
Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo
Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.
Full Text Available Rapidly developing technology is changing the nature of work, the form and scope of both mass and interpersonal communications, the goals and settings of education and leisure activities, and most aspects of everyday life. Technology has th e potential to make life easier, to support communication with family and friends , to assist with health care, and to enable individuals to remain safe and functionally independent in their own homes. Increasingly , many older people live alone. Successful independent living requires older adults to be capable of performing basiz activities of daily living such as bathing, toileting, and eating ,as well as more instrumental activities of daily living such as managing a medication regimen , maintaining the household , and preparing nutritious meals. Existence as an independently living, active older adult may also require willingness to accept new changes and to engage in lifelong learning. While it is true that older adults are slower to adopt many new technologies and typically require more training to learn to use them. To integration of technology for the elderly; the technological design of products should be ensured according to the capabilities of the elderly. For the elderly appropriate training must be provided , elderly users' needs should be taken into consideration in th e development of future technologies.
Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.
Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521
Full Text Available Society wastes much more energy than it should. This produces tons of unnecessary CO2 emissions. This is partly due to the inadequate use of electrical devices given the intangible and invisible nature of energy. This misuse of devices and energy unawareness is particularly relevant in public spaces (offices, schools, hospitals and so on, where people use electrical appliances, but they do not directly pay the invoice to energy providers. Embedding intelligence within public, shared appliances, transforming them into Eco-aware things, is valuable to reduce a proportion of the unnecessarily consumed energy. To this end, we present a twofold approach for better energy efficiency in public spaces: (1 informing persuasively to concerned users about the misuse of electronic appliances; (2 Customizing the operating mode of this everyday electrical appliances as a function of their real usage pattern. To back this approach, a capsule-based coffee machine placed in a research laboratory has been augmented. This device is able to continuously collect its usage pattern to offer feedback to coffee consumers about the energy wasting and also, to intelligently adapt its operation to reduce wasted energy. To this aim, several machine learning approaches are compared and evaluated to forecast the next-day device usage.
Ralph, Brandon C W; Thomson, David R; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel
Using a series of online self-report measures, we examine media multitasking, a particularly pervasive form of multitasking, and its relations to three aspects of everyday attention: (1) failures of attention and cognitive errors (2) mind wandering, and (3) attentional control with an emphasis on attentional switching and distractibility. We observed a positive correlation between levels of media multitasking and self-reports of attentional failures, as well as with reports of both spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering. No correlation was observed between media multitasking and self-reported memory failures, lending credence to the hypothesis that media multitasking may be specifically related to problems of inattention, rather than cognitive errors in general. Furthermore, media multitasking was not related with self-reports of difficulties in attention switching or distractibility. We offer a plausible causal structural model assessing both direct and indirect effects among media multitasking, attentional failures, mind wandering, and cognitive errors, with the heuristic goal of constraining and motivating theories of the effects of media multitasking on inattention.
Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
transform (mostly biomedical) everyday practices. This review attempts to connect these material-semiotic descriptions to a critical psychological perspective. It highlights how the contributions' focus on material things' actions is valuable for further unraveling the human-world relationship. Meanwhile...... it questions whether the underlying conceptual framework allows for an emancipatory science which strives for transformations that reach beyond the mere descriptive level....
Inês Barbosa de Oliveira
Full Text Available As pesquisas nos/dos/com os cotidianos se desenvolvem simultaneamente ao desenvolvimento da própria metodologia desse modo de pesquisar. Isso porque, para recuperar a importância das práticas microbianas, singulares e plurais, dos praticantes da vida cotidiana (Certeau, 1994 é necessário vivenciar esse processo de (reinvenção do ato de pesquisar. Parece cada vez mais fundamental ir-se à vida cotidiana, ao que acontece e ao que estão vivendo as pessoas para se pensar políticas sociais. Definir juventude, o que ela é, como é possível pensá-la e abordá-la são questões centrais para o debate a respeito dos modos como a sociedade pode e deve desenvolver políticas apropriadas às necessidades e anseios desse heterogêneo grupo social. A crescente consciência sobre a insuficiência dos métodos de pesquisa associados ao cientificismo positivista – voltados para as generalizações e definição de modelos – para a compreensão da complexa dinâmica que envolve a vida cotidiana associa-se à convicção de que o desenvolvimento epistemológico da noção de cotidiano é indissociável daquele das metodologias das pesquisas que nele, com ele e sobre ele se desenvolvem. O texto traz uma reflexão teórico-epistemológico-metodológica sobre o tema, entendendo que um dos principais desafios a ser enfrentado pelo campo sociológico dos chamados estudos do cotidiano – seja para pensar a juventude, a escola, ou outras questões – é a coerência interna entre essas diferentes, mas indissociáveis, dimensões. The researches in / for / with the everyday life grow simultaneously with the development of the methodology of this kind of search. That's because, in order to recover the importance of microbial practices — singular and plural — of the everyday’s life practitioners (Certeau, 1994 is necessary to experience this process of (re invention of the searching act. It seems each time more crucial go to everyday life, to what
Lorenz, Rebecca A; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Cole, Catherine S; Kleban, Morton H; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Richards, Kathy C
This study examined the effects of high-intensity resistance strength training and walking (E), individualized social activity (SA), and resistance training and walking combined with social activity (ESA) on everyday function in long-term care (LTC) residents and explored the relationship between change in everyday function and change in sleep. The study used data from The Effect of Activities and Exercise on Sleep, a randomized controlled trial. Residential LTC facilities. A total of 119 participants who had measures of everyday function and sleep at baseline and postintervention. The E group exercised 5 days a week. The SA group was involved in social activities 5 days a week. The ESA group received both E and SA interventions. The usual care (UC) control group participated in usual activities. Everyday function was measured by the Nursing Home Physical Performance Test. Nighttime sleep was measured by attended polysomnography. The UC and SA groups showed a decline in everyday function, whereas the E and ESA groups showed improvement. There were statistically significant differences between the groups, with pairwise comparisons showing significant improvements in the ESA group over the SA group (95% confidence interval, -3.94 to -0.97) and the UC group (95% confidence interval, -3.69 to -0.64). No relationship was found between change in everyday function and change in sleep. Seven weeks of high-intensity resistance strength training and walking, combined with individualized social activities (ESA), improved everyday function among LTC residents, independent of change in sleep.
Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson
The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.
Zöllner, Marius; Bischoff, Rainer; Burgard, Wolfram; Haschke, Robert; Hägele, Martin; Lawitzky, Gisbert; Nebel, Bernhard; Plöger, Paul; Reiser, Ulrich
People have dreamed of machines, which would free them from unpleasant, dull, dirty and dangerous tasks and work for them as servants, for centuries if not millennia. Service robots seem to finally let these dreams come true. But where are all these robots that eventually serve us all day long, day for day? A few service robots have entered the market: domestic and professional cleaning robots, lawnmowers, milking robots, or entertainment robots. Some of these robots look more like toys or gadgets rather than real robots. But where is the rest? This is a question, which is asked not only by customers, but also by service providers, care organizations, politicians, and funding agencies. The answer is not very satisfying. Today’s service robots have their problems operating in everyday environments. This is by far more challenging than operating an industrial robot behind a fence. There is a comprehensive list of technical and scientific problems, which still need to be solved. To advance the state of the art...
Full Text Available This article investigates the phenomenon of Bangaloreʼs urban 'water mafias', operators who extract and deliver groundwater to scores of informal residential areas in Indian cities. The term 'mafia' here is treated as a semantic area of situated meanings and cultural interpretations that needs to be historicised and prised open in order to better understand how the urban waterscape is produced and inhabited. It situates the provenance and workings of mafias within wider debates on urban informality, state formation, and urban infrastructure and space. Rather than seeing mafias as filling a gap where government water supply has failed, as mainstream narratives suggest, the paper argues that mafias must be seen as formative of the post-colonial state. It further suggests that the specific form of public authority exercised by water mafias explains the production of informality in Bangaloreʼs waterscape. Based on ethnographic research in 2007-2009, the paper characterises the everyday authority wielded by mafias along three main registers: (i the ability of mafias to make and break discursive and material boundaries between the formal and informal, public and private, and state and society, (ii the varied nature of mafiasʼ political practices, ranging from exploitation to electoral lobbying to social protection to the provision of welfare, and iii mafiasʼ complicity in both water and land regimes in a neo-liberalised urban political economy.
Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano
High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.
Full Text Available Background: High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (reproduced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective: This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (inequality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design: Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results: The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (reproduced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (inequality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.
Maivel Rodríguez López
Full Text Available Citizenship can be understood as a form of civic participation and a means of developing social relations with members of the broader community and, therefore, can act as an important means to help reintegrate ex-combatants back into mainstream society. This paper discusses an exploratory research project conducted with a sample of 23 Colombian ex-combatants from non-state armed groups who are current participants of the national programme of reintegration in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. By collecting their views and opinions about what it is like to become reintegrated, we explored the range of social factors that facilitate as well as obstruct practices of citizenship in everyday life and, subsequently, the ways in which this affects their overall experience of reintegration into Colombian society. Drawing on social psychological literature on citizenship and on the theory of social representations, we explored how citizenship is understood and enacted by this group as part of their reintegration process. A thematic analysis of three focus groups highlights an enabling as well as a limiting social context that affects former combatants’ ability to participate as citizens. This paper also contributes to the social psychology of citizenship by studying the experience of reintegration in conflict-affected societies.
Cascio, M Ariel; Racine, Eric
Research ethics is often understood by researchers primarily through the regulatory framework reflected in the research ethics review process. This regulatory understanding does not encompass the range of ethical considerations in research, notably those associated with the relational and everyday aspects of human subject research. In order to support researchers in their effort to adopt a broader lens, this article presents a "person-oriented research ethics" approach. Five practical guideposts of person-oriented research ethics are identified, as follows: (1) respect for holistic personhood; (2) acknowledgement of lived world; (3) individualization; (4) focus on researcher-participant relationships; and (5) empowerment in decision-making. These guideposts are defined and illustrated with respect to different aspects of the research process (e.g., research design, recruitment, data collection). The person-oriented research ethics approach provides a toolkit to individual researchers, research groups, and research institutions in both biomedical and social science research wishing to expand their commitment to ethics in research.
Full Text Available The analysis of collaborative exchanges of couples during their household activities is at the core of this paper. Although the management of responsibilities around household tasks is a potential source of contention within the decision-making process about home activities, another complementary perspective considers practices of communication during household activities as ways to build or reinforce the family educational processes. Our goal is to capture these daily interactions as indicators of collaborative relationships among couples, exemplifying how communicative exchanges contribute to the creation of frames for family participation in routines. In the first part of the paper, a review of issues regarding the division of labor within the family setting will be introduced in order to examine how these aspects relate to the ongoing negotiation of responsibilities and expectations between women and men. Thereafter, the methodological design of the study will be presented, as well as the qualitative analysis of data based on the argumentative topic model. A discussion of participants’ responsibilities in household tasks will be presented as indicators of their collaborative relationships during everyday activities. Lastly, implications for family studies will be highlighted in order to illustrate how family members ascribe meanings during routines.
Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M
Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.
, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, degenerative joint disease, and bronchial asthma. Performance worsening significantly influenced the frequency of hospitalizations, with a mean score of 4.31 per person. Medical rehabilitation was practiced by 18.65% of the responders.Conclusion: Circulatory failure, cerebral stroke, atherosclerosis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, degenerative joint disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease negatively affect functional performance in elderly people. Hospitalization rates increase with lowering independence in everyday functioning. Future research is needed with regard to the relationship between the practiced rehabilitation and independence in everyday functioning of the elderly. Keywords: the elderly, functional performance, health behaviors
Wróblewska, Izabela; Zborowska, Iwona; Dąbek, Anna; Susło, Robert; Wróblewska, Zuzanna; Drobnik, Jarosław
The incidence of chronic diseases increases with age; about 73% of people who are aged ≥60 years suffer from at least 1 chronic disease, and among those older than 70 years, chronic diseases afflict more than >84% of the population. According to epidemiological data, at least 4 chronic disease types coexist in senior citizens, causing their disability. These are mainly cardiovascular diseases; motor system diseases; ophthalmological, auditory, neurological, and mental diseases; and mental impairment. They worsen or limit self-dependence in everyday activities. The process begins with complex activities and advances with age. At first, functional performance deficits are discreet; then, they may gradually lead to complete dependence on other people or institutions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between diseases and health behaviors, as well as the everyday functioning of people aged ≥65 years staying in their home environment. The research involved 504 elderly people. The inclusion criteria were age (≥65 years) and staying in one's own home environment. The direct interview technique was applied, as well as use of proprietary interview questionnaire and standardized tools used in geriatrics: Barthel scale, measuring performance in everyday activities, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, assessing complex everyday activities. The most frequent disease among the responders was arterial hypertension (77.58%), followed by degenerative joint disease (62.10%), and circulatory failure (43.23%). Lower functional performance was associated with circulatory failure, cerebral stroke, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, degenerative joint disease, and bronchial asthma. Performance worsening significantly influenced the frequency of hospitalizations, with a mean score of 4.31 per person. Medical rehabilitation was practiced by 18.65% of the responders. Circulatory failure, cerebral stroke, atherosclerosis
Engelen, Mirjam J. A.; Bongaerts, Alphons H. H.; Sluiter, Wim J.; De Haan, Harm H.; Bogchelman, Dick H.; TenVergert, Els M.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.
Objective: To optimize referral to specialized gynaecologists for surgical treatment of ovarian cancer by improving preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant pelvic tumours. Study design: In a prospective multicentre study 143 patients with a pelvic mass were included. At several
O'Connor, Deborah; Mann, Jim; Wiersma, Elaine
The importance of stigma in shaping the experiences of people living with dementia and challenging their social citizenship emerges repeatedly as a powerful and negative force. In a recent participatory action research (PAR) study focused on understanding what people with dementia need to know to live well, this link between stigma, discrimination and social citizenship emerged once again. A group of people living with dementia (n=8) met monthly for 16months to discuss their experiences and advise on the curriculum of a proposed self-management program. From the first introduction, stigma was identified as a defining feature of the experience of living well with dementia. This paper analyses this group's talk around stigma and discrimination, drawing attention to the critical role that diagnostic disclosure has in both positioning people with dementia in a stigmatizing way and, also, acting as a strategy of resistance that facilitates full social citizenship. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bosco A Paes
Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common infection in infancy, with nearly all children affected by two years of age. Approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all children are hospitalized with lower respiratory tract disease, of which 50% to 90% have bronchiolitis and 5% to 40% have pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality are highest in children with nosocomial infection and in those with underlying medical illnesses such as cardiac and chronic lung disease. Aboriginal children residing in remote northern regions are specifically considered to be at high risk for hospitalization due to RSV infection. Thorough hand washing and health education are the principal strategies in primary prevention. In the absence of a vaccine, palivizumab prophylaxis is currently the best intervention to reduce the burden of illness and RSV-related hospitalization in high-risk children. Health care professionals should provide palivizumab prophylaxis cost effectively in accordance with recommendations issued by pediatric societies and national advisory bodies.
This is a systematic, precise and clear introduction to the current state of knowledge on diseases of the knee. All available imaging techniques, their indications and diagnostic value are presented. While newcomers will get a systematic introduction, experienced diagnostic experts will find occasion to remember and enhance their knowledge. Each chapter ends with a systematic summary. Keywords at the top of each page enable fast access to the issue of interest. (orig.)
White, Jennifer; Morris, Jonathan; Hinbest, Jerry
The development and implementation of a new school-based suicide prevention education programme in one secondary school in Vancouver, British Columbia, recently provided us with an opportunity to conduct an in-depth, qualitative case study. The purpose of our study was to deepen our understanding of how school-based suicide prevention education…
Full Text Available Anemia is the most common extraintestinal manifestation and complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Its etiology is multifactorial and mostly is a combination of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and chronic anemia (ACD. Because of its high incidence in patients with IBD and its influence on their quality of life, regular screening is recommended. In case of IDA type of medication and route of administration should be determined by many factors such as general condition of the patient, IBD activity or anemia severity. Intravenous iron supplementation is the preferred route but may be associated with phosphate drop or even severe hypophosphatemia (HP. The mechanism of HP related to the intravenous iron infusions is not clearly known yet, but it might be related to the change of FGF-23 levels. What more not all parenteral forms of iron are equal and some may have a higher risk of HP than others.
Full Text Available Journalists in Western liberal democracies face similar challenges in melding existing, hierarchical models of media production with emerging communications technologies where knowledge, expertise and authority are networked and distributed. This paper examines the attitudes and approaches of a select group of digital journalists in Canada to the impact of social media on journalism and professional constructs of the journalist. It is based on expert interviews with nine leading senior online news managers and journalists from Canada’s principal news organisations, with a focus on the growing influence of social media, and the professionals’ subjective, experience-based understandings of the current changes in journalism. The interviewees demonstrated a tacit understanding of a shift away from the traditional role of gatekeeper towards a shared ecosystem of news and information. While journalism was conceived as more of a collaborative enterprise, with interviewees seeking to adapt and benefit from a more participatory media environment, the journalists also expressed the occupational boundaries of the profession as a way of rearticulating their authority. While immediacy was mentioned as one of the main new factors in news media reporting, concerns about the impact of immediacy on the quality of news reporting were largely absent from the discourse of the interviewees. The increased velocity of information due to social media was thus framed as a positive development that could enable journalists and newsrooms to be more responsive and relevant to audiences. It was also seen as providing the increased opportunities for interaction with audiences. The study contributes to the body of work on how digital news leaders are negotiating the meaning and value of journalism. As such, our sample is not broadly representative of the attitudes of most journalists, either in Canada or elsewhere. Rather, it represents a select group at the vanguard of digital journalism within mainstream media in a Western liberal democratic system. Les journalistes dans les démocraties occidentales libérales font face à des défis similaires en mêlant des modèles hiérarchiques existants de production médiatique avec des technologies de communication émergentes où les connaissances, l’expertise et l’autorité sont distribuées et en réseau. Cet article examine les attitudes et les approches d’un groupe restreint de journalistes en ligne au Canada vis-à-vis de l’impact des médias sociaux sur le journalisme et des constructions professionnelles du journaliste. Il est basé sur des entretiens avec des experts, neuf cadres supérieurs et journalistes en ligne provenant des organismes de presse principaux du Canada, avec un accent sur l’influence croissante des réseaux sociaux, et sur les compréhensions subjectives et fondées sur l’expérience des changements actuels. Les personnes interrogées ont démontré une compréhension tacite d’un déplacement du rôle traditionnel de gardien (gatekeeper vers un écosystème partagé de nouvelles et d’informations. Même si le journalisme est conçu davantage comme une entreprise collaborative, avec les individus interviewés cherchant à s’adapter et à bénéficier d’un environnement médiatique plus participatif, les journalistes ont également exprimé les limites pratiques de la profession comme un moyen de réarticuler leur autorité. Alors que l’immédiateté est mentionnée comme l’un des principaux nouveaux facteurs dans la production des nouvelles médiatiques, les préoccupations concernant l’impact de l’immédiateté sur la qualité des informations ont été largement absentes du discours des personnes interrogées. La vitesse accrue de l’information due aux réseaux sociaux est donc cadrée comme un développement positif qui pourrait permettre aux journalistes et aux rédactions d’être plus réactifs et pertinents pour les publics. Cet élément est également considéré comme offrant des possibilités accrues pour l’interaction avec les publics. L’étude contribue à l’ensemble des travaux sur la façon dont les dirigeants de l’information numériques sont en train de négocier le sens et la valeur du journalisme. En tant que tel, notre échantillon n’est pas représentatif des attitudes de la plupart des journalistes, que ce soit au Canada ou ailleurs. Il représente plutôt un groupe restreint à l’avant-garde du journalisme numérique dans les médias grand public et dans un système démocratique libéral et occidental. Os jornalistas nas democracias ocidentais liberais enfrentam desafios similares e que misturam os modelos hierárquicos de produção midiática já existentes com as tecnologias de comunicação emergentes em que os conhecimentos, a expertise e a autoridade são distribuídos em rede. Este artigo examina as atitudes e as abordagens de um grupo restrito de jornalistas online no Canadá face ao impacto das mídias sociais no jornalismo e nas construções profissionais do jornalista. Ele faz uso de entrevistas com especialistas. Foram entrevistados nove jornalistas e gestores superiores do meio online provenientes dos principais veículos da imprensa do Canadá. As entrevistas enfatizam a crescente influência das redes sociais e as compreensões, subjetivas e fundadas na experiência, sobre as mudanças atuais. Os entrevistados demonstraram uma compreensão tácita sobre o deslocamento do papel tradicional do gatekeeper rumo a um ecossistema partilhado de notícias e de informações. Embora o jornalismo seja concebido como um processo colaborativo – em que os entrevistados buscam se adaptar e se beneficiar de um ambiente midiático mais participativo – os jornalistas também exprimiram os limites práticos da profissão como uma forma de rearticular sua autoridade. Apesar do imediatismo ser mencionado como um dos princípios fatores da produção das notícias, as preocupações sobre o seu impacto na qualidade das informações estiveram ausentes no discursos dos entrevistados. A crescente velocidade da informação com o advento das mídias sociais é, dessa forma, enquadrada como um desenvolvimento positivo, o que permitiria aos jornalistas e às redações serem mais reativos e pertinentes em relação aos públicos. Também se considerou providencial as crescentes possibilidades de interação com os públicos. O estudo contribui para o conjunto de trabalhos sobre a forma como os dirigentes dos meios de produção de informação digital estão negociando o sentido e o valor do jornalismo. Enquanto amostragem, os nossos entrevistados não são representativos das atitudes da maioria dos jornalistas, seja no Canadá, seja em outros lugares. Ele diz respeito sobretudo a um grupo restrito da vanguarda do jornalismo digital nas meios de massa e em um sistema democrático liberal e ocidental.
Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC) have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government A...
Kristensen, Ole Steen
Der er fortsat behov for en afdækning af døgninstitutioners praksis. Med udgangspunkt i kompleksitetsteori er forma°let med denne artikel at analysere, hvordan socialpædagoger skaber relationen til anbragte børn. Elleve fokusgruppeinterviews blev gennemført under anvendelse af case vignette tekni...
Mozambiqueis a poor country located in the South-East coast of Africa. Due to its prevailing poverty and geographical location along the coastline of the Indian Ocean, and downstream of major regional rivers, the country experiences, in average, one disaster of great magnitude every year
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical history is acknowledged as the sine qua non for quality medical care because recognizing problems is pre-requisite for managing them. Medical histories typically are incomplete and inaccurate, however. We show here that computers are a solution to this issue of information gathering about patients. Computers can be programmed to acquire more complete medical histories with greater detail across a range of acute and chronic issues than physician histories. Methods Histories were acquired by physicians in the usual way and by a computer program interacting directly with patients. Decision-making of what medical issues were queried by computer were made internally by the software, including determination of the chief complaint. The selection of patients was from admissions to the Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany by convenience sampling. Physician-acquired and computer-acquired histories were compared on a patient-by-patient basis for 45 patients. Results The computer histories reported 160 problems not recorded in physician histories or slightly more than 3.5 problems per patient. However, physicians but not the computer reported 13 problems. The data show that computer histories reported problems across a range of organ systems, that the problems detected by computer but not physician histories were both acute and chronic and that the computer histories detected a significant number of issues important for preventing further morbidity. Conclusion A combination of physician and computer-acquired histories, in non-emergent situations, with the latter available to the physician at the time he or she sees the patient, is a far superior method for collecting historical data than the physician interview alone.
Mozambiqueis a poor country located in the South-East coast of Africa. Due to its prevailing poverty and geographical location along the coastline of the Indian Ocean, and downstream of major regional rivers, the country experiences, in average, one disaster of great magnitude every
Galløe, Anders M; Thuesen, Leif; Kelbaek, Henning
] age, 63.6 [10.8] years) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and randomized to receive either sirolimus-eluting (n = 1065) or paclitaxel-eluting (n = 1033) stents. Indications for PCI included ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI or unstable angina pectoris......, and stable angina. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was a composite clinical end point of major adverse cardiac events, defined as either cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, or target vessel revascularization. Secondary end points included individual...
van den Bemt, PMLA; Geven, LM; Kuitert, NA; Risselada, A; Brouwers, JRBJ
Objective: The drug-drug interaction between oral anticoagulants (especially warfarin) and acetaminophen has been described, but evidence is conflicting and evidence for a similar interaction between acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon and acetaminophen is limited. Therefore, a study was performed to
Ringsing, B.; Leeuwis, C.
Advocacy has become an important area of development support. Simultaneously, the interest in learning-oriented monitoring of advocacy programmes has increased. Starting from the premise that learning has sociopolitical dimensions, this article explores how the challenges and contradictions of such
Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Joos, Guy
Respiratory Society (ERS) at the ERS Congress, Berlin 2008. RESULTS: Indirect challenge tests such as exercise testing, hypertonic saline or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are more specific though less sensitive than direct challenge tests (such as methacholine) for identifying patients with active asthma....... Indirect BCTs may be used to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or AHR consistent with active asthma, to evaluate AHR that will respond to treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and to determine the effectiveness and optimal dosing of such therapy. An ideal indirect challenge test should......OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a disease associated with inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airflow limitation. Clinical diagnosis and management of asthma often relies on assessment of lung function and symptom control, but these factors do not always correlate well with underlying...
Analytical concepts such as "bounded consumption" or "controlled loss of control" have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown that in order to fully understand…
Vannatta, Jerry; Schleifer, Ronald; Crow, Sheila
It has been the thesis of this symposium that medicine is a narrative enterprise. We have presented our case that the work in is largely narrative. If that is true, then one of the goals of medical education should be to create methods of improving the narrative competencies in learners and practitioners of medicine. This final paper will explore the field of Narrative Medicine and briefly discuss methods currently in use in American Medical Education and conclude with the experience at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine over the past ten years.
Full Text Available “No development without research; No research without development” Yvo Nuyens1TThe quest for knowledge has helped mankind evolve over the years, from discovery of fire through Dolly the sheep clone to Chandrayan moon mission, leaving behind a record of discoveries and inventions in science and technology. Each generation can begin the search for knowledge where the last one left off and contribute their share to the benefit of humanity, cutting across culture and boundaries.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the discourse of death, or thanatology, and self-fashioning, in John Chrysostom's thirteenth homily In epistulam ad Romanos. The study argues that thanatology became a very important feature in the care of the self in Chrysostom's thought. The central aim ...
Full Text Available Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government ANC politics and councillor representation, this prevents us from understanding the representational focus of ANC councillors in decision-making processes. This paper offers an ethnographic insight into experiences of ANC councillors and the political complexities involved in council decision-making. Using ethnographic research, this paper will analyse how a political decision by the ANC provincial party, which was supported by the ANC regional party at local level – to erect a statue of Nelson Mandela in one of the municipalities in the Northern Cape – generated tensions amongst ANC councillors who strongly viewed their primary role as promoters of better ‘service delivery’ rather than approving the allocation of scarce municipal resources for erecting a statue. The paper reveals how the dominant presence of ANC sub-regional structures at local level contribute to the complex interaction of both ANC party political and municipal organisational rules and norms that influence and shape councillors’ choices in decision-making.
A major obstacle in the way of any rationalistic understanding of morality is that the moral 'ought' obliges action: and on the (neo-)Humean view, action is thought to require affect. If, however, one could show that “ordinary” practical reasons are by themselves action-guiding, then moral reasons – a particular sort of practical ...
Ottesen, Aase Marie
and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement......During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...
Baklien, Børge; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Bongaardt, Rob
Hiking in nature is often presented as a yearning for lost harmony premised on an alleged divide between nature as authentically healthy and society as polluted. This paper's aim is to question this strict divide and the strong belief in nature as having an innate health-providing effect, the biophilia hypothesis, by examining what Norwegian families with young children experience when walking in the forest. Twenty-four conversations with families during a hiking trip in the forest were recorded, and the data were analysed with Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological research method. The paper introduces the general descriptive meaning structure of the phenomenon 'family-hiking with young children'. It shows that a hiking trip clears space for the family in their everyday lives which is largely dominated by relations with non-family members at both work and leisure. The families experience that they actively generate a different existence with a sense of here-and-now presences that can strengthen core family relations and also provide the opportunity to pass down experiences that can be recollected and realized by future generations. This experience is complex and constituted by social practices, which indicate that the biophilia hypothesis seems to be an insufficient explanation of why families go hiking in nature. Nature rather represents a peaceful background that allows for the perpetuation of the family as a social institution and the recreation of cohesion in everyday life.
Full Text Available This article identifies the ways that urban social movements in Caracas have sought to engage the hybrid state during the presidency of radical leftist leader Hugo Chávez. Chávez's election has created avenues for previously disenfranchised groups to participate in gover-nance and decision-making. The structures and discourses of exclusion are being contested in multiple arenas since Chávez has come to power. But, what lines of conflict are emerging as barrio-based movements demand inclusion in the state? In this article, I argue that as urban movements engage with the political arena, they come up against the instrumental rationalities—both liberal and neoliberal—of state administrators. Barrio-based social movements counter the utilitarian logics of technocrats with alternative visions based in "lo cotidiano" (the everyday, local culture and historical memory. We need to combine Foucault's insights about the operation of power through governmentality with Gramsci's insistence on practical politics, in order to account more fully for the contested nature of power. In this article, I suggest the reframing of a Gramscian notion of hegemony in a positive sense as "everyday wars of position," to think about the quotidian and subterranean spaces where technocrats are confronted with alternative visions from below. I use the example of com-munity media in Caracas to illustrate the ways that social movements engage with the state.
Smith, Robin James; Hall, Tom
This article develops a situational approach to understanding urban public life and, in particular, the production of urban territories. Our aim is to examine the ways in which city space might be understood as comprising multiple, shifting, mobile and rhythmed territories. We argue that such territories are best understood through attending to their everyday production and negotiation, rather than handling territory as an a priori construct. We develop this argument from the particular case of the street-level politics of homelessness and street care. The experience of street homelessness and the provision of care in the public spaces of the city is characterised by precarious territorial claims made and lost. We describe some of the ways in which care work with rough sleepers is itself precarious; 'homeless', in lacking a distinct setting in which it might get done. Indeed, outreach work takes place within and affirms homeless territories. The affirmation of territory is shown to be central to the relationship developed between the workers and their rough sleeping clients. We also show, however, the ways in which outreach workers operate on territory not their own, twice over. Outreach work is precarious in that it is practised within, and can run counter to, other territorial productions in which the experience of urban need and the work and politics of care are entangled. In sum, this article aims to move beyond static and binary understandings by developing a mobile and situational approach to city space which recognises the intensive yet overlooked work of territorial production. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Whitelaw, Sandy; Coburn, Jonathan; Lacey, Marion; McKee, Martin J; Hill, Carol
A settings-based approach is now well-established in health promotion, initially undertaken in conventional places like schools and workplaces, but more recently being expressed in a wider range of what Torp et al. call 'everyday' settings. In this context, libraries have emerged as another potential setting whose ubiquity and accessibility suggests that they may be particularly effective in addressing health inequalities. Drawing on a case study-the Glasgow Macmillan Cancer Information and Support Services Library project-this paper reports on the potential for seeing 'libraries as settings' and in the context of a set of associated theoretical resources, specifically scrutinizes the nature of initiative implementation. Data were drawn from multiple sources: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with strategic partners and stakeholders, operational staff, project volunteers, service users and members of the general public. Qualitative data were complemented by quantitative insights from surveys with members of the partnership, libraries staff and volunteers. Despite some concerns associated with potentially hostile cultural and financial contexts that might threaten longer term sustainability, insights suggested that in pragmatic terms, the project was attracting sizable 'footfall' and successfully addressing a range of needs. Additionally, the formal implementation processes associated with project implementation were considered to have been highly successful in embedding the model into the library culture. In summary, there is evidence that libraries have the potential to be considered as supportive settings and could act as a model for an emergent vision of what libraries do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.
Staats, Henk; Jahncke, Helena; Herzog, Thomas R; Hartig, Terry
Given the need for knowledge on the restorative potential of urban settings, we sought to estimate the effects of personal and contextual factors on preferences and restoration likelihood assessments for different urban activities-in-environments. We also sought to study the generality of these effects across different countries. We conducted a true experiment with convenience samples of university students in the Netherlands (n = 80), Sweden (n = 100), and the USA (n = 316). In each country, the experiment had a mixed design with activities-in-environments (sitting in a park, sitting in a cafe, walking in a shopping mall, walking along a busy street) manipulated within-subjects and the need for restoration (attentional fatigue, no attentional fatigue) and immediate social context (in company, alone) manipulated between-subjects. The manipulations relied on previously tested scenarios describing everyday situations that participants were instructed to remember and imagine themselves being in. For each imagined situation (activity-in-environment with antecedent fatigue condition and immediate social context), subjects provided two criterion measures: general preference and the likelihood of achieving psychological restoration. The settings received different preference and restoration likelihood ratings as expected, affirming that a busy street, often used in comparisons with natural settings, is not representative of the restorative potential of urban settings. Being with a close friend and attentional fatigue both moderated ratings for specific settings. Findings of additional moderation by country of residence caution against broad generalizations regarding preferences for and the expected restorative effects of different urban settings. Preferences and restoration likelihood ratings for urban activity-environment combinations are subject to multiple personal and contextual determinants, including level of attentional fatigue, being alone versus in company, and
Juarez Lopes de Carvalho Filho
Full Text Available DOI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n34p137 This article proposes an exegesis of Goffman’s affiliation to Durkheim’s sociology, relating two works: Interaction Ritual and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. He emphasizes two aspects that estimate present in both authors: the rites and the sacredness of the individual and the moral dimension of life in society. For Goffman the interaction rites are occasions to affirm the moral and social order. In a face-to-face, each social actor seeks to provide him a prized image, the “face” or “positive social value a person effectively claims by line of action that others assume that it adopted in the particular contact course.” In Interaction Ritual, Goffman critical sociologists and social anthropologists who, being engaged in the symbolic significance of modern society from Durkheim, did not take into account the notion of soul, present in the Elementary Forms of Religious Life. After identifying the intellectual and scientific influence in the formation of habitus and sociological métier Goffman, the text proposes to examine notions such rules, soul, rites, deference and the size necessary for the understanding of the social fabric in the order of interaction. It follows exposing a comparative table of the rites as described by Goffman modeled from Durkheim’s typology. It is expected that the reading of Goffman the light of Durkheim is an access road to the sociology of the first, and a way to update the contributions of the second reading of the social fabric of everyday life.
Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R
This study explores the everyday experiences of children with facial morphea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphea 8-17 years of age and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and reactions of others, (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines and side effects, such as weight gain added to participants' stress. To manage the impact of facial morphea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to support children with facial morphea to achieve a better quality of life. Health care providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphea, as well as providing opportunities for peer support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Betty De Hart
Full Text Available In the introduction of this special issue on “Law in the everyday lives of transnational families”, we argue that in the socio-legal literature on transnationalism and transnational legal process, ordinary people as actors are missing. On the other hand, what is missing from the abundant literature on transnational families, is law, or are ordinary people. In this special issue, we look at how transnational families as legal actors are part of transnational legal processes and how transnational families meet with different types of legal rules that mingle with and influence the personal and private sphere of family life. We specific look at three issues that come up in this context: the power of law, how transnational family members use law and the role of networks and family. En la introducción del número especial sobre “Derecho en el día a día de las familias trasnacionales”, defendemos que en la literatura sociojurídica sobre trasnacionalismo y procesos legales trasnacionales, no se contemplan las personas corrientes como actores. Por otro lado, lo que falta en la abundante literatura sobre familias trasnacionales es el derecho, o son las personas corrientes. En este número especial se analiza cómo las familias trasnacionales, en el papel de actores legales, son parte de procesos legales trasnacionales, y cómo las familias trasnacionales cumplen diferentes tipos de normas legales que atienden a, e influyen en la esfera personal y privada de la vida familiar. Específicamente, se contemplan tres aspectos que surgen en este contexto: el poder del derecho, cómo usan los miembros de las familias trasnacionales el derecho y el papel de las redes de conocidos y el derecho.
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to explore how leadership is practiced across four different hospital units. Design/methodology/approach: – The study is a comparative case study of four hospital units, based on detailed observations of the everyday work practices, interactions...... and interviews with ten interdisciplinary clinical managers. Findings: – Comparing leadership as configurations of practices across four different clinical settings, the author shows how flexible and often shared leadership practices were embedded in and central to the core clinical work in all units studied...... shows leadership practices to be primarily embedded in the clinical work and often shared across organizational or professional boundaries. Originality/value: – This paper demonstrated how leadership practices are embedded in the everyday work in hospital units. Moreover, the analysis shows how...
Marline L. Squance
Conclusions: Everyday product exposures can impact on symptom exacerbation in SLE. Some offering protection and others increased health risk. Identifying environmental associations offer the possibility of life-style interventions to reduce illness impact.
Wolke, Robert L
From simple (How do magnets work?) to complex (Where does uranium get its energy?), this volume offers intriguing insights into scientific facts. Definitive accounts of workings behind everyday phenomena include related do-it-yourself experiments.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory about people who have psychiatric disabilities and live in ordinary housing with housing support. Interviews and observations during the interviews were analyzed, and secondary analyses of data from previous studies were performed. The impossible mission in everyday life emerged as the main concern and mastering everyday life as the pattern of behavior through which they deal with this concern. Mastering everyday life can be seen as a process, which involves identifying, organizing, tackling, challenging and boosting. Before the process is started, avoiding is used to deal with the main concern. The community support worker, providing housing support, constitutes an important facilitator during the process, and the continuity of housing support is a prerequisite for the process to succeed. If the process mastering everyday life is interrupted by, for example, changes in housing support, the strategy of avoiding is used.
Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Jønsson, Alexandra Brandt Ryborg
Abstract Objective: The importance of everyday life when managing the burden of treatment is rarely studied. This article explores the burden of treatment among people with multimorbidity by investigating the tension between everyday life and the health care system. Method: This was an ethnographic...... between everyday life and the health care system. Discussion: People with multimorbidity are seldom supported by health professionals in resolving the dilemmas they must face. This study suggests an increased focus on patient-centeredness and argues in favour of planning health care through cooperation...... and the management of their treatment burdens. Dilemmas were identified within three domains: family and social life; work life; agendas and set goals in appointments with health professionals. Individual resources and priorities in everyday life play a dominant role in resolving dilemmas and navigating the tension...
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to some, but not all, everyday attentional disengagements and motivation and interest in classes were related to specific subtypes of disengagements. Finally, academic performance was related to fluid intelligence and motivation, but not to everyday disengagements. These results provide importance evidence on the different types of attentional disengagements that are prevalent in undergraduate students and for whom disengagements are most likely.
... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...
The overall aim was to explore and describe knowledge of the perceived occupational repertoire in people with stress-related ill health and their experiences from the rehabilitation process, with a specific focus on rehabilitation in a therapeutic garden and how the rehabilitation experiences are connecting with everyday life. Study I was a cross-sectional study that aimed to describe and compare how occupational gaps were reported in everyday occupations in a rehabilitation group of pe...
Kihara, Michael; Carter, Julie A; Holding, Penny A; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Scott, Rod C; Idro, Richard; Fegan, Greg W; de Haan, Michelle; Neville, Brian GR; Newton, Charles RJC
Abstract Background Seizures are common in children admitted with severe falciparum malaria and are associated with neuro-cognitive impairments. Prolonged febrile seizures are associated with hippocampal damage and impaired memory. It was hypothesized that severe malaria causes impaired everyday memory which may be associated with hippocampal damage. Methods An everyday memory battery was administered on 152 children with cerebral malaria (CM) (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD 13 months]; 77 males)...
van Houtum, Lieke; Rijken, Mieke; Groenewegen, Peter
Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of everyday life on self-management. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent problems in everyday life interfere with the self-management behaviour of people with chronic illness, i.e. their ability to manage their illness. To estimate the effects of having everyday problems on self-management, cross-sectional linear regression analyses with propensity score matching were conducted. Data was used from 1731 patients with chronic disease(s) who participated in a nationwide Dutch panel-study. One third of people with chronic illness encounter basic (e.g. financial, housing, employment) or social (e.g. partner, children, sexual or leisure) problems in their daily life. Younger people, people with poor health and people with physical limitations are more likely to have everyday problems. Experiencing basic problems is related to less active coping behaviour, while experiencing social problems is related to lower levels of symptom management and less active coping behaviour. The extent of everyday problems interfering with self-management of people with chronic illness depends on the type of everyday problems encountered, as well as on the type of self-management activities at stake. Healthcare providers should pay attention to the life context of people with chronic illness during consultations, as patients' ability to manage their illness is related to it.
Laknath Jayasinghe; Mark Ritson
Consumer research largely examines television advertising effects using conventional psychological accounts of message processing. Consequently, there is an emphasis on the influence of textual content at the expense of the everyday interpersonal viewing contexts surrounding advertising audiences. To help restore this theoretical imbalance an ethnographic study was conducted in eight Australian homes to explore the influence of everyday viewing contexts on advertising audiences. This article ...
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to so...
Morales Pérez, Roy Waldhiersen;; Manrique Rodríguez, Franklin Alberto
This paper shows the research results obtained with a group of pre-service chemistry teachers at Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, employing didactic units focused in everyday chemistry as strategy for chemistry teaching. The explanations of pre-service chemistry teachers for the analyzed everyday chemical phenomena were characterized according to its admissibility and chemical levels of representation. The project allowed consolidating a space which employs coherently disciplinary and didacti...
Full Text Available Anyone involved in e-learning is certain to have run across the word practice in connection with a number of notable expressions or phrases: communities of practice, best practices, and teaching practices among others. However, there have been few definitions or discussions that address exactly what practice is. This article provides a short overview of the practice approach, focusing first on its origin in the philosophy of Heidegger and the sociology of Bourdieu. It then provides and analyzes examples of everyday conversational practices, exploring how computer technology can work with (or against the unscripted, improvisational nature of practice. In this way, this article illustrates both how and why this approach can be valuable for research in e-learning.
Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students' questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
-down demand, at times creating dissent and creative ways for interpreting these demands. These dissenting understandings will be empirically explored from the standpoint of the involved subjects by engaging in participatory fieldwork grounded in the developmental practice research tradition......, it cannot be presupposed that digitalization is merely understood as bane. With the project’s primary interest in approximating children’s specific everyday understandings of digital artefacts, their possibilities and limitations for acting on the world, the project seeks to contrast digital artefact...... engagement with how and why children more generally engage with any kind of sociomaterial artefact, creating joint knowledge through both dissensus and consensus. In order to ground digitalization in children’s as well as adults’ (well)being, the paper proposes that the analytical focus must be put on which...
Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte
The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
be valuable for understanding this relationship in such a two-sided manner. However, studies building on an agential-realist perspective often neglect that children face concrete dilemmas when trying to integrate digital media technologies into institutionalized practices. These dilemmas persist over time......, which points to the fact that the conditions shaping practice cannot be grasped and questioned via relationalist descriptive accounts (“snapshots of practice”). Empirical material I collected praxiographically in a kindergarten suggests that children try to collaboratively overcome concrete dilemmas...... and tackle contradictory demands in the institution. Hence the paper makes the fundamental argument that the children’s particular actions are directed towards something more general, towards possibilities and limitations for contributing to the kindergarten practice via their technology-related meanings...
Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan
Shifts in educational research, in how scholarship in higher education is defined, and in how funding is appropriated suggest that educators within basic science fields can benefit from increased understanding of learning theory and how it applies to classroom practice. This article uses a mock curriculum design scenario as a framework for the…
Artur, L.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.
This paper analyzes discourses and practices of flood response and adaptation to climate change in Mozambique. It builds on recent publications on climate change adaptation that suggest that the successes and failures of adaptation highly depend on the cultural and political realms of societal